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Air ort Deve o ment

Re erence Manua
4th Release, Effective October 2016

AIRPORTs couNCIL Forecasting and Planning sections


INTERNATIONAL produced in collaboration With ACI th Edition
NOTICE
DISCLAIMER. The information contained in this
publication is subj ect to constant review in the
light of chang ing government requirements and
regulations. No subscriber or other reader should
act on the basis of any such information without
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Senior Vice President


Airport, Passenger, Cargo and Security
International Air Transport Association
800 Place Victoria
P.O. Box 113
Montreal, Quebec
CANADA H4Z 1M1

Airport Development Reference Manual, 4th Release, October 2016


Material No.: 9044-10
ISBN978-92·9252-947-5
© 2016 International Air Transport Association. All rights reserved.
Montreal- Geneva
Table of Contents
Ac knowledgements .............................. ................................................................... .......................................... vii

Section 1- lntroduction ..................................................................................................................................... 1


1.1 lATA- Who We Are; What We Do ...................................................................................................... 1
1.2 lATA's Airport Activities ......................................................................................................... ............. 1
1. 2. 1 Airport Consultative Committees (ACCs) .............................................................................. 2
1. 2. 2 lATA Consulting Services for Airports ................................................................................... 2
1.2.3 International Industry Working Group ............................................. ...................................... 3
1.3 Other lATA Airport Activities .............................................. ......................................................... ....... 4
1.4 Airports Council International (ACI) Collaboration ............................................................................. 4
1.4.1 Introduction to Airports Council International (ACI) ..................................... .......................... 4
1.5 Purpose of the Airport Development Reference Manual ................................................................... 5
1.6 How to Use the ADRM ...................................................................................................................... 6
1.7 ADRM: New Format ........................................................................................................................... 7
1.8 Reference Marks ................................................................................................................................ a
Sectio n 2-Forecasting ...................................................................................................................................... 9
2.1 Introduction and Definition ............................................................................................................... 10
2.2 Economic Base for Air Travel. ............................................ ......................................................... ..... 12
2.2.1 Airport Catchment Area ....................................................................................................... 12
2.2.2 Socioeconomic Base ........................................................................................................... 13
2.2.3 Transfer Traffic ............... .................................................................. ................................... 14
2.2.4 Airline Yields ................ ................................................................... ..................................... 14
2.2.5 Tourism ...................... ......................................................................................................... 15
2.2.6 Trade .......................................................................................... ......................................... 17
2.2.7 lntermodal Transportation .................................... .......................................................... ..... 17
2.2.8 Economic Base Data Analysis ............................................................................................ 17
2.3 Historical Aviation Activity ................................................................................................................ 18
2.3.1 Data Collection .......................... ................................................................... ....................... 19
2.3.2 Airport Role ......................................................................................................................... 23
2.3.3 Historical Passenger Volumes ............................................................................................ 23
2.3.4 Top Domestic and International Destinations ..................................................................... 23
2.3.5 Histori cal Market Share by Airline ....................................................................................... 24
2.3.6 Historical Air Cargo Tonnage .............................................................................................. 24
2.3.7 Historical Movements by Segment ............................................ .......................................... 25
2.3.8 Forecast Impact Factors...................................................................................................... 25

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2.4 Competitive Analysis ......................................................... .. ............................................................. 26


2.5 Review of Existing Forecasts ..................................... ............................................................... ....... 26
2.6 Common Forecasting Techniques .................................... ............... ...................................... .......... 26
2.6.1 Trend/Time Series ........................... ................................................................... ............ ..... 27
2.6.2 Consensus Forecasts ................ ................................................................... ....................... 27
2.6.3 Market Share Forecasts .......................... ................................................................... ......... 28
2.6.4 Econometric/Regression Model .................................. ........................................................ 29
2.7 Passenger Activity Forecast. ....................... ......... ................................................................... ......... 32
2.7.1 Passenger Activity Segments.................................... .......................................................... 32
2. 7.2 Passenger Activity Benchmarking ....................................................................................... 33
2. 7.3 Passenger Activity Alternative Scenarios ................................................ ............................ 34
2.8 Baggage Forecast ................................................................................................ ............................ 34
2.9 Air Cargo Activity Forecast. .......................... ................................................................... ................. 35
2.9.1 Air Cargo Supply and Demand ........................................................................................... 36
2.9.2 Cargo Data Analysis..................................................................................................... ....... 37
2.9.3 Cargo Market Forecast Benchmarking ............................................................................... 38
2.9.4 Cargo Activity Forecast ............................ ........................................................................... 39
2.10 Air Transport Movement Forecast. ............................... ....................................................... ............ .40
2.10.1 ATM Segments ......................... I . I . I . I . I . I . I ...................... ... ............................. I . I . I . I . I . I . I ••••••••••• 40
2.10.2 Passenger ATMs ............................................... .................................................................. 41
2.1 0.3 Freighter ATM Forecast .................................................... .................................................. 44
2.1 0.4 General Aviation ATM Forecast .............................................. ............................................ 45
2.1 0.5 Military/Government ATM Forecast.. ................................................................................... 47
2.10.6 Total ATM Forecast ............................................. ................................................................ 47
2.11 Peak Period Forecast.. ............................. ................................................................... ..................... 47
2.1 1.1 Peak Period Traffic Measure ............................................. .................................................. 48
2.11.2 Incorporating Directionality into Peak Hour Analysis .......................................................... 49
2.11.3 Peak Period Forecasts .......................... ........................................................................... ... 49
2.1 1.4 Conclusions Regarding Peak Period Analysis .......... .......................................................... 50

Section 3-Pianning .................................................................................................. ....................................... 53


3.1 lntroduction ......................... ................................................................... ........................................... 53
3.2 Master Planning ........................................................................................ ....................................... 53
3.2.1 Introduction .......... .............. ..................................................... .............. ............................... 54
3.2.2 Consultation ........................................ ....................................................... ............ ............. 58
3.2.3 The Master Planning Process ·························· ~ · ~ ................................................................ 63
3.2.4 Preplanning ............................. ............................................................................................ 66
3.2.5 Traffic Forecasts ....................... ............................................................................ ............... 70
3.2.6 Data Collection, Site Evaluation and Facility Potential ......................................... ............. .71
3.2.7 Requirements Analysis ........................................................................................................ 77

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3.2.8 Development of Options ...................................................................................................... 94


3.2.9 Environmental Responsibility ............................................................................................ 109
3.2.1 0 Land Use Planning ............................................................................................................ 119
3.2.11 Outline Development Plan ................................................................................................. 126
3.2.12 Financial Assessment ....................................................................................................... 130
3.2.13 Reporting/Deliverables ...................................................................................................... 142
3.2.14 Master Planning on a Greenfield Site ............................................................................... 147
3.2.15 Operational Readiness and Training ................................................................................. 160
3.2.16 References ........................................................................................................................ 162
3.3 Airside Infrastructure ................................................ .................................................................. .... 163
3.3.1 Runways ............................................................................................................................ 163
3.3.2 Taxiways and Taxi-lanes ................................................................................................... 172
3.3.3 Aircraft Parking Stands...................................................................................................... 175
3.3.4 Aircraft Ground Servicing .................................................................................................. 204
3.3.5 Air and Ground Navigation Aids .................................. ...................................................... 243
3.4 Passenger Terminal .............................................. ......................................................................... 255
3.4.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 255
3.4.2 Terminal Design Considerations ....................................................................................... 256
3.4.3 Terminal Planning Concepts ........................ ............................ ........................... .............. 273
3.4.4 Terminal Capacity and Level of Service ........................................................................... 302
3.4.5 Level of Service Concept and Planning Guidelines .......................................................... 310
3.4.6 Demand- Capacity Assessment ........................................................................................ 316
3.4. 7 The "Optimum" Solution and Balanced Capacity .............................................................. 319
3.4.8 Passenger Process ........................................................................................................... 320
3.4.9 Segregation and Security Requirements in Airport Terminals .................................... ...... 325
3.4.1 0 Vertical and Horizontal Circulation .................................................................................... 336
3.4.11 Departures ......................................................................................................................... 338
3.4.12 Transfers ........................... ................................................................... ............................. 424
3.4.13 Arrivals .............................................................................................................. ......... ....... 429
3.4.14 Commercial and Retail Opportunities ...............................................................................459
3.4.15 Access to Air Travel for Persons with Reduced Mobility .................................................. 467
3.4.16 Toilet Provisions ...................................................................................... ......... ................. 476
3.4.17 Passenger Wayfinding and Signage ................................................................................. 478
3.4.18 Landside Access Systems and Forecourts ....................................................................... 482
3.4.19 Baggage Handling System ................................................ ................................................ 490
3.5 Cargo Terminal. ............................................................................................................ ....... ........... 504
3.5.1 Introduction ................... .................... ............................................... .................... .............. 504
3.5.2 Cargo Operations ............. ................................................................................................. 505
3.5.3 eBusiness .......................................................................................................................... 513

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3.5.4 A.i r/Rail Cargo ..................... .................. ................................................. .................. .......... 513
3.5.5 The Cargo Apron ............................................................................................................... 514
3.5.6 The Cargo Facility ............................................................................................................. 520
3.5. 7 Forecasting and Sizing ...................................................................................................... 521
3.5.8 Sizing Parameters ............................................................................................................. 525
3.5.9 Cargo Design Considerations: Scope of Evaluation ......................................................... 529
3.5.1 0 Typical Cargo Flows .......................................................................................................... 540
3.5.11 Cargo Communication Controls ........................................................................................ 541
3.5.12 Cargo Control Regulations ................................................................................................ 542
3.5.13 Cargo Security Controls ............................................... ..................................................... 543
3.5.14 Cargo Safety Controls ....................................................................................................... 544
3.5.15 Cargo Government Controls ............................................................................................. 544
3.5.16 Cargo Facilitation .............................................................................................................. 544
3.5.17 Express Cargo Processing ................................................................................................ 546
3.5.1 8 Perishable Cargo ........................... ................................................................... ................. 555
3.5.19 Mail Facilities ..................................................................................................................... 563
3.6 Airport Support Elements ............................................................................................................... 566
3.6.1 Aircraft Maintenance ......................................................................................................... 566
3.6.2 Airline Administration Buildings ....................................... .................................................. 569
3.6.3 Airport Authority Administration ......................................................................................... 570
3.6.4 Airport Maintenance and Logistics .................................................................................... 571
3.6.5 Aircraft Deicing/Anti-Icing Facilities ................................................................................... 576
3.6.6 General Aviation .......................................................................................................... ...... 580
3.6.7 Ground Service Equipment Maintenance ......................................................................... 581
3.6.8 Aircraft In-Flight Catering Facilities ................................................................................... 582
3.6.9 Airport Security/Controlled Access .................................................................................... 584
3.6.1 0 Vehicle Refueling and Recharging Stations ...................................................................... 593
3.6.11 Airport Fire Services .......................................................................................................... 597
3.6.12 Utilities ............................................................................................................................... 601
3.7 Surface Access Systems ............................................................................................................... 609
3.8 Airport Simulation ........................................................................................................................... 610
3.8.1 lntroduction ........................................................................................................................ 610
3.8.2 Definitions and Basic Considerations ................................................................................ 614
3.8.3 Areas of Application .......................................................................................................... 619
3.8.4 Project Methodology.......................................................................................................... 629
3.8.5 Best Practice Project Life Cycle Examples ....................................................................... 640
3.8.6 General Considerations and Lessons Learned ................................................................. 655

Glossary ............................................................... .................................................................. ......................... 665

Acronyms ....................... ................................................................................................................................. 673

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VI 10TH EDITION, 41" release, OCTOBER 2016
Acknowledgements

Acknowledgements

lATA and ACI gratefully acknowledge the technical assistance and input provided by lATA Members
(including lATA Consulting, lATA Subject Matter Experts and support staff), ACI Members and the
organizations and individuals listed below.

lATA Members Document Review Panel:


• Mr. Alessandro D'Amico Air Canada
• Mr. Tony Edwards British Airways
• Mr. Hans Smeets KLM
• Mr. Allan Young Virgin Atlantic

ACI Members Document Review Panel:


• ACI World Facilitation and Services Standing Committee

Content Contributions:
Forecasting Section
• Mr. Russell Blanck Landrum & Brown
• Mr. Dilwyn Gruffydd Landrum & Brown
• Mr. Mark Heusinkveld Landrum & Brown
Master Planning Chapter
• Mr. Gordon Hamilton SNC Lavalin
Passenger Terminal Chapter
• Ms. Nathalie Martel AECOM
• Ms. Marion White HOK
• Ms. Nicola Morton HOK
• Mr. Jeffry Fucigna HOK
• Mr. Christopher Chalk Mott MacDonald
• Mr. Alan Lamond Pascali+Watson
• Mr. Hendrik Orsinger Pascali+ Watson
• Mr. Martin Leprohon Airbiz
Airport Simulation Chapter
• Uta Kohse Airport Research Center GmbH
• Richard Page CH2M

lATA and ACI also wish to thank the following individuals, through the Airport Consultants Council (ACC), for
their document reviews.

..
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Airport Development Reference Manual

ACC Members Document Review Panel:


ACC Review Team Leaders
L:::,. • Mr. TJ Schulz Airport Consultants Council (3'd release & 41" release)
• Mr. Steve Riano Bechtel Corporation (1st & 2"d release)
Forecasting Section
• Mr. Steve Riano Bechtel Corporation
• Dr. Michel Thome! Bechtel Corporation
• Mr. lan Kincaid lnterVISTAS Group
Master Planning Chapter
• Dr. Alexander Ising AviAIIiance GmbH
• Mr. Steve Riano Bechtel Corporation
• Mr. Paul Puckli CHA Consulting, Inc.
• Mr. Mike Arnold ESA Airports
• Mr. Doug Goldberg Landrum & Brown
• Mr. John van Woensel Parsons Brinckerhoff
Airside Infrastructure Chapter
• Mr. Steve Riano Bechtel Corporation
• Mr. Joel Harry CH2M HILL, Inc.
• Mr. Jeff May CH2M HILL, Inc.
• Ms. Ania Taylor CH2M HILL, Inc.
• Mr. Timothy Ward CH2M HILL, Inc.
• Mr. Jeffrey Warkoski RS&H
Passenger Terminal Chapter
• Mr. Timothy Hudson ATKINS
• Ms. Amy Sonbuchner Architectural Alliance
• Mr. Greg Casto AvAirPros
• Mr. Alexander Ising AviAIIiance
• Mr. Steve Riano Bechtel Corporation
• Mr. Cliff King Bechtel Corporation
• Mr. Andy Griffiths Bechtel Corporation
• Mr. Greg Blunt CAGE, Inc .
• Mr. Udaya Kasaju CAGE, Inc.
• Mr. John Rogerson CAGE, Inc .
• Mr. Howard Scheffler CAGE, Inc .
• Mr. Pat Askew Gensler
• Mr. Keith Thompson Gensler
• Mr. Phillip Vigor Hatch Mott MacDonald
• Mr. Nate Walnum Kimley-Horn and Associates
• Ms. Patricia Krall L3
• Mr. Bruce Anderson Landrum & Brown
• Mr. Mark Lang Lang & Associates, LLC
• Ms. Jenny Baumgartner Lea+EIIiott
• Mr. David Casselman Lea+ Elliott
• Ms. Jennifer Banks Herrmann Morpho Detection
• Mr. Ralf Gaffal Munich Airport
• Mr. Peter Muller PRT Consulting

VIII 10TH EDITION, 41" release, OCTOBER 2016


Acknowledgements

• Mr. Shiva Kumar Rapiscan Labs


• Mr. David McGhee Ross & Baruzzini
• Mr. lhab Osman Ross & Baruzzini
• Mr. Stephen Harrill RS&H
• Ms. Susan Prediger SP Consulting

L:::,. Mr. Larry Studdiford Studdiford Technical Solutions
• Mr. Art Kosatka TranSecure
0 • Belinda Hargrove TransSolutions
• Ms. Gloria Bender TransSolutions
0 • Paul Fishburn TransSolutions
0 • Yoges Warren TransSolutions
• Mr. Gaylloyd Dadyala Vanderlande, Inc .
Cargo Terminal Chapter
• Ms. Stacey Peel ARUP
• Mr. Rene Reider ARUP
• Mr. Alexander Ising AviAIIiance
• Mr. Cliff King Bechtel Corporation
• Mr. Steve Riano Bechtel Corporation
• Mr. Pat Brown Burns & McDonnell
0 Airport Support Elements
• Tim Hudson Gensler
Airport Simulation
• Farzam Mostoufl Bechtel Corporation
• Dr. Michel Thomet Bechtel Corporation
• Phillip Vigor Hatch Mott MacDonald
• Marion White HOK
• Christopher Blasie Rockwell Collins
• Belinda Hargrove TransSolutions

If you would like to contribute to the update of the Airport Development Reference Manual, please submit your
request to adrm@iata.org.

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Airport Development Reference Manual

X 10TH EDITION, 41" release, OCTOBER 2016


Introduction-lATA's Airport Activities

Section 1-lntroduction

1.1 lATA-Who We Are; What We Do


International air transport is one of the most dynamic and fast-changing industries in the world. The
International Air Transport Association (lATA) is the industry's responsive and forward-looking trade
association. lATA operates at the highest level of global professional standards.

!:::,. Founded in 1945, lATA brings together approximately 265 airlines, including the world's largest. Flights by
these airlines comprise more than 83 per cent of all international scheduled air traffic.

lATA airlines recognize that cooperation helps them meet the needs of a rapidly changing aviation industry.
This cooperation allows airlines to offer a seamless service at the highest possible levels of quality to
passengers and cargo shippers. Much of this cooperation is expressed through lATA, whose mission is to
"represent, lead and serve the airline industry".

lATA helps to ensure that its members' aircraft can operate safely, securely, efficiently and economically
under clearl y defined and understood rules. Continual efforts by lATA ensure that people, freight and mail can
move around the intricate global airline network as safely, simply and cost-effectively as possible.

lATA proactively supports joint industry action essential for the sustainable development of the air transport
system. lATA's role is to identify issues, help establish industry positions and communicate these to
governments and other relevant authorities.

1.2 lATA's Airport Activities


The Airports and Fuel (AF) section of lATA's Airports, Passenger, Cargo and Security (APCS) division aims to
influence airport planning and development projects worl dwide to ensure that the needs of the airports'
primary business partners, the airline community, are recognized and incorporated into the planning, design
and development of airports. These needs are expressed in terms of appropriateness, efficiency and cost-
effectiveness. The revised lATA Airport Development Reference Manual (ADRM) provides guidelines and
recommendations that enhance airport planning and design. Where major airport capital programs are being
planned or are underway, lATA supports the aviation industry by convening Airport Consultative Committees
(ACCs). The purpose of ACCs is to help gather airline requirements and recommendations and to centralize
this input for the benefit of airport operators and owners. lATA also provides specialized commercial airport
consultancy services worldwide.

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1.2.1 Airport Consultative Committees (ACCs)

Consultation with airport authorities via the Airport Consultative Committee (ACC) mechanism brings together
the airlines' airport planning expertise, the lATA secretariat and airport authorities worldwide. ACCs serve as a
focal point for consultation concerning the planning, delivery and cost-effectiveness of airport expansions, the
development of new airports or enhancements to the airport experience for both passengers and staff.

1.2.2 lATA Consulting Services for Airports

IATA offers a wide range of consulting services to assist airports in their successful development. Airport
development is cyclical, with very different needs at each step of the cycle. lATA Consulting addresses the
specific challenges associated with each step, assisting airport operators, airport shareholders and/or
regulatory bodies successfully deliver their project.

Exhibit 1.2.2: Consulting services for each stage of the airport lifecycle

Airport Development Business and Revenue Development


- Capacity/demand analysis , Traffic forecasts
Master plan review and studies .., Revenue forecasts
Airport land-use plan Air service development
.., Terminal concepts "" Connectivity studies
Commercial concepts Commercial development

Transactions Operations & Security


.., Buyer Due Diligence - Operational readiness
Vendor Due Diligence Level of Service studies
- Privatization program and improvement programs
for governments , Security management
Airport charges regulatory regime Operational performance KPI
., Commercial performance KPI

Source: lATA Consulting

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Introduction-lATA's Airport Activities

1.2.2.1 Planning and Construction Phase

In the planning and construction phase, lATA Consulting offers airport development solutions to facilitate the
planning and design of airport infrastructure. The primary element of this phase is the definition of the airport
master plan. It is important to note that lATA Consulting does not take part in construction projects and will
not supervise any construction work.

1.2.2.2 Commercialization Phase

In the next phase of the airport lifecycle, the commercialization phase, IATA Consulting offers a complete
portfolio of business development solutions. Among the most popular are air services and airport commercial
revenues.

1.2.2.3 Optimization Phase

When airports are in the optimization phase, lATA Consulting provides solutions to monitor and improve
operations, performance and level of service. Demand and capacity analysis studies are key solutions in this
phase.

1.2.2.4 Change in Ownership Phase

Eventually, for those airports that may experi ence a change in ownership, lATA Consulting offers solutions for
privatization. Airport due diligence is the most popular service for both vendors and buyers. Included in this
privatization support offering is the design of the regulatory regime applicable to the new owners and the
environment.

For more information, please contact us at consulting@iata.org.

1.2.3 International Industry Working Group

The IIWG brings together lATA, Airports Council Intern ational (ACI) and the International Coordinating Council
of Aerospace Industries Associations (ICCAIA). The IIWG was founded in 1970 and its main goal is to review
airport/aircraft compatibility issues in order to improve the development of the air transport system.

For more information, click on 1/WG.

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1.3 Other IATA Airport Activities


In addition to its airport planning and development activities, lATA's APCS division participates actively in
many other airport-related areas such as charges and tariffs, fuel, taxation, ground handling, security,
passenger experience and cargo services. Special working groups constituted from various committees may
also be formed on an ad hoc basis to address specific industry issues (i.e., introduction of the A380-800).

1.4 Airports Council International (ACI) Collaboration


The new edition of the ADRM is being released in joint collaboration with our colleagues at ACI. The interests
of airlines and airports are very closely linked. The success of one group contributes to the success of the
other. As such, airlines and airports are very close business partners.

A close and collaborative working relationship with ACI ensures that the ADRM meets the needs of the
aviation community as a whole. Intrinsically, best practice airport planning, including the affordability of major
airport developments, is beneficial for airline customers and passengers.

1.4.1 Introduction to Airports Council International (ACI)

Airports Council International (ACI), the only worldwide association of airports, has 573 member airport
authorities that operate over 1,751 airports in 174 countries. It advances the collective interests of, and acts
as the voice of, the world's airports and the communities they serve.

ACI's mission is to promote professional excellence in airport management and operations. This mandate is
carried out through the organization's multiple training opportunities, its customer service benchmarking
program as well as a wide range of conferences, industry statistical products and best practice publications.

ACI's main objectives and roles are to:

• Maximize the contributions of airports to maintaining and developing a safe, secure, environmentally
compatible and efficient air transport system.

• Achieve cooperation among all segments of the aviation industry and their stakeholders, including
governments and international organizations.

• Influence international and national legislation, rules, policies, standards and practices based on
established policies representing airports' interests and priorities.

• Advance the development of the aviation system by enhancing public awareness of the economic and
social importance of airport development.

• Maximize cooperation and mutual assistance between airports.

• Provide members with industry knowledge, advice and assistance, as well as foster professional
excellence in airport management and operations.

• Build ACI's worldwide organizational capacity and resources to serve all members effectively and
efficiently.

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Introduction-Purpose of the Airport Development Reference Manual

ACI pursues airports' interests in discussions with international organizations. The most important relationship
is with the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), where international standards for air transport are
debated and developed.

ACI has five regional offices that play a very important role in the relationship with ACI members and the
spread of best practices. The five regional offices are:

• ACI Africa in Casablanca (Morocco)

• ACI Asia-Pacific in Hong-Kong (China)

• ACI Europe in Brussels (Belgium)

• ACI Latin America-Caribbean in Panama City (Panama)

• ACI North America in Washington, DC (USA)

ACI has six standing committees (Airport IT; Economics; Environment; Facilitation and Services; Safety and
Technical; and Security) mandated by the ACI Governing Board to provide guidance and council, as well as
help shape current policy issues for Governing Board endorsement in their areas of expertise. They are also
required to assist the Governing Board, Executive Committee and Secretariat, as appropriate.

1.5 Purpose of the Airport Development Reference Manual


The lATA Airport Development Reference Manual (ADRM) is recognized as one of the aviation industry's
most important guides for airlines, airports. government authorities, architects. engineers and planning
consultants engaged in planning new airports or extending existing airport infrastructure. The ADRM brings
together aviation industry best practices with respect to the development of world-class airports through better
comprehension, briefing and design. Its content represents the consolidated recommendations of world-
renowned industry specialists and organizations seeking to promote the development of sustainable world-
class airport facilities.

The previous edition of the ADRM (91h Edition published in 2004) was published in traditional bound paper
format. The traditional format has some obvious constraints; most notably the difficulty of responding quickly
to what is an inherently dynamic, fast-chang ing industry as well as the editorial need to limit the published
material to manageable proportions. The latest edition adopts a different approach that allows for more
regular updates and linkages to a vast array of material contained in other relevant articles and publications
prepared and monitored by recognized industry specialists. authorities and organizational partners.

In order to take fu ll advantage of the opportunities offered by this new approach, the structure of the new
manual has been completely revised and reformatted. Material contained in earlier editions that continues to
be relevant has been revamped and expanded to address the quickly evolving nature of the aviation industry.

One of the key aspects of the new manual is the ability to offer a comprehensive overview of the many
complex topics that are involved in any airport project, especially at large international airports. However, the
complexity associated with all airport developments means that the information contained within this manual
must be carefully considered. As with any complex concept, there are many variables that are subject to
different interpretations and can lead to significantly different conclusions.

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Airport Development Reference Manual

Recommendation: Required Expertise


It is recommended that all commissioning airlines, airports and government authorities select experienced
professionals to assist them.

1.6 How to Use the ADRM


The ADRM should be used by airport planners worldwide as a complementary source of best practice airport
design guidance. Other key ICAO references include Annex 14 (in particular for airfield and apron design), the
Airport Planning Manual (Doc 9184), the Aerodrome Design Manual (Doc 9157), and the Airport Services
Manual (Doc 9137).

lATA recognizes that international standards will vary from region to region around the world. While the
ADRM should be the initial source of design guidance for airport development, the airport design professional
should always seek to clarify national standards and decide appropriately on any potentially conflicting
requirements. Professional engineering and architectural guidance should be used to assess and resolve
differences between the ADRM and national standards.

The ADRM should be used in conjunction with relevant international and national legislation. regulations and
standards. Examples include, but are not limited to:

• International and national government aviation and security authorities:

o International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)

o European Civil Aviation Conference (ECAC)

o Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)-United States of America

o Transportation Security Administration (TSA)-United States of America

o Department for Transport (DfT)- United Kingdom

o Transport Canada

o Canadian Air Transport Security Authority (CA TSA)

• National and international legislation defining design and engineering standards published by:

o American National Standards Institute (ANSI)

o British Standards Institute (BSI)

o International Organization for Standardization (ISO)

• Best practice engineering and architectural standards and codes of best practices:

Architectural:

o American Institute of Architects (AlA)

o Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA)

o Royal Architectural Institute of Canada (RAIC)

6 10TH EDITION, 41" release, OCTOBER 2016


lntroduction-ADRM: New Format

Engineering:

o Institution of Civil Engineers (ICE)

o Institution of Structural Engineers (/StructE)

o Institution of Mechanical Engineers (/MechE)

Building Services:

o The Chartered Institute of Building Services Engineers (CIBSE)

Fire Mitigation Engineering:

o Institution of Fire Engineers

There are many instances around the world where even competent professionals have misunderstood or
misinterpreted the range of complex data provided in the ADRM due to the lack of specific experience with
airport design projects and have consequently delivered wholly inappropriate solutions. Therefore, as stated
above, it is recommended that all commissioning airlines, airports and government authorities select
experienced professionals to assist them. ACI and lATA are able to assist with Requests for Proposals
(RFPs) and assist with evaluations and/or recommendations where deemed appropriate.

1.7 ADRM: New Format


The revised format allows the new ADRM to adopt a flexible structure that can be adjusted as and when
required. The ADRM currently has two primary sections:

• Forecasting

• Planning

!:::, A third section, Economics/Finance, was added in the third release. This new edition of the ADRM is provided
in an electronic format that will facilitate ongoing updates and additions. Sub-sections are referred to as
chapters. In the first release of the 1Oth edition, the chapters focus on:

• Forecasting
o Economic Base for Air Travel

o Historical Aviation Activity

o Competitive Analysis

o Review of Existing Forecasts

o Common Forecasting Techniques

o Passenger Activity Forecast

o Baggage Forecast

o Air Cargo Activity Forecast

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o Air Transport Movement Forecast

o Peak Period Forecasts

• Planning

o Master Planning

o Passenger Terminal (including Levels of Service and Capacity Calc ulations)

1:::. The second release included chapters on:


• Airside Infrastructure

• Cargo Terminal

• Baggage Handling System

• Passenger Security Screening (amended chapter)

• Operational Readiness and Training

• Airport Automated People Mover Systems

1:::. The third release included chapters on:


• Airport Simulation

• Boarding Pass Check before Security Screening

• Economics and Finance

1:::. This fourth release includes a chapter on:


• Airport Support Elements

• Amendments to the Level of Service section

1:::. A fifth and final release is planned in early 2017 to include the Surface Access Systems chapter.

Any comments or questions about the ADRM should be addressed by email to adrm@iata.org.

1.8 Reference Marks


The following symbols placed against an item indicate changes from the previous version:

Symbol Meaning
D Addition of a new item
,6. Change to an item
® Cancellation of an item

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Forecasting

Section 2-Forecasting
Vision

Airport forecasts should produce:

• A set of professional long-term traffic forecasts that drive the long-term development of airports; and

• Airport traffic forecasts that encompass both market demand and airline capacity, addressing two
fundamental questions:
o What will be the future air travel demand for a given airport?

o How will this demand be served by airlines at this airport?

Po licy

Airport forecasts should consider that:

• Each airport requires a specific forecasting approach to be defined depending on multiple factors,
such as:
o Airport size;

o Relationship between capacity and demand;

o Airport traffic dynamic; and

o Anticipated changes in the nature of the demand.

• Econometric models are well suited in most circumstances, however they may not be sufficient to capture
non economic factors like the interaction between market demand and airline capacity.

• Airport forecasts are not simple recipes. A robust forecast relies on:
o Traceable and tran sparent assumptions;

o Explicit models and equations; and,

o A comprehensive review of economic and non economic changes in the airport business
environment. Typical long-term changes to be considered include airline strategies, airport
competition, modal competition and regulation.

• Annual traffic forecasts are used to determine the scale and timing of facility expansion buy means of an
Airport Master Plan. Forecasts should generate a range of data that can be used by planners to
determine floor area, building footprint and plot sizes.

• Peak hour passenger forecasts are appropriate for sizing individual facility subsystems (e.g., immigration,
check-in, and baggage claim).

• Forecasting air traffic movements (ATM) is important to determine runway and airside capacity
requirements.

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2.1 Introduction and Definition


Forecasts of future levels of aviation activity form the basis for effective decisions in airport infrastructure
planning. Forecasts should provide a plausible and robust guide to future activity levels based upon the latest
available data. Forecasts should:

• Use appropriate forecasting techniques;

• Be supported by information in the study; and

• Provide an adequate justification for airport planning and development.

Any activity that could potentially create a facility need should be included in the forecast.

The level of effort required to produce a planning forecast will vary significantly from airport to airport and
project to project. The use of elaborate forecasting tools and techniques may be warranted in the case of
large airports and more complex projects. An existing forecast may be all that is required for simpler projects.
Stakeholders should agree on the appropriate level of forecasting effort required in the pre-planning and
scoping phase of the study.

Aviation activity forecasts used for airport infrastructure planning are typically developed for a 20- to 30-year
time horizon due to the capital intensive nature of airport infrastructure projects and their life cycle. Forecasts
are usually presented in five-year increments. Annual forecasts may be desirable for the first five-year period.

Aviation forecasts provide the basis for:

• Determining the airport's role in the aviation system;

• Determining the improvements to the airfield, terminal facilities, apron areas, landside access, car rental,
and parking facilities needed to accommodate growth in demand;

• Estimating the potential environmental effects, such as noise and air quality, of the airport's operation on
the surrounding community;

• Assessing market risk; and

• Evaluating the financial feasibility of alternative airport development proposals.

This section provides an overview of the information required and approach to developing airport forecasts for
passenger volumes, air cargo tonnage, and air transport movements (ATMs). The section is organized into
the following key chapters:

• Chapter 2.2 Economic Base for Air Travel provides a summary of the key socioeconomic indicators
that drive the underlying or latent demand for air travel.

• Chapter 2.3 Historical Aviation Activity provides an overview of the types of aviation activity data and
their sources. The purpose of this chapter is to provide a context for how air carri ers have added supply in
response to the latent demand for air travel (passenger demand} and the need to ship goods (air cargo
demand}.

• Chapter 2.4 Competitive Analysis describes the competitive position of the subject airport including
strengths and weaknesses that may affect future aviation activity volumes.

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Forecasting-Introduction and Definition

• Chapter 2.5 Review of Existing Forecasts evaluates the previous forecasting efforts in order to
understand available data, assumptions, and methodologies.

• Chapter 2.6 Common Forecasting Techniques provides a narrative summary of aviation forecasting
methodologies used to develop aviation forecasts, including time series, econometric/regression, market
share, and consensus techniques.

• Chapter 2. 7 Passenger Activity Forecast discusses the key segments of passenger traffic: domestic
versus international, Origin and Destination (O&D) versus transfer, and segmentation.

• Chapter 2.8 Baggage Forecast provides guidance on how to derive baggage forecasts from the
passenger forecasts using bags-per-passenger ratios.

• Chapter 2.9 Air Cargo Activity Forecast discusses the primary demand and supply factors, impact
factors, and key activity segments (e.g., belly versus freighter, import, export, and transfer) that should be
considered when developing an air cargo forecast.

• Chapter 2.10 Air Transport Movement (ATM) Forecast summarizes how to develop ATM forecasts for
key segments of activity (i.e., passenger, cargo, general aviation, and military) and provides guidance on
how to develop aircraft fleet mix forecasts.

• Chapter 2. 11 Peak Period Forecast provides an overview of methodologies employed to convert annual
forecasts into peak hour equivalents. The chapter also discusses the importance of understanding peak
hour flows by direction and the development of day flight schedules.

This chapter significantly expands on the previous version of the ADRM by providing more guidance and
concrete examples. While most of the metrics used in the ADRM edition 9 remain the same, it is anticipated
that further updates to recommended practices may be made as feedback is collected from the airlines and
ADRM users.

The approach described in the following chapters provides guidance on how to develop forecasts of market-
driven aviation demand for air service. These forecasts are considered "unconstrained". In other words, for
the purposes of estimating demand, the approach assumes facilities will be provided to meet the forecast
demand. However, when there are financial, capacity or regulatory constraints, these specific cases should be
applied to the outcome of the unconstrained passenger or ATM demand forecast.

Several other reference publications provide guidelines on airport traffic forecasting. The main ones are:

• UK Aviation Forecasts, OfT (2013)

• Airport Traffic Forecasting Manual, ACI (2011)

• Airport Aviation Activity Forecasting, ACRP (2007)

• Manual on Air Traffic Forecasting, doc 8991, ICAO (2006)

• Advisory Circular on Airport Master Plans, FAA (2005)

• Forecasting Aviation Activity by Airport, FAA (2001)

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2.2 Economic Base for Air Travel


The intrin sic links between the level of aviation activity and economic growth are well documented. Simply
put, growth in population, income, and business activity typically lead to increased demand for air travel and
the shipment of goods by air. An individual's demand for air travel is often referred to as "underlying demand"
or "latent demand" in that it cannot be realized without the presence of air service at a price that results in a
decision to fly.

Consequently, one of the first steps in developing an aviation activity forecast is to collect data relating to the
business, economic, trade, and tourism characteristics of the regions served by the subject airport. These
help to explain the economic basis for air travel at the airport. In most cases, economy and tourism are the
primary drivers of air passenger traffic while economy and trade are the main stimulus for air cargo traffic.

These vari ables identify historical and/or future trends that can potentially stimulate growth at the airport. Air
passenger demand depends on the combination of trends in the:

• Airline industry;

• National and international economies (especially at major transfer hubs); and

• Socioeconomic conditions within the airport catchment area .

2.2.1 Airport Catchment Area

The airport catchment area is the geographic region where the majority of originating passengers (or goods
for cargo) begin their journey prior to arriving at the subject airport. When developing an economic base, it is
essential to determine the catchment area of the airport. Understanding the region where passengers
originate prior to arriving at the airport will help determine what economic data best describes the underlying
market potential. Catchment areas range in size depending on the airport, its accessibility and its surrounding
environment. The passenger and cargo catchment areas of a given airport are often different. Cargo activities
tend to be more concentrated in the vicinity of the airport, but cargo payloads are often transported over long
distances to reach the airport.

Although it can be time consuming and costly, a passenger survey is the best method of identifying the
catchment area for an airport by determinin g where a local passenger's trip originated from. Catchment area
passenger surveys most commonly ask passengers if they are:

• A resident or visitor to the region;

• Where they came from prior to arriving at the airport;

• Mode of transportation to the airport;

• Reason for travel; and

• Length of stay.

Alternatively, specialized databases (such as PaxiS/AirportiS) provide information on where a ticket was
issued. This gives a high-level indication of the origin of a passenger's trip.

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Catchment areas also depend on competing airports as well as the geographic and economic characteristics
of the surrounding region. It should be noted that it is common to find overlapping airport catchment areas,
particularly in large metro areas served by multiple airports.

In overlapping catchment areas with more than one choice of airport, passengers typically decide to use a
specific airport based on:

• Price;

• Nonstop service;

• Frequency of flights;

• Destinations served; and

• Proximity to their point of origin or destination.

All other variables being equal, theory dictates that passengers will tend to choose the closest airport. In
reality, homogeneity in airport choice rarely occurs. As a result, it is important to not assess the subject airport
in isolation, but to understand the catchment area dynamics of the region as a whole.

It should also be noted that catchment areas are dynamic and change over time, particularly in multi-airport
regions. Examples of factors that could cause a catchment area to shift are:

• A new model airline initiates service at the subject airport causing a higher proportion of traffic to be
captured from a neighboring airport due to attractive low fares that outweigh the increased ground travel
time;

• A new or expanded highway results in shorter travel times to a competing airport; and

• Urban sprawl puts an increasing proportion of a metropolitan area's population in proximity to the subject
airport.

2.2.2 Socioeconomic Base

Once the catchment area has been determined, the next step is to collect relevant historical and forecast
socioeconomic indicators.

Socioeconomic historical trends and forecasts are key indicators of air service activity. Examples include:

• Population;

• Employment;

• Per capita personal income (PCPI);

• Trade; and

• Gross domestic product/gross regional product (GDP/GRP).

Growth in population and employment are important indicators of the overall health of the local economy.
Population and employment changes tend to be closely correlated as people migrate in and out of areas

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largely depending on their ability to find work in the local economy. Income statistics such as PCPI and
GDP/GRP are broad indicators of the relative earning power and wealth of the region. Thus, inferences can
be made relative to a resident's ability to purchase air travel. PC PI is calculated by dividing total income by
total population. Trade and GDP/GRP are important determinants of air cargo activity.

When working with socioeconomic variables over time, all currency values should be converted to constant
units to eliminate any distortions resulting from inflation. The specification of the currency units (US$, Euro or
local units) is also critical and should be made consistently.

Sources for socioeconomic data and statistics include:

• Woods & Poole;

• The World Bank;

• The Intern ational Monetary Fund;

• IHS Global Insight;

• Moody's economy.com;

• The Economist Intelligence Unit;

• Consensus Economics; and

• Government agencies .

When choosing a source for socioeconomic data, it is important to check its coverage, both in terms of scope
and time range (historical and forecast). When organizing the socioeconomic data to serve as input to various
projections, historical and forecast data should be arranged in compatible formats.

2.2.3 Transfer Traffic

Unlike origin/destination traffic, transfer traffic has little relevance to the catchment area and its dynamic. The
factors that influence the number of transfer passengers at an airport will differ from those affecting the
number of originating/terminating passengers. Therefore, airport forecasters will often analyze and forecast
these traffic segments separately. Forecasts of transfer passengers at an airport are particularly sensitive to
the strategies, networks and service densities of the carriers at the airport.

2.2.4 Airline Yields

Understanding the cost of air travel and its associated affects is the next step in developing an economic
base. Airline passenger yields are the aviation industry's measure for average ticket prices. Yield is defined as
the average revenue an airline obtains from carrying a passenger one mile or one kilometer. It reflects fare,
length of haul, level of competition, carrier costs, and other factors. Yield is a commonly accepted measure of
the price of air travel, but excludes airport taxes and charges.

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Forecasting-Economic Base for Air Travel

If prices decline, passengers can better afford to fly and traffic typically increases. Indeed, potential travelers
make air travel decisions based primarily on the following three factors:

1. Availability of air service;

2. Price; and

3. Distance of an airport from point of trip origin/destination.

Competitive pri ces will often cause travelers to select airports that are not necessarily the closest to where
their trip begins or ends. Yields have a direct impact on the associated level of air travel demand. When data
is available, understanding historical yield trends and making inferences regarding their future direction is an
important component in the forecasting process.

Similarly, businesses looking to ship goods will examine the cost of shipping by air versus other transportation
modes (i.e., truck, rail, sea) balanced against the required timeframe for shipment delivery. Air freight is
typically the most expensive form of transportation, but also the most time efficient. Therefore, it will generally
be used for high-value commodities (per unit weight) or time-sensitive goods such as fruits or fashion apparel.
Forecast analysts must understand how the cost of shipping air freight affects air cargo volumes at the subject
airport versus other airports and other modes of transportation. It is important to note, however, that the
availability of data makes understanding air cargo shipping costs difficult to evaluate.

As with socioeconomic data, when working with historical yield and average air fares, all currency values
should be converted to constant units to eliminate any distortions resulting from inflation. Historical yield
values should be arranged in the same format as the other socioeconomic variables in order to be compatible
with various projection techniques.

2.2.5 Tourism

Airports play a critical role in facilitating tourism. Collecting statistics about tourism trends in the airport
catchment area is an important part of the forecasting process. Tourism indicators include:

• Number of visitors to the region;

• Nationality or world region of origin of foreign visitors;

• Number of hotel room nights and average duration of stay; and

• Seasonality of visitor travel.

2.2.5.1 Number of Visitors

Quantifying changes in the number of visitors to a region provides an indication of how attractive the airport
catchment area is as a place to visit. Attractions that often bring visitors to a region include:

• Theme parks;

• National/state parks;

• Beaches;

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• Prevailing climate;

• Historic/heritage sites;

• Convention centers;

• Museums;

• Religious sites;

• Professional sports;

• Concert venues;

• College campuses, and more .

Visitors to airports also drive facility requirements such as nonresident Customs and Border Protection (CBP),
car rentals, hotels, restaurants, retail outlets, etc.

2.2.5.2 Nationality/World Region of Foreign Visitors

When an airport is kn owledgeable about the nationality or home region of foreign visitors, the airport will have
a better understanding of how the worl d economic climate may affect the airport's traffic volumes. Indeed,
these trends can be explicitly modeled in aviation forecasts if the visitor data is available by city, country or
world region. Moreover, the airport can also target emerging markets that have been historically less well
linked to the airport's surrounding catchm ent area.

2.2.5.3 Number of Hotel Room Nights and Average Duration of Stay

To support visitor travel and tourism, hotels and conference facilities are critical for any airport. Understanding
the number of hotel room nights and the average length of stay of passengers gives airports insight into the
economic impact of tourism on the region as well as the need for development of new facilities in the future.

2.2.5.4 Seasonality of Visitor Travel

The traffic demand patterns experienced by an airport are subject to seasonal variations that are monthly,
daily, and even hourly. All airports experi ence seasonal highs and lows in terms of their volume of activity.
Airports that cater to a high percentage of tourist traffic often exhibit more variability in their monthly traffic
volumes. For example, airports near popular ski venues are used more often in winter than in the summer
months. Understanding peaking patterns and seasonality characteri stics is critical in the assessment of the
ability of existing facilities to accommodate forecast increases in passenger and aircraft activity. The objective
of these forecasts is to size facilities so they are neither underutilized nor overcrowded too often.

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Forecasting-Economic Base for Air Travel

2.2.6 Trade

Air cargo plays a critical role in the world economy by facilitating trade, especially international trade. As
previously mentioned, air cargo tends to be oriented toward high-value or time-sensitive goods. Indeed, air
cargo is estimated to account for less than 10 percent of the world's freight volume, but over a third of the
value of goods exchanged worldwide.

The forecast analyst should seek to understand historical trade patterns, estimate future growth in trade, and
evaluate the implications of trade growth for air cargo volumes at the subject airport.

2.2.7 lntermodal Transportation

lntermodal transportation involves the use of two or more modes of transport within a given trip, whether it is
for individuals or freight. The Air Transport Action Group (ATAG) considers intermodal transportation for
passengers to be a combination of:

• Access to airports: local transport services between the airport and the neighboring city (e.g., commuter
train, metro, bus or even boat);

• Complementary feeder services between the airport and various destinations in the surrounding region
(mainly provided by train, high-speed rail, bus, or ferry);

• Competing services between major city centers of neighboring region s (i.e., a passenger uses air
tran sport for one leg of the trip and rail or bus for a second leg); and

• Alternative services that fully replace airline feeder services to airports (in general, for trips of less than
three hours).

It is clear that other modes of transport have the potential to affect air traffic volumes at the subject airport in
both complementary and competitive manners. It is incumbent on the forecast analyst to quantitatively or
qualitatively evaluate whether or not changes in the ground transportation infrastructure and/or multimodal
offerings are likely to impact air traffic volumes at the subject airport.

2.2.8 Economic Base Data Analysis

The final step in developing the economic base is analyzing the key data collected. The forecast analyst
should:

• Tabulate the key socioeconomic and demographic data in a format compatible with forecast models so
they can serve as inputs to various projection techniques;

• Create compound annual growth rates for each economic category in order to summarize trends over the
histori cal period; and

• Document socioeconomic and regional demographic data in a narrative assessment to better explain how
these variables affect airport activity.

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This collection and analysis of socioeconomic and demographic data will be key when developing models for
the aviation forecast.

2.3 Historical Aviation Activity


The past is not always a perfect predictor of the future; however, an analysis of historical data provides the
opportunity to understand factors that may have caused traffic to increase or decrease and how those factors
may change in the future. Understanding the historical relationships between the economy (demand) and
aviation activity (supply) at the subject airport will help form the building blocks of the forecast.

The objective of this chapter is to discuss the updating and compiling of historical data for passengers, air
cargo, and aircraft movements. Passenger activity data should include all segments:

• Domestic;

• International;

• Origin and Destination (O&D);

• Transfer (connecting); and

• Transit.

Air cargo data should include all volumes for:

• Import;

• Export; and

• Transfer.

Aircraft movement data should include:

• Domestic and international commercial passenger movements;

• Cargo;

• Air taxi;

• General aviation;

• Military/government; and

• Total movements.

As discussed in the previous chapter, when evaluating historical activity, the analysis should include an
evaluation of the importance of the airport's role in the region as well as an overview of current domestic and
international air service offered at the subject airport. The analysis should also include an evaluation of the
competing air service offered at other airports serving the same catchment area.

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Forecasting-Historical Aviation Activity

2.3.1 Data Collection

The data sources available from which to develop the historical time seri es will vary depending on the subject
airport. Recommended sources for historical aviation activity data include, but are not limited to:

• Airport records;

• Airline schedules (such as the Official Airline Guide or SRS Analyzer);

• Airline data/information;

• Airports Council International publications;

• ICAO publications;

• Civil Aviation Authority and government reports;

• Surveys, such as:


o U.S. DOT Schedule T-100;

o U.S. DOT Air Passenger Origin-Destination Survey; and

o FAAATADS;

• lATA PaxiS/AirportiS;

• CargoiS; and

• MIDT.

The importance of these data sources are described below.

2.3.1.1 Airport Records

The first place to look when collecting data of historical aviation activity is the airport itself. Airport data is
considered the most accurate source for histori cal aviation activity. It is assumed that the airport has access
to historical activity statistics as well as previous forecasts that can be easily provided to the forecaster.
Additionally, any future air service initiatives being implemented or considered should have been discussed
with the airport.

Not all airports will have the same level of detail available. At minimum, the forecast analyst should gather
historical activity data for monthly and annual enplanements by carrier as well as aircraft movements and total
cargo tonnage. The following is the suggested list of items that should be requested from the airport (and/or
the Air Navigation Service Provider) when conducting an aviation forecast:

• Total passengers (annual: 20 years): domestic, international, transit and transfer, and total; by world
region and by direction (resident/visitor), if available;

• Passengers by carrier (monthly: five years): domestic, international, transit and transfer, and total;

• Total air cargo tonnage (annual: 20 years): domestic, international, O&D, transshipment, and total;

• Air cargo tonnage by carrier (monthly: five years): domestic, international, and total; import, export, and
transshipment; passenger belly and freighter;

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• Total aircraft movements (annual: 20 years): commercial passenger domestic, international, and total;
by aircraft type and/or category;

• Aircraft movements (monthly: five years): commercial passenger, cargo, general aviation,
military/government, and total;

• Based aircraft (annual: 10 years): by category;

• Radar data/ATC flight strips

o Daily flight activity for the peak month for the past three to five years; and

• Other forecast-related studies

o Recent aviation forecasts;

o Air service development studies;

o Air service marketing or strategy reports;

o Visitor counts by world region;

o Leakage studies;

o Economic impact studies;

o Passenger surveys;

o Prior master plan(s);

o Financial feasibility studies/bond documents; and

o Regional tourism/economic development studies.

2.3.1.2 Airline Schedules

There are a number of comprehensive global data sources for historical and planned airline schedules1 . The
forward-looking fl ight schedules provide data up to 12 months in advance.

Airline schedules are valuable sources for understanding air service trends at an airport in terms of:

• Airline market share;

• Destinations served;

• Route frequency;

• Route competition;

• Aircraft fleet mix; and

• The profile of activity across the day.

It is important to note that airline schedules capture scheduled activity (i.e., what was planned to happen)
rather than what actually occurred. They do not take into account flig ht delays or cancelations.

1
SRS Analyzer, OAG, lnnovata.

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Forecasting-Historical Aviation Activity

While the majority of large commercial passenger airlines file schedules with the schedule aggregators, many
non scheduled and charter operators do not due to the ad hoc nature of their operations. Freighter activity is
also typically underrepresented in the airline schedules.

2.3.1.3 Airline Data/Information

Airlines are key stakeholders in airport development across the globe. As such, airline consultation is an
important element in aviation forecasting. Airlines can provide input on market potential and how they plan to
deploy aircraft in the market over the forecast period. Airline consultation is particularly important at transfer
hubs where a significant proportion of the airport passenger base is a function of the dominant airline's
strategy versus the economics of the local market.

2.3.1.4 Airports Council International

Airports Council International (ACI) publishes an annual world traffic report in which total passengers, total
cargo, and total movement statistics from member airports are reported and ranked in an internationally
comparable form at. This report is particularly useful when benchmarking the subject airport to other airports of
interest.

2.3.1.5 Civil Aviation Authority/Government Publications

National Civil Aviation Authorities and National Transportation Departments often publish an array of statistics
and reports for the airlines and airports under their jurisdiction. Available inform ation may overlap what can be
gathered from each airport, but it ensures a higher level of accuracy and consistency. The United States
Department of Transportation collects arguably the most detailed set of aviation activity statistics. It requires
all operating U.S. and foreign carriers to report passenger, cargo, and air traffic movements (ATMs) at the
aircraft and segment level on a monthly basis. Large U.S.-certificated air carriers conducting scheduled
domestic and international passenger operations are also required to complete a quarterly Origin &
Destination survey. This is a 10 percent sample of U.S. carrier tickets. The Origin & Destination survey allows
the forecast analyst to understand itinerary level passenger flows from the subject airport and the associated
fares paid. In countries where this level of detail is not available, the analyst can use the other data sources
listed in this sub-chapter.

ICAO also publishes passenger, cargo and ATM-related statistics by world region and sub-region.

2.3.1.6 PaxiS/AirportiS Data

Passenger Intelligence Services (PaxiS)/Airport Intelligence Services are products developed by lATA's
Business Intelligence Service. This program is a comprehensive airline passenger market intelligence
database that captures airline data through the IATA Billing and Settlement Plan (BSP). The IATA BSP is the
central point through which data and funds flow between travel agents and airlines. Instead of every agent

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having an individual relationship with each airline, all of the information is consolidated through the BSP
database. The PaxiS/AirportiS database is able to provide detail on the:

• Location of ticket issuance;

• Point of origin/final destination airport;

• Connecting airports;

• Fare category;

• Average fare value;

• Month of ticket issuance/travel.

PaxiS/AirportiS also provide statistical estimates to cover:

• Direct sales;

• New model airlines (NMA);

• Charter flight operators;

• Under represented BSP markets; and

• Non-BSP markets, including the United States.

2.3.1.7 CargoiS Data

Millions of air waybill (AWB) records feed into CargoiS's database every month. They are sourced from
lATA's Cargo Accounts Settlement Systems (CASS) global freight billing systems. Airlines and freight
forwarders settle billions of dollars' worth of airfreight charges into CASS. Because CargoiS reflects actual
transactions between carriers and their forwarders, the accuracy of that intelligence is indisputable.
CargoiS provides information on more than 100,000 airport-to-airport lanes covering over 500 airlines and
15,000 agents.

2.3.1.8 MIDT Data

Marketing Information Data Transfer (MIDT) is a database that provides detailed information about the
worldwide booking activities of airlines and travel agencies. MIDT data is sourced from the Global Distribution
Systems (GDS). This database captures booking transactions from passenger name records to provide
detailed information about the worldwide booking activities of airlines and travel agencies. MIDT was designed
to provide airlines with competitive information to enable them to make well-informed decisions regarding
existing and new route opportunities. Data available through MIDT includes:

• Directionality;

• Booking itineraries on a monthly basis;

• Yield per kilometer; and

• Average fares.

