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‫الحمد هلل رب العالمين ال يحيطون بشيء من علمه إال بما شاء‬

‫اللهم أنت وحدك تعلمني هذا العلم وتنفع به وبي خلقك وتجعلني من حزبك‬

‫‪Glands‬‬

‫‪CH5‬‬
‫الحمد هلل رب العالمين‬
‫اللهم أنت وحدك تعلمني هذا العلم وتنفع به وبي خلقك وتجعلني من حزبك‬

Glands

Glands originate from epithelial cells


that leave the surface where they
developed and penetrate into the
underlying connective tissue,
manufacturing a basal lamina around
themselves.

Glands have two parts:

1. parenchyma of the gland : The


secretory units, along with their
ducts,
2. stroma of the gland : represents
the elements of the connective
tissue that invade and support the
parenchyma.
‫الحمد هلل رب العالمين‬
‫اللهم أنت وحدك تعلمني هذا العلم وتنفع به وبي خلقك وتجعلني من حزبك‬

Secretory product

• Glandular epithelia manufacture their product intracellularly by


synthesis of macromolecules that are usually packaged and stored
in vesicles called secretory granules. The secretory product may be
1. Polypeptide hormone (e.g., from the pituitary gland);
2. Waxy substance (e.g., from the ceruminous glands of the ear
canal);
3. Mucinogen (e.g., from the goblet cells);
4. Milk, a combination of protein, lipid, and carbohydrates (e.g., from
the mammary glands).
5. Other glands (such as sweat glands) secrete little besides the
exudate they receive from the bloodstream.
6. striated ducts (e.g., those of the major salivary glands) act as ion
pumps that modify the substances produced by their secretory
units.
‫الحمد هلل رب العالمين‬
‫اللهم أنت وحدك تعلمني هذا العلم وتنفع به وبي خلقك وتجعلني من حزبك‬

Classification
Glands are classified into two major
groups on the basis of the method of
distribution of their secretory
products:
1. Exocrine glands secrete their
products via ducts onto the
external or internal epithelial
surface from which they
originated.
2. Endocrine glands are ductless,
having lost their connections to
the originating epithelium, and
thus secrete their products into
the blood or lymphatic vessels for
distribution
‫الحمد هلل رب العالمين‬
‫اللهم أنت وحدك تعلمني هذا العلم وتنفع به وبي خلقك وتجعلني من حزبك‬

Cytokines
Cytokines are released by signaling
cells and act on target cells, which
possess receptors for the specific
signaling molecule. Depending on the
distance the cytokine must travel to
reach its target cell, its effect may be
one of the following:
1. Autocrine: The signaling cell is its
own target; thus the cell
stimulates itself.
2. Paracrine: The target cell is
located in the vicinity of the
signaling cell; thus, the cytokine
does not have to enter the
vascular system for distribution to
its target.
3. Endocrine: The target cell and
signaling cell are far from each
other; thus, the cytokine has to
be transported either by the
blood or by the lymph vascular
system.
‫الحمد هلل رب العالمين‬
‫اللهم أنت وحدك تعلمني هذا العلم وتنفع به وبي خلقك وتجعلني من حزبك‬

Secretory pathways
Glands secrete their products by two
ways:
1. a constitutive secretory
pathway do so continuously,
releasing their secretory
products immediately after
their production without
storage and without requiring
a start signal by signaling
molecules.
2. a regulated secretory pathway
concentrate and store their
secretory products until the
proper signaling molecule for
its release is received
‫الحمد هلل رب العالمين‬
‫اللهم أنت وحدك تعلمني هذا العلم وتنفع به وبي خلقك وتجعلني من حزبك‬

Exocrine Glands
Exocrine glands are classified
according
1. to the nature of their secretion,
2. their mode of secretion,
3. and the number of cells
(unicellular or multicellular).

Many exocrine glands in the digestive,


respiratory, and urogenital systems
secrete substances that are described
as :
1. mucous,
2. serous
3. mixed (both) types.
‫الحمد هلل رب العالمين‬
‫اللهم أنت وحدك تعلمني هذا العلم وتنفع به وبي خلقك وتجعلني من حزبك‬

Mucous glands
1. secrete mucinogens, large
glycosylated proteins that, upon
hydration, swell to become a
thick, viscous, gel-like protective
lubricant known as mucin, a
major component of mucus.
2. Examples of mucous glands
include goblet cells and the minor
salivary glands of the tongue and
palate
‫الحمد هلل رب العالمين‬
‫اللهم أنت وحدك تعلمني هذا العلم وتنفع به وبي خلقك وتجعلني من حزبك‬

‫‪Serous glands‬‬
‫‪such as the pancreas, secrete an‬‬
‫‪enzyme-rich watery fluid.‬‬
‫الحمد هلل رب العالمين‬
‫اللهم أنت وحدك تعلمني هذا العلم وتنفع به وبي خلقك وتجعلني من حزبك‬

Mixed glands
1. Mixed glands contain acini (sing.
Acinus = secretory unit) that
produce mucous secretions as
well as acini that produce serous
secretions; in addition, some of
the mucous acini possess serous
demilunes, a group of cells that
secrete a serous fluid.
2. The sublingual and
submandibular glands are
examples of mixed glands
‫الحمد هلل رب العالمين‬
‫اللهم أنت وحدك تعلمني هذا العلم وتنفع به وبي خلقك وتجعلني من حزبك‬
‫الحمد هلل رب العالمين‬
‫اللهم أنت وحدك تعلمني هذا العلم وتنفع به وبي خلقك وتجعلني من حزبك‬
‫الحمد هلل رب العالمين‬
‫اللهم أنت وحدك تعلمني هذا العلم وتنفع به وبي خلقك وتجعلني من حزبك‬