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2.3.2 Airport Role

The next step in developing the historical aviation activity is to define the airport's role, or primary uses. The
following factors need to be considered and examined when defining an airport's role:

• Historical passenger activity;

• Cargo;

• Fractional jet operators;

• General aviation; and

• Military.

During this exercise, other airports in the region should be considered and studied to have a better
understanding of their roles and competition within the catchment area. Defining airport roles provides insight
into the capabilities of the subject airport and other airports in the region.

2.3.3 Historical Passenger Volumes

As a first step in organizing the passenger forecast, time series should be developed to display histori cal
domestic and international passenger data. The purpose of this table is to determine trends over the historical
period to use as context for developing the passenger forecast. To the extent data is available and reliable,
the domestic and international passenger segments should be further disaggregated into historical originating
and transfer (connecting) passengers.

When analyzing historical passenger trends, it is essential to keep in mind that numerous factors may have
caused demand to fluctuate over the historical period including:

• Economic cycles such as expansions and recessions on the local, national and global levels;

• Fuel price spikes;

• Airline capacity changes resulting from new entrants, new business models, bankruptcies or cessation of
operations;

• Price changes for air travel and shipment; and

• Exogenous shocks (e.g., terrorist attacks, war, pandemics, and natural disasters).

It is incumbent on the forecast analyst to provide not only the data time series, but also to tell the story of why
demand and supply have changed over the historical period. This will provide context for the forecasts.

2.3.4 Top Domestic and International Destinations

As mentioned above, the purpose of the historical activity analysis is to build a context for the forecast. It
answers questions such as what markets are served from the airport and why. It is imperative to research the
airport's key domestic and international markets to have a better understanding of the current and future
direction of air service at the airport. This analysis also provides a geographic context for the forecast. The

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mix and range of domestic and international markets will inform what types of aircraft are deployed over the
forecast period.

2.3.5 Historical Market Share by Airline

The analysis of historical market share by passenger airline and/or airline segment provides insight into the
recent history of the main carriers at the airport, including shifting shares between new model airline (NMA)
and legacy carrier segments. The allocation of traffic between NMA and legacy segments is an important
consideration from both a physical planning and financial feasibility perspective. NMAs typically exhibit higher
utilization, require fewer amenities, and place a significant emphasis on their costs (including airport costs).

2.3.6 Historical Air Cargo Tonnage

Air cargo is shipped in three ways:

1. In the cargo compartment, or belly, of passenger aircraft;

2. On all-cargo aircraft (freighters); and

3. In "combi" aircraft (where the main deck is shared between passengers and cargo).

Most passenger airlines accommodate air cargo as a by-product to the primary activity of carrying
passengers. They fill belly space in their aircraft that would otherwise be empty. The incremental cost of
carrying cargo in a passenger aircraft is negligible, and includes only ground handling expenses and a modest
increase in fuel consumption.

Road and sea substitution have become major components in the evolution of air cargo activity in the past
few years. At the continental level, trucks have nearly replaced regional air freight service due to cost savings
and increased efficiency. Truck services have expanded to provide transport of freight to gateway airports for
consolidation. A number of air carriers also transport cargo by truck to build their own volumes. Many air
cargo faci lities are operating more and more as truck terminals, yet requirements to report truck-to-truck
tonnage are rare. At the intercontinental level, improved containerization has allowed sea shipments to
become more competitive in terms of transportation time and reliability. Technology advances in containerized
shipping and the increasing speed of ocean-going vessels have been eroding the time advantage of air
freight. Before the 2008 financial crisis, the tonnage carried by containerized ships grew at an average rate of
around eight percent (i.e., twice the pace of air freight ton kilometers).

To determine historical trends for cargo tonnage at the subject airport, the forecast analyst should compile
historical cargo tonnage in a time series, displaying domestic and international cargo for belly and freighter
tonnage separately. It should be noted that cargo volumes are very different from passenger volumes when it
comes to directionality. Obviously, cargo does not require return flights. Many airports observe very
imbalanced import/export cargo flows reflecting the mono-directionality of cargo shipments and the nature of
the local economy.

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2.3.7 Historical Movements by Segment

For purposes of developing the air transport movements (ATM) forecast, historical movements should be
classified into the following categories:

• Commercial passenger;

• All-cargo;

• General aviation;

• Military; and

• Total.

ATM forecasts will be developed separately for each segment; therefore, historical trends will need to be
analyzed in the same manner. A time series should be developed for historical ATM volumes in each
category.

2.3.8 Forecast Impact Factors

Factors that may affect aviation demand need to be addressed when developing the passenger, air cargo and
ATM forecasts. Forecast impact factors could include, but are not limited to:

• Economic cycles;

• New aircraft types;

• Fuel prices;

• Airline industry changes;

• Alliance initiatives;

• Airline costs;

• Addition/removal of airlines;

• Regulatory changes (e.g., air services agreements, travel policy, and trade policy); and

• Airport initiatives.

Other impact factors to consider include seasonal trends and special events that stimulate air travel. It is
recommended that all factors be considered and documented when analyzing historical trends and
fluctuations at the subject airport.

Defining historical and anticipated impact factors will improve the assumptions and accuracy of the aviation
forecast. A summary discussion should also be included to describe the trends and anticipated changes that
may affect the development of projections of aviation activity at the airport.

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2.4 Competitive Analysis


It is beneficial to include a competitive analysis of the airport and its surrounding competition when developing
a forecast. A competitive analysis assesses the strengths and weaknesses of current and potential
competitors, including other modes of transportation. It may be necessary to carry out different competitive
analyses for each specific air traffic segment. For example:

• Origin/Destination passengers may choose between several airports serving the same catchment area.
Markets such as New York, Tokyo, London, Los Angeles, Shanghai, Chicago, and Washington D.C. have
multiple major airports within the same catchment area that passengers could select based on air service,
price and/or location;

• Connecting passengers may be offered multiple routings through competitive hubs;

• Short-haul passengers may travel by air, road or rail depending on their travel purpose, budget or
schedule; and

• Depending on cargo yields, the logistics chain and available cargo capacity, freight may be trucked for
hundreds or even thousands of kilom eters before being loaded on an aircraft.

The purpose of this analysis is to display the competitive position of the subject airport versus other airports in
the catchment area. When developing a competitive analysis, consideration should also be given to the
potential advantages, disadvantages, and practical limitations from the point of view of airline passengers
using this airport.

An effective competitive analysis within a forecast document should provide a narrative overview with
supporting graphics describing the competitive market within the region and nationally.

2.5 Review of Existing Forecasts


Before developing models and assumptions for the passenger forecast, it may be valuable to review prior
forecasts developed for the airport. This is done in order to obtain an understanding of previous forecasting
efforts, available data, the assumptions made, and the methodology employed. In particular, comparing the
actual results with the forecast will show its predictive accuracy and validate the methodology used.

2.6 Common Forecasting Techniques


There are a number of approaches and techniques to develop aviation forecasts. The most common
techniques include:

• Time series/trend analysis;

• Consensus forecasts;

• Market share forecasts; and

• Econometric/regression models.

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These techniques can be used to develop forecasts at the airport level, at the multi-airport level, or at the
regional level.

Each of these techniques has its own set of advantages and drawbacks, and they may be used independently
or in combination. The following sub chapters demonstrate appropriate forecasting techniques for various
uses.

2.6.1 Trend/Time Series

Time series analysis projects historical trends into the future using time as the independent variable. As time
series forecasts are "one-variable" models, they require only the data for the variable to be forecast.

In general, time series data can be described by trends, seasonal effects and cyclical effects. The first step in
putting together a time series forecast is to analyze a time seri es of historical data for the specific market in
order to determine the growth trend. The easiest procedure for isolating the trend in a time series is to plot the
historical data in graphic form, on an x and y axis. The traffic data is plotted on the vertical (y) axis. Time, the
independent variable, is plotted on the horizontal (x) axis. Then a best-fit curve is obtained by minimizing the
sum of the errors squared . Different curves may be tried to find the best fit, such as linear or exponential. In
simple forecasts, it is possible to extend this line into the future to estimate future traffic. Growth rates,
positive or negative, can be calculated from the slope of the line.

The time series technique is useful for the following situations:

• When detailed data is not available;

• When the financial and technical resources required for a more rigorous forecast are not available;

• When the anticipated growth is expected to be relatively stable; and

• When the operating and economic environment is expected to be relatively stable.

Time seri es analysis is a relatively expedient forecasting technique and, as such, is commonly used.
However, one of the major limitations of a time series forecast is that there may be factors that can
reasonably be expected to affect aviation activity at the subject airport in the future that are not reflected in the
historical time series. For example, many aviation markets have histori cally been tightly controlled by
government policy and regulation, which has in turn limited growth in aviation activity. A future policy
loosening these restrictions could result in aviation activity growing at a faster rate than has been experi enced
historically. A basic time series analysis is not able to reflect these changes in the underlying aviation
environment.

2.6.2 Consensus Forecasts

This approach involves applying aggregate aviation market growth rates developed by a third party (or third
parties) to the subject airports traffic base. This approach is often used when there is a lack of historical
information for the subject airport. It is also useful to provide a context or cross-check to validate a subject
airport's forecast that has been developed using more airport-specific techniques.

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Governments, aviation authorities, non governmental organizations and aircraft manufactures publish their
own national and/or regional forecasts for aviation activity, including growth rates for a defined period of time.
While these forecasts are typically not developed at the airport level, they may provide a consensus outlook
for aviation activity as a whole for the region where the subject airport is located .

The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), for example, publishes an annual aerospace forecast that
contains forecasts for passengers, air cargo, and air traffic movements (ATMs) for the U.S. as a whole over a
twenty-year horizon. The growth rates promulgated in the annual forecasts are often used by planners,
particularly at small U.S. airports where general aviation is a higher percentage of the activity, to provide a
guide as to how activity might change at the subject airport.

Similarly, Airports Council International, Boeing and Airbus publish twenty year market outlooks for passenger
and cargo volumes by world region. The growth rates published in these forecasts can be used as a guide as
to how aviation demand may develop at the subject airport given its location and traffic mix.

It is important to be prudent when developing a forecast using the consensus forecast method. Industry
forecasts may be predicting higher growth than is reasonable for the subject airport. The forecast analyst
should adjust the industry growth rates accordingly when there is a disconnect between industry forecasts
and historical activity at the airport.

The Delphi Method is a specific type of consensus forecast whereby a panel of experts is requested to
provide their views on the future market growth through stru ctured questionnaires. Several rounds of
questionnaires are sent out. Responses are aggregated and shared anonymously with the panel after each
round. The experts are invited to adjust their answers in subsequent rounds based on the answers from the
panel. The Delphi Method seeks to reach the "correct" response through consensus.

2.6.3 Market Share Forecasts

Market share forecasts project airport activity as a percentage of a larger aggregate forecast (i.e., national-.
state- or regional-level forecasts). This approach is used when the forecast for the larger market is more
readily available or easy to produce than for the airport itself. This includes the case of large metropolitan
areas with multiple airports.

The market share for a specific airport can be calculated by taking the historical dataset for a specific period
and dividing it by the amount of the total market over the same period. If the share of the subject airport has
exhibited relatively little variation over the historical period, extrapolating this share into the future is a
reasonable and relatively efficient way of developing a forecast for the subject airport. Equally, if the share
analysis indicates increasing or decreasing shares of the larger benchmark that are readily explainable, the
forecast analyst can estimate future changes in market share and apply these to the aggregate level forecast.
Forecast impact factors, industry trends, and market outlooks should be considered when developing the
market share forecast.

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2.6.4 Econometric/Regression Model

On a worldwide scale, demand for passenger air travel (or air cargo) is intrinsically linked to the performance
of the global economy. By comparison, exogenous shocks such as political turmoil, terrorist attacks, weather-
related disruptions (e.g., hurricanes, volcanic ash clouds), and pandemics (e.g., severe acute respiratory
syndrome, SARS) tend to have a shorter transitory impact on air travel demand. Air travel demand typically
increases during periods of economic expansion and declines during economic contractions. Due to the
strong correlation of air travel (or air cargo) demand with economic conditions, econometric or regression
modeling is one of the most robust and commonly applied aviation forecasting techniques.

The purpose of an econometric or regression model is to quantify the relationship between a single
dependent variable (e.g., O&D domestic passenger traffic or international air cargo traffic) and one or more
independent variables (e.g., per capita income and air fares).

Econometric forecasting is used to demonstrate how predicted changes in the independent variables would
affect future traffic. The following steps are used when developing an econometric forecast:

1. Specify the independent variables for testing;

2. Collect data;

3. Select a statistical model;

4. Determine the model's ability to accurately predict historical values;

5. Evaluate combinations of independent variables in context of historical traffic patterns;

6. Use the model to derive forecast traffic values;

7. Evaluate the results in the context of historical traffic patterns;

8. Introduce adjustments to the forecasts to reflect anticipated changes in the airport environment (e.g.,
regulation, competition, airline strategies); and

9. Compare with benchmarks (i.e., Boeing, Airbus, FAA).

2.6.4.1 Specify Independent Variables

Prior to selecting a model, the forecaster must determine what combination of independent variables should
be considered in the forecast. The following is a list of potential independent variables that the forecaster may
consider:

• Population;

• Output (gross domestic or regional product);

• Personal income;

• Per capital personal income;

• Employment;

• Exchange rates;

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• Tourism factors such as hotel rooms;

• Air fares/yield; and

• Exogenous shocks (e.g., terrorist attacks, weather-related events, transportation mode shift).

A few additional variables may be used for air cargo, including:

• Regional trade (imports and exports)

• Global trade

• Manufacturing activity

2.6.4.2 Collect Data

As discussed in Chapter 2.2 Economic Base for Air Travel, economic data to be used as independent
variables must be collected. All data should be collected as a time series. Economic data sets, including
forecasts, can be obtained from a number of sources, such as:

• The International Monetary Fund;

• World Bank;

• Bureau of Labor Statistics;

• U.S. Census;

• Woods & Poole;

• National Bureau of Economic Research;

• Moody's economy.com;

• IHS Global Insight;

• Economist Intelligence Unit, and

• Consensus Economics .

It is preferable to obtain the histori cal and forecast data from the same source.

2.6.4.3 Select a Statistical Model

There are many kinds of econometric or regression models. Common types are expressed either in linear or
logistic format, as shown in the equations below:

Linear Regression Model: Y =a + b X


1 1 + b)<2 + ... + b,Xk

Logistic Regression Model: Log(Y) =a + b Log(X1 1) + b2Log(X~ + .. . + b~og(X,J

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The forecast analyst may develop multiple models to forecast different segments of traffic (e.g., domestic
versus international, visitor versus resident, length of haul, or world region) in order to apply a targeted set of
independent variables.

2.6.4.4 Determine Model's Ability to Accurately Predict Historical Values

The fit of the equation is measured by the R2 statistic (called the coefficient of determination). The R2 statistic
ranges from 0 to 1, with 1 indicating a perfect fit.

The calculated predicted output of the regression model can be charted against the actual historical values for
the dependent variable to provide a visual of how well the model predicts actual traffic. There are also a
number of statistical outputs that the forecast analyst should check when developing an econometric model to
ensure its robustness:

• Directionality of the co efficient (e.g., yield is typically negative, reflecting a reduction in fares leading to
growth in passenger demand);

• Adjusted R2 ;

• T-statistics;

• P-Value;

• Multicollinearity;

• Autocorrelation (Durbin-Watson Test);

• Normality (Anderson-Darling Test);

• Presence of outliers;

• Homoscedasticity (Brown-Forsythe Test); and

• Violations of linearity.

2.6.4.5 Evaluate Combinations of Independent Variables in Context of Historical


Traffic Patterns

Econometric modeling is an iterative process and a variety of independent variables may need to be tested
and results reviewed before a model equation is settled upon. The goal is not necessarily to get the model
with the best statistical fit, but to provide a model that is defensible based on a logical set of input
assumptions (independent variables) and an overall understanding of the drivers of passenger demand at the
subject airport.

Specific models may be developed for different airport segments. For instance, it is often observed that
resident and visitor air traffic are driven by different variables.

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2.6.4.6 Use Model to Derive Forecast Traffic Values

By entering the predicted values for the independent variables into the model (e.g., GDP and fare forecasts),
the forecaster will derive the forecasted passenger traffic.

2.6.4.7 Compare with Benchmark Forecasts

As a final step to ensure the forecasts are reasonable, benchmark or other existing forecasts can be used as
a comparison to confirm the projected growth is realistic.

2.6.4.8 Introduce Adjustments to the Forecasts to Reflect Anticipated Changes in


the Airport Environment

The airport forecaster should critically review the ability of the forecasting model to reflect anticipated changes
in the airport business environment. Regulation, airline strategies, airport competition and modal competition
are a few of the many changes that may affect the airport future traffic. For instance, open-skies
implementation or high-speed rail construction are likely not reflected in any foreca sting model based on
historical observations.

Therefore, the airport forecaster will identify and characterize changes that are not factored in the baseline
traffic projections and study their potential impact in terms of traffic gain or loss compared to the baseline.

2. 7 Passenger Activity Forecast


Once the methodology of the forecast is decided, the assumptions and key findings of the forecast model
should be described in narrative and tabular formats. For long-term forecasts, the forecaster should use the
most recent year reported as the base year and focus the report on planning level years, usually in five-year
increments until the end of the forecast period. For short-term forecasts (less than five years), a forecast
should be developed for each year.

2.7.1 Passenger Activity Segments

For planning purposes, the passenger activity forecast should emphasize the following segments:

• Domestic O&D;

• Domestic transfer;

• International O&D;

• International transfer; and

• Transit.

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The sum of these categories results in the total passenger forecast for the subject airport.
Overlaps/dependencies between segments should be closely studied when summing up the traffic of each
individual segment. Typically, a strong growth of O&D demand may result in fewer seats for transfer
passengers. It is important to identify the domestic and international breakdown between originating and
transfer passengers to better evaluate the impact on the different terminal facilities at the airport (i.e., check-
in, airport security, baggage claim, emigration and immigration, and customs).

The level of originating passengers, both domestic and international, reflects the attractiveness of the air
service region as a place to live and visit, and as a place to work and conduct business. The originating
passenger forecast is a critical input to assess future demand for terminal and landside facilities (i.e., ticketing,
baggage claim, automobile parking, and access roadways). The volume of connecting passengers reflects the
quality and quantity of air service offered by domestic hub airlines and international gateway carriers, and is
typically gauged by the frequency of departures and the number of destinations served.

When analyzing the results of the passenger activity forecast, the airport forecaster should incorporate:

• Compound annual growth rates over the forecast period;

• Market shares for each passenger activity segment;

• Comparisons to historical trends; and

• Overall validation of the forecast assumptions and results.

These factors will help explain the outcomes of the forecast and determine which passenger segments are
being affected the most over the forecast period.

2.7.2 Passenger Activity Benchmarking

When developing the passenger activity forecast, industry forecasts such as ones made by ACI, Boeing and
Airbus can be used as benchmarking tools. The current Boeing Current Market Outlook and Airbus Global
Market Forecast passenger growth rates can be reviewed to identify benchmark forecast growth rates. In
these forecasts, passenger and cargo tonnage growth is forecast by world region. These forecasts are
particularly helpful when determining reasonableness for growth of international traffic, keeping in mind that
they may be somewhat optimistic.

For airports in the U.S., the FAA Terminal Area Forecast {TAF) can be used as a benchmarking tool. The
FAA TAF provides projected growth by airport for air carrier, commuter, total enplanements and aircraft
movements by category.

For a near-term global benchmark, lATA develops an annual airline industry forecast that can be used to
analyze the latest passenger and freight traffic growth expectations for over 3,000 country pairs. This data
source includes individual assessments of global and regional economic conditions, detailed rankings, and
annual projections for the next five years. Available in this data are detailed passenger and freighter volumes
for intern ational and domestic country pairs as well as aggregated values for region, sub-region, and country
levels.

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2. 7.3 Passenger Activity Alternative Scenarios

All forecasts are subject to uncertainty, especially long-term forecasts. Consequently, it is prudent to develop
alternative scenarios that define the likely upper and lower ranges of potential demand at the subject airport.

This approach brings flexibility to the planning process and allows stakeholders to assess a range of
outcomes for an infrastructure program should demand be realized sooner or later than anticipated.
Assumptions commonly used for optimistic scenarios include:

• Faster than anticipated economic growth;

• The airport captures increasing market share;

• An airline expands hub service; and

• Lower oil prices result in a decline in air fares stimulating traffic.

The inverse of these assumptions can be used for a low-end scenario. Scenarios that consider a material
change in the character of the traffic base at the subject airport, such as the transition from an O&D airport to
a transfer hub, should be developed in a manner that allows planners to evaluate the implications of shifts in
the individual market segments. Evolving aircraft types is another example of material change that requires
detailed attention as there may be implications on runway capacity requirements as well as the size and
number of parking stands.

Other approaches may be used to reflect uncertainty in airport demand forecasting. The simplest ones are
"what-if analysis" and "sensitivity analysis". These approaches estimate the impact of a single event or
modified assumptions on the baseline traffic projection. More sophisticated methodologies can be used to
incorporate uncertainties. The main ones are:

• Prediction intervals;

• Distribution fitting and Monte Carlo simulation; and

• Extrapolation of empirical errors.

2.8 Baggage Forecast


Not all airports process the same amount of baggage per passenger. Checked baggage tends to increase
when passengers are traveling internationally or for longer periods of time. Leisure travelers tend to check
more bags than business travelers, even for trips of a similar duration. As a result, the air service and type of
passenger at the subject airport will have a large effect on total baggage per passenger. The baggage
forecast should be developed on a case-by-case basis dependent on the airport, its respective air service,
and the profile of the typical passenger. The amount of checked baggage has decreased over recent years
due to additional security requirements as well as fees on checked baggage. The amount of checked
baggage per passenger also tends to vary by world region based on cultural factors.

Average bags per passenger ratios are most often determined based on final destination. The baggage
forecast will be developed by multiplying the forecast passenger volumes by the forecast passenger bag
ratios for the various categories of passenger (i.e., international, domestic, transfer).

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Like determining a catchment area for an airport, using a passenger survey is the best way to determine the
average bags per passenger at the airport. Common questions used on passenger surveys to determine
passenger bag ratios include: "How many bags did your party carry on?" and "How many bags did your party
check?". The results of a passenger survey can be segmented by final destination and applied to all
passengers at the airport.

When a passenger survey is not available, other recommended options for determining average bags per
passenger are getting the information directly from the ground handlers or from a sample of airlines. Airport
planners can also use pre-determined bag ratios. These ratios are only suggested to be used for a first draft
of the baggage forecast when survey data or historical baggage information at the airport is not readily
available. Exhibit 2.8 displays the bag-to-passenger ratios to be used for high-level forecasting purposes.

Exhibit 2.8: Typical Bag-to-Passenger Ratios for High-Level Forecasting Purposes

Type of Passenger
Traffic Europe Asia/Africa USA Rest of World
International 1.0- 1.5 Bags/Pax 2.0 Bags/Pax 2.0 Bags/Pax 1.5 Bags/Pax
Domestic 0.5- 1.0 Bags/Pax 1.0-2.0 Bags/Pax 1.0 Bags/Pax 1.0 Bags/Pax
Transfer 1.0-1 .5 Bags/Pax 1.0-2.0 Bags/Pax 1.0-2.0 Bags/Pax 1.0-1 .5 Bags/Pax

Source: lATA

2.9 Air Cargo Activity Forecast


As discussed in the historical activity chapter, cargo traffic may by carried three ways:

1. On all-cargo aircraft (freighters)

2. In "combi" aircraft (in which the main deck is shared between cargo and passengers)

3. In the belly hold of passenger aircraft

It is essential to forecast cargo tonnage and cargo aircraft movements to determine the need for physical
cargo handling facilities as well as aircraft ramp space.

Like passenger forecasting, when developing a cargo activity forecast, underlying market forces must be
considered. Elements such as market assessments and economic theory as well the airport's physical
capabilities and limitations are items to consider during the cargo activity forecasting process. While historical
air cargo volumes play a key role in defining the economic relationships that will be used to predict future
growth, broader industry trends, economic analysis, and review of peer forecasts such as those published by
Boeing, Airbus, lATA, ICAO, and the FAA will also play a role in forecasting future activity.

The future levels of air cargo traffic and related activity for a particular airport will be affected by various
supply and demand elements over a specified forecast period. An air cargo activity forecast requires an
understanding of how these factors have determined activity levels in the past and how changes in those
factors may affect the future. The forecaster needs to be mindful of how supply and demand characteristics

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produce an aggregate level of cargo and aircraft traffic. The following sub chapter will give insight into what
elements to consider when developing an air cargo activity forecast.

2.9.1 Air Cargo Supply and Demand

Air cargo markets combine cargo flow demand with the available air cargo service supply sector to create
airport activity levels. In simple terms, cargo flow demand for a particular airport is an aggregation of all the
various shipments that transit through that airport. Each shipment has a unique timing, origin and destination,
commodity type, packaging, size and service requirement (e.g., desired transit time or perishability). Air cargo
services ("supply") encompass the available routing options for those shipments and should include
competing airports and modes of transportation.

Air carg o services include airport-to-airport transportation as well as supporting ground services (e.g.,
trucking, handling and storage), and can be compared in terms of cost, transit time and level of service. The
air cargo supply sector also includes on- and off-airport facilities and infrastructure (e.g., runways and access
roads). Not all cargo will terminate at the airport. Transshipment cargo will often need additional space for
warehousing and reprocessing. Cargo shipping methods at the airport will determine the need for facility
space, staffing, and what services are available at the airport.

The demand for air cargo services is driven by the highly diverse needs of shippers and consignees.
Examples include:

• The overnight delivery of a document;

• The transport of donor organs to hospitals; and

• The managed distribution of components and products for multi-national high-tech manufacturers.

Some key characteristics that determine air cargo demand are:

• Origin/destination;

• Commodity type and price;

• Desired level of service; and

• Overall shipment size.

Cargo demand for an airport is primarily determined by the location and volume of air commodity production,
consumption and/or distribution within that airport's catchment area (or market vicinity). The demand for any
particular airport is also affected by the location, accessibility and competitiveness of alternative airports or
modes of transport. Economic growth, regional and world trade (imports and exports) and manufacturing
activity will be the main macro-level drivers for the air cargo demand.

Impact factors that have affected the air cargo industry over the past several decades include: road and sea
substitution, e-commerce, manufacturing changes, aircraft technology, and belly cargo capacity. The cargo
within the U.S. and outside of the U.S. segments differ dramatically in terms of the types of carri ers, the
airport facilities required, the use of trucks, time sensitivity, and other factors. These factors are noteworthy
when developing an air cargo forecast.

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2.9.1.1 U.S. Cargo Activity

Domestic cargo is dominated by integrators 2 which carry 90 percent of the cargo shipped within the U.S.
Competition among the integrated carriers is driven by guaranteed overnight (or other time definite) delivery to
almost any location. Integrators operate with a very tight shipping window to their Midwest distribution hubs;
this creates a concentration of ground traffi c within a region as trucks bring the packages to the airport at the
last possible minute. Large volumes of domestic freight also move in the bellies of passenger aircraft. The
goods are not typically as time sensitive and arrive at the cargo facilities in smaller concentrations, with much
greater frequency, and without well-defined shipping windows. New regulations for screening of all cargo to
be tran sported in passenger aircraft have resulted in very high rates of substitution of air cargo for truck
transport.

2.9.1.2 Cargo Activity Outside the U.S.

Cargo traffic within Europe (and to a lesser extent Asia) is mostly diverted by road with the exception of time-
sensitive shipments that are handled by integrators. Because of trade barriers and poor road conditions, Asia
lags Europe and the U.S. Intercontinental cargo traffic is dominated by freight forwarders, who effectively
function as booking links between manufacturers, shippers and logistics operations.

The freight forwarders and non integrated carriers control about 70 percent of international cargo. Typically, to
keep costs down, they book blocks of space with carriers in the belly of passenger aircraft. The other
30 percent of international air cargo is dominated by the integrators who accept shipments directly from
shippers, and occasionally, from forwarders. On international shipments, integrators may compete directly
with airline/forwarder alliances for business, but overnight delivery does not play as vital a role in international
shipping as it does in the domestic market.

Forwarders and shippers will also utilize freighters operated either independently or by the passenger carriers.
In certain instances, carriers may lease freighter aircraft from a company such as Atlas or Gemini, but the
numbers of such operations and their impact on airport handling requirements and infrastructure are not
typically significant.

One of the keys to successful international goods movement is clearance by the federal agencies. Easy and
timely access for inspection is vital. If the federal agencies do not have the staffing to accommodate timely
inspection and clearance, the best facilities and location in the world will not move international cargo
effectively.

2.9.2 Cargo Data Analysis

Similar to the development of the passenger activity forecast, the first step in developing a cargo forecast is
analyzing the trends in historical tonnage volumes for domestic and international cargo in a time series

2
Integrators are carriers that operate a trucking component as well as aircraft and offer point-to-point, as opposed to airport-to-airport
delivery. Integrators specialize in overnight express. Examples include FedEx, UPS, and DHL.

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format. Historical data factors show how an airport's traffic has evolved and will serve as the starting point for
the development of comprehensive forecasts.

A review of recent trends identifies factors that influence cargo traffic volumes and which might do so again in
the future. It is suggested that ten years of historical data be obtained before making a five-year forecast. The
reason is that evaluating a longer historical time frame makes it easier to distinguish true trends from short-
term aberrations. This will enhance the accuracy of the projected relationships between independent and
dependent variables. The historical analysis of aviation activity is one of the key factors in developing a set of
key assumptions underlying the forecast of air cargo.

Airport forecasters should start by determining the historical trends and activity levels associated with
dedicated freighter and belly traffic individually. During this process, the forecasters consider the supply and
demand of cargo that affects the airport. Then they determine the forecast method to use by testing several
different models to get the most accurate results. Once several methods have been evaluated, they compare
the results with reliable market forecasts.

2.9.3 Cargo Market Forecast Benchmarking

Cargo activity forecast assumptions should consider broader industry trends, economic analysis, and review
of peer forecasts such as those published by the FAA, Boeing, and Airbus. A review of cargo industry trends,
regional market data, and historical shipping patterns will increase the reliability of the results of a cargo
activity forecast. Several cargo market outlooks can be used for benchmark analysis, including the FAA
Aerospace Forecast, Boeing Current Market Outlook and Airbus Global Market Forecast, as they are
reasonable industry forecasts.

2.9.3.1 FAA Aerospace Forecast

When developing a cargo activity forecast for airports in the U.S., the FAA Aerospace Forecast can be used
as a tool to look at the FAA's overall expected outlook for the air cargo industry as well as the FAA's projected
domestic and international growth in terms of revenue ton miles on a system-wide basis.

2.9.3.2 International Market Forecasts (Boeing/Airbus/Other)

For airports globally, industry manufacturer forecasts can be used as valuable benchmarking tools. At a
macro level, manufacturer forecasts such as those made by Boeing and Airbus are helpful in considering
international volume growth. However, they should only be applied as a means of comparison to airport-
specific forecasts, rather than used as a source for growth rates. The Boeing Current Market Outlook and the
Airbus Global Market Forecast can be consulted for their assumptions and freighter fleet growth projections.
These consensus forecast cargo growth rates and an outlook of future aircraft orders can be used as a metric
to better understand the potential growth of cargo operations in the future. Regional forecasts are also
included in the Boeing and Airbus forecasts, projecting cargo growth for specific areas of the world over the
forecast horizon. On a cautionary note, all industry manufacturer forecasts include an inherent bias towards
future aircraft demand.

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2.9.3.3 Additional Forecasts and Research

For a near-term global benchmark, lATA develops an annual cargo industry forecast that can be used to
analyze the latest freight traffic growth expectations for over 3,000 country pairs. This data source includes
individual assessments of global and regional economic conditions, detailed rankings, and annual projections
for the next five years. Also included are five-year forecasts for international cargo traffic by region, sub-
region, and country.

There are several other factors that affect the cargo industry, including:

• Changes in national air cargo security regulations, such as from the FAA and the Transportation Security
Administration (TSA);

• Shifts from air to other modes of shipping cargo;

• Implementation of trade agreements;

• Weight saving on electronics goods;

• Use of alternative all-cargo carriers (e.g., FedEx) by the U.S. Postal Service to transport mail; and

• Increased use of mail substitutes (e.g., emailf

Throughout North America, truck substitution to reduce costs per shipment has the largest effect on domestic
air cargo volumes. Forecast analysts should research these factors by focusing on current trends and
economic outlooks.

2.9.4 Cargo Activity Forecast

As was discussed in Chapter 2. 7 Passenger Activity Forecast, there are a number of approaches and
techniques to develop cargo forecasts. The most common techniques include:

• Time series/trend analysis;

• Consensus forecasts;

• Market share; and

• Econometric/regression models.

The results of the cargo forecast should be evaluated to determine whether there are any gaps between the
airport's historical trends, the cargo forecast assumptions, and the information used for benchmarking
purposes. When analyzing these variables it is important to consider the nature of cargo and the potential
impact factors of the industry. For the purposes of evaluating dedicated cargo facilities and apron areas, the
total air cargo forecast should be allocated between the cargo handled in dedicated freighter aircraft versus
the cargo shipped in the belly hold of passenger aircraft.

An air cargo tonnage forecast can often be developed along with low- and high-alternative forecasts to
provide a range of potential outcomes. Alternative scenarios allow for the determination of the level of facility

3 FAA Aerospace Forecast Fiscal Years 2013-2033.

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development that would be needed to accommodate the higher demand. Like with the passenger forecast,
assumptions commonly used for high case scenarios include:

• The economy grows faster than expected;

• The airport captures increasing market share; and

• Increased transfer traffic.

A new regional manufacturing facility or logistics center may also drive growth in air cargo. The opposite of
these factors would be considered for a low-end scenario.

The results of the cargo tonnage forecast are used as a basis for total cargo ATMs for an aviation forecast. A
narrative summary should also be provided detailing the cargo tonnage forecast assumptions and
methodology. To ensure consistency, the results of a cargo tonnage forecast should be organized on the
same planning levels as the passenger forecast.

2.10 Air Transport Movement Forecast


The volume (frequency) and type of air transport movements (ATMs) are key drivers of airfield, taxiway,
apron, and stand requirements at an airport. An ATM is defined as either an aircraft arrival or departure. Total
ATMs at a given airport are typically defined as the sum of all aircraft arrivals and departures that use the
airport's runways•.

Generally, in both the passenger and cargo markets, an increase in aircraft gauge (size) is observed over
time. The deployment of larger airliners and freighters is a driver for industry cost savings. Therefore, it is
often observed that ATMs increase at a slower pace than passenger and cargo volumes.

2.1 0.1 ATM Segments

In order to provide an ATM forecast that readily facilitates the evaluation of existing and future airport facility
requirements, it is recommended that the ATM forecast be developed by key operational category:

• Commercial Passenger;

• Commercial Freighter;

• General Aviation; and

• Military.

4
Total A TMs reported by an airport operator may include overflights and helicopter traffic that use the airport's airspace but do not use
the airport's runway or taxiway infrastructure. Care should be taken to exclude these traffic components as necessary when evaluating
existing or future airfield requirements.

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2.10.2 Passenger ATMs

Passenger ATM forecasts are typically derived from the passenger forecast. Indeed, the aggregate number of
commercial passenger movements at an airport depends on three factors:

• Total passengers;

• Average aircraft size;

• Average load factor (percent of seats occupied) 5 .

The relationship is shown in the following equation:

Total Passengers
ATMs-
Average Load Factor* Average Aircraft Size

This equation permits infinite multitude of combinations of load factors and average aircraft size to
accommodate a given number of passengers.

In the absence of load factor and average aircraft size information, the forecast analyst can use passenger
per movement assumptions to derive an ATM forecast from the passenger volume forecast. This is essentially
a one-step approach that combines the load factor and aircraft size assumptions in one metric.

2.10.2.1 Key Passenger ATM Segments

The basic approach to deriving the passenger movements forecast is essentially the same at all airports. The
underlying assumptions at each airport, however, are inherently different due to the differences in how airlines
choose to serve the demand for air travel to, from, and over each airport. These differences may result, for
example, from:

• A strategic focus on unit revenue versus unit costs;

• An emphasis on a hub-and-spoke system versus a point-to-point operation;

• The business model (new model versus network airline); and

• The airport's geographic location relative to other markets.

Further segmentation of the passenger ATM forecasts is recommended in order to provide a more refined
ATM forecast and associated fleet mix. The segments to be analyzed will need to be determined by the
forecast analyst on a case-by-case basis. The following segments provide an example of the potential ATM
segments an analyst may consider as part of developing a passenger ATM forecast.

5
While airlines measure load factors as a function of revenue passenger miles (RPMs) and available seat miles (ASMs), for airport
planning a ''butts in seats• load factor is preferred as it provides a more accurate measure of throughput through the airport's facilities.

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2.10.2.1.1 Domestic versus International ATMs

In most aviation markets the domestic segment tends to be made up of a higher percentage of narrow-body
and regional aircraft while the international segment tends to have a higher concentration of wide-body
aircraft. A relatively straightforward division of ATMs into domestic and international segments will allow an
analyst to take into account growth expectations at the segment level and develop the associated average
aircraft size and load factor assumptions.

2.1 0.2.1.2 Length of Haul/Geographic Region

This is an extension of the domestic and international segmentation. The distance of down-line markets from
the subject airport are one of the determining factors in the type of aircraft deployed. By segmenting ATMs by
length of haul or by geographic region, the results may show greater consistency in the fleet mix that may
otherwise be masked by a less disaggregated approach. For example, in the United States, there has been a
significant reduction in domestic short-haul flights (less than 500 miles). These markets have typically been
served by small regional jets (35-50 seats) and turboprop aircraft. By allocating less activity to the short-haul
segment, the forecast can naturally de-emphasize these aircraft types and drive a higher overall average
aircraft size. There are always interesting exceptions to many broad rules. For example, the Sydney-
Melbourne market is less than 450 miles apart, however, the significant passenger demand in the market
results in high-frequency wide-body aircraft being deployed on the route.

2.1 0.2.1.3 Network Carrier versus New Model Airline

Network carri ers tend to have more diverse fleet mixes than new model airlines (NMAs) which historically
have operated relatively homogenous narrow-body jet fleets. The growth in NMA activity has been a critical
driver of activity at airports around the globe, particularly in the last decade. From a forecasting perspective,
segmentation by airline business model allows for more targeted assumptions to be made based on the
segment of activity that is expected to drive growth in the future. From a facility planning perspective, NMAs
may need more basic terminal facilities and fewer terminal amenities than their network counterparts. NMAs
may also make higher utilization of their stands than network carriers which may have slower aircraft turn
times. NMAs may also time flights to meet banks at down-line hubs.

2.10.2.2 Average Aircraft Size and Passenger Load Factor Assumptions

Once the key passenger ATM segments have been identified, there are a number of micro and macro
sources that can assist in the development of average seats per flight assumptions at a given airport. A
summary of some useful resources and how they can be used as inputs to the passenger ATM forecast
follow.

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2.10.2.2.1 Airline Schedules (OAG and SRS Analyzer)

OAG and SRS Analyzer provide historical and 12-month forward-looking airline flight schedules by airline,
market, aircraft type, and seat configuration for all scheduled commercial passenger airlines at the airport
level. These are excellent sources for understanding historical air service and fleet mix trends at an airport.
Additionally, they provide a strong indication of airline growth plans six to 12 months into the future,
depending on the filing status of the airline. The data does not include non scheduled passenger activity and
reflects what airlines scheduled to occur at a given airport rather than what actually occurred. As a result,
cancellations and other factors that may result in deviations from a flig ht's given schedule are not reflected.

2.10.2.2.2 Airport Operator

The operator of the subject airport or the Air Navigation Service Provider will most likely be able to provide
landing reports by carrier and by aircraft type in order to develop historical average aircraft size and fleet mix
data. Data provided by the airport operator may also include non scheduled passenger activity that would not
be reported in the airline schedule filings. The airport operator may also be able to provide radar data from the
Air Traffic Control tower or from the airport's Flight Information Display System (FIDS).

2.1 0.2.2.3 Airline Input

Changes in fleet mix or aircraft allocation are the primary drivers in the number of passengers per ATM. As
part of the forecasting process, key airlines need to be interviewed to obtain guidance on their future fleet and
network strategy. Many aircraft ord ers are also publically available on airline, manufacturer, and other third
party websites.

2.1 0.2.2.4 Manufacturer Outlooks

Boeing and Airbus each publish annual outlooks that provide twenty-year forecasts of new aircraft deliveri es
by worl d region and by aircraft group (e.g., large, twin-aisle, single aisle, regional jets). While a given airport
may serve a different mix of aircraft than the global average, or even the region as a whole, the manufacturer
outlooks provide a useful context to compare and contrast a more micro level airport forecast.

2.1 0.2.2.5 Third Party Aircraft Databases

There are a number of companies that maintain aircraft inventory databases including aircraft orders and
retirements. These can be expensive, so the cost must be balanced against the needs of the project.

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2.10.2.2.6 General Considerations

Understanding historical and potential future air service and aircraft trends at an airport is critical to
developing defensible measures of average seats per passenger flight as inputs to the passenger ATM
forecast.

The second step in developing the passenger ATM forecast is to develop load factor assumptions for each of
the passenger ATM segments. Load factors in the past five or six years have generally trended upwards as
airlines have made better use of their aircraft assets. According to data published by lATA, global load factors
averaged around 80 percent for the first three quarters of 2013. Load factors do differ by aviation market with
loads in the North American market currently the highest in the world at 82 to 83 percent compared with the
relatively low loads in the Africa market of 67 to 69 percent6 . The forecast should try to reflect load factor
trends for the subject airport and the key markets it serves. The forecast must consider if there is potential for
further growth in load factors prior to airlines either adding frequency or increasing average aircraft size.

Once the average aircraft size and load factor assumptions have been developed, the passenger ATM
forecast can be derived based on the formula shown in Chapter 2.10.2, Passenger ATMs.

2.1 0.2.3 Passenger Aircraft Fleet Mix

For purposes of physical planning at an airport, the passenger ATM forecast can be further disaggregated into
fleet mix categories. A typical requirement is to develop the ATM forecast by aircraft groups. Airports outside
of the United States typically group aircraft based on ICAO categories: Code A, Code B, Code C, Code D,
Code E, and Code F. U.S. airports group aircraft by Airplane Design Group per FAA standards: ADG I,
ADG II, ADG Ill, ADG IV, ADG V, and ADG VI.

More detailed planning forecast exercises, environmental forecasts, or forecasts that have a simulation
component may require ATM forecasts down to the level of aircraft make and model.

A top-down approach should be employed to allocate the results of the movements forecast to the defined
fleet mix categories. The fleet mix should be developed to match the aggregate average aircraft size and load
factor targets. The process of developing the fleet mix should allow for the calibration of these assumptions
and, where appropriate, making iterative modifications prior to finalizing the assumptions and associated
results.

2.1 0.3 Freighter ATM Forecast

The freighter ATM forecast is typically derived from the associated freighter tonnage forecast based on
tonnage per movement assumptions. The freighter tonnage per movement implicitly reflects both the size of
the aircraft and the associated load factor.

6 lATA, Air Passenger Market Analysis, April 2013.

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Similar to the passenger ATM forecast, the freighter ATM forecast should be developed based on a blend of:

• Historical analysis to understand the mix of freighter airlines at the subject airport;

• Freighter business models;

• Aircraft fleet mix;

• Forward looking aircraft orders; and

• Cargo industry trends.

Cargo load factors can be estimated based on specific aircraft or the average payload of freighter movements
anticipated at a given airport. Cargo load factors can be a useful statistic when determining how much
additional cargo the freighter aircraft at a given airport can accommodate before adding frequency or
increasing average aircraft size. However, cargo load factors should be used with caution for the following
reasons:

• The capacity of a freighter aircraft is dictated not only by weight, but also by volume. For example, a
freighter aircraft full of flowers will result in a significantly different tonnage per flight metric than a freighter
full of steel ball bearings. Consequently, weight-based load factors can be misleading.

• Cargo flows are often imbalanced. For example, a 65 percent cargo load factor on a route between
Shanghai and the United States may represent full freighter flights from Shanghai to the United States,
but half empty flights on the way back.

• A wide-bod y aircraft may only unload a portion of its total load at a given airport before heading to another
destination. This type of routing results in a relatively low tonnage per flight metric at the subject airport
and may lead the forecast analyst to defer adding frequencies if the multi-segment routing is not
understood.

Once the tonnage per freighter movement assumptions have been developed, they can be applied to the all-
cargo tonnage forecast to derive all-cargo ATMs. A top-down approach can be used to determine a more
detailed aircraft fleet mix. Similar to the passenger ATM forecast, grouping the fleet mix into FAA or ICAO
design groups is recommended as a minimum step for physical planning studies.

2.10.4 General Aviation ATM Forecast

Subjective judgment often goes into making general aviation (GA) forecasts due to reliance on national
trends, forecasts and, to the extent such are available, local historical records. GA activity typically includes all
ATMs that are not included in commercial passenger, commercial freighter, or military/government
movements. GA activity includes diverse uses that can range from:

• Fractional jet operators;

• WIP (very, very important person) aircraft;

• On-demand air taxi flights;

• Recreational flying;

• Flight training activities;

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• Business travel;

• News reporting;

• Traffic observation;

• Police patrol;

• Emergency medical flights; and

• Crop dusting.

Understanding the history and current state of the GA industry can help predict future aviation demand. The
following sub-chapters discuss how to develop a general aviation forecast while considering nationwide
historical, emerging, and forecast trends.

2.1 0.4.1 Emerging Trends

When developing movement forecasts, it is essential to consider historical, national, and emerging trends in
the general aviation market. Similar to the aviation activity from the passenger and cargo segments, GA is
influenced by the overall health of the economy. The forecaster should consider the influence of local
business, tourism, and other economic activity on general aviation activity as well as the influence of various
socioeconomic and demographic characteristics.

Changes in fuel prices impact the economic relationships between modes of transportation and the price
differentials between different segments of the aviation market. Although fuel prices are a major problem for
the commercial airlines, corporate GA users are less sensitive to changes in fuel prices. Given the cost to
own and operate a corporate aircraft or to charter a business jet, the incremental cost of fuel is typically a
secondary consideration.

The concept of fractional ownership in general aviation aircraft has significantly contributed to the revitalization
of the GA manufacturing industry in the 21st century. This concept of purchasing hours of jet time has
encouraged more general aviation activity, allowing more people to have access to GA aircraft.

Regions that are sparsely populated, isolated and/or poorly served by surface modes will tend to have higher
GA activity.

2.1 0.4.2 GA Forecast

Historical GA activity data should be reviewed and organized to identify significant characteristics, the local
and itinerant mix, and the fleet mix of airport-based aircraft over the planning period. For all airports, the GA
forecast should be further guided by discussions from the fixed-base operators (FBOs), flight training
academies and other factors at the subject airport that may impact GA activity.

The first step in developing a GA forecast is to organize the historical data in tabular format by distributing the
total general aviation movements into aircraft segments (i.e. , turbo jet, turbo prop, piston, helicopter, etc.) if
available. This distribution will display historical trends and set-up the groundwork for the GA fleet mix.

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The next step is to select a forecasting approach that makes the most sense for the airport (i.e., econometric,
trend, or market share). Once the methodology has been developed, the forecaster should apply the forecast
results over a time series. Based on research of historical, national, and emerging GA trends, the next step is
to develop the fleet mix based on this analysis. Explanations should be provided if major changes from
historic trends are expected in the future.

The projections of GA activity should be prepared for the forecast planning horizons along with projections of
the airport-based aircraft fleet mix for the same horizons. To determine the activity level required between
these planning horizons, interpolate the data as needed.

2.1 0.4.3 WIP Aircraft Activity

It is important to remember that not all airports are the same when developing a general aviation forecast. A
key segment that may affect some airports is often called W IP, or "very, very important person" activity.
WIPs are most commonly royalty or political figures. Airports with WIP activity often have a private apron
and/or an exclusive FBO associated with this traffic. Although VVIP service is not common at most airports, it
is significant to keep this type of activity in mind when developing a general aviation forecast.

2.1 0.5 Military/Government ATM Forecast

Historical military/government aviation activity should be identified using airport statistics. Work with airport
management and staff who are in contact with representatives of the military to have a better understanding
of the expected future levels of military and government activity. Often, military movements are limited and/or
secretive, and therefore hard to forecast.

2.10.6 Total ATM Forecast

The total movements forecast should be derived by adding all the ATM forecasts described above. An overall
tabular format of total movements should be created displaying each category as well as total movements,
including compound annual growth rates. The results from each segment of the movements forecast will be
used for the peak period analysis described in detail in the next chapter.

2.11 Peak Period Forecast


The traffic demand patterns at an airport are subject to seasonal, monthly, daily, and even hourly variations.
These vari ations result in peak periods when the greatest amount of demand is placed upon facilities required
to accommodate passenger and aircraft movements. Peakin g characteristics are critical in the assessment of
existing facilities to determine their ability to accommodate forecast increases in passenger and operational
activity throughout the study period. The objective of developing peak period forecasts is to provide a design
level that sizes facilities so they are neither underutilized nor overcrowded too often.

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Passenger peak period forecasts will usually cover the peaks for total, arriving, departing, domestic,
international, O&D and transfer passengers. ATM peak period forecasts will focus on total, arrivals.
departures, international and domestic.

2.11.1 Peak Period Traffic Measure

The following sub chapters provide an overview of the most common ways to measure the current peak
traffic. These methods form the basis of forecasting future peaks. lATA recommends the first approach to
define the busy day. Alternative approaches are used and/or imposed by the local civil aviation authorities.
They are also presented for reference.

2.11.1.1 Busy Day (lATA)

lATA defines the design day, or busy day, as the second busiest day in an average week during the peak
month. To determine the average week, the monthly passengers or movements are divided by the number of
weeks in the peak month or the number days of the month multiplied by seven. The seven-day period
(Monday through Sunday) that is closest to an average week is selected and the second busiest day of the
week during that period is identified. Finally, the hourly profile for the 2 nd busiest day is then analyzed to
determine the peak hour.

2.11.1.2 Peak Month Average Day (FAA)

Federal Aviation Administration guidance suggests using the peak hour of the average day in the peak month
for purposes of physical planning; typically referred to as the peak month average day (PMAD). It is
recommended that three to five years of historical data be analyzed to determine the typical peak month at
the subject airport. The PMAD is the day that most closely represents an average day in the peak month.
Alternatively, a weekday average can be used when the airport has significantly lower weekend traffic than
during the week. This is referred to as a peak month average weekday (PMAWD). Once the PMAD or
PMAWD has been identified, the hourly profile is then analyzed to determine the peak hour.

2.11.1.3 Standard Busy Rate (30th Busiest Hour)

The Standard Busy Rate (SBR) is a peak hour definition that was promulgated by the British Airports Authority
(BAA); now Heathrow Airport Limited . The SBR can be calculated differently based on airport operator
requirements, but the generally accepted definition is the 30'h highest hour of annual passenger flow. Other
examples include the 201h busiest hour implemented in Amsterdam and the 401h busiest hour implemented at
French airports (including Paris airports). To determine the SBR, the hourly data must be ranked in order of
magnitude. The 30th busiest hour is then identified as the SBR7 •

7
Competition Commission, BAA Airports Market Investigation.

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2.11.1.4 Busy Hour Rate (Five Percent Busy Hour)

Busy Hour Rate (BHR) is the definition currently being used by Heathrow Airport Limited, which is a
modification of the SBR. This definition ensures that the projected throughput is lower than the BHR at least
95 percent of the time. As with the SBR, the five percent threshold is a guideline that may be changed by the
forecaster. To determine the BHR, the hourly data must be arranged in descending order of magnitude.
Starting with the highest volume hour, the forecaster calculates the cumulative sum of the top volumes that
amount to five percent of the annual volume.

2.11.2 Incorporating Directionality into Peak Hour Analysis

In order to develop targeted airport facility requirements, it is important to evaluate peak hour activity by
directional flow. Departure peaks drive functions such as parking, check-in, and security screening. Arriving
peaks drive functional elements such as immigration, baggage claim, and greeter requirements. The total
peak may drive overall circulation, concessions, and restroom requirements. It is important to note that these
peaks are typically distinct, occurring at different times of the day as a function of airline scheduling practices.
Depending on the airport and scope of the forecast, further disaggregation of peak hour activity may be
required:

• Market (domestic versus international);

• Airline (NMA versus network/full service); and

• Passenger type (O&D versus transfer).

2.11.3 Peak Period Forecasts

The following sub chapters provide two altern ative approaches to forecast peak period demand.

2.11.3.1 Peak Period to Annual Ratios

Forecasts for peak period passengers and aircraft movements can be obtained directly from annual forecasts
by applying ratios of busy period traffic to annual traffic. As passenger demand and aircraft movements
increase, these ratios are usually slightly declining. An analysis of the recent historic data will confirm the
relationship between peak hour demand and annual demand.

The FAA established typical ratios between peak hour passengers and annual passenger traffic. Such ratios
can be found in airport planning materials, including FAA publications. These ratios were developed for North
American airports in the 1980s and 90s are indicative only.

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2.11.3.2 Design Day Flight Schedules

For elaborate forecasts, it may be necessary to develop detailed flight schedules for a design day or busy
day. These are often referred to as Design Day Flight Schedules (DDFS). The flight schedules reflect
expectations regarding the future growth of ATM segments (passenger, cargo, general aviation, and military),
the mix of markets, aircraft fleet mix, and the future hourly operational profile of the airport. The future flight
schedule will contain the following attributes:

• Airline name;

• Operating carrier;

• Aircraft registration;

• Flight number;

• Aircraft type (e.g., 8737) and sub-type (e.g., 8737-800);

• Seat configuration (passenger carri ers);

• Flight Origin/Destination and intermediary stops, if any;

• Direction (arrival/departure);

• Arrival/Departure time (on-block/off-block);

• Flight type (passenger, cargo, GA, military);

• On-board passengers split into O&D (local) and Transfer; and

• On-board cargo.