Modes of secretion of
exocrine glands
Cells of exocrine glands exhibit three
different mechanisms for releasing
their secretory products:
(1) holocrine:
Where the cell dies and becomes
itself a part of the secretions such
as the sebaceous glands
(2) merocrine:
such as the parotid gland where
secretory vesicles are released with
the secretory cell completely intact
(3) apocrine:
Such as the female breast where a
small apical portion of the secretory
cell is also shed off into the
secretions.
‫الحمد هلل رب العالمين‬
‫اللهم أنت وحدك تعلمني هذا العلم وتنفع به وبي خلقك وتجعلني من حزبك‬

Unicellular Exocrine
Glands
1. Unicellular exocrine glands,
represented by isolated secretory
cells in an epithelium, are the
simplest form of exocrine gland.
2. A primary example is the goblet
cell, which is dispersed
individually in the epithelia lining
the digestive tract and portions
of the respiratory tract.
3. The secretions released by these
mucous glands protect the linings
of these tracts.
‫الحمد هلل رب العالمين‬
‫اللهم أنت وحدك تعلمني هذا العلم وتنفع به وبي خلقك وتجعلني من حزبك‬

Goblet cells
1. Goblet cells derive their name
from their shape, that of a goblet.
Their thin basal region sits on the
basal lamina, whereas their
expanded apical portion, the
theca, faces the lumen of the
digestive tube or respiratory tract.
2. The theca is filled with
membrane-bound secretory
droplets, which displace the
cytoplasm to the cell's periphery
and the nucleus toward its base.
3. The process of mucinogen release
is regulated and stimulated by
chemical irritation and
parasympathetic innervation,
resulting in exocytosis of the
entire secretory contents of the
cell, thus lubricating and
protecting the epithelial sheet.
‫الحمد هلل رب العالمين‬
‫اللهم أنت وحدك تعلمني هذا العلم وتنفع به وبي خلقك وتجعلني من حزبك‬
‫الحمد هلل رب العالمين‬
‫اللهم أنت وحدك تعلمني هذا العلم وتنفع به وبي خلقك وتجعلني من حزبك‬

Multicellular Exocrine
Glands
1. Multicellular exocrine glands
consist of clusters of secretory
cells arranged in varying degrees
of organization.
2. These secretory cells do not act
alone and independently but
instead function as secretory
organs.
3. Multicellular glands may have a
simple structure, exemplified by
the glandular epithelium of the
uterus and gastric mucosa, or a
complex structure, composed of
various types of secretory units
and organized in a compound
branching fashion.

4. .
‫الحمد هلل رب العالمين‬
‫اللهم أنت وحدك تعلمني هذا العلم وتنفع به وبي خلقك وتجعلني من حزبك‬

Connective tissue
capsule & septae
Connective tissue capsule surrounds
large glands while septae (strands of
connective tissue) extend into the
gland, subdividing it into smaller
compartments known as lobes and
lobules .Neurovascular bundles
traverse these septae. In addition, the
connective tissue elements provide
structural support for the gland
‫الحمد هلل رب العالمين‬
‫اللهم أنت وحدك تعلمني هذا العلم وتنفع به وبي خلقك وتجعلني من حزبك‬

Myoepithelial Cells
1. Acini of many multicellular
exocrine glands such as sweat
glands and major salivary glands
possess myoepithelial cells that
share the basal lamina of the
acinar cells.
2. Although myoepithelial cells are
of epithelial origin, they have
some characteristics of smooth
muscle cells, particularly
contractility.
3. These cells exhibit small nuclei
and sparse fibrillar cytoplasm
radiating out from the cell body,
wrapping around the acini and
some of the small ducts
4. Their contractions assist in
expressing secretions from the
acini and from some small ducts.
‫الحمد هلل رب العالمين‬
‫اللهم أنت وحدك تعلمني هذا العلم وتنفع به وبي خلقك وتجعلني من حزبك‬

Endocrine Glands
1. Endocrine glands are ductless,
and thus their secretory products
are released directly into the
bloodstream or the lymphatic
system.
2. The major endocrine glands of
the body include the suprarenal
(adrenal), pituitary, thyroid,
parathyroid, and pineal glands
and the ovaries, placenta, and
testes
3. The islets of Langerhans and the
interstitial cells of Leydig
ensconced within the connective
tissue stroma of other organs (the
pancreas and the testes,
respectively).
4. Hormones secreted by endocrine
glands include peptides, proteins,
modified amino acids, steroids,
and glycoproteins.
‫الحمد هلل رب العالمين‬
‫اللهم أنت وحدك تعلمني هذا العلم وتنفع به وبي خلقك وتجعلني من حزبك‬

Diffuse Neuroendocrine
System
1. Widespread throughout the
digestive tract and in the
respiratory system are endocrine
cells interspersed among other
secretory cells.
2. These cells, members of the
diffuse neuroendocrine system
(DNES), manufacture various
paracrine and endocrine
hormones. Because these cells
are capable of taking up
precursors of amines and
decarboxylating amino acids, they
were also called APUD (amine
precursor uptake and
decarboxylation) cells.
3. At one time some of these cells
were called argentaffin and
argyophil cells because of the
way they stained with silver salts.