The future flight schedule will be used to estimate the volumes of passengers throughout the terminal by
combining the information on aircraft arrivals and departures with passenger check-in curves.

2.11 .4 Conclusions Regarding Peak Period Analysis

As discussed above, there is no consistent methodology for developing peak period forecasts across all
airports. The methodology used will vary by region, airport, desired level of service, and the availability of
data. A consistent theme of all the methodologies is to not plan to the very peak period of a given year,
resulting in facilities that are significantly underutilized at other times of year. Indeed, the forecaster may want
to evaluate multiple methodologies and assess the range of results. Sensitivity assessment with some of the
inputs or parameters can be made to provide upper and lower limits of demand.

The forecaster must also determine the appropriate level of effort for the subject airport. The BHR and SBR
methods require hourly throughputs for at least one year. The BHR and SBR methods are very labor intensive
and may also be limited by data in availability. The lATA Second Busiest Day in the Average Week of the
Peak Month and the FAA's PMAD methodologies are perhaps the most widely employed. They have the
advantage of narrowing peak hour analysis to a particular day or at most across the peak month.

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Some airports that function primarily as hubs may experience several very sharp peaks followed by very low
activity the rest of the day. In this case, a larger percentage of passengers will experience peak conditions
and it may be necessary to use another criterion instead of the peak hour to size the terminal facilities. This
criterion may be based on a minimum level of service to be experienced by at least 95 percent of passengers.

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Section 3-Pianning

3.1 Introduction
Once the forecast has been established and agreed to by all parties, airport development enters the planning
phase. Logically, the planning process moves from the more general level of detail through to the more
specific where the different elements that comprise the airport are examined together and separately.

The update of the ADRM is structured to reflect this progression. The Planning Section begins with a
discussion of Master Planning (see Chapter 3.2 Master Planning for more information).

And continues with a comprehensive chapter on planning the Passenger Terminal (see Chapter 3.4,
Passenger Terminal for more information). Passenger terminals are certainly one of the most interesting and
complex elements at any airport. This chapter also addresses Levels of Service (LoS) from both a quantitative
and passenger perception point of view. LoS continue to be of interest as airport infra stru cture particularly
terminal facilities, continue to be stretched by the overall growth in aviation.

Phased rollouts of the ADRM will address:

• Airside planning (runways, taxiways and aprons);

• Cargo Terminal planning;

• Airport Support Elements planning (catering, maintenance hangars, ground equipment facilities, etc.); and

• Surface access systems planning (roads, rail, etc.)

3.2 Master Planning


Vision

All airports should develop a master plan in order to guide future infrastructure and facility development
programs in a logical, sustainable and cost efficient manner.

Policy

It is recommended that all airports ensure that:

• All airport capacity enhancement programs are closely tied to an airport master plan;

• The master plan is prepared by independent consultants with global experience and a proven history of
delivering plans that enable all stakeholders to expand their operations and undertake profitable business;

• Airlines and their representative associations are fu lly involved in the creation, development and review of
the master plan;

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• Infrastructure is designed to be as cost efficient as possible (facilities should not be "gold plated");

• The master plan allows for unfettered incremental expansion of all facilities until the ultimate capacity of
the site is attained;

• No development proceeds until a master plan is in place.

3.2.1 Introduction

Many airports currently lack a master plan or vision of the future. As a consequence, they run the risk that
their short- to medium-term capacity enhancement projects could be ill-judged, misconceived, inappropriately
sized and/or poorly located, thereby restricting their ability to attain the airfield's ultimate potential.

This chapter sets out the reasoning for establishing a master plan, the need for consultation and the planning
process that can lead to the creation of a coherent airport master plan.

3.2.1.1 Why Have a Master Plan?

A master plan is required so that all airside, landside and airport support elements can develop, expand and
improve the operational flexibility and efficiency of their business in a structured, balanced and orderly
fashion. This, without adversely impacting on the business of their neighbors on or adjacent to the airport. In
so doing, the potential of the available land and the capacity of the airport's runway system and terminal area
will be maximized.

All airports should have a master plan to guide their future infrastructure development in a logical, cost
efficient and affordable manner. Without a master plan, there is a risk that short-term decision making will
result in projects for capacity enhancement being poorly located or inappropriately sized, resulting in wasteful
expenditures or restrictions on the airport's overall capacity or performance.

In the absence of qualified internal subject matter experts, the master plan should be prepared by
independent consultants with global experience and a proven history of delivering plans that enable
incremental modular expansion when demand triggers development.

3.2.1.2 The Importance of Adequate Facilities

Airport traffic tends to grow with the economy. An airport needs to be looking to the future to ensure that, as
traffic increases and its composition (fleet mix) changes, the facilities will be in place to meet the needs of that
traffic. Failure to plan and to develop sufficient facilities (e.g., airspace, airside infrastructure, passenger
terminal, airport support elements, surface access systems, etc.) will have a direct impact on users and
stakeholders, through:

• Wasted or ineffective capital investment;

• Congestion and delays impacting on passengers;

• Poor customer experience and level of service;

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• Higher overall operating costs;

• Loss of revenue potential; and

• Environmental impacts from delays in the air and on the ground.

3.2.1.3 What is a Master Plan?

A master plan is the planners' vision of how the ultimate development potential of the airport could be
realized. It is a physical representation of an airport's long-term business plan. It will provide an indication of
how capacity enhancement may proceed over the short (0- 5 years) and medium (6- 10 years) terms. Finally,
a master plan will indicate how those developments could be linked to:

• Traffic type and demand;

• Economic and environmental factors;

• Investment requirements; and

• Financial implications and strategies.

Master plans are developed for new and existing airports. They should be reviewed approximately every five
years, or when significant changes in demand occur, so that the airport's future plans reflect the latest market
conditions, technological improvements and emerging trends.

The level of detail in a master plan is a function of:

• The size, issues and opportunities at the airport;

• Budget considerations. However, investment in a master plan is important to ensure that the decision-
making process is appropriate and the evolution of the plan is adequate to reflect the special
circumstances of the airport, its users and the local conditions; and

• National policies and regulations. Environmental regulations can also influence the content required in a
master plan.

An effective master plan uses text and drawings to present the material in a way that is understandable by
airport decision makers, airport users and others that have an interest in the future of the airport. A successful
master plan should:

• Provide for the orderly, timely development of the airport to meet current and future air traffic demands;

• Document the issues facing the airport (i.e., traffic growth, limited existing faci lities, capacity bottlenecks,
land constraints, etc.);

• Enable effective input from users and from affected political entities;

• Identify a program of development that addresses the airport's needs:


o At the optimal time;

o Satisfying all regulations;


o Optimizing the use of land and airspace;

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• Justify the proposed development program through technical, economic and environmental analysis of
concepts and alternatives;

• Guide the land uses in the area surrounding the airport by informing governments and neighbors of the
requirements to protect the airport from encroachment by incompatible land uses;

• Provide governments with guidance on airport access requirements and how the airport should connect
with surface access systems;

• Outline a realistic schedule for the implementation of the development proposed in the plan with emphasis
on the first five years of a 10-year capital expenditure (CAPEX) program;

• Propose an affordable financial plan to support the implementation schedule;

• Provide an effective graphic presentation of the phased development of the airport and anticipated
compatible land uses in the vicinity of the airport;

• Include a framework for a continuing planning process to monitor key conditions and enable changes in
plan recommendations, as required; and

• Provide a context for constructive consultation to take place between all stakeholders, with the objective
of reaching a consensus on all major decisions and changes to the plan over time.

3.2.1.4 Master Planning Principles

The airport master planner must meet the challenge of planning for sufficient capacity and level of service for
the forecast aircraft, passenger, cargo and vehicle movements:

• At the optimal capital and operating costs;

• In a phased approach so as not to provide unnecessary infrastructure for a long period;

• That fully meets all applicable regulatory requirements;

• That provides flexibility both in terms of traffic levels and composition, because the future is uncertain and
the forecasts are simply a reasonable estimate of demands that may occur;

• That is aligned with existing and expected future market conditions;

• That considers reasonable and foreseeable trends in technology, systems and service patterns;

• That allows incremental expansion towards the ultimate development potential of the site. The planner
constantly needs to be addressing the question, "and then what?";

• That considers all constraints and opportunities; and

• That is an active document open to revision as circumstances change.

To optimize capital investment, airport operators and their airline strategic/business partners should first
consider expansion of existing facilities rather than the construction of new ones that may duplicate all or part
of their current operations. It should be noted, however, that refurbishment or expansion of existing facilities
may be disruptive to day-to-day airline operations and may increase short-term airline operational
expenditures. If, after consultation, expansion of existing facilities is not practical, then building new on a
brownfield site, especially if outside the secure zone, may allow new capacity to be developed more quickly

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and cost-effectively. Regardless of which option is finally pursued, the design of new facilities should be as
flexible as is practical. A building's layout and construction techniques should enable variations in the
operational usage of the building and facilitate phased expansion in the future.

3.2.1.5 Constraints in Master Planning

Airport planners often deal with constraints that may impact or limit the ultimate development potential of the
airport. These constraints may include:

• Past development that has been haphazard and uncoordinated resulting in a less than optimal site
development;

• The surrounding terrain or human infrastructure place restrictions on the opportunities for future
development;

• Environmental regulations that restrict development opportunities, runway use, and operating hours (e.g.,
nighttime noise restrictions);

• Inadequate land in reserve or land too expensive or impossible to acquire;

• A lack of clear unwavering political support for aviation; and

• Other operating restrictions (e.g., night curfews, movement limits).

Recognizing these constraints early in the planning process will help planners develop realistic assessments
of the future potential of an airport.

3.2.1.6 Limitations of a Master Plan

There are a number of misconceptions of what a master plan is and is not. A master plan is not an airport
design. Nor is it a detailed development program or a financing plan. It is a long-term guide to development
that supports an airport's business development strategy. It includes indicative investment levels and a
preliminary assessment of financing.

That said, a master plan needs to be robust and possess the ability to accommodate differing periods of
growth and resultant rates of expansion. This is accomplished through the adoption of modular/incremental
expansion principles. Therefore, no master plan should be viewed as the final answer. The changing nature of
the airline business and the potential for this to impact on an airport's strategic direction dictates that the
master plan should be routinely reviewed, at least every five years.

Recommendation: Master Plan Assumptions


It is recommended that all master plan assumptions be thoroughly reviewed and tested at least every five
years through ongoing consultation with the aviation community. Statistical traffic trends should be reviewed
against forecasts on an annual basis to ensure all planning assumptions are still valid.
Corrections/adjustments should be made as necessary.

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3.2.2 Consultation

3.2.2.1 Why Consult?

The airport master plan outlines the vision for airport development to the ultimate development potential of
the site. As the airport is an important economic driver, there will be keen interest from those directly and
indirectly involved. People in the surrounding communities will want to understand how the airport will
develop.

Consultation is a key component of a successful master plan . Ideally, when completed, a master plan will be
a consensus on the future direction of the airport. The interested parties in the airport's development are a
combination of those with a direct business interest, and a broader group that includes the general public.

The term stakeholders is often used to describe this broad group. Consultation with stakeholders should:

• Enable planners to take the needs of these groups into consideration;

• Enable planners to benefit from the different perspectives that can be provided;

• Identify key issues that the airport planners may have overlooked; and

• Provide the opportunity to receive feedback on concepts, the scale and the pace of development.

3.2.2.2 When to Consult?

Consultations have the most impact if they are commenced early in the planning process, before irreversible
decisions are made. With early consultation, the issues of real importance to airport users, political entities
and the general public can be identified. Planners can then manage these issues as the plan develops. Early
consultation also highlights common business drivers and interests; this ensures alignment of stakeholder
business strategies.

Late involvement of users or the public in the master plan process will create the impression that the
consultations are not meaningful, because decisions have already been made. This has the potential to delay
formal approval if stakeholders cannot support development as envisaged within the master plan.

Consultation, to be meaningful, should be on-going throughout the master plan process. A recommended
approach is:

• To implement an lATA Airport Consultative Committee (ACC) to inform the airlines during the preplanning
phase, to align business strategies and to discuss the reasons, objectives, scope and major milestone
dates of the plan;

• To make a public announcement of the commencement of the master plan, so that the public knows that
it is underway. This announcement should include start/finish dates, and an indication of the stages at
which consultation will occur;

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• To have a preliminary exchange of information with governments and regulators;

• To individually interview the airlines and airport tenants/user groups to discuss current constraints at the
airport or issues with airport services or facilities, and to obtain information on the users' plans for their
operations at the airport;

• To present the draft master plan to all interested parties including the general public, and to provide a
period for comment and feedback; and

• To present the plan upon completion as approved by the airport's management.

Although there are variations from country to country, the current trend is for more consultation rather than
less. In many countries, public consultations are mandatory.

3.2.2.3 Who should be Consulted?

Determining who to consult will vary by city, country and region. Clearly, as the airport's primary function is to
support aviation, airlines should be regarded as a primary stakeholder, or even as a "business partner".

In addition to the airlines, meaningful and effective consultation should also include:

• Air Navigation Service Providers;

• Interested people in the community;

• Community groups;

• Ground handlers;

• Major tenants;

• Airport support elements operators/businesses;

• Adjacent land owners;

• The traveling public;

• Ground transport operators;

• Surrounding community leaders;

• Civil Aviation Authorities;

• Government agencies; and

• Regulators.

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3.2.2.3.1 Airlines

Consultation with carriers and their representative associations needs to be early, frequent and meaningful. A
well-structured program is beneficial to all parties.

The airlines can contribute to the planning process by:

• Sharing recent development experience from other airports;

• Helping to align business strategies between the airlines and the airport;

• Reaching agreement on the assumed rate of growth in traffic;

• Providing input on their preferred method of operation;

• Indicating their criteria to assist in determining the best development option(s); and

• Prioritizing individual elements of the development program.

Contributions as outlined will facilitate the decision-making process on subsequent design/construction


projects. The airlines have an opportunity to assist the airport in keeping capital costs to an appropriate level.
However, it should be acknowledged that, due to the dynamic nature of the airline business, the airlines' time
period of primary focus is often much shorter than the overall period being addressed by the master plan.

In consulting the airlines, several different approaches are needed:

• Individual interviews with "home-based" and other high-frequency air carriers to discuss issues and future
plans. Confidentiality is necessary because airlines may not want to discuss some items in front of their
competitors; and

• Group sessions to present the various stages of the master plan;

• Forecast assumptions;

• The demand-capacity analysis;

• Development of options; and

• Evaluation of the draft and final plan.

Airlines may be hesitant to share data or future plans, either directly to the airport authority or through external
consultants, as these could be commercially sensitive. Airport authorities will need to ensure that the data
disclosed is protected via a non disclosure agreement or other means to protect individual airline interests.

3.2.2.3.2 Air Navigation Service Provider (ANSP)

Consultation with the ANSP is essential, especially when the master plan may include proposed infrastructure
changes that have the potential to significantly increase air traffic movements. Examples include:

• Additional runways;

• Alterations to the existing runway design;

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• New rapid exit taxiways; and

• New holding positions.

3.2.2.3.3 Airport Consultative Committee (ACC)

At larger airports, particularly where significant capital expenditure may be considered, the airlines may
choose to establish an ACC. The objectives of an ACC are to:

• Review demand against available capacities;

• Agree to and pri oritize airport developmenUcapacity enhancement programs;

• Discuss affordability;

• Consolidate user views; and

• Provide a focal point for consultation between the airlines and the airport authority.

Recommendation: Airline Consultation


Adequate and meaningful consultation with the airline community at the appropriate level of strategic
engagement should start early in the master plan process. The objectives of this consultation are:
• To enable the airport to understand the operational and business objectives of the airline community and
users; and
• To align the future airport development to the overall airporUairline community business development
strategy.
All matters concerning medium- to long-term airport development programs (with associated large scale
CAPEX), should be referred to lATA through the proper departments at Airline Members head office. The
operating airlines will make available suitably qualified specialists who will be prepared to consult and advise
the local authorities. The lATA Regional Director, in coordination with the lATA Director Airport and Fuel, as
any infrastructure change has charges implications, will arrange for the airline specialists to convene an
Airport Consultative Committee (ACC) for airport developments. In general terms, Airline Operators
Committees (AOCs) cover day-to-day short-term operational issues at the airport for which they are
established. Usually, information concerning a proposed airport development is first received from the airport
authority at AOC meetings. On the other hand, ACCs address medium- to long-term strategic development
matters.

The creation of an ACC at an airport often involves lATA to help in identifying the right airlines and the right
people to assist airports with planning. For major projects, an lATA representative may also participate.

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3.2.2.3.4 General Public

Consultations with the general public can be approached using:

• Public information meetings

These are best conducted in an "open house" format, with interactive information stations staffed by
knowledgeable members of the planning team. This method allows the public to interact one-on-one with
the planners. It also limits the opportunity for a special interest group to control the meeting. It is important
that the actual planners participate in these sessions to communicate their knowledge, their commitment
to real planning, and to gain the trust of the public. At smaller airports, the interactive open house
approach may not be feasible, and a more traditional presentation followed by a question-and-answer
session may be the only option. Regardless of format, public information sessions typically need to be
held more than once and in more than one location to give the broadest public an opportunity to
participate. These public involvement sessions require the planners to be open and positive to public
consultation. They can also consume a substantial amount of time and budget.

• A public awareness campaign

This part of the public involvement program can include:

o Fact sheets/information packets;

o Press releases;

o Newspaperads; and

o A web site (or dedicated pages on the airport's web site).

The scope of public awareness campaigns varies from country to country and from airport to airport, generally
in line with the scope of the projected development plan.

3.2.2.4 Documentation

Documentation of consultations is an important part of the master plan. While the individual interviews with
users are not necessarily published, the key issues from these interviews are extracted and presented in a
form that identifies them as issues raised during the consultations. Often they will be grouped in categories
(i.e., facilities, business, operations, land use, environment, etc.). Not all the issues will be addressed in the
master plan, and those that will be addressed elsewhere should be identified separately. For example, some
users may raise design issues during the master plan consultations. These types of issues will only be
considered in a more detailed design and construction phase that may follow the master plan .

The public consultation program should be documented in an appendix to the master plan, identifying times,
locations, attendee lists, minutes or other feedback forms, plus copies of all public awareness materials.

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3.2.2.5 Master Plan Hot Topics

Typical consultations are characterized by several "hot topics" that tend to bring out more public involvement,
and more emotion. These include:

• Aircraft Noise: Noise can be an issue if the airport has not been protected from encroachment.
Development of new runways or new services (e.g., night operations) may also create concerns. Options
are available to reduce noise exposure;

• Air Quality/Emissions: See Chapter 3.2.9 Environmental Responsibility;

• Data and Study Conflicts: In some jurisdictions, there can be data conflicts or even conflicting studies. If
the airport's traffic data, for example, is different from that provided by governments or air traffic control
agencies, the credibility of the master plan can be compromised;

• Done Deals: The impression that consultations are simply presentations for decisions that have already
been made can cause a negative reaction to the master plan;

• Impact on Property Value: If development is envisaged that requires expansion out with the current
airport boundary then this may adversely affect property values;

• Land Acquisition : This is often the most controversial issue as it can bring the airport's future needs in
direct conflict with its neighbors;

• Safety: Local communities, particularly if they are located under or adjacent to standard approach and
departure routings, may express concerns in relation to safety; and

• Surface Access: Expansion may be accompanied by increases in road/rail traffic.

3.2.3 The Master Planning Process

3.2.3.1 Introduction

Airport master planning follows a structured approach that is accepted by airports and regulators around the
world. The key steps are illustrated in Exhibit 3.2.3.1 .

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Exhibit 3.2.3.1: Master Plan Process

Pre-Planni ng
fscopellerms ofrefere~el

Air Traffic/Demand Forecast


----------------- [sr:afe & trming of developmenl}

Site Evaluation/Inve ntory


[exlstrng faci!Jiy/serviCJJ asseS$ff1Cfll & capacity aM/ysls]

Requirements A nalysis
[demand •s exisling capacily/

Strategic Choices
~-----------·
-
1:
II>
E
[idonU!yp11mary sim/ngrc dmws} I
I
I
I

"
II>
1:
"'
.1:
Airline& Airport
Authority Priorities
-- -) Development of Options/Site Selection
I
I
I
I
1:
w
II>

"~
1:

II>
Environmental
Evaluation -- -)
Preferred Option
[1!1/terfa ~~ightlngj
II development isnot aflordablethen:
• look tominimize costs &make
0:: efficiency savings
• review options & reprioritize as required
Outline Development Program • break large projects intosmaller more
[short (a 5yrs) to medium (5 10yrs) term] manageable phases
• simplify the architectural cngtnccnng
solution
10 yr. Rolli ng CAPEX Program

---------------- -~ Financial Ana lysis


L---------~-
• .---------~

CAPEX Program Affordability


[ProiecJBd !mpacl on Aii{JOrl Cha~ges]
.. .. .. .. ................

Proceed with Development Program

Source: lATA

3.2.3.2 Key Steps

It is important to stress the need for the airlines, through the ACC process, to be allowed the opportunity to
review, comment on and provide input to the master plan throughout the planning process.

The key steps in the master plan development are:

• Preplanning:

o Scope the effort;

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.tr.
~~t:er
lATA Planning-Master Planning

o Determine the scale and requirements of the master plan;

o Determine terms of reference for consultants;

o Determine how planning will be funded;

o Scope potential environmental issues; and

o Establish high-level financial parameters on the maximum feasible level of capital investment over the
period of the master plan;

• Air Traffic/Demand:

o Forecast future aircraft movements, passenger and cargo traffic;

• Site Evaluation/Inventory:

o Assess existing facilities and services in terms of their capacity, constraints and condition;

• Requirements Analysis:

o Compare the capacity of existing facilities to current and forecast demand;

o Identify floor area/footprinUplot sizes to accommodate incremental expansion leading to the ultimate
development phase;

o Establish the demand levels that will trigger the need for facility expansion;

o Determine the relative importance and priorities for expansion or replacement;

o Check compliance with applicable safety/design standards and recommended practices (e.g., ICAO
Annex. 14);

o Understand the strategic business and functional requirements of the aviation community going
forward; and

o Test operational assumptions to ensure they meet evolving user needs;

• Strategic Choices: Identify prim ary strategic drivers and priorities, including:
o Government policy on aviation;

o Environmental constraints in which airlines operate;

o Home base carrier policy and influence;

o The plans of alliances and their airline partners;

o New model airlines policy;

o Cargo operations policy;

o Fleet development, new aircraft types and their impact on runways, taxiways, aprons and gates;

o The hub operator's demands, influence and benefits (this is sometimes in line with the alliance/airline
partnerships, sometimes not);

o Positioning of the airport in relation to competing airports (e.g., is the emphasis primarily on transfers
or on Origin/Destination traffic?); and

o Catchment areas and presence of airlines with special policies;

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• Development of Options/Site Selection:

o Develop concepts and alternatives;

o Facilitate projected fu nctional requirements; and

o Evaluate these options from an operational, environmental and financial perspective;

• Environmental Evaluation :

o Determine potential environmental impacts from development and possible mitigation measures;

• Outline Development Program:

o Recommend the most acceptable and appropriate development option, including phased
development in the short (0-5 years) and medium (5- 10 years) terms, and to integrate this within a
land use plan for the airport;

• Financial Assessment:

o Estimate the investment capital costs by year;

o Identify how these costs will be financed;

o Evaluate the affordability of these costs, including any possible impacts on airport charges;

o Modify the plan as needed through continued consultation;

o Develop a viable financial plan; and

• Reporting and Deliverables:

o Finalize and publish the written Master Plan report, including airport layout plans, land use plans and
drawings that convey the future plans of the airport.

The particular order of the plan components may vary, and there may be several elements running in parallel
during the planning process (e.g., forecasting and site evaluation), with information from one component
impacting on another. For example, it is recommended that a preliminary financial analysis start at the
preplanning stage and be updated throughout the development of the plan.

In the sub chapters that follow, each of the plan elements will be discussed in greater detail.

3.2.4 Preplanning

A master plan, even a master plan update, is a major project typically taking a year or more. Therefore, the
planning effort needs to be thoughtfully scoped in advance to match the local conditions.

3.2.4.1 Initial Needs Determination

The need for the study should be based on:

• A change in the type or nature of traffic;

• Evidence of demand exceeding capacity today;

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• A forecast that demand will exceed capacity in the future if growth continues;

• Identification of new capacity or capabilities by the airlines at the airport;

• Changes in the types of aircraft using the airport;

• Consultation with the user community (i.e., ACC) regarding ongoing business development strategies;

• Emerging environmental challenges;

• Changes in national, regional and/or local planning regulations; and

• A management objective or regulatory requirement that master plans be undertaken regularly (e.g., every
five years).

The reasons for the master plan should be identified and prioritized (i.e., what are the key business and
regulatory drivers?).

3.2.4.2 Master Plan Objectives

The preplanning should identify objectives, including specifically identifying the development issues that the
plan will need to address. In simple terms, the objectives should answer the following questions:

• Why is the plan being undertaken?

• What are the key issues to be resolved?

3.2.4.3 Data Availability

The availability of data is one factor in determining the scope of and level of effort required for the master
plan. The airport may already possess recent inventory data on the capacity and condition of the facilities,
meaning that the master plan scope can be reduced.

Data availability will vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction and from airport to airport.

3.2.4.4 Level of Detail

The level of detail for each study element should be broadly determined at the preplanning stage based on
the issues facing the airport, available data, budgets and regulatory requirements.

3.2.4.5 Land/Facility Surveys

The source and quality of land/facility surveys should be reviewed as part of the preplanning stage. Their level
of detail and accuracy must be adequate to support the master plan.

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The required contour intervals for topographic maps should be determined at this time. New base mapping
may be required. If that is the case, the determination of the area to be mapped should consider:

• Any possible expansion of the airport beyond current boundaries;

• Ground access issues and the possible need for new surface access routes;

• The areas that may be required for approach surface drawings;

• The possible extent of noise contours; and

• The location of other, possibly environmentally sensitive, areas.

3.2.4.6 Concession Agreements

For airports operated privately under concession agreements, particularly those lasting less than 25 years, the
master plan should project beyond the life of the concession in order to address possible capacity
enhancement programs and related capital expenditure requirements that may be required immediately
following the concession end date.

3.2.4.7 Method of Planning

The preplanning stage should determine which elements, if any, will be undertaken by in-house subject matter
experts and which by external consultants. In today's lean airports, master planning is typically a consultant
responsibility coordinated by a small in-house administrative team.

3.2.4.8 Work Program

Preplanning should include the development of work programs, terms of reference, requests for proposals,
schedules and budgets. The schedule should show milestones and deliverables. If the master plan is to be
undertaken by consultants, then selection criteria should be established. These should be based on the
consultants' experience on similar work and their professional credentials. Input to this process by consultants
is important for the evolution and refinement of the detailed scope and budget.

3.2.4.9 Data Management

The preplanning should include a framework for data management to guide the retention of data, data
formats, and data responsibilities.

3.2.4.1 0 Coordination and Monitoring

Whether undertaken by airport staff or consultants, part of the preplanning stage is to plan for coordination
and monitoring of the work, including the structure and composition of review committees.

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3.2.4.11 Planning Public Consultation

As described in detail in Chapter 3.2.2 Consultation, consultation with stakeholders is essential. The extent
and type of broader public consultation should be determined by:

• General practices within the jurisdiction;

• Policies of the airport's funding agencies;

• The goals and business strategy of airport management; and

• The perceived level of interest. If the airport is far away from the city in a remote area, there may be a low
level of interest in public consultation.

3.2.4.12 Preliminary Environmental Considerations

The preliminary environmental evaluation includes an initial identification of likely environmental issues and
scope based on national and local policies and regulations. Any required documentation of environmental
issues, monitoring of results or planned mitigation actions should be identified.

3.2.4.13 Preliminary Financial Framework

A master plan that recommends "solutions" that are unaffordable is a waste of resources, including time.
Unfortunately, this is a relatively common outcome when no financial guidance is provided to the
planners/consultants on the possible range and sources of financing available. At the preplanning stage, the
airport's financial officer should provide an estimate of the affordable capital for the first five years of the
forecast, for the second five years, for the following 10 years and, in board term s, for the period thereafter.

If there is a possibility of receiving external grants for part of the capital, an approximate value of the grants
should be included in this initial guidance.

The preliminary financial framework should also be subject to consultation with primary stakeholders.

3.2.4.14 Master Plan Funding

The source(s) of funding for the master plan project itself should be identified in the preplanning phase. For
many airports, this requires budgeting to undertake the plan in the next fiscal year. For airports with external
funders for the master plan, identifying the source and amounts is followed by application for funding. The
need to acquire these services by way of a bidding process may also need to be factored into the overall
planning timeframe.

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3.2.5 Traffic Forecasts

3.2.5.1 Introduction

There are numerous methods used to undertake air traffic forecasts. These are covered in detail in Section 2
Forecasting.

3.2.5.2 Capacity Enhancement-Scale and Timing

Air traffic forecasts are a critical element in identifying the potential scale and timing of each facility expansion
within the master plan. Forecasts should generate a range of data that can be used by planners to determine
floor area, building footprint and plot sizes for all airport facilities.

3.2.5.3 Data Required by Airport Planners

The planning team needs to know:

• Annual and, even more importantly, peak period aircraft movements with load factors by market segment,
airline segment and aircraft category (e.g., Code A, B, C, D, E and F). These will determine the
operational stand requirements;

• Annual departing and arriving passenger numbers by market segment (e.g., charter, domestic,
intern ational), the number of passengers transferring to/from individual market segments and the
projected peak period figures determined from these;

• Annual departing and arriving cargo volumes (e.g., freight, peri shables, express, mail, etc.) by market
segment, the volume of cargo transferred on site and the percentage split of cargo carried by market
segment and by scheduled movements and/or dedicated cargo aircraft. Also required is the daily fleet
composition of freight aircraft by all aircraft categories.

• Design day schedules whenever simulation is envisaged. Such schedules will include all flights during the
busy day with related information on:

0 Airlin e name;

0 Aircraft type and sub-type;

0 Origin/destination;

0 Arrival/departure time;

0 Seating capacity;

0 On-board passengers;

0 On-board cargo; and

0 Flight regime.

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3.2.5.4 Accuracy and Limitations

Forecasts are an attempt to predict future traffic growth or decline. In reality, accurate forecasts are very
difficult to obtain. No one can predict with absolute certainty world events that might impact traffic growth,
(e.g., SARS in 2002- 03 or the Global Financial Crisis in 2007- 08). In addition, the airline industry is:

• Constantly evolving;

• Increasingly reliant on more fuel-efficient next-generation aircraft, with different ranges, operational
req uirements, wingspans and/or fuselage lengths that will impact on current traffic patterns and facility
planning;

• Fixated on short-term planning, often only looking as far forward as the next season's schedule; and

• Reacting to competition for traffic from newly competitive airports and/or regions.

Because of the uncertainty of forecasts, planners should:

• Conceive flexible master plans that can easily cater to variations in the pace of traffic growth (i.e.,
individual facilities within the master plan should be capable of incremental modular expansion); and

• Determine development triggers and gear facility capacity enhancement programs to traffic levels rather
than specific time frames (i.e., terminal expansion will be required when passenger traffic reaches
30 million passengers per annum, rather than terminal expansion will be required in 2017.

To enable airport planners to conceive flexible master plans, forecasters will provide potential upper and lower
range scenari os as well as their underl ying driving forces. The difference between high/low traffic scenari os
and the base scenario will be outlined not only in terms of demand, but also in terms of supply (i.e., aircraft
type, airline types).

Recommendation: Development Triggers


Development plans and phasing should be linked to traffic volumes, not specific years. For example, a
specific development is required when the airport has 32 million enplaned/deplaned passengers, not for year
2022. This approach provides flexibility and will not trigger expansion until it is actually needed.

3.2.6 Data Collection, Site Evaluation and Facility Potential

3.2.6.1 Data Collection

At many airports, a significant amount of the data needed for the master plan may be readily at hand in airport
data bases or in recent reports. It is important to verify the source and relevancy of this existing data to
ensure it is accurate and reflects current conditions.

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When the material at hand has been assessed, the task of collecting missing data can begin. This may
include:

3.2.6.1.1 Airport Drawings and Maps

The site evaluation starts with the assembly of all relevant airport drawings, including:

• Airspace drawings identifying obstacles (existing and planned), adjacent airports, etc.;

• Runway departure surface drawings for instrument runways;

• Airport property plans;

• Land use plans within and adjacent to the airport boundary;

• Geological survey maps of the airport, identifying any areas unsuitable for constru ction;

• Environmental mapping (wetlands, floodplains, archeological sites, etc.);

• Topographic maps in sufficient detail that terrain differences can be determined (e.g., at 0.2 meter contour
intervals);

• Utility drawings identifying major airport service runs and their connections to public networks;

• Surface access drawings identifying major routes by mode;

• Jurisdictional site plans of the adjacent areas;

• Airport layout plans; and

• Floor plans of primary facilities (e.g., passenger and cargo terminals).

These drawings and maps will be used to determine areas, geometries and capacities. They will also be used
in the condition surveys of the existing facilities.

3.2.6.1.2 Environmental Data

Environmental data is needed to establish current baseline conditions and to support the analysis of options.
See Chapter 3.2.9 Environmental Responsibility for details.

3.2.6.1.3 Financial Data

The financial data will be used to establish a financial framework for the master plan and evaluate
development options. This will establish broad guidelines regarding the levels of capital that are likely to be
affordable. See Chapter 3.2.12 Financial Assessment for details.

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3.2.6.1.4 Land Use and Regional Setting

The land use in and around the airport needs to be determined by:

• Consulting airport boundary plans;

• Reviewing information on the political entities that are contiguous with the airport, including maps of the
areas that these jurisdictions control;

• Compiling land uses in the areas near the airport by category, including identification of noise sensitive
uses (e.g., residences, schools, hospitals) or other incompatible uses (e.g., lakes, stockyards, landfills);

• Identifying land uses that could have an effect on the safe use of the airport, including obstru ctions and
adjacent airports;

• Determining the zoning of undeveloped land near the airport, including height and use restrictions;

• Highlighting any unique airport protection zoning established by regulation or legislation;

• Where available, including geographic information systems (GIS) data, to be combined with aerial photos,
topographic maps, aeronautical maps and approach plates; and

• Consulting topographic and hydrographic information to expose possible flood ing issues.

3.2.6.1.5 Recent Studies

Recent studies can provide pertinent information on the history of the airport and how it developed. It can be
useful to identify major development milestones on a simple timeline (e.g., from airport opening through
different capacity expansion phases to the present day).

3.2.6.1.6 Regulatory Information

All regulations that could influence development of the airport needs to be collected, including;

• Any provisions of the airport license, lease or enabling legislation;

• Any legislation or planning studies that may have an impact on future development;

• National aeronautical regulations on airport design or operation; and

• Local zoning bylaws, if applicable to the airport.

3.2.6.1.7 Socioeconomic Data

Socioeconomic data is needed to determine the market that the airport serves and the characteristics of the
local community. These will provide specific inputs for econometric analysis within the traffic forecast. See
Chapter 2.2.2 Socioeconomic Base for details.

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3.2.6.1.8 Traffic Statistics

Historical traffic data covering the past 10 years is the basis for traffic forecasting. This data is usually readily
available at the airport, but should be checked to ensure that the data is complete and accurate.

The data collected typically covers:

• Passenger traffic (i.e., origin-destination, transit and transfer) by market segment. In some countries, this
may be available by air carrier;

• Aircraft movements by operator and market segment (i.e., scheduled, charter, cargo, military, general
aviation) and by aircraft type;

• Historical demand for overnight parking by aircraft category;

• Cargo and mail tonnage for both belly and all-freighter by market segment; and

• A detailed schedule of arrival and departure times for all traffic.

These statistics can often be obtained in electronic format from the ANSP. Among other things, this data is
used for noise modelling, for developing nominal schedules for future gate planning, and for airfield demand-
capacity simulations.

One area where the data may be incomplete or confusing is transit and transfer passengers. Some airports
count same-plane in-transit passengers (i.e., on a through flight) as transfers in enplaned/deplaned data.
Some airports are missing data on transfers (i.e. between different aircraft). It is important for planners to
understand the data they collect and what is included or excluded.

3.2.6.2 Site Evaluation and Facility Potential

The purpose of the site evaluation is to collect data on the current form, condition and performance of all
elements of the airport infrastructure. This data and the related time spent on site will enable planners to have
an understanding of the development potential of existing facilities.

This baseline data will be used to:

• Confirm current land uses on the airport, including leases and boundaries;

• Determine the remaining useful life and potential timing of major refurbishment and expansion projects;
and

• Determine the capacity and capability of existing infrastructure.

Site evaluation data can be extensive and is usually assembled in the following categories: airfield/airspace,
passenger terminal, airport support elements and surface access systems.

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3.2.6.2.1 Airfield/Airspace

Data to be collected includes:

• Airspace management information, including noise abatement procedures;

• Identification of obstacles;

• Air and ground navigation aids and traffic control aids;

• Meteorological data including ceiling, visibility, wind speed/direction;

• Geometry of runways, taxiways, holding aprons;

• Pavement centerline separation and obstacle clearance distances to assure they are in compliance with
ICAO Annex. 14; and

• Airport perimeter, including roads and access control systems (e.g., CCTV)

In parallel with the collection of this basic data on the airport's airside facilities and systems, the condition of
each of these requires an assessment that includes:

• Identification of the original installation data and estimated remaining useful life (i.e., lighting and
approach aids); and

• An engineering study of airfield pavements identifying:

o Original construction dates;

o Pavement strength ratings;

o Current conditions;

o Estimated remaining useful life;

o Problem areas; and

o Major rehabilitation projects likely required during the master plan life, including estimated capital
costs.

Some airports will have this survey undertaken on a regular basis and the information will be available
without a dedicated study.

3.2.6.2.2 Passenger Terminals

The site assessment of passenger terminals will evaluate condition, determine sizes of rooms and list the
numbers of processors. For all building systems, a condition assessment may be required if the airport does
not keep ongoing records of the age and condition of terminal systems (e.g., structures as well as mechanical,
electrical and special systems such as baggage handling systems and security systems). Passenger
processing rates (e.g., check-in, security, customs, etc.) will help to determine potential bottlenecks and need
for improvements. See Chapter 3.4, Passenger Terminal for more detail.

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3.2.6.2.3 Airport Support Elements

The quantity, type and condition of airport support elements as well as remaining periods on ground leases
should be determined for:

• Aircraft maintenance;

• Airline administration;

• Airport authority administration;

• Airport maintenance;

• Cargo/Express/Mail handling: The quantity and area of buildings and aprons is needed to determine the
capacity of these facilities. The condition of the facilities, including estimates of remaining useful life
should also be evaluated. At many airports, the cargo buildings are on ground leases and the remaining
peri od of the lease should also be determined;

• Car rental: The number of cars per million 0/D passengers by market segment;

• Customs/Immigration;

• Deicing: The method of deicing fluid recovery (on stand or on a dedicated apron);

• Fuel supply, storage and distribution: The current volumes of fuel stored, the means of supply, the peak
daily/weekly volume dispensed and the method delivery to aircraft;

• General aviation: The assessment of facilities should determine the number, size, location, condition and
ownership of general aviation hangars, aprons, tie-down areas, fixed-base operators and flight schools. In
addition, the number and mix of based aircraft should be determined;

• Ground service equipment maintenance and storage;

• In-flight caterin g;

• Parking: This includes the quantity of multistory short-term and at grade long-term public car parking,
staff car parking, car rental parking, taxi parking including taxi pool staging areas and parking for buses
coverin g local, regional and international routes as well as those serving airport or city hotels and/or
charters and tours;

• Police/Security/Controlled access points;

• Refueling stations: Both airside and landside;

• Rescue and firefighting services: This will include a fire training area with the capability to recover
aqueous firefighting foam if used during hot training. Depending on the size of the airport this may also
include a crisis control center;

• Utilities: An inventory of utilities (e.g., high-voltage electricity, gas, water, sanitary sewer, storm sewer,
communications, heating and air conditioning is required. This should include capacity determination, age,
remaining useful life assessment and any possible future constraints. Waste disposal systems,
incinerators and deicing facilities should also be inventoried; and

• Other: The airport lands may include other facilities that are not directly related to aviation, including
industri al parks, golf courses, parks, retails businesses and agricultural areas. These need to be
inventori ed and included on site plans.

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3.2.6.2.4 Surface Access Systems

An inventory of surface access systems to/from/on the airport needs to be taken, including
access/circulation/service roads, parking, and forecourt space. This should cover alignment, condition and
capacity.

Public transportation services should also be assessed for capacity and modal split (e.g., percentages carried
by bus, rail, taxi, limousine, private car).

The surface access inventory also requires dialog with the jurisdictions that provide primary road and rail
access networks to/from the airport to determine their future plans.

3.2.6.3 Documentation

Much of the data collected will become working files used to create summaries of condition, existing capacity
and potential capability of all airport facilities and sub systems. The inventory should use drawings, tables,
aerial photos and GIS data to assemble the information in a simple and readable format.

3.2.7 Requirements Analysis

Whether using simple tables, formu lae or simulations, the purpose of the requirements analysis is to
determine the capacity of the existing facilities (i.e., airspace, runways, aprons, gates, passenger terminal
subsystems, surface access systems, etc.). The analysis should determine a level that is appropriate for the
size of the airport and the potential for airside demand exceeding capacity in the future. At the completion of
the requirements analysis, the shortfall five, 10 and 20 years into the future should be determined.

3.2.7.1 Introduction

The requirements analysis phase can be relatively simple at a small airport, or a long, complex process
involving simulation models of airfield use and of passenger flows in the terminal at a large airport. The size
and capability of every element of the airport is translated into a capacity that can be compared to demand:

• Airspace, runway and taxiway capacities are determined on an annual and peak period or peak hour
basis;

• Capacities of aprons and gates are calculated in terms of numbers of aircraft by category (e.g., Code C);

• Capacities of every passenger terminal subsystem (e.g., security) is determined in terms of static capacity
for floor areas (i.e., passengers per area) and dynamic capacity for processors (i.e., passengers per
hour);

• Surface access systems, including road (e.g., number and length of lanes available), rail and vehicle
parking; and

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• Airport support elements, including:


0 Aircraft maintenance;
0 Airline administration;
0 Airport authority administration;
0 Airport maintenance;
0 Cargo/Express/Mail handling;
0 Car rental;
0 Deicing;
0 Fuel supply, storage and distribution;
0 General aviation;

o Ground service equipment maintenance and storage;


o In-flight catering;

o Operations;

o Parking;

o Police/Security/Controlled access points;

o Refueling stations;

o Rescue and firefighting services; and


o Utilities.

Current and forecast demands on each element of the airport are compared to the current capacity of each
element and any excesses of demand over supply are identified, typically in five year increments.

Shortfalls are determined in terms of facility requirements. For example, a shortfall capacity to handle 800
additional enplaning passengers is defined as a facility requirement of 1,280 square meters of additional
space and seating for 640 people.

The requirement for new or additional facilities can be driven by:

• Increased demand in terms of numbers of aircraft, passengers. and/or cargo;

• New demands in terms of aircraft sizes (i.e., span and length) and/or new traffic segments (e.g.,
international traffic at a previously domestic airport);

• Changes in or non compliance with existing ICAO standards and recommended practices;

• Changes in security requirements; and

• Obsolete or unsuitable facilities.

The types and sizes of new facilities are determined through this requirements analysis. By clearly defining
the issues and the reasons that a solution is required, the requirements analysis lays the groundwork for the
development of options.

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3.2.7.2 Airfield and Airspace Analysis

Airspace and airfield requirements are developed considering forecast traffic and the compliance of existing
facilities with design and safety standards. In addition, consideration must be given to how the airport and its
air traffic will integrate with other traffic flows. The analysis must consider both capability and capacity.

3.2.7.2.1 Airfield Capability

Capability is the compatibility of the facilities with the size and type of existing and forecast traffic. The
assessment of capability includes:

• Size: Are runways long enough for the aircraft types and stage lengths to be served? Do widths and
separation of runways and taxiways meet ICAO recommendations?

• Obstacles: Are there current or planned obstacles, both natural and manmade, that could limit the use of
one or more runways for arrivals and departures?

• Pavement strength: Are the pavements adequate for the demands of the forecast aircraft types and
numbers?

• Orientation: Does the orientation of the existing runways provide sufficient wind coverage to provide
adequate usability during all weather conditions? How do the runway alignments fit with other nearby
airport runway alignments?

• Instrumentation: Are the runways equipped with appropriate navigational aid facilities to provide landings
during all anticipated weather conditions?

3.2.7.2.2 Navigation Aids

Key conventional navigation aids include:

• Approach Lighting Systems (ALS);

• Distance Measuring Equipment (DME);

• Instrument Landing Systems (ILS);

• Precision Approach Path Indicators (PAPI); and

• VHF Omnidirectional Range (VOR).

Newer Performance-based Navigation (PBN) procedures can be augmented by Ground-based Augmentation


Systems (GBAS). The requirements analysis for new or additional navigation aids should examine:

• The condition and remaining useful life of the existing aids;

• The forecast fleet mix and its PBN capabilities;

• The usability of the airport: that is, the percentage of the time that the wind, ceiling and visibility conditions
are suitable for operations with the navigation aids and PBN procedures that are in place. The target
usability is very high, typically 97.5 percent; and

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• A full cost-benefit analysis for all navigational infrastructure on the airport, including the cost to users of
diversions when the airport is unusable.

Many of the ground-based navigation aids require protected zones for their effective operation (see Exhibit
3.2.10.2.2 Navaid Protection Areas). Some of these zones are horizontal, others are sloped. It is useful to
delineate any protected areas, as they may preclude development in areas that otherwise may be considered
for other uses as options are developed. These protected areas may affect the overall capacity of the airport.

3.2.7 .2.3 Air Traffic Management (ATM) Facilities

ATM facilities include control facilities such as:

• Towers and approach control units;

• Air and ground surveillance systems8 ;

• Remote radio transmitters and receivers;

• Wind shear detectors; and

• Weather observation equipment.

At most airports, these are the responsibility of the ANSP, but are primarily situated on the airport. During the
requirements determination phase, the planning team will need to consult the ANSP to determine:

• Future requirements;

• Division of responsibility for capital investment (e.g., the airport may be responsible for constructing a new
ATC tower structure); and

• Future land use requirements to meet the requirements of the ANSP, including any protected areas for
ANSP equipment.

Consultations with the ANSP should be an ongoing collaborative process as options are developed. For
example, the need for an additional runway may trigger the need for a new tower to meet the requirement to
see all controlled maneuvering surfaces.

3.2.7.2.4 Airside Capacity

Airside capacity is defined in terms of the number of aircraft operations that can be conducted in a period of
time, most often provided as annual and hourly capacity. For a master plan at low volume airports, it is often
sufficient to estimate runway capacity potential using examples of current best practice.

8
These systems include air and ground radar systems. multi-lateration systems. Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS) systems,
camera systems and other sensors.

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Exhibit 3.2.7.2.4 is a summary table of best practice hourly and annual theoretical maximum runway
capacities. It should be noted that theoretical maximums can be reduced by:

• Operating restrictions;

• Air traffic control practices and procedures;

• Fleet mix;

• The absence of rapid exit taxiways (RETs};

• The location of aprons and parking in relation to the runways; and

• Poor airport pavement geometry.

Exhibit 3.2.7.2.4: Theoretical Capacities for Various Runway Configurations

Runway Configuration Example Best practice Max mvts/annum Theoretical max


used mvts/hr recorded to date mvts/annum
Single runway LGW 55 266,550 (2007) 331 ,238
Dependent parallel CPH 83 288,793 (2001) 499,868
Independent parallel MUC 90 432,296 (2008) 542,025
Intersecting runways VIE 68 266,402 (2008) 409,530
3 runways: all independent AMS 110 446,693 (2008) 662,475
4 runways: 2 pairs of close parallels COG 117 551 ' 174 (2008) 698,610

Source: lATA

Notes:

1. Mixed mode is assumed to add -15 percent to segregated mode capacity.

2. Actual achieved runway capacities vary with aircraft mix. A large proportion of large aircraft or a wide
range of aircraft sizes will reduce total movement capacity.

3. The inability to clear runways to allow following aircraft to land (insufficient or poorly positioned RETs), to
reposition aircraft prior to take off (inadequate holding bays) and the need to cross active runways will
significantly reduce movement maximums.

4. Annual movement figures derived by taking best practice mvtslhr figures as shown and assuming a
16.5 hour operating day (06:00am to 10:30 pm) and 365 day operation.

5. The theoretical annual maximum figures stated are based on a 100% take up of slots over each day and
throughout the year. 100 percent take up of slots is not possible or desirable. As highlighted, maximum
mvtslannum recorded to date better reflect achievable maximums. As such, a detailed capacity
assessment should be made that considers the arrival versus departure demand mix.

If the airfield is complex or nearing capacity, a more detailed approach using an airfield simulation modeling
tool is recommended.

However determined, the capacity of the existing runway system is compared to current and forecast
demand. If there is an excess of forecast demand over capacity, then alternative airfield configurations will

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need to be developed to address the shortfalls. The magnitude of the shortfall may point to the alternatives
that may be feasible.

3.2.7.2.5 Runway Geometry

Reference should be made to the minimum distances between parallel runways as recommended by ICAO in
their Annex. 14- Aerodromes.

Exhibit 3.2.7.2.5 below provides an indication of the large areas taken up by primary infrastructure systems.
Here, the runway separation is 2,250 meters, the runway stagger is 1,500 meters and the total site area is
1,297 .5 hectares. The cross-over taxiways are 195 meters apart. This dimension allows for a further code F
taxiway to be inserted between the two shown at some later date. In this example, the area required to
support the movement of aircraft represents approximately 53 percent of the total area available.

Exhibit 3.2.7.2.5: Primary Infrastructure System- Example Land Area

('
\
- ......
_
.......
\"'!>:fi.? '(\'a

\
\
\
\
Runway
\ Alignment
Angle

Prevailing
Wind
Directions S

Source: ADRM , 9th Edition

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3.2.7.2.6 Runway Length Requirements

Exhibit 3.2.7.2.6: Summary of Runway Length Requirements

ICAO AERODROME REFERENCE MAX TAKEOFF TAKE-OFF RUNWAY


AIRCRAFT
CODE-CODE ELEMENT 2 WEIGHT (KG) LENGTH (M) AT ISA + 20°C
A318 c 59,000 1,828
A319 c 64,000 2,080
A320 c 73,500 2,105
A321 c 89,000 2,286

A300-600 * D 170,500 2,645


A310-300 * D 164,021 2,450

A330-200 E 238,000 2,590


A330-300 E 235,000 2,657
A340-200 * E 275,000 3,260
A340-300 * E 276,500 3,230
A340-500 * E 380,000 3,050
A340-600 * E 380,000 3, 100
A350-900 E 268,000 2,830

A380-800 F 575,000 2,750

8717-200 * c 54,885 1,840


8737-600 c 65,091 1,960
8737-700 c 70,080 2,160
8737-800 c 79,016 2,640
8737-900 c 79,016 2,860

8767 -200(200ER) D 151 ,954 (179,169) 2,200 (2,640)


8767-300ER D 186,880 2,920
8767-400ER D 204,117 3,580

8787-8 E 219,539 3,100


8777-200 E 247,208 2,620
8777-200ER E 297,557 3,480
8777-300 E 299,371 3,500
8777-300ER E 351 ,535 3,160
8747-200 E 377,843 3,190
8747-300 E 340,195 3,320
8747-400 E 396,894 3,018
8747-400ER E 412,770 3,090

8747-8 F 439,985 3,090

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ICAO AERODROME REFERENCE MAX TAKEOFF TAKE-OFF RUNWAY


AIRCRAFT
CODE-CODE ELEMENT 2 WEIGHT (KG) LENGTH (M) AT ISA + 20°C
MD-11 * D 288,031 3,560

MRJ 70 c 36,850 1,450


MRJ 90 c 39,600 1,490
CS100 c 58,967 1,463
CS300 c 65,317 1,890

Source: Am ended from ADRM, 9th Edition

Notes:

1. MTOW, /SA +20. C/Sea Level, no wind and a dry runway, FAA add 15 percent for a wet runway.
•• MTOW, /SA +15. C/Sea level. When considering new runways at existing airports, it is important to
consider the existing and projected traffic mix. In this way, the proposed runway length can be tailored to
suit the predominant traffic type so that planned capacity enhancements suit the largest percentage of
forecast movements.

2. Boeing aircraft data courtesy of Boeing Aircraft Company Inc. Airbus data courtesy of Airbus Industries
website. Others via published Airplane Characteristics Manuals.

• denotes aircraft no longer in production

3. The runway lengths listed do not consider the effects of aerodrome elevation, runway slope, wind or
obstacles. Airport planners should refer to the document types listed below for each specific aircraft.
These are provided by the relevant aircraft manufacturers and detail the recommended landing and
departing runway length data:

1. Airplane Characteristics for Airport Planning; and

2. Airplane Flight Manual.

3.2.7.2.7 Runway Land Requirements

The land area required to support the movement of aircraft on and around an airfield can often exceed
50 percent of the total area of an airport. For example, the following table outlines the approximate area
required given twin parallel taxiways with associated clearance (with code F separation) for a single runway of
varying lengths:

Exhibit 3.2.7.2.7: Example of Runway Land Requirements

Runway length 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000


Area required 125.3 149.4 173.5 197.6 221.7
(hectares)

Source: ADRM , 9th Edition

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Note: The above table includes the area required to support runway end safety areas (RESA), but excludes
approach/departure and missed approach surfaces, glide slope areas and airside roads.

3.2.7.2.8 Taxiway Requirements

The prin cipal function of taxiways is to provide access for aircraft moving between runways and passenger
terminal areas, cargo areas and maintenance hangars. Taxiways should be arranged so that arriving aircraft
do not obstruct and delay departing aircraft.

The extent of taxiway layouts is determined by the volume and frequency of traffic to be handled in the peak
hour and the expected aircraft taxi routings to support planned runway use. Exhibit 3.2. 7.2.8 summarizes the
capacity of various configurations of parallel taxiways serving a runway. Should peak hour movements not
require a full parallel taxiway, then a partial parallel layout can be used to minimize construction costs. The
partial parallel taxiway can be extended to a full parallel as traffic demand warrants.

Exhibit 3.2.7.2.8: Capacity of Parallel Taxiways

Number of taxiways Taxiway capacity (mvts/hr) Notes


0 0- 15 Backtracking required on runway
1 16-20
2 Runway capacity will be the limiting factor
Landing only 50- 55
Takeoff only 30

Source: ADRM 9th Edition

3.2.7.2.9 Exit Taxiways

Exit taxiways allow landing aircraft to leave a runway so that it is then clear for use by other arriving and
departing aircraft. At airports with peak traffic periods and continuous flows of arriving and/or departing
aircraft, the capacity of the runway is dependent to a large degree on how quickl y landing aircraft can exit the
runway. An aircraft that has landed delays succeeding aircraft until it has cleared the runway. Taxiways at
right-angles to the runway are possible, but this geometry restri cts the speed of exit and hence increases
runway occupancy time. A rapid exit taxiway (RET}, with exit angles between 25 and 45 degrees, permits
higher exit speeds. This in turn allows succeeding landing aircraft to be more closely spaced, or it might allow
a take off to be released between two landings.

When carrying out a requirements analysis in a situation where runways are nearing capacity and simulation
is being undertaken to determine capacity and delays, the configuration of the taxiways should be
incorporated into the model. The modeling may indicate that additional capacity could be added if RETs are
considered in the development of options.

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3.2.7 .2.10 Runway Holding Positions

Runway holding positions are established on the taxiway at the intersection of a taxiway and a runway. A
runway holding position shall be established on a taxiway if the location or alignment of the taxiway is such
that a taxiing aircraft or vehicle can infringe an obstacle limitation surface or interfere with the operation of
radio navigation aids.

Peak traffic volumes at many airports may exceed the capacity of a holding position, resulting in aircraft
queuing on the taxiway leading to the runway end. In such circumstances, multiple runway entrance taxiways
should be established to allow aircraft sequencing on departure.

3.2.7 .2.11 Holding Aprons

Holding aprons can be placed at convenient locations on the airport for the temporary storage of aircraft.
These can be required at large airports where the number of gates is insufficient to handle demand during
peak periods of the day. If this is the case, aircraft are routed by air traffic control to a holding apron and are
held there until a gate becomes available.

Holding aprons can also permit a departing flight to vacate a needed gate and to wait near the runway without
obstructing either the arriving aircraft or the departure flow, pending further clearance. They can also be used
for aircraft with long turnaround times, where staying on the stand would unnecessarily tie up capacity, or for
temporary overflow situations caused, for example, by diversions. This is particularly true of airports where
contact stands are limited.

Holding aprons are not usually required if capacity exceeds demand even slightly. However, fluctuations in
future demand are difficult to predict. Therefore, a temporary holding facility may be necessary.

3.2.7 .2.12 Other Aprons

Other aprons are airside areas intended to support aircraft as they load and unload passengers and cargo, or
await entry into an aircraft maintenance facility. They also serve as platforms from which all ground service
equipment can operate.

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3.2.7 .2.13 Apron Requirements

The size and extent of aircraft aprons is dependent on the forecast fleet mix by type of traffic (e.g., charter,
domestic, intern ational, etc.) and the number and type of aircraft to be accommodated in the peak hour. The
areas required for aircraft aprons, both contact and remote, with associated taxiway clearances for varying
wingspans, is approximately:

Exhibit 3.2.7.2.13: Approximate Apron Area Required by Aircraft Category

ICAO Ref. Code B c D E F


Area Required (hectare) -contact 0.22 0.41 0.75 1.14 1.50
Area Required (hectare) -remote 0. 19 0.37 0.69 1.07 1.42

Source: ICAO

The diagram below and the table that follows are based on the recommended separation distances for
taxiways/aprons as outlined by ICAO in Annex. 14 as well as head of stand dimensions recommended by
lATA.

Exhibit 3.2.7.2.14a: Recommended Layouts for Contact and Remote Stands

e
I
I
I
I
e

(t

Source: ICAO

It should be noted that lATA does not recommend that a rear-of-stand service access road be provided for
either contact or remote stands. This aids in avoiding the potential for collisions between ground support
equipment and aircraft maneuvering on and off stand.

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Exhibit 3.2. 7.2.14b: Recommended Stand Clearances

Type Length Span a b c d • 9


B 15m up to but not CRJ 26.78 2 1.21 33.50 21.50 30.00 3.00
including 24 m
A319 33.84 34.10
A320· 37.57 34.10
24 m up to but not
c including 36m
200 44.00 26.00 45.00 4.50
8737· 39.50 34.30
800
D 36 m up to but not 8767· 54.94 47.57 66.50 40.50 55.00 7.50
including 52 m 300ER
A340· 75.30 63.45 20.00 30.00 25·35
600
A350· 66.89 64.80
900
52 m up lo but not 8 787-8 56.70 60.10
E 80.00 47.50 80.00 7.50
including 65 m
8777- 63.73 60.95
200
8 747- 70.67 64.94
400
F 66 m up to but not
8747-8 76.25 68.45 97.50 57.50 85.00 7.50
including 80 m

Note: 8737-800 figures are from the variant without winglets.


Source: ICAO (Replaced with table from ADRM 9th edition on 6 May 2014. Revised taxiway minimum separation distances are currently
under consideration by ICAO's Aerodrome Panel, with these not due to take affect until late 2016.)

3.2.7.3 Terminal Analysis

The requirements analysis for passenger terminals needs to address the linear frontage of gates/stands, the
passenger terminal building and the terminal's forecourts. See Chapter 3.4 Passenger Terminal for more
details.

3.2.7 .3.1 Gates and Aprons

The requirement for contact and remote stands is derived from the forecast and compared to the existing
number of gates to identify shortfalls. This comparison needs to be made by aircraft category and by market
segment (e.g., international, domestic, charter, etc.). Requirements for ground service equipment storage and
cargo staging areas (if required) should also be identified. The percentage of flights to be accommodated on
contact stands should be subject to a service level agreement between the airport and the airline community.

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3.2.7.3.2 Passenger Terminal Building

The requirements analysis for the terminal buildings will determine the floor area, footprint and plot size. This
by using simple Square Meters per Peak Hour Passenger (SQM/PHP) figures derived from the forecast to
provide preliminary area estimates.

An analysis of floor area requirements on a sub system-by-sub system basis, indicating primary areas and
passenger flow routes through the building complex, can be provided if specifically requested. This can form
the basis of the conceptual design phase for the passenger terminal that may follow the master plan study.

3.2.7.3.3 Forecourts

The requirements for terminal forecourts are a function of:

• Modal splits of current arriving and departing passengers and in the future;

• Dwell times on the forecourt; and

• Forecourt management practices.

Demand calculations result in a forecast of the required forecourt length. This is compared to the existing
forecourt to determine the shortfall that needs to be addressed as options are developed.

Determination of the forecourt requirements for dedicated commercial vehicles (e.g., hotel courtesy vans,
rental car vans, and buses) should also be undertaken and compared to existing facilities. For larger airports,
the requirement will be influenced by:

• The means of reaching hotels (e.g., by public transport, by dedicated services for individual hotels or by a
consolidated bus service serving multiple hotels); and

• The means of reaching car rental facilities (e.g., on foot, by dedicated bus services or by consolidated bus
tran sfers).

3.2.7.4 Airport Support Elements Analysis

Aircraft Maintenance: The scale of aircraft maintenance facilities is dependent on several factors, including:

• The base carrier(s) and whether or not they elect to carry out base maintenance for all or part of their fleet
at their home base;

• The base carrier(s) fleet(s) in terms of number and type of aircraft, the number of aircraft maintained per
maintenance bay, annual utilization rate, level of maintenance check performed (A, 8, C or D);

• The extent of third party line and base maintenance;

• The availability of certified engineering staff and access to spare part holdings; and

• Whether facilities are to offer a one-stop service including engine test and paint spraying.

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Airline Admini stration: Space can be made available on site for airline offices in addition to those provided
within the passenger terminal building. Base carriers may also have supplemental needs in terms of a
headquarters building and training facilities.

Airport Authority Administration : At smaller airports, authority offices can be located within the passenger
terminal building complex or in an annex.

Airport Maintenance: The airport requires buildings for storage and maintenance of airport equipment,
workshop space, and for storage of supplies. Current facilities should be compared to airport facility needs in
the future.

Cargo Handling: The capacity of existing cargo and freight forwa rder facilities needs to be assessed and
compared to future requirements, taking into consideration:

• The volumes and types of cargo handled (e.g., general freight, express, mail, perishables, dangerous
goods, high-value, etc.);

• The type of aircraft used (i.e., belly cargo in passenger aircraft, combi aircraft (main deck shared between
passengers and cargo) or dedicated freighters; and

• The method of handling (i.e., manual, semi-automatic or fully mechanized).

In addition to statistical volumes and recent trends, consultations with cargo operators, freight forwarders and
ground handlers on their future plans are an important input to determining future facility requirements. In
many jurisdictions, the airport does not provide cargo buildings or aprons, but simply leases serviced land for
their development.

Car Rental : The requirements for rental car service need to be assessed, including ready and return facilities,
in-terminal service desks, service areas, etc. At large airports, the requirements may point to consolidated car
rental facilities, sometimes located remotely from the main passenger terminal. Facility sizing is derived
through an analysis of current and projected car hire demand per million 0/D passengers.

Deicing: Airports that require deicing facilities need to evaluate forecast peak needs to existing facilities and
to identify any requirement for expansion of these facilities in the future. Deicing facil ities require a substantial
contained area and should be located within close proximity of runway departure ends. Alternatively, deicing
on stand may be considered.

Fuel Supply, Storage and Distribution: Fuel farms are usually provided by others, such as an airline
consortium, fuel suppliers, supplier joint ventures or independent fuel infrastructure providers. Requirements
for fuel storage depend upon peak day/week consumption and the number of days' storage to be held in
reserve. The reserve required is driven by supply resilience and the method and number of supply sources.
Sufficient land should be held in reserve for expansion of these facilities up to and including the ultimate
development phase.

Click here to find out more on the lATA Guidance on Airport Fuel Storage Capacity.

General Aviation : General aviation includes a wide variety of users including corporate flight operations,
recreational flying, flight training and the fixed-based operators that support these activities. The requirements

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of general aviation include aircraft hangars, aircraft outdoor tie-downs, transient aircraft parking and terminal
facilities. Forecasts of future requirements primarily use a forecast of future based aircraft and transient
operations. The current waiting list for hangars and tie-downs can provide an indication of unsatisfied
demand. The airport's own strategic plan will also influence the forecast of requirements. If the airport is
primarily focused on air carrier services, then general aviation requirements may take a lower priority as
alternatives are developed.

Ground Service Equipment Maintenance and Storage: Maintenance of apron support vehicles is
performed in workshops. The number and size of the workshops is related to the scale of the airport
operation, the number of ground handlers and the number of vehicles being maintained at any one time.
Some equipment may need to be stored on a semi-permanent basis (e.g., snow removal equipment).

In-flight Catering: The size of in-flight catering facilities is related to the number of international, domestic
and charter passengers departing on a busy day. These faci lities can be located off-site, although this will
increase traffic levels through security posts.

Operations: Enhancements, if required, to ATC, airfield ground lighting, meteorological facilities and
navigational aids need to be discussed with the ANSP.

Parking: For calculations of passenger related vehicular traffic and the resulting facilities and capacity
needed, the design year average day and peak hour forecasts will provide figures for volumes of originating
and terminating passengers, as well as for transfer passengers for inter- and intra-terminal traffic. To estimate
volumes of vehicular passenger traffic entering or leaving the airport, there is a need to determine the:

• Arrival rates for arriving and departing passengers for the average day of the peak month. Peak hour and
peak minute information may also be required;

• Modal split of passengers, i.e. the percentage that are dropped off and picked up, park (short or long
term) or use taxi, hotel shuttles, bus, rail or water access. The modal split for passengers and staff will for
example vary depending on the pricing policy of individual access modes, ease of access, discounted
travel schemes, etc.;

• Potential impact of a multi-modal interchange and/or "Airport City", i.e. are there large volumes of non-
airport traffic;

• Occupancy of each vehicle (occupants per car) relevant for vehicle numbers and forecourt requirements;

• Numbers of meeters and greeters per passenger, as this can vary significantly according to the local
culture and customs.

Total passenger related trips by mode can be estimated to determine annual, peak day and peak hour vehicle
volumes. This is needed for planning the size and number of entry and exit points, the airport road
requirements. and the required capacity of the following parking facil ities.

• Public: In general, short term parking (e.g. less than eight hours) should be reasonably close to the
passenger terminals and are often located in multi-story structures. Long term (e.g. over eight hours) can
be remote, often at grade level, with shuttle bus or people mover access;

• Staff: The location of staff parking, whether this is accommodated in close proximity to their place of work
or not, is heavily influenced by the local culture and customs;

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• Car Rental (see entry earlier in this sub-section);

• Taxi: The requirement to provide a continual supply of taxis to the arrivals forecourt can be
accommodated by creating a taxi pool staging area. This needs to be reasonably close to the terminal
area, and provision for orderly staging and sequential dispatch of taxis to the forecourt is necessary. A
means of alerting drivers to the need for taxis at the forecourt (and, in multi-terminal airports, which
forecourt), is also needed. At those airports were taxi drivers may be held for long periods, support
accommodation is often provided through the provision of catering, washrooms and toilets facilities.

• Bus: There are various types of buses and coaches, all of which have different needs, namely:

o Charter and tour buses require dedicated forecourt space. At airports serving popular tourist
destinations, dedicated bus stances are often located at the end of the terminals or in a centralized
zone, ideally with some form of communication for drivers meeting arriving passengers;

o Hotels often provide free of charge shuttles. These also need dedicated forecourt space for loading
and unloading, and facilities for waiting passengers (including phones for communicating with hotels).
In order to reduce on airport traffic, some airports have consolidated hotel shuttles into a number of
fixed route services, each one serving a number of local hotels;

o Long distance buses and coaches. These are usually accommodated at a dedicated transportation
center. This can be a valuable facility for local residents, who generally are more likely to need a bus
than a plane. A dedicated transportation center needs good walking routes if centrally located or a
people mover link if located remote, especially at airports with multiple terminal locations.

o Local buses. These are particularly valuable for employees. A number of airports have provided a
direct subsidy, start-up funding, or assistance with marketing for buses on core routes, especially
those operating 24 hours a day. Some are demand responsive, deviating from a fixed route if
pre-booked, a useful answer to personal security concerns. Some airports have introduced free or
discounted travel schemes for employees to reduce car traffic and to increase their pool of labor. The
reputation of the airport depends in part on the quality of (often low paid) retail and cleaning staff, and
increasing the ability of all shifts to get to work at an acceptable price is useful. A few large airports
have negotiated free-fare zones around the airport to encourage employees to use the bus for travel
between on-airport sites (for example to meetings) rather than to use a car.

Police/Security: The number of airsidellandside security gates should be kept to a workable minimum, with
the size reflecting the volume of authorized vehicles handled. The need for facility expansion should be
reviewed with existing police/security providers, particularly if the site perimeter is proposed to be enlarged.

Recharging Stations: Airside recharging stations should be located in convenient locations to avoid
excessive distances to/from primary work areas. Multiple locations may be required depending on the scale of
operation and the number of ground handlers operating on site.

Refueling Stations: An area should be set aside to allow cars to refuel. At smaller airports, off-site
petrol/diesel stations may suffice.

Rescue and Fire Fighting Services (RFFS): In accordance with ICAO Annex. 14, Chapter 9.2, airports
should be categorized for rescue and firefighting purposes and the level of protection provided should be
appropriate to the airport category. The category level is based on the aircraft size and traffic operating at an
airport.

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At large airports, if alternatives for airfield development involve additional runways, satellite rescue and
firefighting service facilities may also be required to meet the required response times.

Utilities: The forecast requirements for water supply, sewers and sewage treatment, solid waste handling and
disposal, natural gas, electrical power, centralized heating and cooling plants and communications need to be
determined. This will involve determining existing capacities and comparing them to forecast requirements.
Most of the utility requirements will increase with passenger demand and, at the master plan stage, forecast
requirements are usually undertaken using a simple relationship of requirement to passenger numbers.
Where data is available, these relationships can be developed from records of past traffic levels and usage.

Other Requirements: The potential use of airport land for other compatible, non aviation related uses (e.g.,
"Airport City"), needs to be evaluated taking into consideration existing leases for these purposes. In
developing the master plan, these uses are always secondary to the primary aviation requirements, but if
there is sufficient land the forecast needs for these other operations can be considered.

Further planning requirements for airport support elements will be detailed in futu re releases of ADRM.

3.2.7.5 Surface Access Analysis

Airports should be considered as part of a broader transportation node where customers change to and from
one mode of transportation to another (i.e., air to rail; air to private vehicle, etc.). The primary focus of the
requirements analysis for surface access is on-airport roads and parking as well as primary road and rail
access. For the latter, detailed consultations with local/regional transportation officials will be necessary.

The capacity of on-airport roads needs to be compared to forecast peak hour demands, taking into
consideration the total traffic that will be using a particular road including passengers, well-wishers, greeters
and employees. All modes of transportation need to be considered, including taxis, limousines, shuttle buses,
courtesy cars, coaches, buses and delivery vehicles. Similarly, the capacity of existing parking facilities and
access lanes, taxi staging areas, mobile phone lots, and employee parking are compared to forecast demand
and shortfalls identified.

If consultations indicate the potential development of a multi-modal interchange, then the requirement for
access routes and terminal linkages should be identified.

Further planning requirements for airport surface access will be detailed in future releases of ADRM.

3.2.7.6 Documentation

The requirements analysis is documented in a dedicated chapter of the master plan. It sets the stage for the
development of alternatives. If the requirements analysis is effective, a reader of the master plan will
understand the need for additional facilities or services and how these requirements were established.

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3.2.8 Development of Options

3.2.8.1 Introduction to Option Development

With a firm understanding of the strategic direction and a clear definition of the requirements, the planners can
now develop options to satisfy the forecast demand. Options can include:

• Airside Infrastructure:
o Runways- number, length, configuration and phasing;

o Taxiways-number, width, configuration and phasing; and

o Aprons- remote and/or contact, configuration (multiple aircraft use), ground service equipment parking
areas, cargo staging areas, ULD storage, size and aircraft parking configuration;

• Air and Ground Navigation and Traffic Control Aids: Tower location and height;

• Passenger Terminal Building: For new terminals, options can initially consider the various terminal
configurations available. For all terminal developments, there will be options with respect to configuration,
size, number of levels, etc.;

• Cargo Facilities: Options for location, size, access routes, customs office, vehicle parking and access;

• Surface Access: Alternatives for access modes, multi-modal interchanges, road configuration, type and
size of public and staff parking, location of rental car parking, taxi holding areas; and

• Airport Support Elements and Utilities: Location of administration, main electrical station and back-up
power generation, location of rescue and firefighting services, location and size of general aviation
facilities, location of fuel farm and method of distribution, etc.

A structured approach to develop and evaluate options is recommended (as shown in Exhibit 3.2.8.1
Alternatives Development and Analysis Process). Each of the steps is described in the sections that
follow. While the exhibit illustrates a continuous flow from the first step to the last, in reality the process is
iterative:

• As options are short listed, additional options may be identified;

• As preliminary cost estimates are prepared, some options may not appear to be feasible and additional
development work may be needed;

• Environmental planning (see Chapter 3.2.9 Environmental Responsibility) is undertaken in parallel to


option development and may cause options to be modified or eliminated;

• User and public consultations may cause options to be added, modified or deleted; and

• As airfield, terminal and access options are integrated into an overall plan, compatibility issues may cause
options to be modified or reconsidered.

The process of option identification, evaluation and selection should involve all airport stakeholders.

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Exhibit 3.2.8.1: Alternatives Development and Analysis Process

Prionl:izalioo

Ml.efns.bile
ldo&ntillcalion

Environme nlal
A~&&menl
Screenllns

OewiGPrnenl ILand
Preliminary
Use l'lan

-
Prel rnin..,.
Co&t E~tl imates

1
Alllllnatillo
E\!lllu!llion

!
Integration

Anai~SiS
-

Rlll!:ommencled
Plan

1mpl!lm & nt.aiiM


Plan

Source: SNC-Lavalin Group Inc.

3.2.8.2 Prioritization

At the start of the option development process, the master planners need to establish priorities. Priorities are
established by considering two factors:

1. Importance in the continuing operation of the airport; and

2. Flexibility in terms of location.

Typically, this means that priorities must be determined for options for:

• Airfield operational areas (i.e., runways, taxiways and aprons);

• Passenger terminals;

• Airport support elements;

• Surface accesses; and

• Non aviation airport land uses.

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The rea son that priorities need to be considered is that they may vary from airport to airport. For example, if
the requirements analysis has shown that the existing airfield will provide sufficient capacity for the forecast
period and beyond, then the top priority for development of options will change, likely to terminal
development. The planning team should establish priorities based on the local situation.

3.2.8.3 Identification of Options

Initially, options for airfield, passenger terminal, airport support elements and surface access systems are
developed separately. They will be integrated later in the option development process. In each of these areas,
an initial list of options should be developed that satisfy the requirements that were identified.

There is almost always more than one way to provide facilities that will add the needed capacity and
capability. At this stage in the planning process, it is valuable to identify all reasonable options in a
collaborative, brainstorming approach.

No unreasonable options should be included, however, even at this early stage. All options should be
potentially feasible. Simple variations on an approach should be avoided. Each option should be a different
way of fulfilling the requirements.

The aviation industry has evolved quickly and will continue to do so. These variables will impact on the size,
type and quantity of facilities needed. Master planners should be familiar with industry trends and be
conscious of variations in the pace of growth (i.e., traffic can rise, fall, or stall). To accommodate this
unpredictable operating environment, planners should ensure that flexibility, modularity and expandability are
built into options at all times.

3.2.8.4 Link to Environmental Planning

Environmental planning (see Chapter 3.2.9 Environmental Responsibility) is undertaken in parallel with the
alternatives development and evaluation process. A two-way flow of information is needed with the location
and layout of alternatives feeding the environmental assessment and early feedback from that assessment
causing changes to alternatives. This back and forth work should continue until both the recommended
development plan and the environmental plan are complete.

3.2.8.5 Screening

It is important to reduce the number of options to a manageable number before detailed quantitative analysis
is undertaken on a short list of options. The screening process is a preliminary evaluation of options.
Screening at this stage is primarily qualitative and involves the assessment of technical, environmental and
financial feasibility. The screening results for both retained and eliminated options should be documented.
This documentation should include the reasons for the retention or dismissal of options. A list of screening
criteria and an evaluation matrix should be prepared and agreed to by the planning team and airport
authorities.

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3.2.8.6 Development

Working with the short list of retained options, the planners begin to detail them by assessing all quantitative
elements (i.e., capability, capacity) and preparing conceptual layouts.

The specific options will vary from airport to airport, but there are recommended approaches to developing
options for airside infrastructure, the passenger terminal, cargo, airport support elements and surface access
systems.

3.2.8.6.1 Runway and Taxiway Options

The airfield must accommodate the forecast peak hour aircraft demand for arrivals and departures during both
instrument and visual meteorological conditions IMC and VMC). This will then define the land area for the
terminal and aircraft stand. lATA recommends that apron layouts be configured such that:

• For midfield passenger terminal development, staggered independent parallel runways should be
considered with a minimum separation of 2,000 meters9 ;

• When planning new runways, sufficient space should always be allowed for a dual parallel taxiway system
to be located adjacent and parallel to all runways. Where land availability does not allow dual parallel
taxiways, the airport planner should note that the capacity of the single taxiway will be the limiting factor
that determines runway capacity;

• There should be a capability to construct dual parallel taxiways in phases, as required to support
increasing peak hour aircraft movement rates;

• Airfield layouts should include the shortest possible and most direct taxiway routes between rapid exit
taxiways and aircraft parking positions, and between aircraft parking positions and holding/bypass
positions at runway thresholds. An exception can occur at existing airports were aircraft crossings reduce
the optimal declared runway capacity. In these circumstances it may be beneficial, if sufficient land is
available and following a cost-benefit analysis, to provide an indirect end-around taxiway;

• For rapid exit taxiways, the location of the Optimal Turn-off Segment (OTS) should be determined after
considering:

o For which operational conditions runway capacity should be enhanced (i.e., peak period, special
weather conditions, particular group of aircraft, mixed mode);

o The representative fleet-m ix that the exit is intended to serve after eliminating those with less than five
or 10 percent of the total;

o The separation distance between runway and taxiway (i.e., on non instrument runways, the
separation distances may not allow for design of a satisfactory RET); and

o Aircraft characteristics (e.g., threshold speed, braking ability and turn-off speed for differing wind
conditions);

9
Other configurations are possible; see /GAO Doc. 9184. The land available for airside, landside and airport support elements should
support the capacity potential of the runway(s).

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• Dual parallel taxiways should also be incorporated into a master plan to cross between two widely spaced
parallel runways. The number of crossover taxiways should be related to the ultimate development
potential of the site and should be checked using a simulation model;

• At runway ends, by-pass taxiways allow queuing aircraft awaiting take off to be reordered as determined
by ATC. This airline-approved re-sequencing of aircraft can assist in relieving climb and en route ATC
constraints. The holding position should be designed to accommodate two to four aircraft and allow
sufficient space for one aircraft to bypass another. The area allotted for waiting aircraft will depend on
their size and maneuverability. Holding aircraft should be placed outside the bypass route so that jet blast
from the holding aircraft will not be directed toward the bypass route. Runway end holding positions
should be orientated to permit aircraft departing them to access the runway at an angle of less than go•.
Runway access points oriented in this way allow aircraft a rolling start to their take off and thereby reduce
runway occupancy time.

• For aircraft operating at or near maximum take off weight, the entry point should be as close to the end of
the runway as possible. Small- and medium-sized aircraft that do not require the full length of the
available runway may be permitted to access the runway at intermediate access points leading up to the
runway end. This provides another means by which ATC can reorder departing aircraft. Such access
points should also have intermediate holding positions with all the associated clearances.

3.2.8.6.2 Apron Options

In developing apron options, planners should consider the following recommended approaches:

• Aircraft exiting parking positions do not restrict the timely maneuvering of other aircraft on the airfield;

• Aircraft parking stands are capable of accommodating multiple aircraft types throughout the planning
period through the use of Multiple Aircraft Ramp System (MARS);

• Vehicular traffic at head of stand is reduced to a viable operational minimum. Tail of stand roads should
be avoided;

• Aircraft stands are positioned in order to expedite the movement of aircraft between parking positions and
runways. The positioning, orientation and phasing of stands should relate to the ultimate development
stage, particularly if additional runways are envisaged in subsequent phases;

• Aircraft stands and maneuvering areas meet cl earances and separation distances as indicated in ICAO
Annex. 14;

• The layout provides maximum flexibility to accommodate varying aircraft types at differing times of day;

• The stand layout allows for differing aircraft types on individual routes as a result of seasonal variations in
demand that require increases or decreases in capacity;

• The largest aircraft are positioned as close to the main passenger processing complex as possible; and

• Aprons can accommodate all associated ground service equipment, vehicles and forward staging areas
for baggage and cargo.

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3.2.8.6.3 Terminal Options

Various passenger terminal configurations are provided, as examples only, in the following photographic
1mages.

Exhibit 3.2.8.6.3a: Pier/Finger Configuration-e.g., Toronto, Canada

Source: SNC-Lavalin Group Inc.

Exhibit 3.2.8.6.3b: Linear Configuration-e.g., Detroit, USA

Source: Aaron Headly from Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA

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Exhibit 3.2.8.6.3c: X Configuration-e.g., Pittsburgh, USA

Source: SNC-Lavalin Group Inc.

Exhibit 3.2.8.6.3d: Y Configuration-e.g., Hong Kong

Source: SNC-Lavalin Group Inc.

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Exhibit 3.2.8.6.3e: Satellite Configuration-e.g., Atlanta, USA

Source: Craig Butz/Creative Commons

The area available for the passenger terminal/apron complex is heavily dependent on the runway
configuration, the land available between or adjacent to the runway(s) and the ability to handle the mix of
aircraft anticipated to use the airport. At existing airports, terminal/apron options may be restricted by the type
of development that has gone before or be limited by the nature and extent of support infrastructure. If so,
their age and condition should be scrutinized further, with a cost benefit analysis undertaken to determine if
demolition/realignment is a viable option.

In looking at future terminal facility requirements, planners should take into consideration:

• The automation plans of the carriers serving the airport (e.g., self-service check-in, self-service bag tag,
automated boarding);

• lATA's Fast Travel and Passenger Facilitation Program; and

• National streamlining steps with respect to immigration, customs and security.

These initiatives have the potential to change the number and configuration of processors as well as the size
of areas required to support them.

There are several key concepts that planners should keep in mind when developing terminal options:

• Experience has shown that, when designing facilities, the maximum SQM/PHP figure should not exceed
25 square meters for purely domestic passengers, 30 sqm for charter passengers and 35 sqm for

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international passengers. Exhibit 3.2.8.6.3g Airport Floor Area and Design Passenger Numbers
provides examples of terminal floor areas globally:

Ex hibit 3.2.8.6.3g: Airport Floor Area and Design Passenger Numbers


Floor Area based on a ssumed PHP
Assumed
Airport Termina l mppa Floor Area sqm/ mppa (Dom I Dom + Inti / Inti) sqm/ PHP
PHP
25sqm 30sqm 35sqm
Design index to obtain PHP as% of Annual Passenger Volumes 0.04%
"'Q.
Q.
Marrakesh Menara 4.5 42,000 9,333 1,800 63,000 23
E Carrasco - Montevideo 4.5 45,000 10,000 1,800 63,000 25
....0 San Francisco T2 5.5 59,500 10,818 2,200 55,000 27
I
0 Haneda Inti Terminal 7.0 159,000 22,714 2,800 98,000 57
Queen Alia- Amman 9.0 103,000 11,444 3,600 126,000 29
Design index to obtain PHP as% of Annual Passenger Volumes 0.035%
Sheremetyevo D 12.0 172,000 14,333 4,200 147,000 41
"'Q.Q. Termina l
E Man ila T3 13.0 182,500 14,038 4,550 159,250 40
0
Hyderabad 15.0 162,000 10,800 5,250 157,500 31
"'I
Dublin T2 15.0 100,000 6,667 5,250 183,750 19
....
0
Chubu Centrair 20.0 220,000 11,000 7,000 210,000 31
El Dorado · Bogota 20.0 163,000 8,150 7,000 210,000 23
Design index to obtain PHP as% of Annual Passenger Volumes 0.03%
Changi - Singapore T3 22.0 380,000 17,273 6,600 231,000 58
Berlin Brandenburg 27.0 280,000 10,370 8,100 283,500 35
London Heathrow T5 30.0 353,020 11,767 9,000 315,000 39
"'Q.Q. Jeddah Hajj Terminal 30.0 465,000 15,500 9,000 315,000 52
E Miami North Terminal 30.0 330,000 11,000 9,000 315,000 37
0
"'II Madrid- Barajas T4 35.0 470,000 13,429 10,500 315,000 45
Dubai T3 43.0 1,713,000 39,837 12,900 451,500 133
Seoul - lncheon 44.0 496,000 11,273 13,200 462,000 38
Beiji ng Capital T3 60.0 986,000 16,433 18,000 540,000 55
Hong Kong 60.0 710,000 11,833 18,000 630,000 39
Average Figs: 13,715 42

Source: Amended from ADRM, 9th Edition

• If at all feasible, options that include rehabilitation and expansion of existing terminals should be included.
This can be a far less expensive approach than new terminal construction;

• All airlines, and at large airports all alliance partners, should be co-located under one roof;

• Low-cost terminals, piers and satellites available to all airlines and capable of incremental expansion
should be included as options;

• At smaller airports, single-level terminal options should be included. However, consideration should be
given to making provision for a second level during later phases should expansion be required;

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• At airports where Code F operations are forecast to be deployed, separation distances as recommended
in ICAO Annex. 14 should be established;

• Experience has shown that the distance between the apron and the terminal access road is often too
small, constraining future development as terminal requirements change. For example, a degree of
flexibi lity needs to be built into the head of stand dimension to accommodate unforeseen expansion of the
terminal/pier/satellite in later stages;

• The mix of contact stands and remote stands will depend on the business strategies of the airlines
serving the airport. Consultation on this issue is important; and

• Piers should be sized and positioned to facilitate free flow of aircraft and to allow for timely passenger and
baggage connection within an agreed Minimum Connecting Time (MCT}.

Throughout the planning process, the terminal options must be closely coordinated with the airfield options, so
that only viable terminal options that accommodate the forecast demand are proposed for evaluation.

3.2.8.6.4 Airport Support Elements Options

While developing concepts for airport support elements, planners should consider:

(a) Aircraft Maintenance: These facilities should be located where they do not restrict incremental
expansion of piers, satellites and aprons. At large airports with widely dispersed terminal locations and
apron positions there may be a need to locate smaller line maintenance facil ities in more central areas to
reduce the time required for towing between operational stands and remote maintenance areas. The
location and size of the engine run-up facility will need to be carefully considered.

(b) ATC Towers and Rescue and Fire Fighting Services: Should be located as stipulated in ICAO
Annex. 14.

(c) Cargo Handling: It is important that the strategic link between cargo faci lities and aircraft parking
positions be established at an early stage in the planning process. At larger hub airports, it is common for
dedicated cargo aircraft to be accommodated on a frequent, perhaps daily basis. At smaller airports, a
high percentage of cargo is transported solely on scheduled passenger flights. As such, there is a strong
interdependency between cargo handling and passenger processing facilities. Therefore, there is a need
for the two areas to be located adjacent to one another in order to reduce transfer distances to a workable
minimum.

However, this adjacency requirement creates a dilemma in so far as each facility requires significant land
area to exploit and expand to their full potential. Therefore, for smaller airports with less than one million
passengers per annum or 50,000 tons of cargo, the individual facilities should be positioned apart such
that each can expand without restricting the growth potential of the other. In the short-term this may result
in separation distances between the two being somewhat greater than appears necessary. However,
airports should allow for unrestricted expansion to the ultimate development stage wherever possible.

When possible, cargo stands should be adjacent to cargo processing faci lities. The distance between
cargo processing facil ities and passenger stands (where passenger aircraft will be used for the shipment

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of cargo) should be less than 2.5 kilometers. However, at small airports a dedicated cargo apron may not
be cost-effective and as such schedules should be analyzed to determine if aprons can be jointly used.

It is also important to note the differing types of cargo that may need to be accommodated. These can
include general freight, express freight, perishables, pharmaceuticals and airmail. Development of options
for future cargo operations should consider:

• The types of cargo operators serving the airport and likely to serve the airport in the future;

• Forecast annual cargo volumes;

• Types of cargo operations (e.g., truck-to-truck, truck-to-aircraft, aircraft-to-aircraft);

• Access for trucks serving cargo terminals; and

• Security requirements.

(d) Deicing Pads: Should be adjacent to primary departure runway thresholds, if possible; and

(e) Fuel Farms: These should be fed from two independent sources and be located away from the primary
operational area.

3.2.8.6.5 Surface Access Options

Surface access systems need to be very carefully assessed within the master plan and the facilities required
will need to be balanced against the requirements of locating the terminal building and stands. The need to
provide links from rail and road infrastru cture should be of prime concern to the airport planner, as these can
have substantial cost and environmental impacts. In developing surface access options, planners should
consider that:

• At large airports, alternatives for future access should consider the possibility of high-speed, regional,
local and city-center express rail running to and through the site. These planned rail access options may
be directly connected immediately under or adjacent to the main terminal building complex. Connections
for passengers and staff departing and arriving on foot should be as short as possible;

• New terminals and access routes should retain a capability to accommodate multi-modal transport
interchanges in later stages of development; and

• Planning for well-located public parking of sufficient capacity should be part of option development. The
viability of parking structures depends on the parking rates and should be the subject of a business case
analysis.

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3.2.8.7 Preliminary Land Use Plan

A preliminary land use plan should be initiated early-on in the option development and evaluation process to
determine if concepts will fit within the land area available. This preliminary plan can be simple sketches.

3.2.8.8 Preliminary Cost Estimates

Capital costs are important criteria in evaluating and comparing options. Preliminary cost estimates based on
simple unit cost determinations should be prepared for the shortlist of options. The most effective way to
prepare these estimates is to use a cost estimator/quantity surveyor that is familiar with local unit costs for
construction. All hard and soft costs should be included in this estimate. Hard costs occur once project
construction commences (e.g. site preparation, labor, materials, equipment, building services, etc.). Soft costs
generally occur prior to project start (e.g. marketing, legal fees, design fees, taxes, finance charges,
insurance, etc.).

As preliminary cost estimates are prepared, a comparison of an option's costs to the financial framework
developed at the preplanning stage may mean that the option is eliminated or modified to reduce the overall
cost.

3.2.8.9 Option Evaluation

3.2.8.9.1 Process

The process of option evaluation involves:

• Development of evaluation criteria;

• Development of weighting factors for the cri teria because not all criteria will be equally important;

• Consultation on the criteria and weight factors with stakeholders;

• Evaluation of options using the criteria by a multi-disciplinary team;

• Consultation on the results of the evaluation with stakeholders and the public;

• Documentation of the options, the evaluation criteria and evaluation results; and

• Preliminary recommendations illustrated on a draft airport layout plan.

The options analysis process should be tailored to the airport size and the issues it faces. Complex analysis
and evaluation methods should only be used when needed. Any method used should reflect good planning
practices, be replicable and be consistently applied.

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3.2.8.9.2 Evaluation Criteria

Evaluation criteria should be determined before the evaluation of options begins. The selection of evaluation
criteria can influence the outcome of the evaluation so care needs to be taken to develop a balanced mix of
criteria. A broad range of criteria is preferable so that the differences between options can be highlighted.
Evaluation criteria can be considered in four categories: operational performance, flexibility and growth,
environmental and financial:

(a) Operational performance criteria: How will the option perform in terms of capacity (e.g., hourly and
annual), capability of meeting objectives, and efficiency?

(b) Flexibility and growth criteria: These criteria consider whether or not an option:

• Enables growth beyond the planning horizon;

• Provides balance between elements, typically in the form of capacity;

• Provides the flexibility to adjust to unforeseen changes;

• Conforms with ICAO Annex. 14 standards and to best practices for safety and security;

• Implements the airport's strategic plan (i.e., its goals and objectives);

• Is compatible with the plans of the surrounding jurisdictions; and

• Is socially and politically feasible.

(c) Environmental criteria: These vary in number and complexity from airport to airport. At some airports it
will be sufficient to have a limited list dealing with key issue areas only (e.g., noise, wetlands, social
impact, etc.). In some jurisdictions a much more detailed environmental assessment is needed and this
will be reflected in the list of criteria.

(d) Financial criteria: These should include:

• Financial feasibility including preliminary capital cost estimates;

• Non aeronautical revenue potential;

• Significant incremental operating costs for the airport; and

• Significant incremental operating costs for users.

The financial criteria may also include a cost-benefit analysis of the options.

3.2.8.9.3 Airfield Options Evaluation

Key criteria in evaluating runway, taxiway and apron options include:

• Costs associated with aircraft operational delays;

• Savings associated with improved efficiency;

• Aircraft capacity.

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3.2.8.9.4 Terminal Options Evaluation

Evaluating terminal options can involve a wide range of criteria. Planners should select criteria appropriate for
their airport in consultation with stakeholders. This can be a two or three stage evaluation process as the
terminal options are refi ned with greater detail added following each stage. Examples of criteria used for
evaluating termin al options at this stage includ e:

(a) Passenger Convenience

• Direct flow routes and minimum w alking distances;

• Ease of wayfinding;

• Ease of transfer; and

• Convenient access to surface acce ss systems, vehicle parking and car rental facilities.

(b) Operating Efficiency

• Optimum gate flexibility and utilization;

• Logical, convenient vehicle flows;

• Apron effectiveness; and

• Taxiing distances.

(c) Airline Competitive Advantage

• Operational cost efficiency;

• Maximum flexibility in use;

• Flexibility in the face of changing demands by sector;

• Ease of expansion; and

• Ease of passenger processing at peaks.

(d) Government Agencies

• Meets current and forecast security requirements; and

• Provides for governm ent inspection services.

(e) Construction Issues

• Enables safe and efficient operations while under constru ction;

• Limits undue disruption of operations.

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(f) Financial
• Affordable capital through all development phases;

• Minimum life-cycle costs- minimizes staffing and maintenance costs, not only capital costs;

• Maximum commercial revenue; and

• Low risk.

3.2.8.1 0 Integration

The fina l stage in developing and evaluating options is to integrate the various elements of the airport into an
overall recommended development. Compromises may need to be made. A good plan arrives at an overall
optimization that has balanced capacity with an efficient overall operation.

Although integration is shown as a fina l step after the evaluation of various options, in reality the planners
should be considering integration throughout the development of options.

A final integration check is needed to evaluate how successful the selected integrated plan is at providing for
the highest and best use of airport land.

3.2.8.11 Analysis and Review

The analysis and review step involves additional detailing of the preferred option and consultation with
stakeholders and the public on the options, the evaluation process and the preferred option.

During this additional analysis and consultation, the planners may develop or receive additional information
that can refine the preferred option or even cause a review of the evaluation.

3.2.8.12 Recommended Plan

Following the analysis and review step, the recommended option is selected based on the results of the
evaluation, the additional analysis and the stakeholder/public consultations.

The recommended plan, drawings and text should demonstrate how:

• Projected growth in all types of traffic can be accommodated throughout the entire life of the project until
saturation is achieved in the ultimate development stage;

• All users can operate efficient, effective and profitable operations within the proposed plan;

• Long-term sustainable development can be achieved;

• The environmental impact on surrounding communities and stakeholders will be minimized and
maintained at acceptable levels;

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• Additional capacity can be brought into play without negatively impacting on current operations; and

• Associated surface access systems will be introduced in staged developments to support forecast traffic
levels and demand.

3.2.8.13 Constrained Site

In some cases, political or site limitations may mean that the airport cannot grow to meet forecast demand. In
these cases, the master plan should document the reasons for constrained growth and identify the
consequences in terms of how the constraint will impact on the traffic mix, markets served and the financial
and economic costs of capping the demand.

3.2.8.14 Documentation

The options development and evaluation leading to the recommended option is documented in a dedicated
chapter in the master plan. There may be a substantial amount of technical data related to this work (e.g.,
capacity analysis, modeling results, records of consultations, etc.) and these should be contained in
appendices to the master plan.

The documentation should be thorough and clear, allowing a reader to understand how options were
developed, why some were discarded, how the evaluation criteria were developed, the results of the
evaluation, and the results of the consultations that were undertaken throughout this step in the master plan .

3.2.9 Environmental Responsibility

3.2.9.1 Introduction

Since the Second World War, air transport has grown into one of the world's most important and innovative
industries, driving both economic and social progress. It has brought employment and prosperity to millions of
people while expanding world trade and increasing opportunities for travel and tourism.

The air transport industry is committed to meeting its customers' growing demands in a sustainable manner
while maintaining an optimal balance between economic progress, social development and environmental
responsibility. This means balancing the needs of passengers, society, the economy and the environment by
making the best use of existing facilities while addressing the challenge of new developments.

In delivering these benefits, air transport has had less of an impact on the world's environment than most
people realize. Indeed, by continually improving its fuel efficiency, reducing noise and introducing new, more
sustainable technologies, air transport has been able to reduce or contain its environmental impact:

• Carbon dioxide (C0 2) emissions: Continuous improvements in aircraft engine technology have reduced
C02 emissions per passenger-kilometer (PKM) by 70 percent since the advent of the first jets in the
1960s. As a result, the fuel consumption of most modern aircraft does not exceed 3.51iters per 100 pkm.

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Industry research efforts are aiming to achieve a further 50 percent reduction in C0 2 emissions for
equipment entering service in 2020;

• Local air quality: Improved technology has also meant that carbon monoxide emissions have come
down by 50 percent and smoke and unburned hydrocarbons by 90 percent. Nitrogen oxide (NOx)
emissions from aircraft have been reduced by 40% since the early 1980s. Ambitious research goals in the
European Union and elsewhere are targeting a reduction in NOx emissions by future aircraft of 80 percent
by 2020; and

• Noise: Today's aircraft are typically 75 percent quieter at take off or landing than the first jets in the
1960s. Research efforts are targeting a further 65% reduction in perceived noise from aircraft by 2050
compared to 2000.

In spite of these achievements and the technological progress that lies ahead, the growing demand for air
travel is expected to increase air transport's absolute contribution to climate change. Aviation emissions
currently account for some 3.5 percent of human contribution to global warming and could grow to 5 percent
by 2050, according to the most probable scenario identified by the IPCC 10 .

Such trends sharpen the public focus on aviation's environmental performance. At the local level, noise is the
main political obstacle to airport development. At the global level, C0 2 emissions and greenhouse effects at
cruising altitude represent a major challenge for the air transport industry in the coming years. This illustrates
why some politicians and non governmental organizations (NGOs), especially in Europe, consider managing
growth through capacity constraints and taxation.

Recommendation: Environmental Policy


IATA fully recognizes society's expectations towards further environmental progress and is committed to
achieving such progress through all appropriate means, such as technological advances, more stringent
standards, and operational improvements. Good practices and voluntary measures are also encouraged, as
well as the adoption of a single global market based measure for aviation's C02 emissions. The industry is,
however, strongly opposed to the use of environmental taxes that are considered both economically and
environmentally inefficient and may even be contrary to international law.

3.2.9.2 Environmental Evaluation

Airports must manage their environmental responsibilities carefully, or their future development may be
constrained.

The extent of environmental analysis to be undertaken as part of a master plan varies according to two main
factors:

• Jurisdictional issues: The planning team should be completely fami liar with national and local
requirements for environmental assessment; and

• The future development of the airport: The preplanning process should have determined the possible
scale and issues in the development. For example, at an airport where the airfield is already completely

10
United Nations tntergovemmental Panel on Climate Change.

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developed and the master plan will primarily be focused on terminal expansion, only minimal
environmental analysis may be required.

The environmental assessment element of a master plan should:

• Be scaled to a planning phase document, not a design document. A more detailed environmental
assessment may be required at a later design phase, but the master plan only needs to deal with
environmental issues to determine feasibility, impacts and possible mitigation actions; and

• Environmental analysis should provide sufficient detail to enable differentiation between options. Does
one option achieve the desired operational objectives, but has less environmental impact (e.g., noise)
than other options?

The environmental analysis should be undertaken in parallel with the development of options, in sufficient
detail so it can form part of the option evaluation.

Airports are increasingly being held to account for their energy use, emissions and effects on the
environment. Many are introducing efficiency measures in the context of planning. An environmental
management plan is the first step for airports seeking to implement environmental improvements, as it
provides the framework for an airport's environmental management activities.

The purpose of such a plan is to ensure that activities undertaken at the airport are carried out in an
environmentally responsible manner; ensuring compliance with applicable laws, regulations and best
management practices, as well as with respect for community and public concern s.

3.2.9.3 Sustainability

Sustainability is a broad concept encompassing almost all elements of the airport that could have an impact
on the environment. Sustainability attempts to reduce the environmental impact of developed infrastructure,
but also ensures the airport's viability as an ongoing business initiative.

At the master plan stage, many of the details cannot be resolved, but the plan can set the direction for
sustainability that will subsequently be implemented as new facilities are designed.

Many of the following steps have the added advantage of reducing operating costs and some can be
considered on a rate-of-return basis.

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3.2.9.3.1 Aircraft Noise

Managing and finding solutions to aircraft noise is an important priority for airports. Addressing aircraft noise
requires working in partnership with airlines, air navigation service providers, aircraft and engine
manufacturers, national governments, international organizations and the local community. Voluntary
agreements with partners can be successful, as can developing technical, operational and planning measures
to improve the noise environment.

There are formalized approaches and noise parameters that are used to determine the noise "footprint" of an
airport and the relationship of noise levels within that footprint to acceptable land uses near to the airport. At
the master planning stage, noise is considered from a mitigation perspective.

Aircraft noise has been the subject of years of research. The noise caused by a single aircraft on departure
and/or arrival is not an adequate measure to assess the impact of noise, so noise metrics have been
developed to capture the cumulative effect of noise over longer periods. There are several of these
cumulative noise metrics in use, including:

• Noise Exposure Forecast (NEF);

• Day-Night Noise Level (LDNL);

• Day-Evening-Night (LDEN);

These metrics represent 24-hour cumulative noise exposure. A time-weighting element recognizes that sleep
disturbance is the most significant impact of noise. Night operations are weighted more than day operations in
terms of noise impact. These metrics attempt to estimate the level of community disturbance from aircraft
noise in the areas around an airport by assessing noise levels produced from the frequency and mix of
aircraft at given altitudes, and the time of day at which the operation occurs.

These metrics result in contours plotted on a map of the airport and the surrounding land area. Specialized
software is used to determine these contours. In the case of NEF, it is standard practice to display NEF
values of 25, 30, 35, and 40 when plotting onto a base map of the airport.

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Exhibit 3.2.9.3.1: Example NEF Contour

LEGEND
- 40 NEF Contour
- 35 NEF Contour
- 30 NEF Contour
- 25 NEF Contour
- • - Airport Boundary

Source: GAIA Inc./Leigh Fisher

The plotting of the noise contours is only the first stage of the noise assessment element of the master plan .
The planners use the information to determine how noise impacts can be mitigated:

• Can a new runway be reoriented slightly to reduce noise impacts?

• Would 'ground profiling' techniques reduce noise disturbance for neighboring communities?

• Do increased traffic levels mean that new departure abatement procedures may be needed to reduce
noise impacts?

• Does the changing traffic mix mean that noise levels are increasing or decreasing?

• Do changing noise levels mean that the adjacent communities should be limiting the development of
noise sensitive uses like hospitals and schools in areas that were not previously a problem?

• Does the airport need to acquire additional land to protect itself from encroachment into noise-impacted
areas?

Promotion of noise exposure contours (current or forecast) should be undertaken with care to ensure that
interested parties understand that properties located outside of the noise exposure contour may still be
exposed to aircraft noise.

1
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The master plan will develop the optimum scenario for noise management without sacrificing the need to
meet the long-term forecast demand. Many of the available solutions to mitigate noise in the vicinity of
airports, including those obtainable from land-use planning, can often only be realized in the longer term.
However, this should not be seen as a reason by those responsible for seeking reductions in noise levels to
apply minimal effort. This particularl y holds true for existing airports where the ability to make immediate
changes in land use is limited.

For existing airports, it is also important that aircraft-source noise reductions and the resultant contraction of
noise contours do not allow local authorities to relax their guard against encroachment upon the airport
boundary.

3.2.9.3.2 Airport Design

The scope for environmental improvement at an airport is determined by its physical layout in terms of the
terminal and airport buildings, facilities, taxiways, runways and their associated infrastructure. Infrastructure
design can reduce environmental impact. Examples include:

• The provision of high-speed runway exits shortens aircraft taxiing time and helps to prevent ground
congestion;

• The provision of fixed electrical ground power (FEGP) at gates and maintenance areas helps to reduce
noise and emissions; and

• Rail access to airports can help take cars off the road, thereby reducing local emissions.

Recommendation: Efficient Apron Design Characteristics


In an effort to reduce fuel consumption and emissions from aircraft, the length and geographical position of
runways should be optimized wherever possible. The objective should be to maximize aircraft efficiency
during take off and landing procedures. Particular attention should be given to the design of rapid exit
taxiways, which should be designed in accordance with ICAO Annex. 14 clause 3.8. Particular attention
should be paid to the requirements of Figure 3-2, Rapid Exit Taxiway.

3.2.9.3.3 Ecology and Natural Habitat

Airports are often located in greenbelt areas. They therefore have a role to play in the preservation and
enhancement of the biodiversity of their surrounding areas by maintaining and restoring these habitats and
creating new ones where they have been damaged. This could include, for example, involving local schools in
a tree-planting scheme, or furthering local authorities' work in the local community.

An airport should develop a landscaping strategy to utilize specific endemic species plantings that are not
attractive roosting sights for birds in order to minimize the potential for bird strikes. Obstacle limitation
surfaces also need to be considered when planting near runway ends.

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3.2.9.3.4 Emissions

Aircraft and motor vehicles emit regulated pollutants including carbon monoxide, volatile hydrocarbons,
nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides and particulate matter. The amount of pollution at an airport is a function of
aircraft and ground access traffic levels, congestion (ground and air delays can increase pollution), prevailing
winds, and the airport's approach to reducing emissions. Solutions can include:

• A reduction in ground service equipment through the use of fixed ground power and fixed preconditioned
air systems. Hydrant-based systems are also available that can deliver fuel, potable water and remove
wastewater from aircraft;

• Reducing vehicle emissions through conversion of airport vehicles, airline vehicles and ground support
equipment to low emission versions. These can include electric or alternative fuel (propane) vehicles;

• Encouraging taxis, shuttle vehicles, and car rental companies to use low emission vehicles by providing
the necessary infrastructure to support these vehicles and by implementing fee structures to provide
incentives for the use of low emission vehicles;

• Modifying road access to, from and within the airport to minimize congestion and delay;

• Discouraging private vehicle use through the construction of remote car parks; and

• Encouraging greater use of public transport (e.g. dedicated public transport routes).

A valuable tool for forecasting regulated emissions from the airport at the planning stage is the FAA's Airport
Emission and Dispersion Modeling System (EDMS). This computer model, which requires inputs on air traffic,
ground traffic, ground service equipment and any other emission sources, provides forecasts of the emission
levels from:

• Aircraft;

• Auxiliary power units;

• Ground support vehicles;

• Power plants;

• Fuel storage tanks; and

• Ground access vehicles .

Interdependencies should also be considered. For example, a change to a departure procedure in an attempt
to reduce noise may significantly increase emissions.

3.2.9.3.5 Energy Consumption

Energy reductions can be achieved in a variety of ways, including technical improvements and raising staff
and business partner awareness through environmental campaigns. The former can include:

• The removal of older, outdated equipment in buildings and replacement with new energy efficient
technology;

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• Energy conservation efforts assisted by automated systems for controlling heating and lighting (with high
yield bulbs or daylight sensitive lighting devices); and

• Monitoring electricity consumption of baggage handling systems, passenger conveyor belts, escalators,
air conditioning systems, lighting, etc.

3.2.9.3.6 Global Climate Change

Airports can work to reduce energy and ground fleet fuel consumption. This has a beneficial effect on C0 2
and other emissions affecting climate change. Airports can also influence the sources and types of energy
and fuel, design for lower consumption, and manage their use and storage of ozone depleting substances.
For example, all CFC equipment at airports can be removed and replaced by more modern equipment.

3.2.9.3.7 Ground Noise

Managing ground noise involves technical improvements to equipment. This can include:

• The provision of fixed servicing equipment that avoids the use of aircraft auxiliary power units and ground
power units;

• Management instructions and controls to ensure that correct use is made of equipment and that
construction activities do not produce excessive noise;

• The construction of special 'noise suppression facilities' used for engine ground running and engine
testing; and

• The constru ction of 'sound walls' or 'ground profiling' to reduce noise disturbance for neighboring
communities.

3.2.9.3.8 Landscaping

Landscaping can improve the quality of the environment for people who work at, travel to, or live near an
airport. It can also play a role in integrating the airport into the surrounding community if partnerships are
developed with local communities, local authorities, environmental charities and land owners.

3.2.9.3.9 Land Use Planning and Management

Noise nuisance from overflight, take off or landing is primarily due to the absence of adequate land-use
planning and management in and around airports. In many countries, land-use planning and zoning is the
responsibility of national, regional and local municipalities. Each airport has its own geographical, political,
economic and historical characteristics and there is no single land-use planning and management approach.
Compatible land-use planning and management helps to minimize noise impact around airports and to
safeguard traffic growth. In addition, identification of specific noise exposure contour zones for property
purchases as well as noise protection or insulation programs also help to optimize the benefits from quieter

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aircraft. They also help to prevent the unnecessary encroachment of residential development into noise-
sensitive airport areas.

A close relationship with the local municipality or council is important to ensure that land-use planning
measures are implemented and noise impact reduction realized.

3.2.9.3.1 0 Materials

Particular care must be taken regarding the management and treatment of hazardous waste and chemicals.
Environmentally hazardous materials like toxic chemicals, heavy metals, etc. should be replaced by more
responsible alternatives whenever possible.

3.2.9.3.11 Renewable Energy

Following a favorable cost-benefit analysis, alternative heating methods in buildings can be deployed. These
include the use of geothermal energy, incineration of non recyclable goods, solar power, heat exchangers,
etc.

3.2.9.3.12 Waste Management

Solutions to waste management must generally involve the airport's business partners, since many airports
handle waste on behalf of airlines, retailers and tenants. These partners need to be encouraged to reduce
waste generation and to recycl e where it is operationally practical. Other measures for consideration are:

• How can the volume of hazardous waste generated at the airport be reduced?

• How is recycled material and waste disposed of after collection?

• How can the fi nancial benefits of waste minimization and recycling be passed back to airlines and airport
tenants?

• Are there specialized training and awareness programs to minimize the risk of air, ground and water
contamination from fuel, chemical waste, dangerous materials and oil spills?

Airports generate a number of waste-streams, including the following:

• Cabin waste (galleys and cleaners);

• Terminal waste from shops, restaurants, business lounges, security (e.g., confiscated liquids), etc.;

• Catering waste;

• Maintenance Repair and Operations (MRO) waste (e.g., oils, lubricants, dust, paints, solvents, scrap
metal, batteries, waste electri cal equipment, etc.). Some small volumes will be generated on stand, but
most in separate MRO shops. This can also include off-spec (contaminated) fuel and fuel-contaminated
absorbents (from spillages).

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These waste-streams are often subject to regulation and may require specialized treatment (e.g.,
incineration). A comprehensive review of waste management legislation and waste characteristics must be
undertaken to ensure that appropriate waste management systems are implemented that encourage waste
minimization and recycling.

Recommendation: Business Partner Environmental Strategy


Airport operators should actively work with their business partners, such as airlines, ground handlers, aircraft
fuel suppliers, as well as water companies and building electricity and gas suppliers, etc., to ensure that all
hazardous materials are properly used and disposed of while at the airport. The airport operator and all its
business partners should collectively work together to ensure operational efficiency of the airport by
developing specific energy efficiency targets.

3.2.9 .3.13 Water Consumption

Airports are often located in water-stressed regions. As such, usage in washrooms, kitchens, laundry, MRO
facilities, vehicle cleaning and for horticultural purposes needs to be reduced whenever possible. In addition,
alternative sources of non potable water, such as groundwater wells, should be considered.

The reduction of water consumption at an airport can be achieved by:

• Installing equipment that is water efficient (e.g., replacing old sanitary equipment);

• Finding ways to influence or provide incentives to airport tenants and other airport users to lower their
consumption of water;

• Harvesting rainwater; and

• Recirculating and recycling water.

3.2.9.3.14 Surface and Ground Water Quality

Water management, retention and the avoidance of contamination can be achieved in a number of ways. For
example, if:

• New or replaced airfield paved areas are being considered, how will additional volumes of surface water
be handled? Large paved areas create large runoffs that can cause erosion, loss of fish habitat and
downstream flooding. Have retention ponds to control runoff been considered?

• Deicing is required, has consideration been given to dedicated aprons where deicing fluids are collected
and treated? Have alternative methods been considered (e.g., infrared)? Can pavement deicing be
performed using geothermal water?

• Swale drains are incorporated to accommodate storm water runoff in non paved areas. Do they increase
water retention and aid drainage away from runway and taxiways? Caution should be exerted, however,
as standing water may attract some bird species and other wildlife.

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• New fuel farms are planned. Do they include consideration for the removal of old underground tanks and
clean-up of the sites to reduce ground water contamination?

• New ground service vehicle parking areas are included in the plan, does the plan point out that oil
separators will be needed to prevent oil and hydraulic fluid leaks from entering the ground water?

Staff awareness and training programs are important to prevent careless behavior and accidents. Clear
instructions and controls can ensure that potential contaminants are properly disposed of and that drainage
systems are used correctly.

To monitor contamination levels, soil and water quality testing is recommended at servicing and maintenance
sites. To reduce the risk of water contamination, aircraft should be washed and deiced in specially-designed
enclosed areas.

3.2.9.3.15 Wildlife Control

Tends to be more of an operational issue than a master planning problem, but land uses near the airport need
to be taken into consideration in planning to minimize the possibility of bird attractions, in particular.

3.2.9.4 Documentation

Some environmental issues will be documented in the evaluation of alternatives. The environmental chapter
of the master plan will normally address:

• Baseline conditions today, particularly if measurements are carried out;

• Identification of key issues and sensitivities; and

• Documentation of impacts from the recommended alternative and a proposed mitigation plan for their
reduction. This should focus on carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulfur hexafluoride, hydro
fluorocarbons and per fluorocarbons. It should also provide carbon dioxide equivalencies for these
greenhouse gasses (GHGs) so a common metric can be established.

3.2.1 0 Land Use Planning

3.2.1 0.1 Introduction

One of the key products of a master plan is an airport land use plan that:

• Clearly identifies the lands under the airport's control;

• Protects the operational areas of the airport from constraints;

• Prioritizes the uses of airport lands;

• Optimizes the use of airport lands to enhance commercial revenues;

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• Coordinates airport land use planning with local and regional development plans;

• Identifies lands outside the airport boundary that are affected by airport operations; and

• Identifies the potential need to acquire additional lands to meet the aviation requirements of the airport in
the future.

3.2.1 0.2 Airport Land Use Planning

3.2.1 0.2.1 Control of Airport Lands

One of the most fundamental elements of a land use plan is a clear definition of what lands the airport
controls through ownership, leasing, easements, etc. In many countries this is clear-cut and easy, but in
others there may be control issues, including squatters on airport land.

Forecasts of increased demand may point to the need for the airport to acquire new land to support the
ultimate development potential of the site.

3.2.10.2.2 Operational Areas and Priorities

Airport land use is planned according to a priority system:

• The top prio rity is land needed for aviation operational areas, both existing and planned. These include:

o All aircraft maneuvering areas and areas set aside to protect these;

o Protection areas for existing and planned navigation aids (see Exhibit 3.2.10.2.2 Navaid Protection
Areas); and

o Areas for current and future passenger terminals, ground service equipment storage, etc.;

• The second priority is aviation-related uses, with an emphasis on those facilities requiring airside access
(e.g., aircraft maintenance, cargo, fuel distribution and storage, in-flight catering, etc.);

• The third priority is airport-related commercial uses that do not require airside access (e.g., car rental
facilities, hotels); and

• The lowest priority is non aviation commercial uses (e.g.: farming, shopping centers, etc.).

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Exhibit 3.2.10.2.2: Navaid Protection Areas

I ll~ Reltrlctlon

~HIIIaht Realrlclon (I)


r iVMC
,r~!<"' Zone
1.-- LS L,cv:alimr

~/~~~.~..ctlon Zone
r''-JIW88
..._, _ No. 2

-· ~MaaNo. 1

Prot~ elkin Zone


NOB Pro1ilctlon
Zone

'-Ar>eaC
Qlbl

0 a..~~o~
..._ PIG!*\' llclftllly

Source: GAIA Inc./Leigh Fisher

The pri ority approach should be thought of as a series of layers of drawings, with a drawing of aviation
operational areas created first, then other layers added in the spaces that remain.

One key reason that land use plans are an important part of a master plan is to ensure efficiency of land use
and to prevent short-term decisions that commit land to uses that are subsequently needed for higher priority
uses. The land use planner is considerin g, for example, how the passenger terminal will be expanded in the
future when plans for a new cargo facility are evaluated.

The planners need to consider the timing of when lands will be needed. An area that may be needed for
aviation operations in the future may be available for a commercial lease in the short and medium terms. For
example, this land could be used for low-cost box warehousing with short-term leasing arrangements,
knowing that these facilities will need to be demolished in the future for more critical aviation use.

Some land use plans deliberately include all the airport lands, so that there are no uncommitted areas. This is
a recommended approach where there is a concern that unplanned areas could be removed from the airport's
control.

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For the master plan, all the individual pieces of the development jigsaw need to fit and be correctly
assembled. All the interdependencies within the operational area need to be identified. At this stage, however,
the detailed operational characteristics of each facility are not required.

Land use plans should be produced to cover the existing site and proposed development at five-, 10- and
20-year intervals. A plan supporting the ultimate development stage should also be developed regardless of
the planning horizon proposed. These should be updated on a regular basis (every five years) and be
distributed to the local authority responsible for planning, development and land use.

3.2.1 0.2.3 Airport Land Use Plan Drawings

Airport Land Use Plans drawn to scale should depict existing and phased development (including intended
land uses) up to the ultimate development stage (i.e., when the runway system is saturated). The plans
should include:

• Airport site boundary or perimeter, facility and property boundaries, security fence lines and control post
positions;

• Runway clear zones and associated approach surfaces;

• True azimuth of runways (measured from the true north) and north point;

• Airside infrastructure including runways (including separation distances, length and width), runway lighting
and markings, taxiways, holding bays, apron s (including deicing), engine test facilities, location and
specification of navigational aids, vehicle parking areas, staging areas, and access roads;

• Landside infrastructure including passenger terminals, ground transport interchanges, hotels, primary and
secondary access roads and parking stru ctures (at grade and multi-story), rail lines and vehicle fuelling
stations;

• Airport support infrastructure including administration buildings, aircraft maintenance, airport maintenance,
cargo, fixed-base operations, fuel supply storage and distribution, ground-handling equipment
maintenance, helicopter operations, in-flight catering, meteorological compounds, police and security
facilities, rescue and firefighting facilities, general aviation, containment and treatment facilities;

• Areas reserved for aviation-related revenue producing development such as industrial areas, duty-free
zones, etc.;

• Non aviation related property and land with the current status and use specified;

• Facilities that are to be demolished; and

• Prominent natural and man-made features such as trees, stream s, ponds, rock outcrops, ditches, etc.

Recommendation: Land Use


All airports should develop land use concepts that allow all airport users to develop and expand their
business in a structured, orderly fashion, without adversely impacting on the business of their neighbors on
or adjacent to the airport.

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Exhibit 3.2.1 0.2.3: Example of a Land Use Plan


....-HlllBrd Land

Service Road

Hazan! l and

"·-- Tani<Fann

- - l.al<e Gasharo9a
Hazard Land

-------J:::\

.,. __
.
L9>t lnduslrial
"'\ Cargo r J
\ -<
.. .
\ I

'
I•
. . . . .

. . . .
• • • I

Source: Sypher: Mueller International

3.2.1 0.3 Adjacent Land Uses (Zoning)

The need for control of development in the vicinity of airports has been recognized from the very beginning of
commercial aviation. Concerns include:

• Obstacles that could interfere with approach or departure paths;

• Electrical interference with radio communications and navigational aids;

• Areas of dense population within the runway clear zones;

• Confusion of pilots by lights on approach;

• Reduced visibility due to the production of smoke or vapor clouds; and

• Birds in critical operational areas.

As part of the master plan process, airports need to work with surrounding jurisdictions to achieve compatible
land uses in the areas near the airport. Compatible land uses are defined as land uses that can coexist with

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the airport without constraining the safe and efficient operation of the airport or exposing people living and
working in the nearby area to unacceptable risks or noise.

In discussing adjacent land uses, six broad categories are used:

• Residential;

• Commercial;

• Industrial;

• Institutional;

• Infrastructure; and

• Agricultural/Undeveloped .

In working with nearby jurisdictions to manage land uses near the airport, the airport's goals are:

• To limit noise sensitive land uses, including hospitals, nursing homes and schools;

• To limit uses that include:

o Tall structures;

o Visual obstructions such as smoke, steam, dust or lights;

o Wildlife/bird attractants such as waste dumps, wetlands, open water and some crops; and

o High concentrations of people (e.g., sports stadiums, etc.).

If the airport and its surrounding jurisdictions do not act to protect the airport from encroaching incompatible
land uses, the consequences can be severe, including restrictions on airport operations (e.g., flight
procedures, curfews) or even community action to attempt to close the airport.

Land use control is central to the overall process. Many jurisdictions embrace the concept of "zoning" where
land areas throughout the region are designated for particular functions/uses. Properly managed, it will
effectively protect public health and safety by minimizing exposure to emissions and excessive noise. These
management principles need to be coupled with supportive legislation. Legislative frameworks regulating
surrounding land use outside of the airfield boundary should be provided by national or state/regional
governments and planning authorities, as they are ultimately responsible for ensuring that the airport is
interwoven into the regional and national socioeconomic fabric. These should set the broad policy context
within which local authorities can work. Ideally, there should also be a consultation process by which the
various stakeholder groups (e.g., surrounding community, airport operators, and airline representatives) can
comment on and suggest changes to draft policies. The airport operator should also be consulted on
monitoring the effective application of the legislation.

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3.2.1 0.3.1 Land Use within Noise-Impacted Areas

The sustainability of air transport is heavily dependent on controlling environmental impacts, with aircraft noise
being the largest factor to be considered when undertaking land use planning within and around the airport
boundary.

The airport land use plan is an integral part of area-wide comprehensive planning programs. During
consultations, every effort is made to coordinate the airport's land use plans with the plans of adjacent
communities. At the same time, efforts are typically made to get those responsible for areas adjacent to the
airport to protect the airport's approach and noise-affected areas from incompatible development.

Sensitivity to aircraft noise will vary from one country or location to the next, and be dependent on many
factors outside of the airport boundary. These can include:

• Land use;

• Building use;

• Type of construction;

• Distance from source;

• Background noise levels;

• Sociological factors;

• The amount of diffraction/refraction/reflection due to buildings and topography encountered on site; and

• The meteorological conditions prevalent at the time of exposure.

The establishment of noise zones surrounding an airport is an important step when determining future land
use. This process is separate from overall land-use zoning by regional authorities. Noise zoning serves two
purposes: to protect the airport from encroachment and to protect residents from noise exposure. The number
of zones, noise descriptors and noise exposure calculation methods vary from one country to the next. For
example, three zones could be established, as follows:

• Zone 1: As a general rule, noise sensitive development such as housing, schools, hospitals, offices and
banks should not be permitted in the first zone;

• Zone 2: Where some restrictions apply; and

• Zone 3: Where no restrictions apply.

Whatever approach is used, it is important that local authorities apply strict controls over proposed
development in the zones around the airport. It is also important to stress that the zones be calculated based
on the ultimate achievable throughput of the airport (i.e., when the runway is saturated) so long-term
development will be assured.

A single authority should have overall responsibility for developing land-use criteria. Zoning plans should be
created as a first step when establishing an airport, as zoning changes are difficult if not impossible to achieve
in retrospect.

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Numerous strategies can be applied to control the use of land surrounding airports. Development restrictions
within predefined zones can secure the long-term vision for new airports. Retrospective noise insulation
measures may go some way toward redressing the balance for commercial and residential properties near
existing airports. However, the means of control, regulation and finance will vary from country to country and
be dependent on national and local characteri stics. There are three differing form s of control:

• Planning: A comprehensive development or layout plan should be provided to local authorities and
should be used as a guide by authorities when establishing development restrictions and controls. For
existing airports this will assist in determining the compatibility of development proposals with government
policy;

• Mitigation: Measures can be employed that will help to alleviate the problems of aircraft noise, including:

o Sound insulation specifications for new construction;

o Sound insulation retrofitting for existing buildings;

o Barriers can also be used to mitigate noise generated by maneuvering aircraft or by ground-handling
equipment. Barriers can be in the form of earth berms located adjacent to runway thresholds, ground
modelling and holding aprons. Altern atively, building structures e.g., main terminal buildings and
finger piers or satellites) can be employed as sound attenuation barriers;

o Land acquisition and relocation. This is an expensive option and is used primarily when no alternative
will provide a satisfactory solution; and

• Financial: Financial incentives can be used to promote the development of compatible land uses around
the area (e.g., commercial, office parks, light industrial, etc.).

3.2.11 Outline Development Plan

3.2.11 .1 Introduction

Typically, following approval of a master plan, the airport will prepare an outline development plan that
addresses requirements over the next five to 10 years.

The outline development plan provides a description of how the recommended plan could be implemented in
terms of the estimated capital cost, specific projects, timing and phasing. As a minimum, an implementation
plan should include:

• A proposed schedule;

• Identification of potential key projects and their timing/development "tri gger" definitions; and

• Any special considerations.

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In some countries, a more detailed facilities implementation plan may be needed as part of the master plan.
This may include:

• A comprehensive schedule;

• Detailed descriptions of the major projects; and

• Details on coordination and responsibilities;

The facilities implementation plan needs to consider:

• The timing of needed additional capacity;

• Financial constraints;

• Logical project sequencing;

• Lead times for regulatory or environmental permits;

• Lead times for design and consultation with users; and

• Other issues such as time for property acquisition.

3.2.11.2 Capital Cost Estimates

The requirements analysis portion of the master plan will resu lt in a detailed picture of the various expansion
and major rehabilitation projects needed over the duration of the plan. In the financial analysis, these are
translated into capital cost estimates. At the master plan level of detail, these are normally estimates based on
simple unit costs to give decision makers an approximate idea of costs. These costs should also include soft
costs, such as:

• Mobilization;

• General contractor conditions, overh ead and profit;

• Bond;

• Insurance;

• Program contingency; and

• Design/construction management

These will be a percentage of the overall hard costs for construction based on local conditions.

The capital cost estimates are normally developed for each year of the master plan. For example, if at some
point 10 years in the future the terminal will need to be substantially larger, the cost estimates will be broken
out over the period that construction would occur (years 7 to 9, for example). It is important in such cases to
account for inflation and define "money of the day" to ensure consistency in application of this financial
planning tool.

Typically, there will be more detail for the first five years of the capital cost forecasts than for the periods
thereafter.

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Exhibit 3.2.11 .2: Example Capital Plan

2012 2013 2014 2015


1.1 AIRSIDE
1.1.1 Tug Road and security fencing $47,000 $470,000
1.1.2 Cargo Apron $2,673,125 $13,365,625 $13,365,625
1.1.3 Aircraft Isolation area $910,625 $9,106,250
1.1.4 Fire training area with access road $264,375 $2,643,750
1.1.5 New Control Tower $1 ,057,500 $10,575,000
1.1.6 New Radar
1.1.7 Apron Expansion West $2,849,375 $28,493,750
1.1.8 RESA's $381,875 $3,818,750
1.1.9 Overlay Echo Taxi $352,500 $3,525,000
1.1.10 Reconstruct Apron 1 $293,750 $2,937,500
1.1.11 Overlay Apron 8 $528,750 $5,287,500
1.2 TERMINAL
1.2. 1 Rebuild Old Terminal Roof $1,292,500 $12,925,000
1.2.2 Regional gate expansion ( 1b) $646,250 $6,462,500
1.2.3 New enclosed entry hall, transfer corridor $705,000 $7,050,000
1.2.4 2 Nr Airbridges and gatehold area $2,220,750 $22,207,500
1.2.5 Holdroom Expansion $2,379,375 $23,793,750
1.2.6 Cargo Terminal $2,291,250 $22,912,500
1.3 LANDSIDE
1.3. 1 Road Realignments $146,875 $1,468,750
1.3.2 Accelerate Demolition-Old Fuel Storage $58,750 $587,500
Area
1.3.3 Spine Service Road $148,875 $1,468,750
1.3.4 Taxi Bus Staging Area $58,750 $587,500
1.3.5 RESA road Extension $411,250 $4,112,500
1.3.6 Employee parking area access and $293,750 $2,937,500
expansion
1.3.7 Tug road around terminal expansion $0 $0
1.3.8 Security perimeter patrol road $822,500 $8,225,000
Minor Rehab Capital All areas $3,683,625 $3,683,625 $3,683,625 $3,683,625
Total Phase 1 Capex $10,516,250 $64,595,625 $84,613,750 $84,171 ,125

Source: SNC-Lavalin Group Inc.

Because the outline development plan needs to consider financial constraints, it is essential that the capital
plan be linked directly to the airport's financial model (see Chapter 3.2.12 Financial Assessment) so that
adjustments in the scope, scale and timing of capital projects can be made to achieve an affordable plan.

Recommendation: CAPEX Plan Documentation


Existing airports should possess a 10-year CAP EX document that shows their intended program of works
over two consecutive 5-year periods. The program should be reassessed annually after consultation with the
airline/lATA airport development specialists. The resultant impact of the development program on user
charges should be discussed and agreed to with lATA's User Charges Panel.

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3.2.11.3 Phasing

The key to phasing is that facilities should be developed in time to meet forecast demand. Facilities should be
expanded in an incremental modular fash ion and at intervals to keep slightly ahead of demand and to
maintain predetermined and agreed upon service levels.

Phased expansion should allow for periods where individual facil ities can settle into routines such that
operational efficiencies can be maximized. In general terms, this period should extend for a minimum of four
to five years after project completion. Longer periods between construction projects may be the result of
overprovisioning of facilities. This could be associated with cost penalties that would invariably be passed on
through airport charges and may, in turn, negatively impact on growth.

The master plan implementation may require a number of complex, interrelated projects. The planners need
to consider how the projects will fit together and develop a sequence that minimizes conflicts with other
development programs and with the ongoing operation of the airport. A master schedule showing phasing,
project "trigger" mechanisms and relationships should be prepared.

At minimum, the master plan phasing should show the first phase and/or development in years 5, 10, and 20
as well as the ultimate stage. Short-term plans should be supported by a rolling 10 year development program
that will be reviewed annually with the airlines.

Traffic may grow differently than planned, so the phasing plan should be linked to demand "triggers" for key
projects rather than dates, so that the implementation plan can be easily changed if the triggers are reached
earlier or later than planned.

For the major projects in the plan, the phasing plan should identify:

• Airport approval activities (e.g., Board of Directors, Ministry, etc.);

• Airline consultation activities;

• Public consultation activities and time requirements;

• Financial requirements (i.e., lender involvement, etc.);

• Design activities and time required; and

• Regulatory approvals and timeline.

3.2.11.4 Documentation

The implementation plan chapter of the master plan should contain the final recommended capital plan (after
revision from the financial analysis, if necessary) and the phasing plan.

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3.2.12 Financial Assessment

3.2.12.1 Introduction

Although there has been a significant shift in airport management practices towards a stronger business
focus, even today there are master plans being produced that have no possibility of implementation , because
they are not affordable either by the airport, the airline community or by the responsible government.

As was introduced in the Preplanning chapter (see Chapter 3.2.4 Preplanning), it is important to start the
financial analysis early and for it to be maintained throughout the planning process. The purpose of the
financial analysis during the master plan is to guide the proposed options development and final
recommendation plan. The end purpose in the master plan is to show how the airport will afford the proposed
program, along with related financial features such as the potential for enhanced commercial revenues.

The key financial issue in a master plan is to determine if the proposed investment program is affordable. If
the forecast capital program does not appear to be affordable, then the investment program should be
revisited to change the timing of proposed developments or to seek less expensive options. This may result in
the airport not meeting its development goals and an inability to serve unconstrained demand.

An effective master plan will reflect the business plan for the airport. The financial section of the plan is
concerned with finances at a strategic level:

• What are the forecast capital investment requirements for the airport to ensure it is maintained in good
condition and expanded as needed to provide sufficient capacity?

• When are the capital investments needed?

• Are the capital investments affordable?

Details regarding financing development, cash flow analysis, financial statements, determination of debt
requirements, analysis of leases and agreements, fees and charges and financing capability and development
funding, etc. will be covered in a future section of ADRM.

Recommendation: Business Plan


Master plans should be considered to be a key element of the airport business plan. Capacity enhancement
programs should be supported by a full business case. A financial model should show the proposed methods
and time scales for cost recovery to enable the airline community to determine the financial impact on their
operations.

3.2.12.2 International Cost Variations

3.2.12.2.1 Introduction

This section provides a series of indicative standard capital costs benchmarks at facility level for the principal
facilities associated with a typical airport campus. It considers the key cost drivers when undertaking

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construction works in a live operational environment. It also covers the means of normalizing data to ensure it
is meaningful and relevant for specific geographical locations.

The data provided enables the user to inform early appraisals/estimates and to challenge designs/estimates
against an indicative range of figures, ensuring relevant targets are achievable and set, while still delivering
value for money.

The following indicative unit areas and costs have been derived from historic project data undertaken
internationally. It is emphasized that the cost ranges should be treated with caution, as they represent a range
of global costs and cannot provide more than a rule of thumb for the actual construction costs of any specific
development.

3.2.12.2.2 Benchmark Objectives

The benchmark data contained in this section are not intended to provide the ultimate development costs of a
facility, but rather a gauge of the likely base constru ction costs of what a similar facility should cost.

The use of any benchmarking data informing wider project governance needs to be understood and
considered against the profile of the key project drivers of cost, time, quality and risk.

Properly used and applied, the benchmark ranges can be used by project teams or developers to both inform
and challenge the project process throughout all project stages, including but not limited to:

• Setting indicative target costs ranges to assist in early estimating

• Providing cost data in a useable and standard format

• Allowing project members to focus on value improvement throughout the project implementation process

• Providing a base line for gap analysis and total budget setting

• Furnishing concise and consistent data to analyze and challenge design by comparison of functional
performance

3.2.12.2.3 Benchmark Rules and Approach

The cost ranges included within the schedule of facilities are based upon a consistent set of rules. These
rules define and structure the aviation facilities into the following four categori es:

• Airside infrastructure

• Terminals and piers

• Landside access

• Support facilities

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The cost data represents outturn costs and include base construction and project-specific costs, which can be
defined as follows:

• Base Construction Costs:

The standard costs of developing, manufacturing, assembling, delivering, installing, testing and
commissioning of the facility systems, sub-systems or and components in normal working hours to suit
the suppliers' usual work program.

• Project-specific Costs:
This includes airport operational costs such as phasing, abnormal working hours, airside working, airport
safety and security, site logistics and revisions to standards. It also includes costs for local conditions that
are due to the physical nature of the site (e.g., piling, the relocation of existing utilities, additional
transportation costs, etc.).

As far as possible abnormal costs associated with project specific costs have been removed from the
benchmark data; however, it is important to understand that the project specific requirements of any particular
project and additional allowances made if it is deemed that excessive, operational, security restriction, site
constraints and/or other abnormal conditions will be encountered.

As to be expected, there is a considerable variance between the low and high ranges of facility costs. This
can be attributed to the project specific issues outlined above as well as factors such as:

• Geographical labor costs

• Passenger expectations

• Specifications and quality demanded

• Environmental and climatic considerations

• Status of the facility

• Design parameters

• Regulatory issues

As a general rule of thumb, costs at the lower end of the range refer to functional facilities with relatively
simple forms of construction as well as basic finishes and engineering services. At the higher end of the
range, costs reflect greater complexity of design, sophisticated engineering services/equipment and high-
quality finishes.

It should be noted that it is always possible to deliver at less than the cost levels indicated herein and that this
may require the relaxation of certain specifications and project deliverables. Equally, it is always possible to
spend more than the high-end level identified.

Limitatio ns

The facility benchmark data included within this section are "ali-in" estimating rates; however, it should be
noted that the rates exclude the following items known to have potential financial implications. These need to

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be fu lly understood and allowed for within estimates or covered in other budgets. This list is intended only as
a guide and should not be considered exhaustive:

• Operator/developer management costs

• Professional fees

• Operational equipment

• Decanting/relocation costs

• Land acquisition/compensation costs

• Loose furniture, furnishing, artwork, etc.

• Demolitions and site preparation

• Site abnormals

• Surveys and works associated with archaeological finds, contamination, etc.

• Local and importation taxes

• Advertising, marketing and public-relations costs

• Offsite infrastructure and utilities enhancements

• Inflation costs

Advice from appropriately qualified and experienced professional consultants should ALWAYS be sought in
the preparation and setting of construction and total project budgets.

3.2.12.2.4 Schedule of Facility Benchmark Ranges

The indicative price ranges given in the following schedules are average prices for typical facilities adjusted
for construction work in the South-East of England in the 3'd Quarter 2014.The price ranges relate to new-
build construction work in an environment that is not excessively affected by operational restrictions or
site/logistical constraints. The price ranges are inclusive of preliminaries, overheads and profit. Consideration
should be given to the key exclusions from the price ranges as stated above. For international comparisons,
the data should be adjusted in accordance with the location factors contained in Section 3.2. 12.2.5
International Construction Location Factors.

Rates should be applied to the Gross Internal Floor Area (GIFA) for buildings or Gross Floor Area (GFA) for
external spaces, except where otherwise stated.

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Exhibit 3.2.12.2.4a: Costs Estimates for Airside Infrastructure

A. ·d 1 f t t
1rs1 e n ras rue ure
u"'.t Indicative
Benchmark Range
Runway
General Overall Rate m2 £150 to £230
Pavement & Surface Drainage m2 £90 to £130
Aeronautical Ground Lighting m2 £40 to £60
Pit and Duct mz £20 to £40
Taxiways
General Overall Rate m2 £130 to £200
Pavement & Surface Drainage m2 £80 to £1 20
Aeronautical Ground Lighting m2 £30 to £50
Pit and Duct mz £20 to £30
Stands
General Overall Rate m2 £120 to £220
Pavement & Surface Drainage m2 £80 to £1 20
Services & Systems (excludes PBB's) m2 £40 to £100
Apron s
Pavement & Surface Drainage m2 £80 to £120
Airside Roads
Pavement & Surface Drainage m2 £75 to £100
Ground Surface Equipment Area
PavemenUcompound mz £100 to £300
Security Fence
2.4 m high with anti climb m £150 to £250

Source: AECOM

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Exhibit 3.2.12.2.4b: Cost Estimates for Terminals and Piers

T · 1/P. u 't Indicative


ermma lers "' Benchmark Range
Regional/Seasonal - Terminal
General Overall Rate m2 £1,750 to £3,000
Shell & Core m2 £1,000 to £1,500
Fit Out m2 £750 to £1 ,500
International - Terminal
General Overall Rate m2 £3,500 to £5,000
Shell & Core m2 £2, 000 to £3, 000
Fit Out m2 £1,500 to £2,000
Piers & Satellites
General Overall Rate mz £2,500 to £4,000
Shell & Core m2 £1 ,300 to £2,000
Fit Out m2 £1, 200 to £2, 000
Fixed Links
General Overall Rate m2 £3,000 to £5,000
Vertical Circulation Cores
General Overall Rate m2 £3,000 to £4,500

Source: AECOM

Exhibit 3.2.12.2.4c: Cost Estimates for Landside Access and other Facilities

Lan d s1·de A ccess /F ac1·11


·t·1es u"'.t B encIndicative
h mark Range
Car Parks
Multi Storey
£/space Nr £8,000 to £10,000
£/GFA m2 £275 to £350
Surface - Short Stay/Staff
£/space Nr £1,500 to £1,800
£/GFA m2 £60 to £80
Surface - ValeUMeet & Greet
£/space Nr £1,000 to £ 1,200
£/GFA m2 £40 to £60
Forecourts
Plaza's m2 £250 to £500
Roads m2 £120 to £200
Drop off Area Pavement mz £40 to £80
Canopy m2 £250 to £700

Source: AECOM

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Exhibit 3.2.12.2.4d : Cost Estimates for Support Facilities

s rt F Tf u .t Indicative
uppo acl 1 les m Benchmark Range
Hangars
General Overall Rate m2 £1,000 to £1 ,500
Maintenance Building
General Overall Rate m2 £300 to £500
Cargo Handling
General Overall Rate m2 £600 to £800
Distribution Centres
General Overall Rate m2 £350 to £500
Aircraft Control Towers
£ per metre in height m £ 100,000 to £300,000
Offices (Good Quality, Air conditioned)
General Overall Rate m2 £ 1,500 to £1 ,900
Shell & Core m2 £1,200 to £1,450
Fit Out (CAT A) m2 £300 to £450
Hotels
Budget - Overall Rate m2 £ 1,000 to £1 ,500
Mid Market - Overall Rate m2 £ 1,500 to £2,000
High End - Overall Rate m2 £2,000 to £3,000

Source: AECOM

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The graph below illustrates the outturn construction cost for a selection of terminal developments undertaken
globally, expressed as a cost per GIFA.

All figures have been normalized for time and location and reflect a base date of 3'd Quarter 2014 and a
South-East England location

Exhibit 3.2.12.2.4e: Outturn Construction Cost

£6,000

£5,000 ..... £4,870


...
.... £4,600
£4,730

....
..... .... £4,150
.... £4,2'80
£4,420

£4,000 ..... £4,020


U,ll'JO
.... .....
N ....
£3,710
£3,!.10 ... 0,!1-'JO
£3,500
E
~
f3,000 ... £2,960 .... £2,9')()

"'
a.
'-1
... [2,660

..... £1,260
f ),000
.... £1,650 ..... {1,!160

£1,000

£0

• Europe ~ Mi ddle East .6. Asia

Source: AECOM

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The graph below illustrates the outturn construction cost for a selection of terminal developments undertaken
globally, expressed as a cost per million passengers per annum (mppa).

All figures have been normalized for time and location and reflect a base date of 3'd Quarter 2014 and a
South-East England location.

Exhibit 3.2.12.2.4f: Outturn Construction Cost

£120
• £114

£100 ... £99


- £97

- £88
• £85
ru f80
Q. - £77 • £78
Q.
E • £71
~
Ql
- £66
Q.
f60
"'c0 ... £56
·- ... £49 .A £50
E • £44 .A £42
'-! f40
... £34
• £32 • £31

£20 - £20 ... £20

£0

• Europe ~ Middle East A. Asia

Source: AECOM

3.2.12.2.5 International Construction Location Factors

The cost of a building is affected by many localized variables that produce a unique cost. These include
market factors such as demand and supply of labor and materials, workload, competition and expected
returns in a particular location.

The individual country location factors range cited in the illustration below have been derived from a survey of
global constru ction costs collected from AECOM's offices worldwide, combined with a wide range of other
published international construction cost data. AECOM's methodology applies weighted adjustments to the
cost data, which address issues relating to time, location and source data confidence.

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To adjust the cost data contained in Section 3.2.12.2.4 Schedule of Facility Benchmark Ranges to a specific
location, select the factor associated with the relevant country or region and apply the following calculation:

Selected Country Factor= xxx UK Benchmark Data Cost


X £/m•
UK Factor= 100

The location factors generally reflect local construction market conditions. However, international aviation-
specific equipment and components are usually significant cost drivers of a project. These items are generally
sourced from a limited pool of manufacturers and suppliers and, as such, may not be as sensitive to specific
location factors.

If a particular country is not shown in the list below, it means that there is insufficient data available to
generate a factor for that country. In such circumstances, planners are advised to seek professional advice
from that specific country.

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Exhibit 3.2.12.2.5: International Construction Location Factors

-- ._...
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150

-T-
l .......

"""" -
-
M:bM

----
Glono
"""'
--
--
z .,.,.,

........ ---
--
Tutoy

~-
-
AIIppllt$

---
--....
8 oApb

"""'"""
s -g,r
.........

-""""" --.....
p-
l .lto.ri>
AlgOb
Chon> 1-
z.-
a.- --
""""""
--
a .o.b
--
~

- ""'
s.uo ......
lbp
-
.....
Cclco'l»

·- OX¥

""""'
..........
-
---....
.._
Q,...

.......
-
T.......
Om»
So.A>K«o>
Chit
eNd
G>bon
c-...
""' ......
8oM1n

-
--""'
.......
USA

0 ,....
B<9.m
~
-
""""
,.,...
--
c;.mv.,

"""'.._
"""'
.........,
UN:ITEOKNGOOM

........
.......-..
......., -
--
WtstlnCIM
$'........,.,

.. .....

Source: AECOM

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The above index is intended to be used as a guide only. Location factors are subject to constant change as
trends evolve in tender prices and input costs in each country, along with changes to foreign exchange rates.

There are multiple factors affecting the applicability and transferability of construction cost data from one
country to another country in the region. These can be effective in isolation, or in combination. Nevertheless,
the following items are some of the issues and decision variables that should be considered when transposing
cost data between countries:

• Contracting capacity and expertise

• Environment and climate

• Insurances

• Technical expertise

• Support services

• Culture

• Proximity to raw materials suppliers

• Design standards and building regulations

• Existing country infrastructure

• Procurement methods and forms of contract

• Ground conditions

• Power and oil supplies

• Availability of and access to finance

• Shipping and transportation costs

• Security

• Labor: cost, availability, productivity, expertise

• Exchange rate

• Regulations: federal/country, state/regional, local

• Construction permits

• Business climate and economic conditions

• Risk of expropriation

• Political environment

Each country will have its own unique processes, rules and customs relating to its construction industry. Also,
large fluctuations in exchange rates can create short-term anomalies in costs.

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3.2.13 Reporting/Deliverables

3.2.13.1 Introduction

The executive summary and technical reports should be produced in both paper and electronic formats. Parts
of the public information kit may also be electronic.

3.2.13.2 Master Plan Report

The airport master plan report is a document that brings together all the work and findings of the master plan .
It is used by decision makers at the airport and by stakeholders. It is typically a public document and can
often be found on an airport's public website for reference.

Chapters of the plan can vary, but a master plan report will normally cover:

• An executive summary. The master plan report, including technical appendices, may be a very large
document. Some airports publish the executive summary as a separate, stand-alone document for
widespread dissemination. It may also double as the means of disseminating information to public groups;

• An introduction, describing the background, the linkage with the airport's strategic plan, and the goals for
the master plan;

• Air traffic forecasts;

• The site analysis, providing a description and drawings of the airport/site as it is today;

• Stakeholder consultations, describing planning issues and any guidance to the master plan provided by
consultations, including on the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and challenges facing the airport.
The master plan should logically follow the airport's strategic plan and this chapter provides a linkage
between the two. Airline support (or non support) for the recommendations of the master plan should be
identified;

• The condition and capacity-demand assessment of the airfield;

• Air navigation requirements for the airport (e.g., navigation aids, tower, etc.);

• Passenger terminal condition and capacity-demand assessment;

• Landside facilities condition and capacity-demand assessment (e.g., roads, parking, taxi storage, bus
parking, car rental faci lities, terminal forecourt frontage, etc.);

• Airport operations facilities, identifying the capacity and shortfalls in facilities for administration, airport
maintenance, airport utilities, airport rescue and firefighting and how the capacities compare to forecast
demands;

• Commercial facilities, comparing capacity and forecast demand for cargo facilities, fixed-base operations,
ground handling, aircraft fuelling, aircraft maintenance, other aviation related commercial land and non-
aviation commercial land;

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• The environment, dealing with capacities, demands, forecast issues and mitigation actions proposed for
sustainability, air quality, noise, waste management, ground and surface water management and possible
construction period environmental issues;

• The proposed development plan for the airport, including options, evaluation of options and a
recommended plan, including how this plan will be phased. This chapter contains the drawings illustrating
the planned development of the airport:

• Cost estimates and the financial analysis;

• Appendices containing details of the analyses undertaken and other supporting material; and

• A glossary as many aviation terms and acronyms will not be familiar to decision makers or the public;

The master plan must be easily understood by a broad, perhaps non technical, review team. Very technical
material should be appended or even put in separate supporting documentation. Master plans should adopt a
consistent format so that comparison of master plans can be done on a like-for-like assessment basis.

3.2.13.3 Master Plan Drawings

The master plan drawings are the graphical representation of the airport today overlaid with the proposed
development. The master plan drawings are provided in the master plan report and separately in full sheet
AO (841 mm x 1189mm) or A 1 (594mm x 841 mm) size format. They are also normally provided in electronic
format. The complete drawing set includes:

• Airport location map, showing the airport and the surrounding 15 to 20 kilometer radius, including cities,
major rail lines, highways, obstructions, terrain and political boundari es;

• Airport airspace drawing;

• Drawing of the inner portion of the approach space in both plan and profile, and identifying any
penetrations by obstructions;

• Runway departure surface drawing;

• Wind rose drawing with orientation of the runways;

• Airport property map;

• Airport layout plans (current and recommended in each phase);

• Terminal area plan (current and recommended in each phase);

• On-airport land use plan (current and recommended in each phase);

• Off-airport land use drawing ("zoning" map) (current and with any known major future changes);

• Noise compatibility drawing showing extent of DNL/NEF contours today and five,10, and 20 years into the
future;

• Utility drawing showing the location and capacity of services and connections to off-airport providers;

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• Surface access plan, both on-airport and in adjacent off-airport areas (current and recommended in each
phase); and

• Other drawings that may be required for site specific reasons.

A common title block should be used for all drawings, showing:

• Drawing description;

• Name of person and/or firm responsible for creating the drawing;

• Name of person who prepared, checked and approved the drawing;

• Drawing reference number, the date drawn, scale and number of associated sheets; and

• Revision details (number, description, who revised, who approved change and date).

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Importantly, the master plan drawings are planning drawings and are not intended to be design drawings in
detail or accuracy.

Exhibit 3.2.13.3a: Example of an Airport Layout Plan

"'
I

Source: Sypher: Mueller International

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Exhibit 3.2.13.3b: Example of a Terminal Area Plan

__: )) cc
::;®K(b
B
= - )1 ((- - • ~~

d~
m ~-~~=m~~~~~Om(/)
Enlarged Concept Plan

LEGEND
- · - Airport Property Line
Previous Airfield Apron Pavement
- New Airfield & Apron Pavement Aircraft Parking Positions
Existing Building + International
- New Terminal
- Existing Roadway + Domestic
- New Roadway
- Existing Cargo + Cargo
- NewCargo + Remote
General Aviation Facilities
Military Police + Inactive
- Existing Airport Support Facilities
- New Airport Support Facilities
Resa
Public Parking
Employee Parking
- Car Rental Services
- Commercial Uses
- BusfTaxi
- Parking Garage
- Concrete Pavement

Source: Grupo CCR/SNC Lavalin/Architectural Alliance

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Exhibit 3.2.13.3c: Example of a Protected Surfaces Drawing

Source: Asterion/Leigh Fisher

3.2.13.4 The Public Information Kit

Some airports may find it useful to also produce a public information kit to support the planning and airport
management team as they speak to vari ous public groups. This kit can contain presentation materials,
models, the executive summary, and other supporting materials.

3.2.14 Master Planning on a Greenfield Site

3.2.14.1 Introduction

The primary reason that a greenfield airport may be needed is that traffic demand is forecast to exceed the
capacity or capability of the existing airport or airport system.

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Importantly, if a greenfield airport is being considered, the planners need to take account of the considerable
time that may elapse between the development of a master plan. construction and eventual opening. A major
greenfield airport can take ten years or more to acquire land and seek environmental approvals, and five to
seven years to construct.

Greenfield airports, especially if they are replacing large well-established airports, may also need to be
adequately sized to accommodate development of a different order of magnitude than what has been catered
to before. Many of the most recent greenfield airports have been planned to accommodate 160 million
passengers per annum and/or 12 million tons of cargo, supported by five or six runways on sites with land
requirements exceeding 7,500 hectares.

All the steps described for a master plan in the preceding sub-chapters are needed for a new greenfield
airport. However, additional criteria will need to be considered.

3.2.14.2 Primary Driver-Land Availability

At existing airports, the land available for future development is normally well documented and will, in part,
determine the ultimate development potential of the site. For greenfield airports, the quantum of land required
to support forecast traffic levels needs to be determined first, prior to undertaking the initial search for suitable
airfield locations.

Before a detailed site evaluation can be undertaken, an initial understanding of the amount of land required to
support efficient airport operations is needed so that only sites with sufficient land are considered. The land
required will be driven primarily by forecast traffic demand and the runway system/configuration required to
support this.

The number of runways required is dependent on the peak hour number of aircraft movements to be
accommodated, the mix of aircraft types and the operational resilience required by airlines. Wherever
possible, land should be reserved and protected to allow airports to extend their runway systems so as to
avoid imposition of operating restrictions (i.e., maximum permissible take off weight) and to accommodate
changing fleet mix and traffic type, without having to impact on surrounding communities.

Exhibit 3.2.14.2 provides examples of the approximate land areas for airports as a function of the number of
runways. This should really be read as minimum areas. Except those airports that were planned to be very
large and had access to a lot of available land, if asked, almost every airport would indicate that they are
undersized.

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Exhibit 3.2.14.2: Airport Land Area as a Function of Number of Runways for Selected
Airports

Airport No. of Total Annual Total Annual Pax. Total Annual Land Area
Runways Mvts. (mppa) Cargo (ha)
Europe
CDG 4 491 ,346 61 .6 2,150,950 3,257
ARN 3 207,000 19.6 146,000 3,100
AMS 5 423,400 51.0 1,500,000 2,787
FRA 4 482,000 57.5 2,066,432 2,160
MAD 4 373,185 45.1 359,362 1,925
ATH 2 153,295 12.9 76,424 1,700
FCO 4 313,850 37.1 135,847 1,600
AYT 2 160,984 25.1 325,362 1,586
MUC 2 398,039 38.3 290,301 1,575
ORY 3 233,981 27.2 105,672 1,540
BCN 3 290,004 35.1 96,519 1,533
OSL 2 230361 22.0 104,543 1,300
BRU 3 223,431 19.0 459,265 1,245
LHR 2 471,341 70.0 1,460,000 1,227
CPH 3 253,762 22.7 330,000 1' 180
VIE 2 244,650 22.1 252,276 1,000
1ST 3 349,000 45.0 1,231 ,000 947
MAN 2 168,883 19.7 103,000 883
ZRH 3 270,027 24.8 454,000 880
PMI 2 173,957 22.6 13,711 767
LGW 1 256,987 34.2 88,111 674
North America
DEN 6 618,257 53.1 521 ,793 14,000
DFW 7 650,124 58.6 663,302 6,963
ORO 7 878,1 08 66.8 1,443,281 2,833
SFO 4 424,566 44.4 380,791 2,104
JFK 4 401 ,950 49.3 1,283,663 1,995
ATL 5 930,310 95.5 646,481 1,902
yyz 5 433,990 34.9 482,518 1,867
LAX 4 605,480 63.7 1,866,432 1,443
MIA 4 389,467 38.3 2,030,793 1,307
LAS 4 527,739 41 .6 91 ,000 1,100
Asia & Pacific
ICN 3 254,037 38.9 2,456,724 6,070
DEL 3 295,500 35.9 568,400 2,112
CGK 2 381 '1 68 53.7 342,473 1,800
PEK 3 557,167 81 .9 1,787,027 1,480
SIN 2 324,700 51 .2 1,810,000 1,300
HKG 2 352,000 56.5 4,025,000 1,255
KIX 2 128,729 16.7 687,425 1,055

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Airport No. of Total Annual Total Annual Pax. Total A nnual Land Area
Runways Mvts. (mppa) Cargo (ha)
NRT 2 208,704 32.8 1,952,207 940
SYD 3 300,467 36.9 444,320 905
Africa & Middle East
DXB 2 344,245 57.7 2,279,624 3,500
Latin America
GRU 2 273,884 32.8 544,930 1,400
MEX 2 377,743 29.5 397,018 750

Source: lATA

3.2.14.2.1 Runway Conf ig urat ion

The runway configuration and its fit on a site will be a key factor in determining the suitability of a site. The
specific runway configuration adopted will be a function of the capacity that is required. Tables of current best
practice actual and theoretical capacities for vari ous runway configurations are outlined in Exhibit 3.2. 7.2.4
Theoretical Capacities for Various Runways. Exhibit 3.2.14.2.1 below also summarizes the advantages
and disadvantages of various configurations.

Ex hibit 3.2.14.2.1: Runway Configuration A ssessm ent Ta ble

Runway Configuration Advant ages Disadvant ages


Single Runway
• Lesser impact on environment • Airport capacity restricted by
due to reduced apron area and single runway traffic movements
reduced mvts./hr. capability
- ..
....,.., -1. ..
·~ • Runway utilization often high • Runway emergencies and
\t.~ . . '" : .-:
'
~-. ,-i)
• 7- ..-~ ~,-
- -~--
-<.

- • Recommended choice of lATA


(subject to capacity
requirements) •
maintenance more difficult to
manage
Cross wind take off and landing
can present problems
Open "V" to "L" Runways
• Increased runway mvts/hr • Has larger impact on
yields increased airport environment than a single
_,._ capacity runway and some parallel
-~~
-. .
-: ~-- runway configurations
. ~- • Varied runway orientations can
.
-

:.,.,
! ' '1,
T "
):)

,
-
--.. ;:. .,. .........
-A
o
~.-:• -
·=
-
·'f.;
y

!
·- .,..,_

=
overcome seasonal prevailing
cross wind problems
• Layout occupies larger apron
area
~
n . '~. ,.- ,_ · -- . / -
ki: - ~ •
":' ' It Runway emergencies and • Does not naturally lend itself to
~·-.{

-
=•-:<Q..s- ..
~..
·
~
<~.... \.
:'-
......... . .

.... /i)t"''
.
"' - - maintenance easier to manage
(subject to case)
efficient apron expansion
• One runway will always be more
• Both runways can be used compromised to prevailing wind
simultaneously (subject to ATC direction
limitations)
• Aircraft crash at apex of "V" to
"L" can render both runways
inoperative

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Runway Configuration Advantages Disadvantages


Intersecting Runways
• Varied runway orientations can • Both runways cannot be used
overcome seasonal prevailing simultaneously
cross wind problems
• Has larger impact on
Runway emergencies and environment than single or
maintenance easier to manage parallel runway configurations
(subject to case)
• Occupies larger apron area than
single runway or parallel runway

configurations
• Does not naturally lend itself to
efficient apron expansion
• One runway will always be more
compromised to prevailing wind
direction
• Aircraft crash at intersect point
can render both runways
inoperative
Staggered Runways
• Runway utilization can be high • Cross wind take off and landing
can present problems
• Runway emergencies and
maintenance easier to manage
• Dedicated take off and landing
runway operations promote
safer multiple runway
operations
• Runway layout naturally lends
itself to efficient apron
expansion
• Recommended choice of lATA
(subject to capacity
requirements)
Dual Parallel
• Runway utilization can be high • Cross wind take off and landing
can present problems
• Runway emergencies and
maintenance easier to manage
• Dedicated take off and landing
runway operations promotes
safer multiple runway
operations
• Runway layout naturally lends
itself to efficient apron
expansion.
• Recommended choice of lATA
(subject to capacity
requirements)

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Runway Configuration Advantages Disadvantages


Multiple Parallel
• Runway utilization can be high • Cross wind take off and landing
can present problems
• Runway emergencies and
:= ,
• - . :- -· •

J I
0
'\-~·
,·· ,!: n .
Ji• • J1 \·~
t
rhti i
. ~ .· ., ;:;"•~
..
~-t'),_!
..... --· ·
1\_l I •
maintenance easier to manage
Dedicated take off and landing
' . .,. . \'' .~...~.-~.. .\
.l ·l·..
.. •..'"'*
~,1 .. ~ -~~ *"'II! t · " .
~ ..
. ~ il
• ~ ...
runway operations promote

-
"I •• .,. 1:
!":' . ' '2 safer multiple runway
• • •
' ,. .. ..

operations.
• Runway layout naturally lends
itself to efficient apron
expansion
• Recommended choice of IATA
(subject to capacity
requirements)

Source: Amended from ADRM. 9th Edition and Images from FAA (1 ,3, 5 & 6) & Eurocontrol (2 & 4)

3.2.14.3 External Considerations

3.2.14.3.1 External Conditions

The need for a new airport may be determined by external conditions such as a political decision to close the
existing airport because of encroachment by a city.

That said, it is unusual for small airports to relocate unless there are limiting factors that completely restrict
capacity enhancement (e.g. , lack of available land for development). In addition, small airports with passenger
numbers below approximately 10 million passengers per annum may not be able to afford to change
locations, unless government assistance is provided.

When external conditions drive the need for a new airport, a risk for the airport operator and for airlines is
created. The risk is that the old airport stays open, although there was an initial commitment to close it. There
are examples of this all over the world.

This ri sk creates the potential for duplication of operating costs and competition issues, potentially for both the
airport operator and airlines. A multi-airport approach, when existing or projected traffic demand does not
justify this, is an outcome that all stakeholders should work to avoid.

Recommendation: Multi-airport Systems


Multi-airport systems should only exist where there is no possibility of operating from a single airport. A multi-
airport system needs to have sufficient traffic volume (20 to 30 mppa) to support entirely independent
operations. Success will be heavily dependent on each facility securing the support of a major network
carrier or an alliance grouping, and many high-volume individual routes operating to both airports would be
needed.

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3.2.14.3.2 Strategic Vision

The airport's strategic vision may also be a factor in determining the size of the site:

• Is the new airport planned to replace an existing airport or augment it?

• What are the strategic goals of the airport?

• How far into the future will the airport be planned to serve the traffic growth?

Part of the strategic analysis should be the development of the case for the new airport, including the
justification for its development.

Taking all the above into consideration, the planners should develop an initial program definition for the new
airport that would include:

• Ultimate development in terms of annual passengers, numbers of runways, etc.

• Initial development phase; and

• Preliminary sketch drawings of the phases, including approximate runway orientation and separation.

With this program definition, the approximate land area requirements will be determined.

Exhibit 3.2.14.3.2a is an example of a 4,800 hectare site. showing the DNL 65-75 contours. Even with a site
that size. the noise impact of the airport extends beyond the airport boundary. To protect the airport from
encroachment by development. in a perfect world, the site would be large enough to contain the noise
impacted areas.

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Exhibit 3.2.14.3.2a : Example of a 4,800 ha Airport Site

Source: Asterion/Leigh Fisher

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Exhibit 3.2.14.3.2b is an example of how a four runway configuration completely uses the 4,800 hectare site.

Exhibit 3.2.14.3.2b: Example of Four Runway Configuration on 4,800 ha Site

Source: Asterion/Leigh Fisher

3.2.14.4 Site Selection Process

The evaluation of alternative greenfield sites needs to be methodical, quantitative, transparent and well-
documented. A greenfield site involves large costs. These need to be accurately quantified to ensure that
development is ultimately affordable to all stakeholders. Almost any site recommended will be challenged on
distance from the urban area, cost and environmental impact. A strong planning team and a detailed
approach are needed to provide governments, users and other stakeholders with reassurance that the
selection was effectively carried out.

With the initial determination of the area required, it is possible to start the site selection process.

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3.2.14.4.1 Steps Required

Criteria for preliminary site evaluation should be developed. These include:

• Minimum area required; and

• Distance/travel time from urban area.

Using this initial set of criteria a short list of possible sites can be prepared. There are a number of basic steps
that have to be taken in turn to determine which shortlisted sites offer the most potential to satisfy the growth
requirements of both airlines and airport authorities alike:

• Development of detailed weighting criteria;

• Data collection and analysis from each site; and

• Preliminary land use layouts.

3.2.14.4.2 Weighting Criteria

Additional criteria, over and above those identified in earlier sub-chapters, will be required for the site
selection of a greenfield airport. These include:

• Geology, topography and obstacles;

• Meteorological conditions;

• Airspace;

• Financial considerations;

• Operational efficiencies;

• Land use compatibility; and

• Social considerations.

3.2.14.4.3 Geology, Topography and Obstacles

Significant variations in site elevations will need to be recorded as these will determine the amount of material
that will be required to be excavated, transported or filled in order to produce a graded site capable of
supporting aircraft operations. Soil conditions, particularly the ability of the site's various terrains and substrata
to safely and adequately support the loads imposed by aircraft, vehicular traffic movements and building
structures need to be determined.

Some terrain may be of low bearing quality and may influence the planner's choice as to where best to locate
a major runway without incurring additional construction costs. Soil analysis and borings will influence which
areas to map out for runway development. Soil composition/quality is an important cost factor in determining
the type of construction materials required. The presence or absence of water on the site is also an important
element to take into consideration.

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Visibility and ceiling heights are very much affected by weather, obstacles and terrain. Obstacles often
represent serious constraints to an optimal layout of runways or may in some circumstances reduce runway
operational capabilities. ICAO Annex. 14 specifies that airspace around airports should remain free of
obstacles so as to permit the intended aircraft operations to be conducted safely and to prevent the airport
from becoming unusable by the growth of the obstacles around the airport. Criteria for evaluating such
obstacles are contained in the ICAO document Procedures for Air Navigation Services- Aircraft Operations
(PANS OPS). Features within the natural landscape may also influence the orientation or length of proposed
runways. While small obstructions can be removed, cost and the subsequent additional benefits obtained will
be the determining factors when considering removal. The requirements for obstacle limitation surfaces are
specified by the intended use of a runway (i.e., take off or landing and type of approach) and are intended to
be applied when such use is made of the runway. In many countries, all approaches and departures are
conducted under Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) and limited straight-in approaches and defined departure
routes.

3.2.14.4.4 Meteorological Conditions

One of the main factors in the determination of the orientation of runways is the usability factor, as determined
by wind distribution. This is specified by ICAO in Annex 14 through a recommendation that states that:

• "the number and orientation of runways at an aerodrome should be such that the usability factor of the
aerodrome is not less than 95 per cent for the aeroplanes that the aerodrome is intended to serve."

In the application of this recommendation ICAO further specifies that it should be assumed that landing or
take-off of aeroplanes is, in normal circumstances, precluded when the crosswind component exceeds:

• "37 km/h (20 kt) in the case of aeroplanes whose reference field length is 1,500 m or over, except that
when poor runway breaking action owing to an insufficient longitudinal coefficient of friction is experienced
with some frequency, a crosswind component not exceeding 24 km/h (13 kt) should be assumed;

• 24 km/h (13 kt) in the case of aeroplanes whose reference field length is 1,200 m or up to but not
including 1,500 m; and

• 19 km/h (10 kt) in the case of aeroplanes whose reference field length is less than 1200 m."

Selected data used to calculate the usability factor should be based on reliable wind distribution statistics that
extend over as long a period as possible, preferably not less than five years. As a general rule, the principal
traffic runway at an airport should be oriented as closely as practicable in the direction of the prevailing winds.
Optimum runway directions are determined by using a wind rose.

Fog, turbulence and abnormal rainfall may at times also reduce the capacity of runways. In order for airlines
to maintain regular schedules during adverse weather conditions, airports are equipped with approach aids.
The category of these aids depends on both the sophistication of the equipment installed at the airport and on
board the aircraft. This determines the minimum visibility required for an aircraft to be able to land.

The approach minima, as prescribed by ICAO in their Annex. 14, are acceptable only when full facilities are
installed and no objects penetrate obstacle clearance surfaces. Category Ill requires much more sophisticated
equipment, which is not commonly installed at airports or in the aircraft using them. Given the small benefit

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that Category Ill gives compared to its costs, it is usually not installed at most airports. Cat. Ill is most
prevalent in Europe where it is a necessity for the airlines to maintain normal schedules in poor weather
conditions.

In general terms, high temperatures will impact on the length of runway required, the positions of rapid exit
taxiways and the distances that can be traversed by aircraft while taxiing. High temperatures result in lower air
densities which in turn cause lower engine thrust. When determining runway length a correction factor needs
to be applied on temperatures above 15 degrees Celsius or 59 degrees Fahrenheit. Airports that experience
excessively high temperatures during the day may find that their operations are restricted due to insufficient
runway length being available to support maximum possible take off weights. In these instances, cargo
volumes and/or passenger numbers may be restricted or operations may only be cost-effective during cooler
early morning or late evening periods. Altitude, and its resulting effects on air pressure and other temperature
factors, also plays an important role in determining the most effective runway configuration for a given facility.

3.2.14.4.5 Airspace

Each airport has to coexist and operate within national or international air traffic systems. Individual airports
utilize vast areas of airspace in order to accommodate the procedures required to allow aircraft to approach,
hold, land and take off. As a result, any extensive growth plan should be discussed and carefully coordinated
with the relevant ANSP, such that feasible recommendations can be developed and impractical concepts
eliminated. Coordination may also be required with military-controlled airspace.

3.2.14.4.6 Financial Considerations

The potential viability of the new airport should be assessed, including an initial capital cost estimate and a
preliminary discussion of the source of funding.

Financial considerations include both capital requirements and operating costs.

For greenfield sites, remote locations may involve significant startup costs including, but not limited to:

• Land acquisition;

• Site clearance;

• Topographical manipulation;

• Surface access provision;

• Primary utility connections and/or self-generated power; and

• Self-contained water and sewage treatment plants.

The additional capital and associated operating costs as well as the source and means of financing, will need
to be evaluated to determine if these render the Greenfield option unaffordable.

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For many greenfield sites, unless the initial traffic levels are high because of the closure of the old airport,
self-financing through airport charges will be difficult or impossible. Therefore, government financial support or
other forms of contribution will be required.

One recommended approach is to use the proceeds from the sale of land or facilities at the former site to
offset the cost of new facilities.

3.2.14.4.7 Operational Efficiencies

Some sites will be superior to other sites in terms of serving the operational needs of the airport. The shape
and ori entation of the sites will have an impact on the layout of the airport and its operational efficiency.

3.2.14.4.8 Land Use Compatibility

The land uses in the areas around the prospective airport sites should be a consideration in evaluating
alternatives. The evaluation should include elements such as existing environmental constraints (e.g., bird
migration routes, etc). A preferred site should be surrounded by:

• Compatible land uses; and

• Committed land (i.e., land that is not available for future development for incompatible uses.

In addition, an assessment of the compatibility of the site with the broader plans of the region should be part
of the evaluation.

3.2.14.4.9 Social Considerations

There may be differentiation from site to site in terms of social impacts. If this is the case, social
considerations should be part of the evaluation criteria.

3.2.14.5 Data Collection

Sufficient data will need to be collected from each site to enable the evaluation cri teri a to be used to assess
the site.

3.2.14.6 Preliminary Airport Layouts and Land Use

Before the sites can be fully evaluated and a recommendation made on the optimum site, a preliminary airport
layout on each site will be need to be undertaken, taking into consideration:

• Size and scale of airport facil ities being planned;

• Area and shape of available land;

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• Topography and site soil conditions;

• Obstacles;

• Meteorology;

• Operational efficiency;

• Surrounding land uses; and

• Timing and scale of phased development of the airport

At this alternative development stage, the key airport elements will be the primary focus (e.g., airfield,
passenger terminal and surface access).

3.2.15 Operational Readiness and Training

3.2.15.1 Checklist for the Successful Opening of a New Airport

3.2.15.1.1 Introduction

The Checklist for the Successful Opening of a New Airport is designed to support the overall airport
Operational Readiness and Training (ORAT) program. It is a tool to enhance and inform the working
relationship between the airline community and the airport authority to ensure that new airport facilities
operate smoothly and with minimal negative operating impact from opening day onwards.

The checklist was developed as a result of significant operational problems that occurred during the start of
operations at a number of major global airport facilities. The checklist is designed to highlight any operational
elements that do not support the effective opening of new airport facilities. The checklist provides a tool to
encourage and support constructive consultation between the airline community represented by the lATA
Airport Consultative Committee (ACC) and the airport authority during the pre-opening stages of a major
airport project.

Each airport may have its own set of potential construction challenges. These may involve issues outside the
jurisdiction of the airport authority, such as road access to the airport, or even incomplete support facilities
such as cargo terminals or catering buildings.

Based on recent experience, many operational readiness issues relate to software associated with the
baggage handling system and other complex IT systems. Another frequently encountered operational issue
associated with the provision of new terminal facilities is the mis-timing of airline operational support offices
and Commercially Important Person (CIP) lounges. These important support and commercial facilities are
often not operational on opening day. This usually results from missing terminal space leases that have not
been produced/executed in sufficient time for airline fit-out to occur. A lack of agreement between the airport
authority and the airlines on new aeronautical user charges and/or passenger termin al rental rates is often the
cause. The new rental rates should be agreed to at least nine months prior to the scheduled opening of the
new terminal facilities. Such agreement normally depends on a series of meetings with representatives of the

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lATA Airport Charges group. Before the new aeronautical charges and rental rates can be agreed, local airline
representatives must also seek and obtain head office approval for any increase in annual rates as well
approval of capital funding to complete the fit-out in the new terminal facilities. The time needed to design and
construct these facilities must be taken into consideration as part of the overall ORAT program .

The checklist is intended to enhance the working relationship between the airlines and the airport authority.
The sharing of information generated by the checklist should be carefully monitored.

Recommendation: Checklist Working Group


A Checklist Working Group should be established for each major airport project. The Working Group should
use the checklist, modified to suit the needs of the airport project. The Working Group should meet on a
regular basis during the last 24 months of the airport project.

3.2.15.1.2 Timing

The checkli st should be used frequently as the airport constru ction project(s) nears completion. Checklist
Working Group meetings may be held monthly, every two months or quarterly depending on the number of
outstanding items on the checklist and the amount of time before the schedule opening. At a minimum the
checklist should be used at the following times before the airport/terminal opens:

• 24 months

• 12 to 15 months

• 3 to 6 months

3.2.15.1.3 ACC Checklist Working Group Composition

The checkli st is a tool to support the overall airport Operational Readiness and Training (ORAT) programme.
The checklist should be used by an ACC Working Group consisting of the following members:

• ACC Chairperson

• Airline Operators Committee (AOC) Chairperson

• ACC member - passenger terminal specialist

• ACC member - cargo/support/airfield specialist

• lATA Airport Development staff member

• (a member of the local Board of Airline Representatives (BAR) may be considered).

• Representative members of the Airport Authority

For more information, please refer to lATA's Airport Handling Manual, chapter AHM020- Guidelines for the
Establishment of Airline Operators Committees.

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3.2.15.1.4 ACC Checklist Working Group Methodology

The ACC Working Group should meet with the airport authority and its project management specialists two
days prior to any ACC meeting to review the checklist. In many cases, the checklist is completed by the
airport authority's ORAT consultants. The Checklist for the Successful Opening of a New Airport is included in
the ADRM Toolbox.

The status of each element and sub-element is determined and recorded at each meeting, noting progress to
date and the forecast completion date. Sub-elements are highlighted on a separate page of the checklist
(spreadsheet).

There are three status levels:

• OK, on track, complete (green)

• Underway but not all related issues resolved (amber)

• Possible non-delivery by forecast opening (red)

Key or critical elements for each airport project can be highlighted (shown in bold). The critical elements may
vary for each airport project and the time available prior to scheduled opening.

Recovery or contingency plans should be developed for all potential non-delivery items. Recovery strategies
should be noted as comments on the checklist.

The Checklist Working Group will use the checklist as a primary tool to coordinate issues with the airport
authority and ACC members. The checklist should be reviewed at all ACC meetings and the ACC Chair
should require that the airport authority representatives provide written responses to any deficiencies
highlighted in the checklist. The ACC meeting report, including the completed checklist, should be sent to
ACC members, AOC Chair and the airport authority.

3.2.16 References

Annex. 14 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation- Volume 1 Aerodrome Design and Operations,
International Civil Aviation Organization, Fifth Edition- July 2009.

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3.3 Airside Infrastructure

3.3.1 Runways

3.3.1.1 System Overview

The fundamental capacity constraint of any airport lies in the runway system. Runway capacity puts a natural
limit on the expansion capability of any airport. Very careful consideration needs to be given to identifying and
eliminating factors affecting the reliable maximum aircraft flow that can be processed by runways. Every
attempt should be made to ensure that all other critical subsystems (i.e., taxiways, aircraft parking positions,
gates, passenger terminals and landside access systems) are ultimately in balance with the maximum runway
throughput. For example, an imbalance between runway capacity and gate capacity will result in significant
aircraft delays and a reduction in the airport's sustainable capacity. Delays and throughput are the main
runway performance indicators.

3.3.1.2 Capacity

Runway capacity is defined as the hourly rate of aircraft operations (departures and/or arrivals) that can be
reasonably accommodated by a runway or combination of runways, under specified local conditions.

Terminal Maneuvering Area (TMA) and runway capacity largely depend upon:

• Speed

• Runway occupancy time

• Approach and departure spacing between successive aircraft

• Design of the airspace

• Mode of operation

Delays (including where and why they occur) are a primary indicator of level of service, and demonstrate that
capacity is being reached or exceeded for a given system for a given baseline schedule.

3.3.1 .2.1 Factors Effecting Hourly Capacity

Maximum capacity is based on operating conditions and rules, but is also largely dependent on the particular
demand profiles created by the mix of flights and flight sectors for a typical busy day. Factors effecting the
hourly capacity of an airport include (listed alphabetically}:

• Aircraft mix

• Aircraft parking aprons

• Altitude

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• Air Traffic control (ATC) procedures and equipment

• Electrical and navigational aid (NAVAl D) infrastructure

• Noise abatement procedures

• Operational mode- mixed or segregated

• Ratio of arrivals and departures

• Runway configuration

• Runway occupancy time

• Standard Instrument Departure (SID) availability

• Standard Terminal Arrival Route (STAR) availability

• Wake vortex separation minima

• Weather conditions

Aircraft Mix: The separation between aircraft depends on the aircraft category. Therefore, the mix of
successive aircraft operating will have an impact on overall separation and runway capacity. For example, an
airport operating with a majori ty of medium-size aircraft will have an average arrival separation of three
nautical miles (NM). The same airport serving a mix of small, medium and heavy aircraft will have a
separation of 3 to 6 NM, depending on the sequence of arrivals, and will have a significantly reduced runway
capacity. Some very congested airports have introduced aircraft sequencing to optimize the separation
between aircraft.

ATC Procedures and Equipment: The performance of radar equipment and other ATC limitations
sometimes impose a separation greater than the minima shown in Exhibit 3.3.1.2.2a. These limitations should
be dealt with prior to considering investing in new runways. ATC staff training also may result in lower
separations. Possible ways for ATC to increase runway capacity include:

Precision Runway Monitor: PRM is surveillance radar that updates essential aircraft target information
four to five times more often than conventional radar equipment. PRM also predicts the aircraft track and
provides alarms when an aircraft is within ten second s of penetrating the non-transgression zone. Use of
PRM helps air traffic controllers ensure safe separation of aircraft on parallel approach courses and
maintain an efficient rate of aircraft landings during adverse weather conditions. PRM is also used to allow
simultaneous instrument approaches in adverse weather. In December 2001, the FAA determined that the
Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) may be operated in Resolution Advisory (RA) mode
when conducting a PRM approach.
PRM is available at the following airports: Minneapolis, St. Louis, Philadelphia, San Francisco, John F.
Kennedy, Cleveland, Atlanta and Sydney, Australia, among others.

Simultaneous Offset Instrument Approaches: The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) SOIA
procedure would allow simultaneous approaches to parallel runways spaced from 230 m (750 feet) to
910 m (3,000 feet) apart. It requires the use of a PRM, a straight-in Instrument Landing System (ILS)
approach to one runway, and an offset Localizer Directional Aid (LDA) with glide slope approach to the
other runway.

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The SOIA concept involves the pairing of aircraft along adjacent approach courses separated by at least
910 m (3,000 feet) with a designated missed approach point approximately 3.5 NM from the runway
threshold. The pilot on the offset approach would fly a straight-but-angled approach until descending
below the cloud cover. At that point, the pilot would have a period of time to visually acquire the traffic on
the other approach before continuing to the runway. If the pilot does not see the other aircraft before
reaching the missed approach point, the approach would be discontinued.

San Francisco International Airport (SFO) and Lambert-St. Louis International Airport (STL) are among
the airports with SOIA in operation. At SFO, the arrival rate is 60 aircraft per hour in clear weather using
both parallel runways, which are 230 m (750 feet) apart. In times of heavy fog and low-ceiling conditions,
aircraft are placed in-trail to one runway, reducing the airport arrival rate by half. The SOIA procedure
enables SFO to maintain an arrival rate of up to 40 aircraft per hour with a cloud base as low as 490 m
(1 ,600 feet) and four miles of visibility.

Operational Mode- Mixed or Segregated: Airports with two or more runways sometimes dedicate runways
to departures or arrivals. However, the arrival and departure peaks rarely coincide, and the separation
between successive arrivals and successive departures are different. This results in gaps on one runway
when another is at capacity. In these situations, mixing arrivals and departures as if operating with a single
runway can increase capacity.

Ratio of Arrivals and Departures: An airport is part of a network and has a mix of arrivals and departures
during the day. The distribution of arrivals and departures has an impact on runway capacity. ATC not only
needs to consider separation between successive arrivals and successive departures, but also gaps between
arrivals preceded or followed by departures.

Runway Configuration: The layout of an airport and its runway configuration are another factor having an
impact on aircraft delays and airport capacity. An airport requiring significant crossing of an active runway to
get to or from a gate will experience more delays than an airport with a terminal concept minimizing runway
cross mg.

Parallel runways with adequate spacing (1 ,035 m or more) can process independent arrivals. Interaction
between runways is a constraint that limits capacity when the distance between runways does not meet the
minimum distance requirement, or when runways intersect. Independent parallel runways are recommended
for that reason.

Runway Occupancy Time: A succeeding aircraft can't touch down until the preceding aircraft clears the
runway. Exit taxiways that are optimally positioned and configured to support an airport's unique traffic mix will
ensure that the time an aircraft physically spends on a runway is kept to a minimum. A maximum runway
occupancy time of 50 to 55 seconds is recommended. The spacing between successive aircraft is increased
and runway capacity decreased if the 50-second objective can't be achieved. Rapid Exit Taxiways (RETs}
allow aircraft to turn off at higher speeds than right-angled exits.

Wake Turbulence: Used to describe the effect of rotating air masses generated behind the wingtips of jet
aircraft that can effect aircraft operating behind them. Heavier aircraft generate more wake turbulence. It is
difficult to control an aircraft operating too close to a leading aircraft, which is why separation minima are
recommended. Small aircraft are more effected by wake vortex than heavier aircraft.

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3.3.1.2.2 Capacity Calculations

It is recommended to get the most out of the existing runway system by improving operations and exploring
latent capacity, before considering investing in new infrastructure. Maximum runway capacity should be
determined using best practices, proper infrastructure and equipment, good weather conditions under
Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) and Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC) and with the fleet mix for a typical
busy day. Runway capacity calculations require careful observation of the actual traffic schedule at an airport,
particularly during typical peak periods. Landing and departure delays should be analyzed separately.

Aircraft separation is a critical factor in determining runway capacity. The successful implementation of proper
procedures, equipment and facilities can result in reduced separation and increased runway capacity. ICAO
wake vortex separation minima are based on aircraft mass. Exhibit 3.3.1.2.2a shows basic provisions
governing wake vortex in use.

Exhibit 3.3.1 .2.2a: Basic Wake Vortex Separation Minima for Arrivals

Preceding Aircraft Succeeding Aircraft Separation Minima {NM)


Heavy <1> Heavy 4
Medium 5
Small 6
2
Medium <> Heavy 3
Medium 3 (4)
Small 5
3
Small <> Heavy 3
Medium 3
Small 3

Source: ICAO PANS-ATM Doc. 4444

Notes:

1. 136 000 kg or more

2. Between 7,000 and 136,000 kg


3. Less than 7,000 kg

4. 2.5 NM minimum radar separation on final approach is taking place at several European airports and
should be investigated before considering constructing new runways

Wake vortex minima separations also apply to departures. A minimum separation of 120 seconds is required
following a heavy aircraft takeoff. All other categories require a 60-second separation (ref ICAO PANS-ATM
Doc 4444).

Since the introduction of new large aircraft (e.g., the A380 and the 8747-8) and under the umbrella of ICAO,
the FAA and EUROCONTROL have worked on are-categorization of the ICAO wake vortex categori es.

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It is expected that the wake vortex table will eventually replace the existing aircraft weight-based wake vortex
categories by a renewed and optimized grouping of aircraft into six aircraft weight categories based on their
wake vortex characteristics:

A: Super Heavy

B: Upper Heavy

C: Lower Heavy

D: Upper Medium

E: Lower Medium

F: Light.

Exhibit 3.3.1 .2.2b: RECAT EU Wake Vortex Distance-based Separation Minima

FOLLOWER
LEADER (separation distance in NM)
A B c D E F
A 3.0 4.0 5.0 5.0 6.0 8.0
B 3.0 4.0 4.0 5.0 7.0
c 3.0 3.0 4.0 6.0
D 5.0
E 4.0
F 3.0
Source: EUROCONTROL and FAA

Note: Blue boxes represent reduced separation minima compared to the current PANS A TM provisions.

While application of the new RECAT EU wake vortex table is not mandatory, European airports with new
large aircraft operations in their fleet mix have the potential to increase runway throughput by around three
aircraft per hour.

Some airports in the USA, like Memphis. already apply the new wake vortex table called RECAT USA which
is slightly different from the RECAT EU table due to the different fleet mix at USA airports. Application of
RECAT USA is reportedly delivering an increase of at least three movements/hr. in runway throughput.

3.3.1.2.3 Runway Movement Simulation

Delays, if regularly observed over successive peak days/hours, are a primary indicator that capacity limits are
being reached or exceeded. Routine delays will detract from the level of service provided.

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Simulation models, such as CAST developed by the Airport Research Center, are effective in predicting the
impact of projected airline schedules on airside infrastructure, passenger terminals and surface access
systems. They can be used to identify the nature, location and degree of congestion and to measure delays.
Care must be exercised in the provision of accurate data. It must also be recognized that use of such
software should be entrusted to highly skill ed and experienced operators who fully understand airport
operations.

The sustainable runway throughput is calculated by increasing the daily demand until the runway system is
saturated, while maintaining the same hourly distribution of traffic and fleet mix. Unlimited gate supply should
also be assumed.

Exhibit 3.3.1.2.3a shows an example where departure delays are greater than the arrival delays. Departure is
therefore the limiting factor.

Exhibit 3.3.1.2.3a: Example of Peak Hour Landing and Departures Delays from Simulation

..,.30
"E 25
"
"'"
~ 20
2:
~ • Landings
15
0" -Departures
:z:
..
u
10
"'u"" 5 ~

"'
~ 0
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013

Source: lATA

Exhibit 3.3. 1.2.3b shows the excessive queuing associated with peak departure demand exceeding departure
capacity. The number of aircraft queuing increases rapidly when runway capacity is reached and typically
takes a long time to dissipate.

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Exhibit 3.3.1.2.3b: Example of Departure Bottleneck (Location and Degree of Congestion)

Source: ADRM, 9th Edition

Excessive queuing is not common at European airports and is being minimized by the application of Airport
Collaborative Decision Making (A-COM). A-COM aims at a just-in-time departure from the gate to allow a
more or less unconstrained flow to the runway with minimal taxi-out delays. This is all part of a timely delivery
of the aircraft into the Air Traffic Management (ATM) system. Delays are not the only reason to avoid long
queues. Environmental protection and fuel conservation are also excellent reasons.

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3.3.1.2.4 Rules of Thumb

In Exhibit 3.3.1.2.4, lATA proposes a set of rules of thumb based on the ICAO departure and landing wake
vortex separation (Exhibit 3.3.1.2.2a) and a runway occupancy time of 50 seconds or less.

Exhibit 3.3.1.2.4: Typical Maximum Hourly Runway Throughput-Segregated Mode

%Heavy I % Medium Departures Landings 11l I Landings 2


<l
25 75 48 39 +5
50 50 40 37 +3
75 25 34 36 +2

Source: ADRM, 9th Edition

Notes:
1. Based on the wake vortex separation shown in Exhibit 3.3. 1.2.2a.

2. Additional capacity assuming a 2.5 NM separation for medium-size aircraft is possible.

Recommendation: Runway Simulation


Simulations should be undertaken to determine the runway capacity before and after proposed
improvements, procedures or rules are implemented.

3.3.1.3 Access and Egress

3.3.1 .3.1 Rapid Exit Taxiways

RETs are constructed to minimize aircraft runway occupancy time in order to increase runway capacity.
Construction should only proceed after a thorough cosUbenefit analysis has been undertaken.

Optimal exit locations should be determined after considering:

• For which operational conditions runway capacity should be enhanced (i.e., peak period, special weather
conditions, particular group of aircraft, mixed mode)

• The representative fleet mix that the exit is intended to serve, after eliminating those with less than 5 or
10% of the total
• The separation distance between the runway and taxiway (i.e., on non-instrument runways, the separation
distances may not allow for the design of a satisfactory RET

• The characteristics of aircraft concerning threshold speed, braking ability and turn-off speed for differing
wind conditions

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Should the above highlight more than one optimal exit location, it may be necessary to consider constru ction
of two or more RETs. Note that a distance of approximately 450 m between exits should be observed. The
Organized Track System (OTS) position should be closely related to the position of link taxiways.

Reference should be made to ICAO's Aerodrome Design Manual (Doc. 9157) to determine the precise
geometry required for:

• The radii of turn-off curves and fillets

• The straight distance after turn-offs

• The intersection angle of the RET

See section 3.2.7.2.9 Exit Taxiways for more detailed information.

3.3.1.4 Holding Bays/Bypass Bays

Holding bays are designated positions intended to protect a runway, an obstacle limitation surface or a
critically sensitive instrument landing system/microwave landing system (ILS/MLS) area, where aircraft hold.

At runway ends, a holding position allows queuing aircraft awaiting takeoff to be reordered as determined by
ATC. This optimized re-sequencing of aircraft (with airline approval) can assist in relieving climb and en route
ATC constraints. The holding position should be designed to accommodate two to four aircraft and allow
sufficient space for one aircraft to bypass another. The area allotted for waiting aircraft will depend on their
size and maneuverability. Holding aircraft should be placed outside the bypass route so that engine exhaust is
directed away from other aircraft. Runway end holding positions should be orientated to allow crew to see
aircraft approaching to land.

Oblique entrance junctions can reduce runway occupancy time by allowing aircraft to perform a rolling start to
their takeoff. For aircraft operating at or near maximum takeoff weight, the entry point should be as close to
the end of the runway as possible. Small and medium-size aircraft that do not require the full extent of the
available runway's length may be permitted to access the runway at intermediate access points leading up to
the runway end. This provides another means by which ATC can reord er departing aircraft. Such access
points should also have intermediate holding positions with all the associated and required clearances.

Peak traffic volumes at many airports may exceed the capacity of a holding position resulting in aircraft
queuing on the taxiway leading to the runway end.

Reference should be made to ICAO Annex 14 for holding bay marking and lighting standards and
recommended practices.

Recommendation: ICAO Aerodrome Design Manual (Parts 1 and 2)


It is recommended that the application of ICAO's Standards and Recommended Practices as contained in
their Aerodrome Design Manual (Doc. 9157- Parts 1 and 2) when designing runways, taxiways, aprons and
holding bays.

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3.3.2 Taxiways and Taxi-lanes

3.3.2.1 System Overview

Taxiways and taxi-lanes should be designed (dimensioned) according ICAO Annex 14 Standards and
Recommended Practices for future critical aircraft to be able to operate at the airport.

Taxiways provide a defined path between one part of the airport and another (e.g., between gates/aprons and
the runway system). As such, taxiways constitute a network of interconnected elements serving both arriving
and departing aircraft.

Exhibit 3.3.2.1 shows the network of taxiways, taxi-lanes, holding bays and RETs at the Munich Airport.

Exhibit 3.3.2.1: Airs ide Infrastructure Network

Hold ing Bays R.E.T.s (Heavy, Parallel Taxiways Holding Bays


Medium and Light)

Source: EUROCONTROL and lATA

3.3.2.2 Functionality

The taxiway network should be designed to optimize runway throughput and reduce delays to an acceptable
minimum. Phased implementation of RETs, parallel taxiways and holding bays should be considered in order
to increase system capacity in a cost-efficient manner as demand requires.

De-icing pads may also need to be considered as an integral part of the taxiway network. It is important to
locate and size de-icing pads such that they can accommodate peak demand and match the maximum
runway throughput in winter conditions. See section 3.3.4.6 for more detailed information.

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3.3.2.3 Simulation

Runways and taxiways are interrelated systems. The runway simulations described in section 3.3.1.3 should
include the taxiways to get from/to the gate or aircraft stand. Exhibit 3.3.2.3 shows an example of departing
taxiing aircraft (see black dots) that are delayed during an aircraft flow simulation. Taxiing distance and delays
should be carefully studied considering their significant impact on operational costs and performance.

Exhibit 3.3.2.3: Example of Identification of Potential Bottlenecks by Simulation

0• <

.0 .. . . •

.•

'

Source: ADRM, 9th Edition

Recommendation: Taxiway System


The taxiway system should be designed to maximize runway throughput, minimize taxiing distance and
delays, and improve aircraft flow and operations

Recommendation: Runway Simulations


Runway simulations should include the taxiway network.

3.3.2.4 Phased Development (Single vs. Dual Taxiway)

When planning new runways, sufficient space should always be allowed for a dual parallel taxiway system to
be located adjacent and parallel to all runways. Where availability of land does not permit dual parallel
taxiways, the airport planner should note that this will reduce the efficiency of aircraft movements on the
ground and that the capacity of the single taxiway could then be the factor that determines runway capacity.
Parallel taxiways can also allow separation of arriving and departing aircraft, thereby optimizing traffic flows.

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The separation between parallel taxiways should conform to ICAO Annex 14 minima, and should be based on
the forecast fleet mix at the ultimate development stage (the optimal maximum throughput that can be
achieved from the airport's runway system). Taxiways designed for queuing multiple departing aircraft are
recommended to maximize runway throughput and minimize delays by allowing sequencing or re-sequencing
of aircraft.

Dual parallel taxiways, unless constructed for replacement airports where existing movements are known,
should be constructed in phases, as demand requires.

Dual parallel link/crossover taxiways should also be incorporated into a master plan to cross between two
widely spaced parallel runways. The number of crossover taxiways should be related to the ultimate
development potential of the site and should be checked using a simulation model.

See Exhibit 3.2.7.2.8: Capacity of Parallel Taxiways for broad guidelines on the range of hourly movements
that can be achieved from taxiways.

3.3.2.5 Fillet Design

For guidance on the design of fillets at junctions and intersections of taxiways with runways, taxiways and
aprons- refer to the ICAO Aerodromes Design Manual (Doc 9157).

Exhibit 3.3.2.5: Examples of 135' Turn (Runway to Taxiway) and 90' Turn (Taxiway to
Taxiway) for A380-800 (both Cockpit Tracks and Centerline Methods)

.,,. ----- ..........


/

/
/
....----
I
I
AP 7m

F TA • ID-"'
(Is-if

- -J-AU"''iAY CEHTEAlmE
- +-- TAA.rm..YCENTEmJNE
- - - - N.GPATH I~ - - - - NI.G PATl-1
- - - -WlGPATH
- - - - Wt.GPATH

Source: Airbus - Aircraft Characteristics-Airport and Maintenance Planning (AC A380}

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3.3.2.6 Taxi-lanes

Aircraft stand taxi-lanes are routes, bounded on either one or two sides by aircraft parking positions, by which
aircraft can only gain access to these parking positions. It should be noted that the separation distances
between the taxi-lane centerline and an object are less than those between the taxiway centerline and an
object.

Single aircraft stand taxi-lanes giving access to more than six to eight high-turnover cul-de-sac gates should
be avoided, as the resultant delays due to constriction of free movement would place unnecessary financial
inefficiencies on airline operations.

Reference should be made to ICAO Annex 14 for taxiway and taxi-lane marking and lighting standards and
recommended practices.

Recommendation: Single Taxi-lanes


A single taxi-lane giving access to more than six to eight cul-de-sac gates should be avoided.

3.3.3 Aircraft Parking Stands

3.3.3.1 Overview

An aircraft stand is a designated area intended for parking aircraft for the purposes of loading and unloading
passengers, baggage, mail or cargo, or for re-fuelling, long-stay parking or maintenance. The aircraft stand
system is effectively an interface between passenger and cargo terminals and aircraft stand taxi-lanes and
taxiways (i.e., where passenger/baggage/cargo flows become aircraft flows, and vice versa.

This system should be carefully planned so as not to become the factor that restricts capacity. The number of
gates and their availability should be calculated to match the runway throughput, and in the ultimate phase of
development, the optimal maximum throughput that can be achieved from the airport's runway system. In
addition, overnight parking requirements (both at contact and remote stands} should be factored in.

At some airports, aircraft subject to an ATC departure delay will vacate their stands at their scheduled
departure time and absorb the delay on specially designed remote parking areas near the runway. Stands
should not be used as a buffer for late arrivals/departures due to ATC delays.

Running an apron aircraft flow simulation, including realistic gate assignment and pushback procedures, is an
effective way to ensure minimal delays and identify/remove potential/existing bottlenecks (see Exhibit 3.3.2.3
and section 3.3.3.3.3).

Recommendation: Aircraft Flow Simulation


An aircraft flow simulation should be considered to verify the functional ity of apron layouts.

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Contact stands have a significant impact on the quality of service provided to users because they allow for
more rapid and comfortable handling of passengers, avoid the need for buses, and enable better turnaround
times. Contact gates are often essential in providing reliable Minimum Connecting Times (MCTs) in support of
airlines' commercial objectives- especially at hub airports. Contact gates are required at airports with frequent
adverse weather conditions.

Recommendation: Apron and Gate Design


Apron and gate design should reflect the various characteristics and volume of traffic to be handled.

Recommendation: Apron Location


The apron should be located in such a way as to minimize or eliminate the need for crossing runways.

3.3.3.2 Aircraft Characteristics

Airbus and Boeing publish the following documents:

Airbus: Aircraft Characteristics- Airport and Maintenance Planning .

Boeing: Airplane Characteristics for Airport Planning.

These publications, as well as those of other manufacturers, contain the minimum aircraft data required for
general airport planning. The data presented on aircraft maneuvering represent maximum capability in terms
of the geometry of each aircraft type. Since airline operational practices vary, it is always necessary to adjust
this inform ation in consultation with user airlines to determine values appropriate for the planned function of
the apron prior to the start of detailed design.

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The following exhibits show the type of planning material that is rea dily available:

Exhibit: 3.3.3.2a: Commercial Aircraft Key Characteristics

Alii c l l.« 14.10 12.56 107 S7SO 24210 21.21


Al19 / Al19neo c ll.84 15.80 11.76 124 68SO /7750 242:10 242
AllO/ A.llOneo c l7.S7 15.80 11.76 150 6100/6850 24210 31.7
AJll / Allltl.o c 44.Sl lS.IO 11.76 185 5950/6850 24050 42.7

0 S4.08 44.84 16-U 266 7500 68160 158.5


0 45.89 0.90 15.94 220 8050 61070 1122

AllJ>IOO SU2 60.30 17.)9 246 1)400 1)9090 1)4.4


A3lJ>lOO ' 61.69 60.30 16.1) 100 11300 llto90 162.8
' 60.30 16.8 261 12400 155040 161A
A300-IOO '
' 59.AO
63.69 60.30 lOO 1)700 140640
A300-l00 '
AJOO.lOO . ' 67.91 63.45
16.91
17.28 282 16670 215260
162.8

A)O().@ . ' 75.)6 63.45 17.22 359 14600 19SS20


153.9
207.4
AJSI>IOO •• ' 60.S4 64.75 17.05 276 15300 138000 1)6.6
AlSO-toO •• ' 66.10 64.75 17.05 liS 1050 111000 112.4
AJS().liXX) •• ' 73.78 M .7S 17.0S 169 u.aoo 1~ 208.2
'
' 72.72 79.75 szs ts700 noooo ...
8717·20) . c 17.80 28.40 8.9 106 2S45 13890 26.3
81lNiOO c )1.20 )4.)0 12.6 110 5970 26020 20.4
8137·700
8737-100
87J7.A)()()
c
c
c
ll.6l
19.47
42.ll
15.80
lS.IO
15.70
12.5
12.5
12.5
126
162
177
6370
5765
sou
26020
26020
26020
..
27.3

51.9

&767·200(MIO£A) 0 48.50 47.60 15.8 181/224 12300 90916 81A


8767·lOOlA 0 suo 47.60 15.8 218/269 11070 90770 ll8A
8767-400lA 0 61.30 51.90 16.8 245/:104 10«0 9Ul0 129.6
17874 0 S7.00 60.00 17 242 14500 124.6
1787·9 0 61.00 60.00 17 280 15172 153
8117· 10 0 68.00 60.00 17 1)000 175

•m·lOO 63.70 60.90 18.5 30S 9700 117340 lSI


am-lOO(A ' 6).70 60.90 18.5 301 14305 171170 1.S1
am-lOO '
f 73.90 60.90 18.5 168 1ll20 171160 202
8m•l00Ut 73.90 18.5 186 14490 181280 201.6
8777·&lt •• '' 64.80
64.80 150 17220
8777·9X •• 400 15185
8747·100 . ' 70.60
64.80
59.60 19.) 366/452 12700 199158 17S.3
'
8747·l00 .
' 70.60
70.60
59.60
, ..
19.) 412/496
416/524
12400
1)450
199158
216840
17S.l
170.5
t747..t(l()
8747-400(R ' 70.60
64.40
64.40 19.4 416/524 14205 241140 158.5
' , ..
76.30 68.50 467 1481S 242410 161.5
'
WJU 70 c 33.40 29.20 lOA 78 1530
MJU90 c 15.80 29.20 10.4 92 1670
<SIOO c 35.00 15.10 11.5 110 2718 23.7
<SlOO c )8.70 35.10 11.5 135 2778 )1.6

Source: Amended from ADRM. 9th Edition

* denotes aircraft no longer in production.


* Preliminary.

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Note: For the A319/A320/A321, most of the delivered aircraft are with the 34.3 m span, but those newly
delivered with the Sharklet option have the 35.8 m span.

Exhibit: 3.3.3.2b: Example of Turning Radii for the A380-800

lYPE~
OF STEERING
E~~IVE .,.
STEERING R3 R4 AS A&
TURN

2
ANGLE

20'
ANGLE

17.9' 1m
Ill ~
1:
444:4 =ffi~1 ~
...
lm 94.90
~ ~
22.7 ' 113.14
2 25'
111 371 .2 311.4
lm
~ ~
I !=
2 30' 27.5'
I"

i
2 35' 32.,. lm
II
lm
2 40' 36.G'
I" 'iffi" ~
lm
2 45' 4 1.0·
111 ~ ~ ~ ~
lm 45.45
~
I=
so· .43
2 45. 1"
111 149.
1 55' 512' 1m 4 12 43.
lh 141.

~
!19.9
lm

!.3 Iim- i
1 GO' 57.3'
I"
1 G5' &3.4'
I" ~2
lm
~
36.52
~
1 70' G9.5'
Ill 119.8

Source: Airbus - Aircraft Characteristics-Airport and Maintenance Planning (AC A380)

Notes:

Type 1 turns use:

• Asymmetric thrust- both engines on the inside of the turn to be at idle thrust

• Differential braking- braking applied to the wing gear wheels on the inside of the turn

Type 2 turns use:

• Symmetric thrust and no braking.

3.3.3.2.1 Current and Future Aircraft Types

This section has been compiled with the assistance of Airbus and Boeing. Its objective is to help airport
operators and designers appreciate the business drivers associated with the development of newer
commercial aircraft, reflecting current trends and operational requirements, and how these might impact long-
term airport master plans.

Both Airbus and Boeing were asked to provide a statement on their 25-year vision of the aviation industry.
The text provided below has been reproduced verbatim from Airbus and Boeing.

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Airbus 25-Year Vision Statement

Air transport driving forces remain world economic liberalization and growth, international trade development,
population growth and migration, and fares relative decrease allowed by continuous productivity gain from all
actors of the industry. Air transport is becoming a commodity product, where efficient and value-for-money
services are key for survival.

Growth factors as well as historical ability of this industry to adapt should allow air traffic to more than triple in
the next 25 years. As developing countries, especially in Asia, are poised to be world economy and population
locomotives for the next decades, air transport leadership should have switched from North America to Asia
by 2020.

Economics, population concentration and air transport congestion will drive the need for larger, cheaper and
more efficient aircraft. While the need for point to point connections will develop.

The need to connect non-stop all economic and population areas will lead to increasing aircraft range
requirements; for domestic or regional routes where US transcontinental has become the reference for
smaller and smaller jet aircraft; as well as for long international routes, where transpacific today's standard
may grow up to Europe-Australasia capability. However, ultra-long range flight development could be
hampered by economic viability and health issues.

Such aircraft evolution will require specialized and optimized propulsion systems able to meet increasing
economic challenges on short and medium range operations and takeoff and speed issues on longer routes.
Ever more demanding environmental constraints (noise and emissions) will add another complexity to engine
development challenges.

2025 aircraft fleet requirements to transport billions of passengers, on longer but also more dense routes will
certainly necessitate larger aircraft than today: A380 will be a dominant player on major intercontinental trunk
routes and even saturated regional ones. As well, larger medium size aircraft will be needed to replace
today's single aisle aircraft in short and medium range markets, down to regional markets where larger small
jets will take over current 30/50 seaters.

The real technical challenges for the aircraft industry are directly linked to this traffic increase, which should
be coped with by absolute improvements in the key technical parameters:

• Safety, with an overall reduction on total number of accidents.

• Environment, reducing in substantial amounts all aircraft emissions

• Air Transport capacity, including more efficient and bigger aircraft.

• Affordability, through absolute reductions on ticket price.

• Quality of flight, by improving overall comfort and punctuality.

Tomorrow's air transport infrastructure, including airports, will have to accommodate the predicted level of
traffic with increased flexibility, from very large aircraft to small jets. Most importantly, interconnectivity within
the airport and with other transport types must be drastically improved, so that air transport remains a key
driver of trade, tourism and cultural expansion.

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Boeing 25-Year Vision Statement

The driving forces in the aircraft industry will be operating cost, environmental impact, and capacity.

Lower operating cost could provide consolidation pressure to increase aircraft size, especially in some hub-to-
hub markets. Longer, direct flights, to avoid the cost of the passenger transfer and increase airplane
utilization, could increase the fragmentation of the airlines' route structure and required increased operating
weights. Increased usage of the lower holds for revenue cargo may also increase the operating weights of
aircraft. Lower costs could also provide pressure for unique features that decreases fuel burn (canards, more
aft loading via tail fuel tanks, increase wing span/winglets, etc.) that would require more flexibility in gate
layout. Greater utilization, to reduce the impact of ownership cost, will require reduced turn times and could
extend the normal operating window to earli er/later times of the day/night.

Aircraft changes, to address environmental issues, will primarily be internal to the engines and the APU.
Engines will increase in by-pass ratio, which will increase the nacelle diameter, reducing ground clearance
and increasing the potential for damage. Reducing community noise may require increased wingspan and
thrust to improve climb performance as well as detail refinements to reduce airframe noise. Future airplanes
will be 'more electric', and with pressure to reduce APU operation will increase the demand for electrical
power from the terminal grid while parked.

Demand for capacity will increase. Some of the increase will come from larger sized aircraft, but most will
result from increased frequencies and additional destinations. Both the increased frequencies and
destinations will require additional gates as well as better utilization of gates.

In the future, airplanes may:

• Be larger, more span for a given passenger load; and more weight for greater range and cargo capacity;

• Have unique features that impact servicing and turnaround;

• Have greater demand for ramp services, particularly electrical power and conditioned air.

• Twin engine variants will be the dominant airplane models in the future.

3.3.3.3 Stand Capacity

The capacity of the runway, taxiway and apron systems are dynamic, as they relate to the ability to process
traffic flows, which are in constant flux. The capacity of the aircraft stand system is related to the ability to
accumulate aircraft, which is a static capacity. The number of aircraft parking stands for different types/sizes
of aircraft is calculated to meet current and future requirements. This information is essential to develop
realistic and cost-effective airport concepts, and to ensure capacity balance.

The majority of airlines seek to minimize turn round times and maximize aircraft utilization. However, some
schedules, particularly those for long-haul flights, may require aircraft to remain on the ground between early-
morning arrival and late-evening departure. Short to medium-haul aircraft may overnight at their home base or
may be positioned at outstations to enable early-morning connections on return to their home base.

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Stand shortages can occur because:

• Demand exceeds available capacity

• There is a higher-than-expected large aircraft demand; or

• Aircraft remain on stand for an extended amount of time

This highlights that the key aspects of stand availability are:

• The number of stands provided for different types/sizes of aircraft

• The availability of these stands as influenced by occupancy times (possibly ranging from less than an
hour to in excess of 10 hours)

• Availability of multiple aircraft ramping stands

• The terminal(s) being served by the stands

• Whether the stands are contact or remote

3.3.3.3.1 Turn Round Times (TRT)

Stand occupancy time is an important factor in establishing capacity. When conducting a gate assessment
study, the actual processing and servicing times should be observed and recorded. Exhibit 3.3.3.3.1a
provides manufacturers' processing, servicing and TRT.

Exhibit 3.3.3.3.1a: Typical Aircraft Processing, Servicing and TRT


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Source: Extracted from Airbus and Boeing · Aircraft Characteristics- Airport and Maintenance Planning

Notes:

• No passengers with reduced mobility

• Total TRT figs. taken from manufacturers' data

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Airport Development Reference Manual

• Actual times may vary due to each operator's specific practices, resources, equipment and operating
conditions

• Individual times may not add up to total TRT as tasks can run concurrently (see Exhibit 3.3.3.3.1b)

Exhibit 3.3.3.3.1 b: Example of TRT for A380-800 of 90 minutes

:;:q::;:;:~~~~;:;::~~;:;:;~~:;:;~50:;:;:;:;6~0:;:;::;:;:7:!;0~:;:;:8~0:;i:;:~90
10 20 30 40
DEBOARD!NGIBOARD lNG to
AT M2L F
DEBOARDING/BOARDING
AT U1 L
HEADCOUNTING & LPS ~;:;:::~:;:::~;:::;:::~::;::::;:;:~;::::::;~::;:::~~~:::;::;::;:;:~;:=)
CATERING AT M2R ~:::;:;~~~:;:;:~;:;::;~:;:;:~::;:;::;::r:::l
CATERING AT M4R _h:~~:::;::::
CATERING AT U1R h~~~
CATERINGAT M5L ~~~~
CLEANINGATM1R ~~~~
CARGO FWDCC
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REFUELLING h:::~~~---····llljl::~
POTABLE WATER SERVICING ~--····!=l
TOILET SERVICING ~~~~~~~~;!I!I!I!I!!!~!!!~WW.lillWW

GSE POSITIONING/REMOVAL
- ACTIVITY
CRITICAL PATH

Source: Airbus - Aircraft Characteristics- Airport and Maintenance Planning (AC A380)

Note: Typical TRT - standard servicing via main deck and upper deck and one upper deck catering truck.

Exhibit 3.3.3.3.1 b is an example of a TRT chart showing the typical time for ramp activities during aircraft turn-
round. A list of assumptions used for standard servicing via main and upper decks during a typical TRT is also
noted in the Airbus material (but not replicated here).

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Planning-Airside Infrastructure

3.3.3.3.2 Capacity Enhancements

Possibilities for flexible use of aircraft operational stands (e.g., two small aircraft on one large stand) should
be kept in mind when assessing the maximum capability of a layout. The parking configuration adopted (e.g.,
taxi-in/push-back versus taxi-in/taxi-out) may not impact on-stand capacity, but could have a significant impact
on the overall apron capacity. Availability of facilities such as hydrant re-fuelling, loading bridges, etc., which
help to reduce TRT, should also be considered.

3.3.3.3.3 Stand Assessment and Gate Assignment Studies

While there is a physical limit on the number of aircraft that can be simultaneously accommodated at an
airport, operational factors such as gate assignment policy, exclusive/preferential use, and handling of the
aircraft by ATC impact the practical capacity of the system. The inputs required to conduct a gate assignment
study include:

• Busy day flight schedule

• Apron plan indicating all contact and remote stands

• List of all contact and remote stands by range of aircraft accommodated and sectors accepted/preferred

• Policy regarding exclusive and/or preferential use

• Operational parameters, such as:

o Buffer time between flights using the same gate (either on a gate-by-gate basis or globally)

o Minimum tow-on and tow-off time by aircraft

o Minimum ground time before an aircraft is considered a candidate for towing

• Differing security requirements (e.g., gates for departures to the USA which require enhanced or
additional security checks)

• Separation (or not) of gates for international, regional or domestic traffic

Gate assignment study results (i.e., the number of gates by class of aircraft and by sector) and gate utilization
can be shown in a Gantt chart (see Exhibit 3.3.3.3).

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Airport Development Reference Manual

Exhibit 3.3.3.3: Example of Gate Assignment Chart

Set..., 1Result J Stelm1e& J Menage'" J Repo1t Ganlt Chart I


!}:! 10H 11H 12H lli !fi
14H 151-\_ 161i_ 1M_ 19tJ 19H 2!H 21H 22H ~i 24/i
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Concourse A
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Source: ADRM , 9th Edition

Recommendation: Gate Supply


Gate supply should be calculated to match the runway throughput and, ultimately, the runway saturation
schedule plus long-stay and overnight parking requirements.

3.3.3.4 Aircraft Parking Layouts

3.3.3.4.1 Clearance Requirements

The application of adequate clearance margins in the development of apron layouts is essential to ensure
acceptability by airport authorities.

The apron and associated fixed equipment, as well as aircraft parked on the apron, are part of the total airport
system which, in operational terms, is subject to the requirements for the safe conduct of flight operations.
These requirements- in the form of Standards and Recommended Practices in ICAO Annex 14- have
achieved universal acceptance as good aircraft operating practice. They recognize the need to conduct
operations in a broad range of circumstances while achieving an acceptable level of performance and safety.

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Clearances in the following categories must be taken into account in the planning and design of apron
layouts:

Flight Operations: The practical effect of these requirements on apron planning is to provide adequate
separation between apron areas, active taxiways and active runways. Other requirements are to restrict the
height of fixed apron equipment and parked aircraft according to their distance from the runway and their
position relative to it. These limitations are stated in ICAO Annex 14. If stand development is being considered
at existing airports that could infringe on these clearance requirements, either by existing buildings or fixed
facilities, the situation should be brought to the attention of the Airport Licensing Authority.

Aircraft Ground Movement: The layout of apron areas must provide the clearance requirements for aircraft
moving over the taxiway system between the runway system and the aircraft parking stands.

Clearances should be provided for aircraft on the basis that they are capable of following the taxiway
centerline. Due regard should be given to the ability of the aircraft type having the longest wheel base to
follow curved guidelines and the tendency of the wingtip on the outside of the turn to cover a greater area
than when proceeding in a straight line. On apron taxiways and aircraft stand taxi-lanes, the minimum
clearance between taxiing aircraft and parked aircraft, buildings or fixed obstructions should be as given in
ICAO Annex 14. An aircraft maneuvering onto a stand under its own power should normally be allowed a
minimum clearance of 7.5 m between it and other parked aircraft, buildings or fixed obstructions (see Exhibit
3.3.3.7.5 for further clarification).

Where an aircraft taxies into a nose-in position in front of a building structure, a minimum clearance of 4.5 m
between the structure and the nose of the aircraft is sufficient, provided an effective stopping guidance system
is available. In such cases, sufficient clearance at apron level should also be allowed to facilitate the
maneuvering of tractors and tow bars into position for the pushback operation. If a service road is located in
front of the aircraft and can be used for tow tractor maneuvering, a distance of 15 m is required between the
aircraft nose gear and the service road. See Section 3.3.4.9.7 for information on aircraft push-back tugs.

The design of taxiways should include a minimal number of changes in direction. Where a change in direction
is unavoidable, this should be accomplished by means of a large-radius transitional curve. Aircraft stands and
taxiway layouts should not be developed on the basis of aircraft minimum radius turns. Where aircraft are
required to turn from the taxiway or taxi-lane onto a stand centerline, a distance of at least half the length of
the aircraft should be provided in order to achieve alignment following completion of the planned turn.

Ground Service Equipment Operation: The type, quantity and method of operation of ground service
equipment will vary widely from airport to airport (and widely within an airport), due to the range of aircraft
types served, the equipment specifications and the procurement policies of the different ground service
providers. It is, therefore, essential that local requirements for space and clearances be established by
consultation with the airlines.

In favorable situations, the clearances required for the operation of ground service equipment on the aircraft
stand can be contained within the overall dimensions of the aircraft and the surrounding aircraft ground
movement clearances (see Section 3.3.4.9).

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Airport Development Reference Manual

In less favorable situations, additional space or clearances may be required when:

• Transporters (e.g., buses, mobile lounges or other specialized vehicles) are used to convey passengers
between the passenger terminal and aircraft on remote stands

• Mobile tankers are used in the absence of hydrant fueling

• Other items of equipment, either individually or collectively, are exceptionally large or unwieldy

• Large exchanges of baggage, cargo or mail are required during short turnaround or transit operations
(this is particularly relevant with the operation of combi-aircraft)

• The baggage sortation area and/or the cargo terminal is located remotely from the passenger terminal
apron, with the distance and transportation times necessitating forward staging areas for baggage, cargo,
or both

• The overall aircraft size or wingspan is limited

Recommendation: Stand Placement-Taxiway Consideration


Since remote stands are often located in close proximity to taxiways, careful consideration must be given to
entrance and exit procedures, and to the potential effects of engine exhaust velocities.

3.3.3.4.2 Multiple Aircraft Ramping Stand

Aircraft stand layouts are dependent on many factors, both technical and financial. With respect to the
financial objective, it is essential for an airport to be as efficient as possible so that stand layouts can
accommodate an optimum number of parked aircraft combinations.

Aircraft stands can be dedicated to a particular aircraft type, however in so doing a degree of operational
flexibility is lost. Alternatively, certain modes of operation can allow stands to be configured to permit the
mixing of wide-body and narrow-body aircraft on a single Multiple Aircraft Ramping 11 Stand (MARS) layout. All
layouts must be technically in accordance with ICAO Annex 14 stand and taxiway layout standards and
recommendations.

11
Ramping refers to the centerline of the stand where the nose wheels are driven and ultimately parked

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Planning-Airside Infrastructure

Exhibit 3.3.3.4.2a: Typical MARS Arrangements

~~~~ 1113 198 ~se se 168 ~0~8 O~E 10~8

Bravo Gate Stands - Mid Airfield


A PM Served

B737-400/500 MARS Configuration


All Aircraft Passenger Boarding Bridge Served

Source: ADRM, 9th Edition

Exhibit 3.3.3.4.2b: Typical MARS Arrangements

~0~8

Bravo Gate Stands - Mid Airfield


APM Served

B747-400- A380- B747-400 MARS Configuration


A ll Aircraft Dual Passenger Boarding Bridge Served

Source: ADRM, 9th Edition

It is essential that the airport provide the necessary number of stand centerlines, and of the correct type, to
accommodate the actual and forecast need. To this extent, the use of future flight schedules to assess the 'on
ground, within stand' times of all aircraft types is a necessity. The mix of parked aircraft on the ground and the
expected growth both attribute to layout requirements. These requirements are then mapped to the technical
limitations of the location (i.e., availability of stand area and assessment of soil mechanics). Community

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Airport Development Reference Manual

environmental issues will also need to be addressed. The impact envelopes of emissions and noise from
aircraft approaching and parking on the stands will need to be assessed. Only when all of this information has
been analyzed can the decision to accommodate a specific stand geometry be concluded.

Setting-Out Configurations: When configuring a MARS or single stand to serve all aircraft, the following
factors should be considered:

• Preference should be given to the use of two-section apron drives over three-section variants

• Aircraft should not be positioned with fuel hydrants beneath the engines

• The distance from the furthest-most feature of the aircraft tail assembly, when viewed in plan, should not
be less than 4.5 m from the back of stand perimeter marking

• The minimum wingtip clearance from the stand perimeter should be two m

• Passenger boarding bridge parking locations should be designed to aid the movement of aircraft support
vehicles

• The positioning of fixed or mobile auxiliary aircraft ground power equipment should be assessed

• Terminal gate room evacuation routes via the rotunda and link bridge emergency stairs should be
accounted for, as should the space needed to accommodate passengers

• The potential provision for automated arrival baggage system conveyors should be considered for
selected operations

• Aircraft misalignment (badly parked) tolerances should considered

• Parallax Aircraft Parking Aid (PAPA) boards and Azimuth Guidance for Nose-In Stand (AGNIS) equipment
space should be safeguarded

• Equipment area zones should be identified and space requirements accounted for

• Consideration should be given to potential growth of new aircraft, both in wingspan and length

3.3.3.4.3 Contact Stands

Contact stands are aircraft parking stands that can be accessed directly from the terminal or satellite building
without recourse to a bussing operation.

The gate stand can be used in conjunction with passenger boarding bridges, ground servicing vehicles
(except buses), or apron stairs. However, it is recommended that contact stands should be accessed with
passenger boarding bridges wherever possible to improve customer service standards. For further details on
passenger boarding bridges, please refer to Section 3.3.3.6.

Contact stands are usually an integral part of the pier, satellite or main terminal departure lounge, and are
comprised of the following interconnected components:

1. Link bridge from terminal or pier structure to rotunda

(a) With segregated departure and arrival routes, or

(b) With mixed departures and arrivals on a single route

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Planning-Airside Infrastructure

2. Emergency stair node

3. Stand area

4. Passenger boarding bridge(s)

5. Chute/conveyor to move items that cannot be accommodated safely in overhead bins (e.g., child strollers,
oversized bags, etc.) to the apron and aircraft hold

Contact stands are the preferred solution for airlines, passengers and staff. They are more economical to
operate than a comparably sized and served remote stand due the requirement for less connection vehicle
equipment, fuel, staff and time. The contact stand can also be configured to be used in conjunction with all
three types of passenger boarding bridges (see Section 3.3.3.6.2).

Recommendation: Percentage of Contact Stands


A high percentage of contact stands is required when an airline's strategy specifies short turn round times,
good quality of service, short and reliable MCTs and when dealing with frequent adverse weather conditions.
Designers should keep in mind that an airport is part of the airline network and, therefore, is linked to
commercial objectives.

Recommendation: Contact Stands


Contact stands should be considered to improve the quality of service to users by providing more rapid and
comfortable passenger handling and avoiding the need for buses.

Having established the mix of aircraft required to meet flight schedule criteria, it will be necessary to
accommodate those aircraft types physically on the available apron area. It is essential that the correct
number and type of aircraft be understood, with contingency consideration for late aircraft turnaround. Contact
stands should be considered prime real estate on the apron and should be allocated accordingly.

Contact stands should be used to serve the majority of aircraft traffic as determined from the flight schedule.
These may not necessarily be for code E aircraft, as an airport serving domestic traffic may need to cater to
code B and C aircraft predominantly, with only the occasional code E or F aircraft being served.

Recommendation: Gate Stand Flexibility


Gate stands should be as flexible as possible and should serve a wide range of aircraft from, in order of
preference: (i) large to small aircraft; (ii) large to medium aircraft; (iii) medium to small aircraft; (iv) large
aircraft only; (v) medium aircraft only, or (vi) small aircraft only. Much will depend on the operational
requirements of the terminal and the flight schedule.

A single passenger boarding bridge per gate stand should be used wherever possible for all aircraft smaller
than Code F.

Where large aircraft (e.g., the A380 series) are to be served, it is recommended that the gate be provided with
two passenger boarding bridges to facilitate quicker deplaning and boarding of passengers serving the
forward first lower port door and the forward second upper port door. A third bridge can also be used for this
type of aircraft (see Exhibit 3.3.3.4.3).

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Airport Development Reference Manual

Exhibit 3.3.3.4.3: Passenger Boarding Bridge Quantities by Aircraft Code

Aircraft Code Number of Passenger Boarding Bridges


Recommended Possible Maximum <1l
c 1 1
D 1 2
E 1 2
F 2 3

Source: Am ended from ADRM, 9th Edition

Notes:

1. The number of additional passenger boarding bridges should be agreed by consultation with the local
airline community.

It should be noted that many medium-sized aircraft also have dual forward door positions that can be served.
Individual airline preferences should be established to determine which door is to be served.

The capital costs associated with the use of passenger boarding bridges means that, wherever possible, two-
section passenger boarding bridges (nose loader or apron drive) should be used as the first choice over
three-section passenger boarding bridges. See section 3.3.3.6 for more detailed information.

Area Required : The area required for contact stands with associated taxiway clearance-to-object
requirements for aircraft with varying wingspans is outlined in Exhibit 3.2.7.2.13.

Reference Dimensions: Generic space requirements typically allowed on an apron to accommodate different
aircraft types are provided in Exhibit 3.2.7.2.14b.

3.3.3.4.4 Remote Stands

Aircraft on stands that are accessed via passenger buses are deemed to be parked on remote stands.

The provision of aircraft stands remote from the terminal building is an economical way of increasing terminal
capacity, particularly in relation to limited periods of apron congestion.

The total airport terminal building capacity must, however, remain in balance. Expansion of aircraft stands,
whether in number or size, must be matched by expansion of other elements of the terminal building. When
considering the introduction of remote stands, the following factors should be considered:

• The layout of remote stands must not interfere with apron taxi-lanes or runway clearance requirements

• Aircraft maneuvering considerations for contact stands also apply to remote stands

• Since remote stands are often located in close proximity to active taxiways, careful consideration must be
given to entrance and exit procedures as well as the effects of engine exhaust velocities

• Apron drainage must be in conformity with local building codes and environmental regulations (e.g.,
special treatment may be required for spills of aircraft fuel or de-icing fluid- see ICAO Annex 14)

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Planning-Airside Infrastructure

• The economic viability of providing remote stands as opposed to contact stands must be established,
including the cost of operating and maintaining buses/mobile lounges and how many hours a day, on a
yearly average, a stand will be occupied

• Remote stands give more flexibility in assigning aircraft stands, especially for flights with long turnaround
times, overnight stays, technical delays, or flights having special security requirements

• At the outset it must be clearly established what aircraft types will operate on the remote stands so they
may be appropriately sized

• Since, by definition, these stands are remote from the main terminal area, consideration must be given to
the most effective utilization of ground equipment, including staging ground servicing equipment nearby
as well as requirements for aircraft hydrant fuelling, ground power, air-conditioning and de-icing

• For a safe operation, it is important to have good apron floodlighting

Area Required: The area required for remote stands, with associated taxiway clearance-to-object
requirements for aircraft with varying wingspans is outlined in Exhibit 3.2. 7.2.13.

Reference Dimensions: Generic space requirements typically allowed on an apron to accommodate different
aircraft types are provided in Exhibit 3.2.7.2.14b.

3.3.3.4.5 Taxi-in/Pushback vs. Taxi-in/Taxi-out

While no fixed commercial rul e has emerged regarding the choice between taxi-out and pushback parking
configurations, it can clearly be seen from a comparison of diagrams (see Exhibit 3.3.3.4.5a) that there are
considerable disadvantages to using taxi-in/taxi-out apron configurations, namely:

• Additional stand/apron space is required

• Engine exhaust velocities and the effects from turning aircraft can be a limiting factor

• Use of passenger boarding bridges can be restricted

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Airport Development Reference Manual

Exhibit 3.3.3.4.5a: Taxi-in/Pushback vs. Taxi-in/Taxi-out

Taxi-In - Push Out Taxi-In - Taxi Out

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'

Source: ADRM , 9th Edition

However, there are examples where the above disadvantages have been overcome. Geneva Airport (see
Exhibit 3.3.3.4.5b) has three remote circular satellites, with passenger access via a network of tunnels
beneath the apron and inner taxiway. Two of these satellites (30 and 40) have passenger boarding bridge
configurations that allow aircraft to taxi in and taxi out.

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Planning-Airside Infrastructure

Exhibit 3.3.3.4.5b: Geneva Airport

SARACO

Source: Geneva Airport

Nevertheless, the trend is clearly in favor of pushback configurations at high-volume airports catering to larger
aircraft, and taxi-out configurations at lower-volume airports using smaller regional-type aircraft (where
maneuvering space is less restricted). In all cases, a study must be conducted considering present and
foreseeable conditions that may influence aircraft parking configurations.

The main advantages of the taxi-in/pushback configuration are:

• Reduction in apron congestion due to the ability to position ground equipment immediately adjacent to the
aircraft parking position

• Ability to load passengers or baggage almost up to the scheduled time of departure

• Clearances between adjacent aircraft, ground equipment and fixed obstacles are less critical

• Aircraft parking guidance systems can be relatively simple

• The effects of engine exhaust velocities on equipment, personnel and terminal facilities is substantially
lessened and the requirement for blast fences is reduced or eliminated

• The effects of noise and emissions are reduced

• Passenger boarding bridges can be easily deployed

• The total area of the apron pavement and related costs are kept to the minimum

A disadvantage of the taxi-in/pushback configuration is that it requires additional aircraft tow tractors and
associated personnel to perform the pushback. Aircraft tow tractors are costly, especially those designed to

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Airport Development Reference Manual

handle wide-body aircraft. Procurement and operating costs, plus frequency of usage, must be balanced
against the factors outlined above.

3.3.3.4.6 Short vs. Long Stay

Holding aprons can be placed at convenient locations at the airport for the temporary storage of aircraft.
These can be required at large airports where the number of gates is insufficient to handle demand during
peak periods of the day. In these cases, aircraft are routed by ATC to the holding apron and are held there
until a contact or remote stand becomes available.

Holding aprons can also be used to allow a departing flight to vacate a needed gate and to wait near the
runway without obstructing either arriving aircraft or the departure flow, pending receipt of ATC/ATFM (slot)
en-route clearance.

Holding aprons can also be used for aircraft with long turnaround times, particularly where staying on a
contact stand would unnecessarily tie up capacity. This is particularl y true of airports where contact stands are
limited.

Holding aprons are not usually required if capacity slightly exceeds demand. However, fluctuations in future
demand are difficult to predict, and therefore a temporary holding facility may be necessary.

3.3.3.4.7 Isolated Aircraft Parking Positions

Airports that have been designated capable of accepting hijacked aircraft will have aircraft stands with special
features. These special stands should aid the anti-terrorist police force and reduce the risk of potential injury
to passengers resulting from deliberate unlawful action upon the aircraft and its passengers and crew.

The isolated aircraft parking position should be located at the maximum distance possible from other aircraft
parking positions, buildings, public areas, and the airport perimeter. If taxiways or runways pass within this
area, they may have to be closed to normal operations when a 'suspect' aircraft is in the area. Planners
should seek input on ideal locations for these positions from the security or law-enforcement agencies that
would respond to such incidents.

The isolated aircraft parking position may also serve as a 'security parking area', where an aircraft threatened
with unlawful interference may be parked as long as necessary. In this special area, aircraft could be
positioned to unload passengers, cargo, mail or stores during a bomb threat.

Care should be taken to ensure that the isolated position is not located over underground utilities such as
gasoline or aviation fuel networks, water mains, or electrical/communications cables. Such parking areas
should be located where the possibility of unauthorized persons physically reaching or launching an attack
against the aircraft is remote. Consideration should also be given to the prevailing wind direction and aircraft
landing and takeoff routing at the airport, so as to minimize disruption to airport operations and the
surrounding locality in the event of an aircraft fire or release of dangerous substances from the aircraft.

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Planning-Airside Infrastructure

3.3.3.5 Visual Docking Guidance Systems

With the adoption of nose-in parking and passenger boarding bridges, it is necessary to provide a guidance
system to assist the pilot in positioning the aircraft accurately. The UK Civil Aviation Authority Visual Aids
Handbook (CAP 637) should be referred to as current best industry practice on AGNIS and PAPA
installations.

The following topics must be addressed during the planning and development of visual docking guidance
systems:

Pilot Responsibility: The pilot should be provided with an unambiguous system that allows accurate
guidance of the aircraft to the final parking position, and indicates the rate of closure with the desired stopping
position.

Accuracy: The system must recognize the aircraft type and provide the parking accuracy required on the
particular airport or apron. This should be established by the airport authorities and airlines jointly. Points to
be considered include:

• The clearances involved (i.e., distances between the pilot tube probes and the forward edge of the
passenger door when open)

• The performance of the passenger boarding bridges

• The positions of fuelling hydrants and dispenser hose lengths available

• The space required for all aircraft ground servicing activities

When fixed loading bridges are installed, the docking guidance system must be particularly reliable as the
accuracy of this system must match the tolerances of the fixed bridge. On aprons serviced by apron-drive
boarding bri dges, parking accuracy requirements may be less stringent.

3.3.3.5.1 Multiple Aircraft-Type Capability

The system must accommodate as many different aircraft types as are likely to operate at the parking
position. This factor should be established by airport authorities and airlines in joint consultation. In a multi-
aircraft system, the problem of providing stopping guidance is more difficult. It is important that the correct
stopping position for the specific aircraft type using the stand be clearly identifiable by the pilot, irrespective of
the pilot's height above the apron level.

The system should be compatible with aids employed for landing and taxiing, and should be operable under
similar weather and other operational criteria.

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3.3.3.6 Passenger Boarding Bridges

The basic requirements for the passenger boarding bridge to aircraft interface can be found in the lATA
Airport Handling Manual (AHM) 922. The AHM outlines the general functional requirements for the interface of
either a passenger boarding bridge or a passenger transfer vehicle with aircraft passenger doors. The aim is
to permit the safe transfer of passengers, avoid interference with protrusions on the aircraft fuselage and
reduce the risk of damage.

3.3.3.6.1 Objectives

Passenger boarding bridges are extensively used by airports worldwide and assist airport operations by:

• Reducing disembarkation and embarkation times by nearly 25% when compared to conventional steps
and buses

• Improving passenger and staff safety

• Improving the passenger experience, particularly in extreme climates, since the transfer to and from the
aircraft is in a controlled environment and away from adverse weather such as rain, snow, high humidity
and heat

• Improving access for passengers with reduced mobility (PRMs) and reducing staff injuries handling PRMs
via alternative, non-automated means of access

• Providing a means of escape from the aircraft in case of an emergency

3.3.3.6.2 Passenger Boarding Bridge Types

There are three types:

1. Apron drive: This provides the greatest flexibility for airports wishing to serve a wide range of aircraft, as it
moves on three axes, namely:

• Axis 1-vertically up and down about the pivot point on the rotunda

• Axis 2- laterally in and out via movement of the telescopic section

• Axis 3-on an arc rotating about the rotunda

It is possible to serve smaller aircraft with low sill heights through to larger Code E and F aircraft using an
apron drive unit. The apron drive unit usually comprises two or three telescopic tunnel sections attached to
the rotunda unit. It is affixed close to the terminal link bridge and has a rotating cab at the aircraft end.

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Exhibit 3.3.3.6.2a: Typical Two-Section Apron Drive Passenger Boarding Bridge

Bridge head ~+------+~

• •
•• ••
• •

Apron drive type

Source: ICAO

Three-section tunnel apron drive units are recommended to be used where the range of aircraft sill height
differentials vary the most. It is a common fact that, the greater the slope length, the shallower the resultant
slope gradient will be on all passenger boarding bridges.

The cab which docks with the aircraft can be levelled with the aircraft door sill either manually or
automatically. The automatic or self-levelling system is recommended since it constantly maintains the correct
level regard less of the load in the aircraft and does not require a person to monitor the relative level of the
bridge to the aircraft door sill.

The apron drive passenger boarding bridge is more flexible, in that misaligned aircraft can be more easily
accommodated because the cab can be moved to account for the parking error (rather than having to move
the aircraft).

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Exhibit 3.3.3.6.2b: Passenger Boarding Bridge Stand Design

I r

Source: lATA

Recommendation : Apron Drive Variant Selection


Where the attributes of the apron drive unit are favored over the fixed unit, the two-section tunnel apron drive
passenger boarding bridge should be selected as the first choice. If the two-section tunnel bridge cannot
meet the operational requirements, then the three-section tunnel apron drive unit is recommended to be
used.

Recommendation: Use of Multiple Passenger Boarding Bridges


Where it can be demonstrated that multiple passenger boarding bridges are required to aid passenger
embarkation and disembarkation, the recommended solution is to provide multiple conventional apron drive
passenger boarding bridges to serve the forward doors. Rear-door service should be provided only by
special agreement of all parties concerned.

2. Fixed : These are most commonly used to support aircraft that share similar door sill heights, as the nose
loader passenger boarding bridge can only move on two axes, namely:

• Axis 1- vertically up and down about the pivot point on the rotunda

• Axis 2- laterally in and out via movement of the telescopic section

Since the distance from the rotunda pivot point to the cab is usually significantly less than half the stand width,
the effective slope length is also limited. This, in turn, restricts the permissible aircraft height range.

Contact stands where long, straight lead-in lines are not available may be unsuitable for fixed bridges, as
minor misalignments in aircraft parking may not allow the bri dge to be used or may require the aircraft to be
moved.

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Exhibit 3.3.3.6.2c: Typical Two-Section Fixed Passenger Boarding Bridge

-
Bridge head

Fixed type
Bridge head

Source: ICAO

It is common and recommended for the fixed passenger boarding bridge to be used in situations where the
aircraft to be served are of similar size as the rotunda height can be set accordingly. Recommended aircraft
size groupings are:

• Small only

• Small to medium

• Medium only

• Medium to large

• Large only

It is possible to serve small-to-large aircraft ranges using the fixed passenger boarding bridge, but the usual
result is that the telescopic tunnel gradient becomes excessively steep or multiple parallel stand centerlines
are required.

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The fixed passenger boarding bridge requires that the aircraft be stopped very accurately since the cab
cannot be moved down the length of the stand centerline.

Recommendation: Use of the Fixed Passenger Boarding Bridge


It is recommended for the fixed passenger boarding bridge to be used in situations where the aircraft to be
served are of similar size as the rotunda height can be set accordingly. Recommended aircraft size
groupings are:
• Small only
• Small to medium
• Medium only
• Medium to large
• Large only

3. Cantilever: These are increasingly rare and used mainly to expedite passengers more quickly from large
aircraft such as the 8747 series or the A380 using the aircraft's aft port door positions. The cantilever
passenger boarding bridge is usually used alongside a conventional apron drive unit serving the forward door
positions. A fixed combination is possible, though this is very rare as it is also very restrictive.

•,!!.•
O KLM

Source: lATA

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The cantilever passenger boarding bridge extends over the port wing and engine(s) to reach the aft port door
on the aircraft. The cantilever structure is used since the weight of the telescopic sections cannot be
supported by ground-driven powered wheel assemblies. The load is instead transferred across the upper
bracing structure which is predominately in tension, where the main weight and dynamic moments of the
assembly are transferred to the upper sections of the rotunda.

The use of the cantilever passenger boarding bridge is not a preferred or recommended solution. Where two
passenger boarding bridges are required, the recommended solution is to provide dual conventional apron
drive passenger boarding bridges to expedite passengers serving the forward lower first door, lower second
door, or the upper deck doors.

3.3.3.6.3 Passenger Boarding Bridge Slope

It is recommended that a slope of 12.5% not be exceeded for all types of passenger boarding bridges. Where
the slope of any part of the bridge exceeds 12.5%, handrails shall be provided on both sides in that area. The
gradient should be measured from the rotunda pivot point in all instances to:

• The cab-to-aircraft interface for non-leveling apron drive cabs

• The end of the telescopic sections of the self-leveling apron drive variant

• The cab-to-aircraft interface for fixed and cantilever variants

Recommendation: Telescopic Passenger Boarding Bridge Slope


It is recommended that a slope of 12.5% not be exceeded for all types of passenger boarding bridges.

3.3.3.6.4 The Rotunda/Link Bridge/Emergency Escape

The rotunda is the main support mechanism for all passenger boarding bridges and is fixed to the stand. The
location of the rotunda is the single most critical unit on the stand as every other component, including the
aircraft, will be positioned around the location chosen for the rotunda. It is important to select a position for the
rotunda that will permit the passenger boarding bridges to:

• Reach all aircraft likely to use the apron

• Allow aircraft to be parked such that they do not clash with building structures or other aircraft

• Create a link bridge clearance that permits vehicles to pass beneath them

When setting the rotunda height, it is good practice and recommended to initially set the finished floor level of
the rotunda in accordance with the levels defined in Exhibit 3.3.3.6.4a. It will be necessary to determine the
optimum rotunda position and height taking into account the:

• Vertical clearance between the roadway and the underside of the link bridge to the terminal building (most
highway bridges allow a clearance of 4.2 m and some catering/PRM closed-body trucks require this level
of clearance)

• Parked position of all aircraft

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• Permissible bridge slope

• Number of telescopic tunnel sections

• Apron slope characteristics

Exhibit 3.3.3.6.4a: Possible Rotunda Levels vs. Aircraft Range

Aircraft Service Range Possible Rotunda Level Range


Low Aircraft Only > 3.75 < 4 .0
Low-to-Medium Aircraft > 4 .00 < 4 .5
Medium Aircraft Only ;;:: 4.50 ::; 5.0
Medium- to-High Aircraft ;;:: 4.50 ::; 5.5
High Aircraft Only 2: 4.50 ::; 6.0

Source: ADRM, 9th Edition

Exhibit 3.3.3.6.4b: Range of Aircraft Door Sill Levels

Typical Aircraft Sill Height (Level 1) Aircraft Height Type


8737-700 2.67 Low
A320-200 3.39 Low
8767-300 4. 13 Medium
A340-300 4.40 Medium
8777-200 4 .72 High
8747-400 4.65 High
A380-800 5. 13 High

Source: ADRM, 9th Edition

Exhibit 3.3.3.6.4c: Classification of Aircraft Door Sill Levels

Classification of Aircraft Door Sill Levels Aircraft Sill Height Range


Low < 3.75
Medium > 3.75m ::; 4 .50
High ;;:: 4.50

Source: ADRM, 9th Edition

Note: All dimensions in meters

Recommendation: Rotunda Height


The link bridge connects the fixed rotunda to the terminal building. It is good practice and recommended to
be able to separate the routes of arriving and departing passengers, starting at the point where the rotunda
connects to the link bridge. It is also good practice and recommended to provide means of access to the
apron for passengers and staff at the point where the rotunda meets the link bridge.

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Exhibit 3.3.3.6.4d: Typical Link Bridge Connection - Preferred Ramps Configuration

Source: ADRM, 9th Edition

In summary, if an individual were standing where the rotunda meets with the link bridge, that individual should
be able to follow one of the following available routes:

• Access to the aircraft

• Access to the terminal- transfer passenger

• Access to the terminal- arriving passenger

• Access to the apron- emergency evacuation or staff access.

Recommendation: Access and Passenger Route Separation


It is good practice and recommended to be able to separate the routes of arriving and departing passengers,
starting at the point where the rotunda connects to the link bridge. It is also good practice and recommended
to provide access to the apron for passengers and staff at the point where the rotunda meets with the link
bridge, as fully defined in Section 3.3.3.6.4.

3.3.3.6.5 Emergency and Other Safety Considerations

In the common situation where passenger boarding bridge emergency escape stairs are fitted, it is
recommended that they not move with the rotation of the cab. Instead, they should remain parallel with the
length of the telescopic section(s) at all times.

Consideration should be given to the fire protection properties of the passenger boarding bridges. Where the
relevant authority agrees that such protection is necessary, the passenger boarding bridges must maintain
their integrity and provide a means of escape from the aircraft in the event of a fuel spillage fire,
commensurate with the requirements of the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 415 Standard of
Airport terminal Buildings, Fuelling Ramp Drainage and Loading Walkways.

All floor finishes used in the loading bridge must be non-slip. Means must be provided to minimize any
tripping or slipping hazards.

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A means of communicating with passengers queuing between the gate and aircraft must be provided to direct
passengers back to the gate in the event of an emergency at the aircraft or in the access link.

3.3.3.6.6 The Apron Slope Effect

The slope of the apron can have a significant effect on the ability of the passenger boarding bridge to serve
an aircraft, and on the safe operation of the stand in general. The slope will effect drainage, the height of the
aircraft and the gradient of the passenger boarding bridge tunnels.

The correct recommended balance between drainage and stability is to set the apron slope such that it
declines away from the head-of-stand line at a slope of 0.5 to 1.0% (running parallel to the stand centerline). It
is also recommended to try to set the position of the main rear undercarriage assemblies of the aircraft such
that they will naturally roll away from the terminal structure and toward the taxiway. This will ensure that
pushback loads are minimized.

Recommendation: Apron Slope


It is recommended to set the apron slope such that it declines away from the head-of-stand line at a slope of
0.5 to 1.0%. It is also recommended to try to set the position of the main rear undercarriage assemblies of
the aircraft such that they will naturally roll away from the terminal structure and toward the taxiway.

3.3.3.6.7 Apron Floodlighting

Guidance on apron floodlighting is given in ICAO's Aerodrome Design Manual (Doc 9157).

3.3.4 Aircraft Ground Servicing

3.3.4.1 Introduction

The apron must provide for the maneuvering and parking requirements of the various units of ground
equipment employed in connection with aircraft handling and servicing. Airport planning documents published
by the aircraft manufacturers give typical servicing arrangements (in composite drawings) identifying each
service vehicle for each aircraft type.

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Exhibit 3.3.4.1a: Example of an Aircraft Servicing Arrangement-Typical Ramp Layout


(Contact Stand) for the A380-800

FEET
0 16 32 48 I-
I I I I I I
I
0 5 10 15 I-
METERS
1-

ULD

r BULK

- STAND SAFETY LINE

Source: Airbus - Aircraft Characteristics- Airport and Maintenance Planning (AC A380)

Note: The Stand Safety Line delimits the Aircraft Safety Area (minimum distance of 7.5 m (24.61 ft.) from
the aircraft). No vehicle must be parked in this area before complete stop of the aircraft (wheel chocks in
position on landing gears).

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Exhibit 3.3.4.1 b: Example of Ground Servicing Connections-8787-9 (Preliminary Data)

...,.

Iv 7
FUEL IEN1
vt
II AI
\
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I I
"VI " " ~ WAlt.t< -

\\ /
/ I>
/ /j
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~<= .... \
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b b
ill b '
'\ \ \
\.
:\
\

1\
""' ~
'\

\\
"'\

~
1- r i.EC'(RI'.. • \_ I IVIU

n F"l
......

FUEL t.lt l
~ 1\

AI
\
~-
,\
II

·v• "" ~ WAlt.t< - FUEL - \ ,- FUEL IYt.lt I


/,1
n ,,. . \\ \ / vII I

.L\ , n\ \ .J.. ~ n ~
~~ \ u
~D b
.J ~

I J u(
1(
1\ ~[\
0

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\__ [L ;1 1 \. ;- I
"' I I'll

lP 4P JO a0

~ETERS

'
10

Source; Boeing-Airplane Characteristics for Airport Planning

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Please refer to Exhibit 3.3.4.1 c below for a summary listing of the more common ground equipment types and
sizes. For more comprehensive details in this regard, please refer to the lATA Airport Handling Manual.

Aircraft ground servicing equipment varies widely according to the types of aircraft and airline standard
operating procedures (SOPs). Categories of ground servicing equipment include the following:

Passenger boarding: All the devices used to transfer passengers between the terminal and aircraft (e.g., air
bridges, stairs and transporters).

Baggage, cargo and mail processing : All equipment used to transport baggage, cargo and mail between
the terminal and aircraft, or for loading or unloading at the aircraft. Among the most widely used are:

• Tugs and baggage carts

• Container and pallet dollies

• Belt conveyors

• Transporters, loaders and tru cks

Aircraft catering and cleaning: All equipment used to provision the aircraft for passenger in- flight service
(e.g., hi-lift catering trucks, lavatory service trucks, water trucks, and cabin service vehicles).

Aircraft pushback/towing: Tow tractors used for aircraft towing and push-out operations. The size and
weight of this equipment is related to the size of the aircraft handled.

Aircraft fuelling: Includes mobile tankers as well as hydrant dispensers.

Other equipment: Includes fixed facilities and mobile equipment such as ground power units, air starters, air
conditioners, de-icing vehicles, etc.

Exhibit 3.3.4.1c: Aircraft Ground Handling Equipment

Type of Equipment lATA Length Width Area Height Turning


AHM (m) (m) (sqm) (m) Radius
Number (m)
Main Deck Loader 932 12.0 4.5 54.0 3.0 20.0
Lower Deck Loader 931 8.5 3.5 29.7 2.9 12.0
Transporter 969 6.5 3.5 22.8 1.5 5.5
Aircraft Tow Tractor (Wide-Body) 9.0 2.8 25.2 2.0 7.5
Aircraft Tow Tractor (Narrow-Body) 5.5 2.5 13.7 2.3 5.5
Pallet Dolly-Side Loading (End Towing) 966 4.5 2.6 11 .7 3.0 5.5
Pallet Dolly- End Loading (Side Towing) 966 3.8 3.4 14.4 3.0 5.5
6 m ULD Dolly 967 8.0 2.6 20.8 3.5 8.0
Container Dolly 965 4.0 1.8 7.2 2.2 4.5
Baggage Cart 963 3.5 1.5 5.3 2.0 6.0
Belt Conveyor 925 7.5 2.0 15.0 1.0 7.6
Passenger Stairs (Wide-Body) 920 10.0 2.5 25.0 4.0 12.2
Catering Truck (Wide-Body) 927 9.0 2.5 22.5 4.0 12.2

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Type of Equipment lATA Length Width Area Height Turning


AHM (m) (m) (sqm) (m) Radius
Number (m)
Aircraft Ground Heater 973 3.38 1.73 5.85 1.98
Aircraft Air-Conditioning Unit 974 6.5 2.5 16.3 2.5 6.5
Lavatory Vehicle 971 6.5 2.5 16.3 2.2 6.5
Potable Water Vehicle 970 6.5 2.5 16.3 2.2 8.0
ULD Transport Semi-Trailer (4 Pallet) 960 16.0 2.5 40.0 4.0 9.0
Tugs (Ramp Tractors) 968 2.5 1.3 6.5 1.7 2.5

Source: GSEE

The lATA Ground Support Equipment and Environment (GSEE) Task Force has developed the above table of
dimensions of typical aircraft ground handling equipment for use in producing the layout of airport terminal
aprons. Numerous models of each type of ground handling equipment are produced by many manufacturers
in at least a dozen countries. The dimensions provided should be considered as typical of each type of
equipment and should be used as a 'rule of thumb' for general airport planning purposes.

3.3.4.2 Access

3.3.4 .2.1 Pedestrian Pathways

Pedestrian pathways across service roads should be provided and painted with white stripes across the
roadway surface to the following specifications:

• Width of line: 0.5 m


• Length of line: 2.0 m
• Gap between lines: 0.8 m

Pedestrian walkways should be clearly indicated and located so as to keep pedestrians clear of hazards.

3.3.4.2.2 Vehicular Traffic/Service Roads

Basic planning requirements for airside roads are as follows:

• Access to the non-public road network must be restricted to service vehicles directly linked with aircraft
handling activities

• The service roads between the cargo terminal and the aircraft must be capable of accepting ULD
transporter equipment

• Adequate bearing strength, height clearances and turning radii must be provided to accommodate existing
and projected service and ground support equipment, including tow tractors, when applicable

• Must comply with the requirements of ACI's Apron Markings and Signs Handbook

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• Minimum width of 10 m (preferably 12 m) and a clearance height of 4.2 m (preferably 4.6 m). The latter is
of particular concern with regard to service roads that pass under sections of the terminal building and/or
passenger loading bridges

• The figures provided in this section are design guidelines and should be adjusted to local conditions

• Should accommodate self-propelled equipment with a swept turn radius of at least eight meters;

• Adequate separation must be provided from runways, taxiways or other areas where aircraft maneuver, in
accordance with ICAO Annex 14

• Where necessary, adequate roadway width to permit overtaking of slow-moving ground support
equipment must be provided

In planning airside road systems, it must be recognized that many restrictions exist, especially in areas where
aircraft ground handling activities are required. Safety and security aspects, together with the special needs of
slow traffic (e.g. , tugs and dollies), as well as wide and very high vehicles, all need to be taken into account.
Exclusive use of part of the system by some vehicle categories may be necessary. Special attention should
be given to:

• Ground servicing equipment should be moved via service roads and not across aprons

• Designated handling and parking areas should be properly marked

• The size of aircraft loaders, passenger buses, mobile lounges, firefighting equipment and fuel tankers
may require special arrangements for maneuvering and storage

• The use of private cars on the airside should be restri cted

• Aircraft tow tractors may have to operate at right angles to service roads; special provisions may be
necessary

There are two possible locations for a service road:

• Behind the aircraft (not a preferred solution)

• Between the front of the aircraft stand and the terminal building (preferred solution)

Each location has its advantages and disadvantages. Since a lot of operational activity tends to occur around
the forwa rd portion of the aircraft, a frontal service road is preferred. However, the disadvantage with this type
of service road is that the clearance height necessary to allow certain types of service vehicles (i.e., aircraft
catering vehicles) to pass underneath may create a major problem with the height or slope of the passenger
loading bridge or the elevation of the departure gate lounge.

When the service road is located next to the terminal building, adequate room must be provided for the
aircraft pushback tractor to maneuver (i.e., the tractor, at 90°, must not encroach into the service road). This
often occurs, however, and traffic congestion on the service road follows.

In situations where a service road can only be located behind the aircraft, outside of the stand perimeter, the
service road should be very clearly marked and must not be allowed to infringe on apron taxiway operations.
Proper clearances must be defined and maintained, from the rear of the aircraft to the service road and to the
apron taxiway. Rear service roads will involve traffic coming off the service road and past the aircraft wings

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and engines when approaching the front of the aircraft. Movement around these areas must be done with
extreme caution.

Service Road Marking Standard: Service roadway markings should be painted white and consist of double
solid outer lines which indicate that crossing is not permitted. A single solid outer line should mark the areas
where crossing is permitted. In the case of two opposing directions of travel, there should be a center
(broken) line to divide traffic. The width of each lane of a road shall be of a minimum width to accommodate
the widest vehicle in use at that location.

The general service road marking characteristics are as follows:

• Double line: do not cross

• Single line: cross with caution

• Broken line: roadway centerlin e

• Dotted line: yield/give way

Colors used must be highly visible (e.g., reflective and consistent with every-day off-airport use), but must not
conflict with the yellow color already established for aircraft movement on the apron (ICAO Annex 14).
Recommended colors are RED for safety and WHITE for traffic markings.

It is recommended that the following minimum specifications be adopted:

• Width of line: 10 em

• Gap between lines: 5 em

• Broken line: 1.5 m

• A STOP line: 20 em

Directional signs should be in the form of a white arrow painted on the roadway surface. An arrow could be
unidirectional or multi-directional. Arrows should be positioned at points where traffic enters or exits a
roadway with the objective of clarifying the direction of travel.

Speed-limit signs should also be painted on the roadway surface and be in the form of a white circle, with the
maximum speed displayed inside the circle.

3.3.4.3 Distributed Electrical Power

3.3.4.3.1 400Hz Systems

Power req uired by aircraft can be supplied either directly through a fixed installation providing 400 Hz to each
stand, or through 50/60 Hz industrial-type power that can be converted into 400 Hz by means of mobile
converters. This latter solution has broader applications (e.g., heating or air-conditioning).

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Available Technologies: Fixed installations for supplying 200 V/400 Hz alternating current (AC) electric
power to aircraft include a variety of available technologies, such as:

• Centralized systems distributing 400 Hz power to a number of stands, based on either a pair of high-
capacity rotary converters or static converters located in an electrical room in the terminal

• Decentralized or point-of-use solid-state units mounted on the passenger loading bridge near the aircraft
closure or at remote stands Mobile, plug-in electric converters connected to a 50/60 Hz power outlet of
sufficient capacity, when provided at each stand

Design Guidance: Detailed technical information concerning the design and evaluation of the various types
of 400 Hz systems is contained in the Airlines for America (A4A) 400 Hz Fixed Power Systems Design
Guidebook.

The engineering advice provided in this design guidebook has been established jointly by the airline and
equipment manufacturing industry's best specialists, and should be followed in order to evaluate or design
any proposed system.

Economic Justification: The economic justification for a fixed 400 Hz installation must be established versus
the use of aircraft auxiliary power units (APUs), mobile diesel ground power units (GPUs), or mobile electric
converters connected to 50/60 Hz power outlets at each stand. Such justification usually depends on how
many hours a day, calculated based on the average year, a typical stand will be occupied by an active (being
serviced) aircraft.

It should be noted that wherever the local climate requires aircraft air conditioning for a significant part of the
year, there may be little or no economic justification for a fixed 400 Hz installation alone, since it would also
be necessary to run the APUs for air-conditioning purposes. In this case, installation of a fixed 400 Hz system
should be considered only together with a fixed aircraft air-conditioning (pre-cooled air) system. The economic
justification should be assessed for both systems simultaneously.

Distribution to Aircraft: The 400 Hz mode of distribution to the aircraft is critical because of potential apron
congestion and aircraft servicing constraints. It is recommended that 400 Hz distribution cable should run on
the ground for a maximum distance of three meters from the aircraft inlet. The cable should run perpendicular
to the aircraft fuselage and not parallel to it. The cable should not constitute an obstacle to aircraft servicing
and loading vehicles. Additionally, whenever possible, distribution by pits should be avoided. The following
distribution systems are recommended:

• Stands equipped with a passenger loading bridge(s): the cable should run to the head of the (most
forward) bridge (pantograph or equivalent system for the telescopic part of the bridge) and include a
length stored on a reel to reach the aircraft inlet.

• Nose-in stands without a passenger bridge: a general feeder cable should run in a trench along the front
line of the stands and should include a series of connection points where service posts can be installed
according to future changes in aircraft layout. This is in order to provide flexibility in future airport
developments.

• Taxi-in/power-out stands without a passenger bridge: installation of a fixed 400 Hz distribution system is
generally not recommended, since such stand arrangements are generally used for low-frequency stand
utilization.

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Recommendation: 400 Hz Systems


In addition to the design guidance in ADRM sections 3.3.3.4 and 3.3.3.5, further detailed technical
information concerning the design and evaluation of the various types of 400 Hz systems is contained in the
Airlines for America (A4A) 400 Hz Fixed Power Systems Design Guidebook. This additional reference
material should be used in the design planning of 400 Hz fixed power systems used on the apron/stand
areas.
The economic justification for a fixed 400 Hz installation must be established versus the use of aircraft APUs,
mobile diesel GPUs, or mobile electric converters connected to 50/60 Hz power outlets at each stand. A full
justification is required to access the benefits of providing 400Hz equipment at the head of stand.

3.3.4 .3.2 50/6 0Hz System s

An alternate solution to providing 200 V/400 Hz AC electric power outlets is to provide multi-purpose 50/60 Hz
industrial power outlets on each stand. This solution frequently offers more flexibility and a lower mean
operating cost, The same outlets, or a set of outlets on the same distribution system, may be used for a
variety of requirements, such as:

• Supplying 200 V/400 Hz AC electric power to aircraft by means of mobile plug-in electric converters. Such
units are usually significantly smaller, cheaper and require less maintenance than conventional diesel-
powered GPUs.

• Heating the aircraft in cold weather by means of mobile, plug-in electric heaters. Such units, again, are
usually significantly smaller, cheaper and have less maintenance requirements than diesel-powered
heating units. They have an additional advantage in that they can be safely left operating (e.g., during
night stops to avoid the risk of water circuits freezing) without the need for staff supervision, which is
necessary for diesel units. The economic justification should include an analysis of the local cost of diesel
fuel versus electrical power.

• Cooling the aircraft in hot weather by means of mobile, plug-in electric air-conditioning units (ACUs).
Similarly, electric ACUs are usually significantly smaller, cheaper and have less maintenance
requirements than diesel-powered units.

Design Guidance: No specific technical design information is currently available for industrial power supply at
an airport stand, as such guidance would form part of the local building and electrical installations codes.
However, the following may be used as general guidelines for "first step" evaluations:

• The power to be used should be the local standard for industrial applications
o 380 V/3-phase/50 Hz AC in Europe

o 230 V/3-phase/60 Hz AC in North America

• Power requirements in kilovolt amperes (kVA) per stand for aircraft power supply should be estimated
according to the A4A 400 Hz Fixed Power Systems Design Guidebook

• Power requirements for either a heater or an electric ACU, capable of maintaining cabin temperature in a
wide-body aircraft in transit without APU operation, should be estimated between 72 and 96 kVA per
stand, depending on local extreme weather conditions

Economic Justification: The economic justification of a fixed 50/60 Hz installation must be established
versus the use of either aircraft APUs or a combination of diesel powered units (GPUs, ACUs, heaters, etc.)

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according to local conditions. An estimate of acquisition and operating costs for electric plug-in units as
compared to diesel-powered ones must also be included in any evaluation.

Additionally, an economic comparison must be established between a multi-purpose 50/60 Hz installation and
a combination of specialized, fixed aircraft-servicing facilities such as a 400 Hz power system and an air-
conditioning (pre-cooled air) system. The lower initial investment cost and higher flexibility of a multi-purpose
50/60 Hz installation may often result in significantly lower overall costs. The cost per kilowatt hour (kwh) of
local electrical power as well as the cost of diesel fuel vary widely and must, of course, be taken into
consideration as part of this study.

Distribution at the Stand: The distribution requirements for 50/60 Hz industrial power at a stand are
basically similar to those for a 400Hz system:

• Care should be taken to reduce the distance power cables run on the ground between the fixed outlets
and mobile plug-in units, and to minimize potential interference with aircraft servicing and loading
vehicles.

• Whenever possible, distribution by pits should be avoided.

• When a 50/60 Hz industrial power plug-in facility is used for aircraft air conditioning or heating, preference
should be given to mobile units in order to minimize the length of hose, with the advantages of increased
system efficiency, reduced ramp congestion and less hose wear.

• In addition, in order to benefit fully from the system's flexibility, care should be taken to standardize the
connectors used in order to allow any mobile unit to plug in.

• Standard connectors, such as described in the lATA Airport Handling Manual (AHM) 960

o Appendix C for use on the North American continent, 230 V/3 phase/60 Hz AC

o Appendix D for use on the European continent, 380 V/3 phase/50 Hz AC

• Also refer to The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP)
1372A and International Standard ISO 7715 (which are equivalent). These references should be used
whenever compatible with the maximum kVA requirements, and particularly whenever ULD Transport
Vehicles (UTVs) are considered.

• A local connector standard should be established at the airport whenever the maximum kVA requirements
exceed those compatible with the applicable international standard.

3.3.4.4 Preconditioned Air

Available Technologies: Fixed installations for supplying low-pressure, preconditioned (i.e., heated or
cooled) air to aircraft include a variety of available technologies, such as:

• Centralized systems distributing low-pressure, preconditioned air to a number of stands from a heating or
cooling plant located in a central technical room. The plant may be independent technologies (e.g.,
electrical, ice storage, peak shaving, etc.) or based on heat exchangers fed by the terminal building's own
hot or chilled water distribution system.

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• Decentralized systems including a fixed air-conditioning/heating unit at each stand, with a heat exchanger
fed by the hot or chilled water distribution system of the terminal building or an independent system (e.g.,
electri cal, ice storage, peak shaving, etc.).

• Decentralized systems including an independent fixed air-conditioning/heating unit at each stand.

Also, preconditioned air supply to aircraft can be accomplished by means of mobile ACUs or heaters, either
connected to a 50160 Hz power outlet of sufficient capacity, when provided at each stand, or powered by
fossil fuel.

Design Guidance: General technical information concerning design and evaluation of the various types of
preconditioned air systems is contained in Airlines for America (A4A) Spec. 101: Ground Equipment Technical
Data. The engineering and economic evaluation advice provided in the A4A publication has been established
jointly by the most qualified specialists of the airline and equipment manufacturing industries, and should be
followed in order to evaluate any proposed system.

Economic Justification: Fixed, preconditioned air supply must be evaluated versus the use of aircraft APUs,
or mobile diesel ACUs, or mobile electric ACUs connected to 50/60 Hz power outlets at each stand. The
decision usually depends on the combined result of:

• How many hours per day in an average year a typical stand will be occupied by an active (being serviced)
aircraft

• How many days per year heating or cooling of the aircraft cabin will be necessary, according to local
weather averages

Usually, the economic justification needs to be assessed together with a fixed 400 Hz power system, since
obviously the main purpose of a preconditioned air installation is to eliminate or reduce the use of aircraft
APUs.

Distribution to Aircraft: The mode of distribution of preconditioned air to the aircraft low-pressure air inlet(s)
can utilize one or more hoses. This is particularly critical in relation to apron congestion and aircraft servicing
constraints, due to the large size (usually minimum 20 em diameter) of the required hose(s). Based on the
general objectives in the planning of apron fixed facilities, it is recommended that:

• The hose(s) should run perpendicular to the aircraft fuselage rather than parallel to it, and should not
constitute an obstacle to aircraft servicing or loading vehicles. If this arrangement is made impossible by
the stand layout for a given type of aircraft, the hose should run on the ground as close as possible to the
aircraft centerline and side-transfer loading equipmenUmethods should be eliminated for this type of
aircraft.

• The hose length should be minimized in all circumstances in order to reduce the loss of pressure and
improve air-conditioning efficiency. When a stand serves aircraft types with either a forward or aft-located
air-conditioning inlet, the hose length should be determined for those aircraft types with a forward inlet
location. An extension hose should be used for aircraft types with an aft inlet location. It should be noted
that many systems are experiencing significant wear-and-tear on hoses, resulting in frequent
replacements and higher operating/maintenance costs.

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For stands equipped with passenger loading bri dges, two locations for mounting the pre-conditioned air units
are at the rotunda end and at the bridgehead. If the rotunda location is selected, the preconditioned air should
be supplied through an over-bridge distribution system (telescopic ducts are required on the telescopic part of
the bri dge). A hose retrieval and/or storage system in the vicinity of the bridgehead is preferred. The location
of the telescopic duct should be such as to preserve the clear passage of ground support equipment under
the bri dge.

Exhibit 3.3.4.4: Preconditioned Air Unit

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L., i HSBCm

Source: lATA

For stands without a passenger bridge, however, fixed preconditioned air installations are generally not
recommended. In these cases, consideration should be given to the use of mobile electric ACUs or heaters
connected to a 50/60 Hz power outlet, since the connecting power cable creates much less interference with
servicing vehicles than an air-conditioning hose of comparable length.

Recommendation: Preconditioned Air and Pneumatic Systems


In addition to the design guidance defined in sections 3.3.3.4 and 3.3.3.5, further detailed technical
information concerning design and evaluation of the various types of preconditioned air systems and
pneumatic systems is contained in the Air Transport Association of America (ATA) Aircraft Ground Support
Air Systems Planning Guidebook. This additional reference material should be used in the design planning of
preconditioned air and general pneumatic systems used on the apron/stand areas.

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3.3.4.5 Pneumatic Air

Pneumatic generation and distribution systems for high-pressure air supply to aircraft are intended to provide
the compressed air necessary to start jet engines on the stands when the APU pneumatic function is
inoperative. This is a short-duration requirement at each stand, since all the engines of an aircraft can be
started within a period of one to five minutes, depending on the aircraft type.

Due to the high peak of power consumption (flow+ pressure) required, no decentralized alternative (except
conventional mobile ASUs of either the diesel or turbine-powered type) has been made available.

Des ign Guidance: General technical information concerning design and evaluation of pneumatic compressed
air systems is contained in two Airlines for America (A4A) publications: Spec. 101: Ground Equipment
Technical Data and SG 901: Facility Planning Guidelines: Baggage Handling- Passenger Terminal.

Economic Justification: In general, installation of a pneumatic system is considered when it is a requirement


to start the aircraft on the stand, although the use of mobile ASUs with either a diesel or turbine engine is
more typical than a permanent installation.

Distributio n to Aircraft: The hose(s) location is relatively secondary, since when it is time to start the
engines most servicing operations on an aircraft have ended. However, consideration should be given to
minimizing the length of the hose in order to reduce pressure loss and increase system efficiency. A powered
hose retrieval and storage system should be provided for any fixed distribution using hose lengths over nine
meters.

Recommendation: Preconditioned Air and Pneumatic Systems


In addition to the design guidance defined in sections 3.3.4.4 and 3.3.4.5, further detailed technical
information concerning design and evaluation of the various types of preconditioned air systems and
pneumatic systems is contained in the Airlines for America (A4A) Aircraft Ground Support Air Systems
Planning Guidebook. This additional reference material should be used in the design planning of
preconditioned air and general pneumatic systems used on the apron/stand areas.

3.3.4.6 Aircraft De-icing/Anti-icing

Safe and efficient aircraft operations are of primary importance in the development of any aircraft de-icing
facility. The requirements for a de-icing operation will differ greatly for each airport. While remote primary de-
icing may be desirable at one airport, gate de-icing (with or without remote secondary facilities) may be
appropriate at others. Operational and ATC matters may be paramount at one airport, while environmental
concerns may predominate at another. These are just some of the many options to be considered where de-
icing operations are concerned. In general, however, it is important to keep in mind that each airport will have
varying priorities, and that many factors will need to be weighed before responsible, safe and efficient
decisions can be arrived at.

The manner in which the ATC system operates during icing conditions is critical. If the ATC system imposes
significant delays before takeoff, the de-icing problem is increased, not only because of the need to de-ice

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again, but also because of the extra taxiing required. In addition to concerns for safety, the airlines and the
airport authorities must work with ATC to minimize delays.

The first and most important task for designers contemplating the development of de-icing facilities is to
evaluate the type of facility best suited to the airport needs. This evaluation will entail an assessment of the
actual physical layout, the operational requirements and the environmental sensitivity of the airport. The
following variables should be considered:

• Aircraft movement flows

• Frequency and severity of icing events

• Realistic capacity required in snow/ice conditions

• Physical space available

• Length of routes to departure points

• Available and potential drainage

• Kinds of fluid in use (Type 1, 2, 3 or 4; see definitions in Section 3.3.4.6.1)

• Fluid collection/retention/recycling options

It is important to recognize that the requirements for, and economics of, recycling and reuse vary widely. The
airport's environmental circumstances can range from:

• The proximity of the airport to ri vers and other water sources

• The runoff patterns to be expected

• The types of receiving water

• The movement rates of water bodies

• The type of soil

• The potential for soil contamination

3.3.4.6.1 Types of De-icing Operations

In general, there are four types of de-icing operations:

1. At passenger terminal gates, where aircraft are de-iced just before departure after passengers and
baggage/cargo are loaded

2. At designated de-icing areas at or near the passenger terminal ramp

3. At designated remote de-icing areas en route to the departure runway;

4. At specially designed, centralized de-icing centers.

Historically, the principal method of de-icing has involved the application of heated freeze depressant fluids. In
recent years, new thickened fluids have been implemented that offer extended protection times (fluid holdover
times). Other new developments also need to be considered, including the application of infra-red heat.

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Designated De-icing Area at or Near the Terminal: For some airports, decentra lized de-icing facilities at or
adjacent to terminals can adequately meet the demands of airlines, while still allowing acceptable taxiing time
to the departure runways under varying weather conditions. Improvements to, or expansion of, the facilities at
terminal stands should include apron drainage areas that collect glycol runoff for proper disposal or recycling.
Alternatively, de-icing run-off should be collected on the spot by sweeper/vacuum cleaning vehicles. The
collected slush is either stored or directly transported to disposal/recycling contractors.

Remote De-icing Facilities: Remote de-icing facilities located near departure runway ends or along taxiways
are recommended when taxiing times from terminals frequently exceed holdover times. Under changing
weather conditions they can compensate for icing conditions or blowing snow expected to occur along the taxi
route to the departure runway. These facilities can improve flow control by permitting retreatment of aircraft
without having to return to a more distant de-icing pad. Remote de-icing facilities have the following
components:

• Aircraft de-icing pad(s) for the maneuvering of aircraft and the de-icing gantry or mobile de-icing vehicles

• Bypass taxiing capability

• Environmental runoff mitigation measures

• Portable lighting system

Centralized De-icing Facilities: Centralized de-icing facilities off the terminal are recommended when
terminal de-icing facilities experience excessive gate delays, taxiing times, or suffer from severe weather
conditions conducive to aircraft icing conditions. Terminals whose de-icing gates lack permanent
environmental runoff structures are candidates for off-terminal de-icing facilities, as the construction costs for
runoff mitigation is not cost-effective. Centralized de-icing facilities usually have the following components:

• Aircraft de-icing pad( s) for the maneuvering of aircraft and mobile de-icing vehicles

• Bypass taxiing capability

• Environmental runoff mitigation measures

• Permanent or portable night-time lighting system

• Support facilities that include:

o Storage tanks, transfer systems for aircraft de/anti-icing fluids

o De-icing crew shelter

o Fixed fluid applicator

Considerable inform ation on the various considerations that must be examined regardless of the level of
sophistication of the proposed de-icing facility can be found in Reference 1, SAE ARP4902. An overview of
these considerations follows.

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Exhibit 3.3.4.6.1: Ground De-Icing Operation at a Central De-Icing Facility

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Source: Senohrabek/Shutterstock

3.3.4.6.2 Location Considerations

Thoughtful siting of de-icing facilities is critical in order to maximize the benefits of the de/anti-icing process
while minimizing the potential adverse impacts on airfield efficiency, safety and operations. Certain
considerations in siting de-icing facilities facilitate compliance with the 'clean aircraft' concept. Foremost
among such considerations is the need to site de-icing facilities so that the maximum time interval between
the start of the last step of the de/anti-icing process and the start of takeoff does not exceed the estimated
holdover times of the applied fluids. Other major considerations include the need to site de-icing facilities so
that aircraft, de-icing facility stru ctures, mobile de-icing vehicles or fixed de-icing equipment does not
penetrate the object clearing criteria or airway facility critical areas. Engine exhaust velocities also need to be
considered.

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3.3.4.6.3 De-icing Facility Design and Construction

A de-icing facility has to be properly planned, designed and constructed to perform as intended. Elements of
these preparations include such items as:

• Facility siting

• Number and size of de-icing pads

• Pad configuration and layout

• Visual guidance considerations

• Floodlighting

• Construction phased implementation

• Construction materials

• Drainage facilities

• Storm water capability

Most of the design cri teri a for these components are addressed in ICAO Annex 6 and FAA advisory circulars
(AC No: 150/5300-14C). A de-icing facility is intended to provide an area for parking of aircraft to receive
de/anti-icing treatment. To perform this function, the de-icing pad requires a pavement system that supports
the anticipated loads and a positive drainage system to collect runoff containing spent de-icing fluids.

3.3.4.6.4 Environmental Considerations

Since de/anti-icing fluids are chemical products with environmental consequences, de-icing facilities shall
have runoff mitigating structures. The recommended structures are those that comprise a mitigating
alternative that collects and retains runoff for proper disposal or recycling. In terms of structural best
management practices (BMPs), this approach to 'control the source' offers airport managers an effective and
economical means to comply with environmental requirements.

3.3.4.7 Equipment Parking

3.3.4.7.1 Introduction

Ground servicing equipment must be parked in areas adjacent to the aircraft stands to be readily available
when required. If required turnaround times are to be achieved, it is essential that such equipment is
conveniently located in reasonably close proximity to its regular place of use and is readily accessible to
ground handling staff. Such areas should be sized to accommodate all equipment used on a regular basis to
support aircraft servicing for all types of aircraft usually served in a particular apron sector. Such areas should
be clearl y defined by appropriate apron markings.

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Long-term parking facilities must be provided for ramp equipment with convenient access to the apron area.
At airports with harsh winter weather conditions, a heated ground equipment shelter will be required for
parking certain types of ground-servicing equipment overnight.

3.3.4.7.2 Restraint Lines

These are lines behind which ground support equipment is kept during the movement of an aircraft onto or off
the aircraft parking position. They are also used as a safety stop for all ground support equipment prior to final
approach to the aircraft and as a safety zone to allow for jet engine intake and/or propeller clearance.

This restraint marking should be defined by an unbroken red line with a white line inside the aircraft parking
area indicating the boundary of the aircraft parking area. The line must be painted so as to allow for the safe
movement of the largest aircraft onto or off the parking position. The minimum width of the line is 10 em.

3.3.4.7.3 No Parking Areas

Prohibited parking areas on the apron include such zones as the apron drive loading bridge movement area,
fuelling pits, etc. These areas should be marked by red hatch lines and bordered by a solid line of the same
color. The lines should have the following dimensions:

• Minimum width of lines: 10 em

• Gap between lines: 20 em

The lines must be painted at 45• in reference to the aircraft parking position centerline.

3.3.4.7.4 Equipment Parking Areas

These are specific areas set aside for the parking of ground handling equipment, and include:

• Long-term parking

• Short-term parking

• Staging areas

The lines delineating these areas should be painted white, with a minimum line width of 10 em. When
designing equipment parking areas, consideration should be given to coordinating the long-term, short-term
and staging area requirements, including the size and type of equipment. Particular attention should be paid
to the staging areas close to the aircraft.

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3.3.3.7.5 Typical Ground Equipment Layouts

Exhibit 3.3.3.7.5 illustrates the ground equipment movement and parking areas around typical aircraft parking
positions. It should be noted that the parked position of all aircraft served should be taken into account when
determining the position and plan profile of the apron safety line, which should be indicated on the apron
using a solid red line.

Exhibit 3.3.3.7.5: Apron Marking for Aircraft Parking Position

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Source: ADRM, 9th Edition

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3.3.4.8 Engine Exhaust

3.3.4.8.1 The Effect of Exhaust Velocities

As exhaust velocities can have a significant impact on the procedures adopted for the handling of aircraft in
terminal apron areas, it is essential that this factor be one of the fundamental considerations in the planning of
new stand layouts.

The acceptability of varying stand layouts should be considered in terms of the effect of engine velocities in
relation to the:

• Health and safety of passengers and operational personnel

• Design of buildings and fixed facilities

• Risk of damage to ground servicing equipment

• Risk of damage to other aircraft

Engine exhaust velocity and temperature characteristics are generally published by manufacturers in the form
of constant value contours plotted in the horizontal and vertical planes (see Exhibit 3.3.4.8.1 ).

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Exhibit 3.3.4.8.1: Example of Engine Exhaust Velocities-A380-800 at Breakaway Power


(GP 7200 Engines)

FEET
(METERS)
140
(43)

105 MPH
(169 kmlh) 65MPH
(105 kmlh) 35MPH
70 (56 kmlh)
(21)

ELEVATION GROUND PLANE

FEET
0 150 300 450

0 (46) (91) (137)


(METERS)
FEET 105 MPH
(169 kmlh) 65MPH
140 (105 km'h) 35MPH
(43) (56 kmlh)

70
(21 )

0~==~==~==~~------------------------
PLAN <t AIRPLANE
Source: Airbus - Aircraft Characteristics- Airport and Maintenance Planning (AC A380}

Notes:

• The breakaway data are presented at a rating corresponding to the minimum thrust level required to
initiate movement of an A380-800F model at its maximum ramp weight from static position and on uphill
ground.

• In the charts, longitudinal distances are measured from the inboard engine core nozzle exit station, while
lateral distances are measured from the aircraft fuselage center-line.

• All velocity values are in statute miles per hour. Conversion factor: 1 mph = 1.6 kmlh. Danger (keep out)
zones > 35 mph

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• The estimated efflux data are presented at ISA+15' C (30 ' C), Sea Level Static with 20 headwind. It also
assumed ground plane and proximity effects. Velocity contours are presented at 35 MPH {15 mls),
65 MPH (30 m/s) and 105 MPH (46 m/s), while temperature contours are presented at 122' F (50 ' C),
212' F (1 OO' C) and 392' F (200 ' C). Engine Alliance strongly recommends that jet blast studies using their
contours include the effect of a 20-knot headwind.

The engine thrust requ ired for taxiing is proportional to the aircraft weight; aircraft design, airline operating
practices and apron slope conditions. Airlines should be consulted when the implications of engine exhaust
velocities on specific stand layouts are being evaluated.

Engine exhaust velocities are likely to be greater than normal minimum values due to:

• Upward sloping apron

• Wind, altitude and temperature effects

• Aircraft making turns (particularly where asymmetric power is used or one or more engines are shut
down)

• Mechanical malfunction (e.g., brake friction)

• Human factors

The experience of airlines and airport authorities has indicated that engine exhaust velocities should not
exceed 56 km/h (35 mph) in areas used by personnel and mobile equipment.

The users of these exhaust velocity contour data should understand that these data reflect steady-state at
maximum taxi weight and not transient-state exhaust velocities. A steady-state is achieved with the aircraft in
a fixed location, engine running at a given thrust level and measured when the contours stop expanding and
stabilize in size, which could take several seconds. The steady-state condition, therefore, is conservative.
Contours shown also do not account for performance variables such as ambient temperature or field
elevation. For the terminal area environment, the transient-state is a more accurate representation of the
actual exhaust contours when the aircraft is in motion and encountering static air with forward or turning
movement, but it is very difficult to model on a consistent basis due to aircraft weight, weather conditions, the
high degree of variability in terminal and apron configurations, and intensive numerical calculations. If the
contours presented here are overly restrictive for terminal operations, the aircraft manufacturer recommends
conducting an analysis of the actual exhaust contours experienced by the using aircraft at the airport.

3.3.4.8.2 Fences

When assessing the effect of engine exhaust velocities related to a proposed stand layout, the use of fences
may be considered as a means for dissipating or deflecting engine exhaust away from vulnerable areas.

Fences can be used to protect aircraft ground servicing equipment, personnel and buildings from the engine
exhaust of maneuvering aircraft. Their function is to deflect the engine exhaust upwards. Fences are
constructed of modules that can be combined to produce the most suitable layouts. These structures may be
attached to the ground or weighted to resist the overturning stresses from engine exhaust. In the latter case.
they can be relocated relatively easily.

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The height of the fences varies with the type of aircraft. In the case of large aircraft with tail mounted engines,
construction of a fence may not be cost-effective. Therefore, start-up procedures for that engine may have to
be restri cted.

Fences are regularly used in terminal apron areas where aircraft are operated on a taxi-in/taxi-out procedure.
Occasionally, they are also required where aircraft move away under power on an aircraft stand taxi-lane,
having been pushed back from a nose-in stand position.

Fence locations must be related to the aircraft maneuvering pattern, ground servicing equipment storage
areas, or other facilities requirin g protection. The dimensions of the fence and the design of the surfaces
exposed to the engine exhaust can be determined from the operating characteristics of the aircraft types to be
employed.

3.3.4.9 Ground Servicing Equipment/Vehicle Types

3.3.4.9.1 Introduction

Ground servicing vehicles and equipment are used to service aircraft while they are parked on stand. They
service all aspects of the aircraft and numerous vehicles and equipment will approach, retreat and be parked
next to the aircraft any one time. The placement of vehicles will vary according to the aircraft make and model
variant, therefore reference to the aircraft manufacturer's airport interface manuals is essential.

Some ground servicing vehicles might be required to drive on public roads in addition to head-of-stand service
roads and stand areas. Where vehicles are required to be driven on public roads, they shall need to be
compliant with local/national legislation in addition to stipulations contained in the lATA Airport Handling
Manual Chapter 9 - Airport Handling Ground Support Specifications.

3.3.4.9.2 Baggage Handling Vehicles

Baggage handling vehicles will be located airside and will travel frequently between operational aircraft stands
and baggage make-up and breakdown areas. It is important that the vehicles are efficient, reliable and safe to
operate, both for staff and for the environment.

Battery, petrol and diesel-powered tugs can be used, though battery-powered baggage tugs should be the
preferred choice. The use of battery-powered tugs will improve the working environment of the baggage
make-up and breakdown areas. If petrol or diesel baggage tugs are used, then the ventilation systems within
the baggage hall environment should be designed to adequately and safely disperse the vehicle fumes,
particularly in areas where baggage handling operators work.

Allowance will need to be made for suitably sized and located recharging stations for battery-powered
vehicles.

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Exhibit 3.3 .4 .9 .2a : Battery-powered Tug

'

Source: lATA

Recommendation: Use of Battery-powered Baggage Tugs


Petrol and diesel-powered tugs can be used. However, wherever possible, battery-powered baggage tugs
should be the preferred choice.

Baggage handling dollies are towed by baggage tugs and used to transport departing and arriving baggage
airside. Baggage handling dollies are often linked together in trains of dollies that are driven directly to and
from aircraft.

At large international airports, dolly trains should be restricted in length, with no more than five dollies being
connected at any one time, subject to the recommendations of the both the dolly and tug manufacturers.
Vehicle turning circles on some dolly units can be restrictive and can clash with building columns when
connected in long multiple-dolly trains. The braking distances for dolly trains with more than three fully laden
dollies can be dangerously too long and difficult to control, particularly in wet conditions. Recommendations
from the manufacturer of the baggage tug with respect to load-carrying practices should be sought.

Recommendation: Baggage Dolly Trains


At large, busy international airports, dolly trains should be restricted in length to no more than five dollies
being connected at any one time, subject to the recommendations of both the dolly and tug manufacturers.

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Exhibit 3.3.4.9.2b details a typical open-sided dolly unit used to transport loose baggage. These are often
fitted with side nets (not shown). Exhibit 3.3.4.9.2c details a typical load device (LD) container dolly unit fitted
with free-running rollers. The use of a ball table mounted to these types of dollies is also commonplace.

Exhibit 3.3.4.9.2b: Typical Open-Sided Baggage Dolly

Source: ADRM, 9th Edition

Exhibit 3.3.4.9.2c: Typical Load Device Container Dolly

Source: ADRM, 9th Edition

3.3.4.9.3 Unit Load Devices (ULD)

The use of ULDs is commonplace. Sizes and shapes of the various ULDs in service are to be found in the
latest version of the lATA ULD Regulations (ULDR). ULDs are used to protect the aircraft and improve the
loading and unloading of baggage and cargo on the apron. Baggage is better retained when using ULDs, and
subsequently can be driven to and from the aircraft while being less likely to fall out and become damaged on
the roadway.

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Storage of Empty Containers: The temporary storage of empty containers, particularly at large hub airports,
can create problems in terms of:

• The area required to be set aside

• The ability to readily locate and access specific ULDs

Single level or multi-level stillage solutions are often deployed to store ULDs in a systematic way.

3.3.4.9.4 Passenger Loading Step Vehicles

There is a wide range of passenger stair vehicles commercially available. Aircraft docking stairs can be towed
or self-propelled (both covered and uncovered). They are suitable for boarding passengers and crew
personnel as well as for maintenance and aircraft servicing purposes, particularly on remote stands. Mobile
passenger stairs should be fitted with canopies to improve customer service standards.

Self-propelled and towed mobile stair variants can be used on any aircraft type, though for large aircraft it is
best practice to use passenger boarding bridges. Passenger stairs should be used where terminal building
infrastructure does not exist or where a passenger boarding bridge malfunction has occurred. The precise
functional and design requirements of passenger loading step vehicles can be found in the lATA Airport
Handling Manuai- AHM 920- Functional Specification for Self-Propelled Telescopic Passenger Stairs, and
Clause 920A- Functional Specification for Towed Passenger Stairs.

Recommendation: Passenger Loading Step Vehicles


Wherever possible, mobile passenger loading steps should be fitted with canopies to improve customer
service standards, particularly in countries where adverse weather conditions are commonplace.

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Exhibit 3.3.4.9.4: Typical Passenger Stair Vehicle

Source: lATA

3.3.4.9.5 Potable Water Supply Vehicles

Potable water is delivered to aircraft via dedicated potable water vehicles or via hydrants with outlets placed
above ground level and on the stand perimeter. It is more usual for potable water to be supplied via vehicles.
Please refer to Exhibit 3.3.4.1 b: Example of Ground Servicing Connections - 8787-9. The precise functional
and design requirements of potable water vehicles can be found in the lATA Airport Handling Manuai- AHM
970 Functional Specification for a Self-Propelled Potable Water Vehicle with Rear or Front Servicing.

Care should be taken to ensure that potable water supplies delivered to the apron do not become
contaminated by fuel hydrants or fuel dispensers. For this purpose, potable water stand hydrants must not be
located in a pit below the apron surface level.

3.3.4.9.6 Catering Vehicles

Catering vehicles service aircraft's on-board catering requirements. When they approach the aircraft to be
serviced, the storage area is raised to the aircraft sill level in accordance with the aircraft manufacture's
recommendations. The precise functional and design requirements of catering vehicles can be found in the
lATA Airport Handling Manual- Clause AHM 927 Functional Specification for a Catering Vehicle.

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Exhibit 3.3.4.9.6: Typical Catering Vehicle

t

Source: ADRM , 9th Edition

3.3.4.9.7 Aircraft Pushback Tugs

There are two types of pushback tugs:

• Type 1 (see Exhibit 3.3.4.9.7a): those which require the use of tow bars

• Type 2 (see Exhibit 3.3.4.9.7b): those which latch to the aircraft nose wheel assembly directly and encase
the wheel while coupled

Type 1 pushback tugs are generally used for smaller aircraft since the clearances beneath the aircraft are
more restricted. Medium and large aircraft also commonly use Type 1 pushback tugs with tow bars to
maneuver. Both Type 1 and Type 2 tugs are generally able, subject to tug manufacturers' specifications, to
maneuver all types of aircraft over long distances at reasonable speeds. Type 2 tugs are generally able to taxi
aircraft at higher speeds.

While no technical preference exists between Type 1 and Type 2 pushback tugs, Type 2 pushback tugs are
cheaper to operate as they do not generally need two operators to use them, whereas Type 1 pushback tugs
generally do require two operators.

When laying out the aircraft parking positions, it is important to account for the pushback tractor and tow bar
length so that adequate clearance is allowed between the aircraft nose gear and service roads (see Section
3.3.3.4.1 ).

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Exhibit 3.3.4.9.7a : Type 1 Aircraft Towing Tractor with Tow Bar

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Source: Christian De Araujo/Shutterstock

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Exhibit 3.3.4.9.7b: Type 2 Aircraft Towing Tractor without Tow Bar

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Source: egd/Shutterstock

3.3.4.1 0 Civil Aviation Jet Fuel Supply

Vision

Jet fuel specifications, production, supply chain and supply-to-aircraft are described in various internationally
accepted standards and procedures, in order to provide safe operation of aircraft.

Policy

It is essential that comprehensive procedures and practices are implemented and applied across the entire
supply chain from refinery to aircraft, in order to safeguard aviation fuel quality and ensure safe fuel delivery
into aircraft.

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3.3.4.10.1 General Requirements

Specifications for jet fuel and additives are controlled by national governments and by international
organizations such as ASTM International and the UK Aviation Fuel Committee. Approved specifications for
jet fuel and additives are listed in the aircraft engine and airframe manufacturers' operation manuals and are
recognized by the various aviation regulatory authorities.

ICAO Doc 9977 "Manual on Civil Aviation Jet Fuel Supply" lists all internationally accepted petroleum and
aviation industry fuel practices, covering all matters related to aviation fuel quality control, documentation,
operations and training across the entire supply and distribution system.

Exhibit 3.3.4.1 0.1: Jet Fuel Supply Chain

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Source: ICAO Manual 9977

Links to references in this Chapter:

• API (American Petroleum Institute)

• El (Energy Institute)

• EN (European Standard)

• lATA

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• ICAO

• ISO (International Standards Organization)

• NFPA (National Fire Protection Association)

• SAE (SAE International)

• SwRI (SouthWest Research Institute)

• UL (Underwriters Laboratories Inc.)

3.3.4.1 0.2 Safety Issues

Safety Management System (SMS): Every responsible organization involved in aviation fuel manufacture,
supply, storage, transport, testing and aircraft fuelling must have a robust system for managing safety.

ICAO Doc 9859 defines a systematic approach to managing safety, including the necessary organizational
structures, accountabilities, policies and procedures. It has introduced harmonized requirements into its
relevant Annexes to the ICAO Chicago Convention.

Another example of industry guidance on SMS is lATA's Introduction to Safety Management Systems (SMS)
(Ref. No.: 8402, latest edition).

Quality Program: Fuel vendors must have an established quality program to ensure safe receipt, storage
and distribution of fuel, as well as an internal audit and surveillance function. This quality program shall be
detailed in a policies and procedures manual that provides operational guidance to management and staff.

Fuelling Safety Zone: Fuelling safety zones are areas with a radius of at least three meters, or as specified
by local regulation, from filling and venting points on the aircraft, hydrant pits, fuell ing vehicle and its hoses in
use.

No vehicles, other than the fuelling vehicle, are permitted within the fuelling safety zone.

Fire Extinguishers: Storage facilities must be designed to accommodate the requisite number of suitable fire
extinguishers so they can be readily available and easily accessible, in accordance with local requirements.

Bonding and Grounding : Bonding is the process of connecting two or more conductive objects together by
means of a conductor (bonding cable). Grounding is the process of physically connecting one or more
conductive objects to the ground, in order to safely dissipate any electrical charge. Ground points must be
designed into all apron facilities at locations recommended by the respective aircraft manufacturers. All facility
equipment, including the aircraft and fuelling vehicles must be bonded together throughout any fuel handling
process to avoid potential differences and possible sparking. In view of potential damage to modern aircraft
electronics, grounding of the fuelling equipment is not recommended, unless specified by the Aircraft
Maintenance Manual.

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3.3.4.1 0.3 Storage Facilities Design and Processes

Design Features and Equipment

Observance of certain fundamental practices in the design of airport storage facilities is considered essential
to ensure that fuel quality is maintained. The following are general considerations regarding the design
features and equipment for these facilities:

• Any new installation or alteration/extension of existing facilities shall be designed and commissioned in
accord ance with recognized industry standards (e.g. El 1540, SAE AS 5789 Aviation Fuel Facilities)

• A current schematic diagram identifying valves, etc. (i.e., piping diagram, computer display, etc.), must be
available locally for reference by the persons operating the equipment

• All facilities utilized for handling aviation fuels shall be fully grade-segregated; there shall be no
interconnecting lines between pipelines that handle different fuels

• No copper, cadmium alloy, cadmium or zinc-plated (i.e., galvanized) steel shall be permitted for piping,
nor shall zinc-rich internal coatings be used for piping or tankage

• All pump start/stop switches at fuel receipt and refueling loading areas should be safely accessible and
clearl y identified in accordance with local regulatory requirements

• An emergency fuel shut-off system shall be provided; shut-down switches shall be safely accessible, in
close proximity to fuel handling activities and clearly identified in accordance with local regulations

• Fuel identification signs per El 1542 and other applicable signs (e.g., "No Smoking", "Flammable", etc.)
shall be prominently displayed

• An adequate number of suitable fire extinguishers shall be readily available, in accordance with local
requirements

• Fuelling vehicle parking, road/rail discharge and fuelling loading areas shall be constructed of a low-
permeability material and have a positive slope and drainage to an oil/water interceptor

Recommendation: Fuel Safety Signage


NO SMOKING signs should be present on each head of stand. The information contained on these signs
should be visible and legible to any person standing either within the stand perimeter or on the adjacent
inter-stand road.

3.3.4.10.4 Storage Tanks

The number and size of tanks should be sufficient to provide adequate working capacity, taking into account
peak period airport requirements, supply replenishment arrangements, and strategic stock coverage.
Allowance should also be made for settling, testing and tank cleaning requirements.

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Aviation fuels should be stored in horizontal or fixed-roof vertical tanks (or fixed-roof vertical tanks with an
internal floating roof/cover if required by local legislation). Storage tanks can be aboveground (AST) or
underground (UST) designed in accordance with the following standards:

• AST- vertical, field-erected- API 650, EN ISO 14015 or equivalent

• AST-horizontal, shop-fabricated-UL 142, EN ISO 12285/2 or equivalent

• UST-UL 58 or equivalent

• UST-using reinforced fiberglass plastic-UL 1316

• Reinforced Tank- UL 2085, SwRI 97-04, SwRI 93-01

ASTs shall be contained within bunds/dikes constructed to meet local legislation for secondary containment.
Tank-top walkways should have non-slip surfaces, handrails and kick plates.

Tanks shall be:

• Constructed and installed to avoid ingress of water and dirt, and to provide a positive low point to collect
water and sediment for ease of removal. To achieve this, horizontal tanks should be installed with a
minimum continuous slope of 1:50, and vertical tanks should have a cone-down bottom with a minimum
continuous slope of 1:30 to a center sump.

• Prominently numbered and marked with grade stored, (see El 1542) and, as a minimum, show the date of
the most recent internal inspection and cleaning.

• Completely coated internally, including the underside of the roof, with a light-colored epoxy material,
approved as being compatible with aviation fuels (see El 1541 ). Existing tanks not fully coated internally
must undergo a more frequent inspection cycle, and shall, as a minimum, be coated internally on the
bottom and on the sides to a height of two meters (six feet).

Tanks shall be fitted with:

• Primary vent devices installed with coarse mesh screens (typically with 5 mm or Y. inch diameter holes) to
prevent the ingress of foreign bodies.

• Secondary emergency vents.

• A low-point sump with a drain line and suitable valve for the draining of water and sediment. The volume
of the drain line shall be clearly marked.

• Separate product inlet and outlet connections. Inlet pipes should discharge near the bottom of the tank
and be designed to minimize turbulence (in horizontal tanks, the inlet pipe should be at the high end,
directing flow towards the low-end sump).

• Manholes (at least two, meeting API 650) to facilitate entry for gas freeing and cleaning (note: with
UL 142 tanks or equivalent, one manhole is sufficient).

• Gauge hatches to provide means of sampling and tank dipping.

• Anti-siphon valves, if required for installation (UL 142).

• Suitably designed and incorporated pressure relief valves (UL 142).

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• Floating suction arms, bonded to the tank shell, with position indicators and/or check cables bonded to the
tank shell. For effective bonding of check cables, they shall be installed with permanent metal-to-metal
contact with the tank shell. Position indicators are recommended for large above-ground vertical tanks.
(Note: where legislation requires the installation of internal floating roofs/covers, it is critical to ensure that
the floating suction will not interfere with the operation of the floating cover).

• Automatic high-level alarm devices to prevent tank overflow. Low-level alarm systems are also
recommended. At locations supplied by vessel, pipeline or multiple simultaneous discharge of road
tankers or rail tank cars. storage tanks shall be fitted with a high-level audible alarm and a separate "high-
high" level system that shuts down the fuel flow when a pre-determined level of fuel in the tank is
reached. For locations supplied by single discharge of road tanker or rail tank car, an audible high-level
alarm or a single shut-down device is the minimum requirement.

• Horizontal cylindrical tanks (UL 142) shall be secured (tethered) to prevent movement in the events of
high winds, severe flooding or if they are at risk of exposure to other environmental hazards that may
result in the tanks becoming dislodged from saddles or bases.

• The use of PVC to plug or cap piping is not permitted.

3.3.4.1 0.5 Filtration

For fi lter selection guidance, refer to El 1550. Filter monitors are typically only used for into-plane applications
rather than further upstream in the aviation fuel handling system. Monitors can be used as a 3rd stage in the
filter water separators downstream of the separator.

All new vessels and element combinations shall meet El 1581 latest edition. Existing vessels and element
conversions shall meet, by test or similarity, the latest edition of El 1581/EI 1582. For existing vessels,
conversion to the latest edition shall occur within 12 months of qualified elements becoming available for a
specific vessel. If qualified by similarity, a similarity data sheet shall be maintained locally and a data plate
reflecting such qualification shall be attached to the filter vessel.

All monitors shall meet El 1583. Monitors shall not be used where there is a possibility that jet fuel contains
fuel system icing inhibitor (FSII) additive.

Automatic water drain valves on filter sumps are not permitted.

Filtration into Storage: Filter/water separators meeting the performance requirements of El 1581 shall be
provided at inlet to storage. It is acceptable for existing installations to be equipped with filter monitors
meeting the requirement of El 1583, provided they are used only where it can be confirmed no FSII was
injected in the inbound fuel.

A micro pre-filter meeting the requirements of El 1590 may be installed upstream to remove solids and extend
the service life of coalescer elements installed in filter/water separators. Depending on the quality of fuel
received into storage, hay packs and clay treaters for the removal of water and surfactants, respectively, may
be required upstream of the filter/water separator.

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3.3.4.10.6 Pipework
• To ensure that aviation fuels requiring a recertification test are isolated from certified fuel in the airport fuel
storage system until the fuel has been tested, airport fuel storage systems that receive aviation fuels shall
have receipt storage tanks equipped with tank inlet and outlet valves that shall be physically and positively
segregated using one of the following methods:

o A double block-and-bleed (DBB) valve arrangement. This can be either a single DBB valve with two
independent seals and a cavity between them, or two valves with a drain arrangement in a pipe spool
between them. When the valves are in a closed position the cavity or drain spool shall be checked to
confirm no fuel is passing.

o A removable distance (spool) piece.

o A spectacle blind, pancake/skillet flange, or equivalent.

• Wherever possible, all newly installed pipelines shall be routed above ground. Where buried pipelines are
unavoidable they should be located in sleeves, trenches or sand-filled culverts.

• Piping must be properly supported and supports must be designed in such a manner as to minimize the
effects of corrosion, where contact with the product piping occurs.

• Piping must be properly spaced, whether installed aboveground or belowground.

• Buried pipework should be cathodically protected. Prior to installation, an external coating should be
applied to provide additional protection from corrosion.

• Single-valve separation is acceptable as tank isolation for dedicated and segregated systems as the
aviation fuel has already been certified and no additional certification testing is required after transfer into
airport storage tanks.

• All hydrant lines, and any other lines where water can accumulate, shall incorporate low points to facilitate
the removal of water and sediment.

• All piping shall be clearly marked in accordance with El 1542 fuel name and color coding, and with flow
direction arrows.

• Road bridger/transport (i.e., tank truck) and railcar receipt connections shall be fitted with selective
couplings of a size and type chosen to give maximum practical degree of grade security.

• Where more than one grade of aviation fuel is available at the airport, grade selective couplings or
devices shall be fitted to truck bottom loading connections and hydrant pit valves.

• For jet fuel applications, the use of Victaulic couplings is not permitted; joints must be properly welded on
lines carrying fuels.

• Jet fuel without static dissipater additive shall require:

o Relaxation time (30 seconds minimum) between the fi lter and the receiving vessel (i.e., airport tank or
mobile refueller).

o A reduced initial loading/filling rate of a maximum of one meter (three feet) per second, until the inlet
pipework is submerged (determined through measurement), at which point the maximum flow rate
can begin.

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3.3.4.10.7 Hoses

All refueller loading and hydrant low-point flush ing hoses shall meet the latest edition of El 1529, EN 1361
Type C, or ISO 1825. Refueller loading hoses meeting the latest issue of BS 3492, or equivalent, rated for the
maximum pressure of the loading system, are also acceptable.

3.3.4.10.8 Hydrant System

Design

After completion of a new or extended hydrant system installation, before the system is placed into service,
the structural integrity of the system shall be tested in accordance with El 1540.

Each grade of aviation fuel shall be handled in a completely segregated system. There shall be no
interconnecting lines between pipelines handling different fuels.

Where more than one grade of fuel is available, hydrant pits and couplers shall be clearly identified, selective,
and grade-marked in accordance with El 1542.

All new hydrant lines shall be lined internally with an epoxy materi al approved as being compatible with
aviation fuels.

All new hydrant systems shall have tightness control capabilities incorporated into the design to prove their
integrity. When significant modifications to an existing hydrant system are planned, consideration should be
given to incorporating a tightness control system (leak detector).

Hydrant systems and underground piping should be cathodically protected, and appropriate signs for
impressed current systems shall warn against separation of system components without prior de-energization.

All hydrant systems shall be provided with emergency fuel shut-off devices (EFS), or emergency stop buttons
(ESB) that, when activated, stop fuel flow to all hydrant pit valves in a selected area (applicable to storage
and ramp). These shall be:

• Installed outside likely spill areas

• Clearly marked so that they are visible

• Readily accessible from all fuelling positions

• With operating instructions clearly indicated

A monthly functional check of the hydrant emergency fuel shut-down system shall be performed in
accordance with a detailed written test method. The results of each monthly check, including details of the
location of the emergency fuel shut-down devices checked, shall be recorded.

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High-Point and Low-Point Connections

• High-point and low-point connections for underground pipelines shall be installed in pits that permit
access to the connection.

• Low points of hydrant systems shall be, in the case of new systems, fitted with a minimum 35 mm (1.5 in)
manual valve connection suitable for the attachment of a flushing hose rated for the full pressure of the
hydrant system.

• Low points of hydrant systems shall be fitted with a valve connection, suitably sized for effective flushing.
Single valve isolation with a dry-break coupling is sufficient for most arrangements. The flushing hose
shall be rated for the full pressure of the hydrant system.

• All hydrant low-point drains shall be clearly identified.

• High points of hydrant systems shall be fitted with a valve connection.

Additional guidance on hydrant systems can be found in El 1540 Chapter 5, or SAE 5789 Section 5.

3.3.4.1 0.9 Distribution to Apron

Fuel Delivery from Storage

Filter/water separators meeting the performance requirements of El 1581 , latest edition, shall be provided
prior to loading racks and into-hydrant delivery lines.

It is not recommended, but acceptable, for existing installations to be equipped with filter monitors meeting the
requirement of El 1583, provided they are used only where it can be confirmed no FSII was injected in the
fuel.

Receipt and Delivery by One Filter Vessel

Although not recommended, at locations where a single filter vessel is used for both receipt and delivery, a
filter separator meeting El 1581 shall be used. This is acceptable, provided that the facility piping is designed
to ensure that all fuel received shall pass through the filter (i.e., separate pipelines shall be used for fuel
receipt and delivery to fuelling equipment).

Refueller Loading Facilities

• Pipework shall be grade-marked and color-coded to El 1542 with flow direction arrows.

• If more than one grade of fuel is available, couplings that are physically incompatible shall be used to
ensure that only the correct hoses appropriate to the fuel grade can be connected. Adaptors that change
the size or design of the outlet shall not be used.

• Refueller loading hoses shall meet El1529, EN 1361 type C or ISO 1825 standards.

• Dust caps shall be clean, in good condition, and fitted whenever hoses are not in use.

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• Fire extinguishers shall be easily accessible.

• Pump shut-down buttons shall be easily accessible and clearly identified. Their function shall be checked
every month and the check recorded.

• Some loading racks are equipped with Electronic Level Control systems (e.g., Scully, or equivalent).

• Bonding cables shall be provided at the loading rack and their continuity shall be checked. Where loading
is controlled by an Electronic Level Control system, where bonding to the refueller is required to activate
the loading pump, a separate bonding cable is not required if the system ensures electrical continuity
between the vehicle and loading pipework.

Positioning

Refuellers and hydrant fuelling vehicles should, if possible, always move forward into the fuelling position.
Aircraft gates should be designed to facilitate this type of vehicle movement. Ramp design should not require
fuelling vehicles to reverse into position.

Exhibit 3.3.4.10.9: Examples of Refueller and Hydrant Fuelling Vehicle Movements

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Source: lATA Fuel Quality Pool

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Recommendation: Reference Documents


The safety requirements set out in the Energy Institute Document 1540 Design, Construction, Operation and
Maintenance of Aviation Fuelling Facilities, should be observed.

Recommendation: Speed Limits and Signage


Speed limits and signage pertaining to the control and management of fuel vehicles on the apron should be
in accordance with airport or local authority regulations. In general, a speed limit of 25 km/h (15 mph) shall
be enforced. Breaks must be tested before approaching the aircraft. Vehicles shall not approach an aircraft
until the aircraft anti-collision lights have been switched off.

3.3.5 Air and Ground Navigation Aids

3.3.5.1 Visual Aids

3.3.5.1.1 Introduction

Visual aids are designed to increase the conspicuity of the runway, provide visual reference in the final stages
of the approach and landing, and to expedite ground movement. Their importance increases as visibility
becomes limited. There are three basic groupings of visual aids used by pilots for specific types of positional
reference:

1. Approach, runway center-line, and runway edge lighting and markings allow pilots to assess lateral
position and cross-track velocity

2. Approach and threshold lighting and markings provide a roll reference

3. Touchdown zone (TDZ) lighting and markings indicate the plane of the runway surface and show the
touchdown area providing vertical and longitudinal reference.

The visual guidance derived from runway lights and/or markings should be sufficient to ensure adequate
takeoff alignment and directional control for takeoff and stopping, whether after landing or in an emergency.
Although additional instruments, such as head-up displays, may enhance the safety of the operation,
reference to visual aids is a primary requirement even when some form of ground run monitor and displays
based on the use of external non-visual guidance are being used. The criteria for approach lighting, runway
lighting and runway markings are contained in ICAO Annex 14. Where appropri ate, reflective beads may be
added to the runway/taxiway paint to increase conspicuity.

Visual aids are also important for the safe and expeditious guidance and control of taxiing airplanes. Special
attention is required for taxiway lighting, stop bars and signs. ICAO Annex 14 contains specifications for
markings, lights, as well as mandatory and optional information signs and markers. Requirements may vary,
but they consist of markings and signs supplemented by taxi holding position lights to denote holding
positions as well as taxiing guidance signs and markings on the center lines and edges of taxiways.

ICAO Annex 14 also provides visibility standards in reference to lighting spacing as well as when taxiway
edge lights and centerline lights should be applied.

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Runway Status Lights (RWSL) are a rather new lighting system and currently available at some airports in the
USA and Japan. In France, RWSL are planned to become operational in 2016 at Charles de Gaulle Airport.
RWSL are an additional safety net for pilots to prevent the risk of runway incursions. The lights consist of
Runway Entry Lights and Threshold Lights. The lights are either ON (red) or OFF. When RED, pilots have to
stop the aircraft.

3.3.5.1.2 Non-Precision Approach

For non-precision approach and landing operations, the visual aids for paved instrument runways required by
ICAO Annex 14 are:

(a) Markings:

• Runway designation

• Runway centerline

• Threshold

• Fixed distance

• Runway side stripe, where there is a lack of contrast

• Taxiway centerline markings, from the runway centerline

• Taxi-holding position markings

(b) Lights:

• Approach slope indicator system, such as Precision Approach Path Indicator (PAPI) and Visual
Approach Slope Indicator (VASIS)

• Simple approach lighting system

• Runway edge lights, where the runway is intended for use at night

• Stop-way lights, where a stop-way is provided

Recommendation: Precision Approach Path Indicators


Precision Approach Path Indicator (PAP I) installations should supersede or replace other visual approach
slope indicator systems as soon as practicably possible. Where a visual approach slope indicator (VASIS)
system is installed on an ILS runway, it is recognized that the signals received from the (non-precision)
visual system may conflict with the ILS signals in such a manner as to cast doubt on the safety or validity of
the precision approach guidance being provided by the ILS.

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3.3.5.1.3 Precision Approach (CAT I)

For Category I precision approach and landing operations, the visual aids for paved instrument runways
required by ICAO Annex 14 are:

(a) Markings:

• Runway designation

• Runway centerline

• Threshold

• Fixed distance

• Touchdown zone

• Runway side stripe, where there is a lack of contrast

• Taxiway centerline markings, from the runway centerline

• Taxi-holding position markings

(b) Lights:

• Approach slope indicator system (PAPI, VASIS)

• Precision approach Category I lighting system

• Runway edge, threshold and end lights

For Category I precision approach and landing operations, the following visual aids are also recommended by
ICAO Annex 14:

• Runway side stripe

• Runway center-line lights, under specified conditions

• Taxi-holding position lights, where there is a need to improve the conspicuity of the lighting of the holding
position

3.3.5.1.4 Precision Approach (CAT 11/111)

Approach, threshold, touchdown zone, runway edge, center-lin e, runway end and other airport lights are
required in compliance with ICAO Annex 14, appropriate to the category of operation for which a runway is
intended. Where the runway may, in futu re, be upgraded so as to be suitable for Category II and Ill
operations, it is advantageous to provide the necessary improved lighting during the initial construction or
resurfacing of precision approach runways. This would eliminate the need for extensive future modifications.

For daylight operations, experience has shown that surface markings are an effective means of indicating the
centerlines of taxiways and holding positions. A holding position sign is required at all Category II and Ill
holding positions.

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Signs may also be needed to identify taxiways. Taxiway centerline lights or taxiway edge lights and centerline
markings providing adequate guidance are required for Category II and Ill operations. The conspicuity of
runway markings and taxiway markings deteriorates rapidly, particularly at airports with higher movement
rates. Frequent inspection and maintenance of markin gs cannot be overemphasized, especially for
Category II and Ill operations.

Stop bars can also make a valuable contribution to safety and ground traffic flow control in low-visibility
operations. The primary safety function of the stop bar is the prevention of inadvertent penetrations of active
runways and Obstacle Free Zones by aircraft and vehicles in such conditions. Stop bars, when provided,
should be used at least in visibility conditions corresponding to runway visual ranges (RVRs) of less than
350m (CAT Ill). They also may contribute, in conjunction with other elements of the surface movement
guidance and control system (SMGCS), to effective traffic flow when low visibility prevents ATC from effecting
optimum flow and ground separation by visual reference.

It may also be advantageous to partly automate the operation of selected stop bars so that the ATC will not
be required to operate them manually every time, thus avoiding possible human errors. For example, manual
switch-off of a stop bar after issuance of a movement clearance would be followed by an automatic re-
illumination by the crossing airplane. Or, a 'limited visibility' setting on the control panel would automatically
illuminate stop bars across taxiways that are not to be used in limited visibilities.

Recently, a tendency has been observed where stop bars are in use 24/7 with the aim to improve runway
safety.

It is inevitable that some lights in a particular system will fail, but if such failures are distributed in a manner
that does not confuse the lighting pattern, the system may be regarded as serviceable. It could be both
difficult and expensive to provide monitoring of individual lights, except by regular inspection of all sections of
the lighting system. Consideration may, therefore, be given to monitoring only the lighting circuits. To help
safeguard recognizable patterns in the event of the failure of a single circuit, circuits should be interleaved so
that the failure of adjacent lights or clusters of lights will be avoided.

However, nowadays, lighting control systems are available and in place that are able to monitor individual
lights and failures.

Requirements and guidance on the design, maintenance and monitoring of lighting circuits is contained in
ICAO Annex 14, and the Aerodrome Design Manual (doc 9157) Part 4.

3.3.5.2 Non-Visual Aids

3.3.5.2.1 Introduction

The term 'non-visual aids' refers to the approved radio and radar aids used to assist the pilot in carrying out
approach and landing under cloud or other visibility-impairing conditions. In conditions of moderate cloud base
and visibility, the purpose of the aid is to establish the aircraft in a position from which the pilot can safely
complete the approach and landing by visual means, and in such conditions a relatively simple aid may well

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suffice. In very low cloud base and/or visibility conditions, visual contact may not be available to the pilot and
a much more accurate and reliable system will be required to effectively locate the aircraft.

Specifications for radio and radar aids are given in ICAO Annex 10, Volume I. The criteria for terminal area
fixes and information on the construction of instrument approach procedures are given in PANS-OPS
(Doc 8168).

The non-visual aids for which standards have been defined range from non-precision aids such as:

• Very high frequency direction finding (VDF)

• Non-directional radio beacon (NOB)

• Very high frequency omnidirectional range (VOR)

• Surveillance radar

• ILS localizer only

To the precision approach aids:

• Precision approach radar (PAR)

• Instrument landing system (ILS)

In general terms, the non-visual aids can support operations in decreasing cloud base and visibility conditions
in the order listed above.

3.3.5.2.2 Non-Precision Approach

Non-precision approach aids provide azimuth and/or distance information only. When using a single non-
precision aid for an instrument approach, the position of the aircraft can only be fixed by over-flying the
facility. Position fixes may also be obtained by an intersection of bearings or radials from more than one
navigational facility, or by the use of distance measuring equipment (DME) or marker beacons in association
with azimuth guidance. En route surveillance radar generally may be used to provide fixes prior to the final
approach fix. Terminal area radar may be used to identify any termin al area fix including step-down fixes after
the fi nal approach fix.

It is essential that all non-precision aids be ground and flight-checked at the time of commissioning and at
regular intervals thereafter.

Since the early 1990s, aircraft cost-effective navigation procedures are offered to the pilot, so-called RNAV
(Area Navigation) procedures, which are mainly designed and based on the Global Positioning Satellite
system (GPS) of the USA.

With the aid of GPS, or more generally termed Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), routes can be
designed closer to each due to the fact that GNSS-equipped aircraft are able to fly the routes very accurately
with the potential to free up airspace and/or create additional route capacity.

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Modern aircraft have GNSS avionics on board . Together with a properly designed airspace infrastructure, they
are able to avoid, to a certain extent, populated areas through narrow route tracking, thereby reducing the
noise impact. Ultimately, GNSS could replace all traditional ground aids like VOR, DME, etc. However, there
will be a need to maintain a minimum ground network as a back-up in case GNSS fails. But, undoubtedly, the
trend is to design navigation procedures that rely on GNSS.

3.3.5.2.3 Precision Approach (CAT I)

Precision approach aids provide vertical (i.e., glide path) information in addition to azimuth guidance and,
possibly, distance information. The ICAO standard non-visual precision approach aids is ILS, which is
commonly in use.

Precision approach radar (PAR) is also recognized as a precision approach aid. ILS ground equipment
comprises a localizer, a glide path and at least two marker beacons, or, where the siting of marker beacons is
impracticable, a suitably sited DME, provided that the distance information so obtained is operationally
equivalent to that furnished by marker beacons. ILS may be used for all categories of operations, but the
beam structure specifications, monitoring requirements and continuity of service requirements are more
stringent for Category II and Ill operations (see section 3.3.5.2.4 Precision Approach (CAT II/III)).

It is essential that all ILS installations be ground- and flight-checked at the time of commissioning and at
regular intervals in accordance with the requirements of ICAO Annex 10, Volume I, Part I to ensure an
adequate and uniform standard of non-visual guidance. In the event that a facility fails to meet the
requirements for which it was commissioned, or if a routine flight test cannot be completed within the
appropriate time interval, its status must be reviewed and the facility downgraded as necessary. Users should
be advised of changes in ILS status through the aeronautical information service (AIS). Guidance material on
flight testing is contained in the Manual on Testing of Radio Navigation Aids (ICAO Doc. 8071 ).

To ensure that the integrity of the guidance signal radiated by the ILS is maintained during aircraft
approaches, all vehicles and aircraft on the ground must remain outside the ILS critical areas as described in
ICAO Annex 10, Volume I, Attachment C to Part I. If a vehicle or aircraft is within the critical area, it will cause
reflection and/or diffraction of the ILS signals which may result in significant disturbances to the guidance
signals on the approach path.

Diffraction and/or reflection may also be caused by one or more large aircraft or vehicles in the vicinity of the
runway. This may effect both the glide path elevation and localizer azimuth signals. This additional area,
outside the critical area, is called the sensitive area 12 • The extent of the sensitive areas will vary with the
characteristics of the ILS and the category of operations. It is essential to establish the level of interference
caused by aircraft and vehicles at various positions on the airport so that the boundaries of the sensitive
areas may be determined.

12
Terminology and protection criteria for ILS critical and sensitive areas may vary between States. For example, some States use the
term 'critical area' to refer to both ICAO critical and sensitive areas as specified in Annex 10. Thus, when terms used or protection
provided require clarification, information should be made available to relevant operators or States.

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Critical areas must be protected if the weather conditions are less than 800ft. (250 m) cloud base or 3,000 m
visibility when instrument approach operations are being carried out.

Various ILS ground installations of suitable quality are routinely used to gain automatic approach and landing
experience in visibility conditions permitting visual monitoring of the operation by the pilot. They should ,
therefore, be protected by interlocks from interference due to the simultaneous radiation of opposite direction
localizer beams (ICAO, Annex 10, Volume I, Part 1). Where this is impracticable for technical or operational
reasons, and both localizers radiate simultaneously, pilots should be notified by:

• The appropriate air traffic service (ATS) unit

• Automated terminal information service (ATIS) broadcast

• Notice to airmen (NOTAM)

• The relevant part of the airport improvement plan (AlP)

Similar harmful interference can occur if aircraft in the final phase of approach or roll-out pass closely in front
of the ILS localizer antenna serving another runway. The provisions listed above should, therefore, be applied
to any such installations where experience shows this to be necessary.

It is possible for ILS signals in space to be effected by the presence of signals from radio and television
transmitters, citizen band radios, industrial plasma welders, spark erosion equipment, etc.

Complaints by flight crews of signal disturbances should be investigated, and special flight checks should be
made when there is reason to believe that serious interference is occurring. Every effort should be made to
identify and eliminate the cause of the interference.

3.3.5.2.4 Precision Approach (CAT 11/111)

The ILS ground equipment must meet the facility performance requirements specified in ICAO Annex 10,
Volume I, Part I. The guidance material in Attachment C to Part I of that document also provides information
for the planning and implementation of the ILS.

The Manual of Testing of Radio Navigation Aids (ICAO Doc 8071) provides guidance on ground and flight
testing of radio navigation aids; Volume II of the manual is concerned with ILS facilities. The quality of the ILS
signals in space is not determined solely by the quality of the ground equipment. The suitability of the site,
including the influence of reflection from objects illuminated by the ILS signals and the manner in which the
ground equipment is adjusted and maintained, also have significant effect on the quality of the signal received
at the aircraft. It is essential that the ILS signal in space is flight-checked in order to confirm that is meets in all
respects the appropriate standards of ICAO Annex 10, Volume I, Part I.

All facilities associated with the ILS ground equipment must be monitored in accordance with the requirement
of ICAO Annex 10, Volume I, Part I. Guidance material on monitoring is contained in Attachment C to Part I of
Annex 10, Volume I.

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ILS critical and sensitive areas must always be protected if the weather conditions are lower than 60 m
(200ft.) cloud base or 600 m RVR (i.e., CAT IIIIII conditions) when instrument approach operations are being
carried out. In the latter case, aircraft that will overfly the localizer transmitter antenna after takeoff should be
past the antenna before an aircraft making an approach has descended to a height of 60 m (200ft.) above
the runway.

Similarly, an aircraft maneuvering on the ground, for example when clearing the runway after landing, should
be clear of the critical and sensitive areas before an aircraft approaching to land has descended to a height of
60 m (200ft.) above the runway. The protection of these areas when the weather conditions are better than
the minimum specified above will facilitate the use of automatic approach and landing systems, and will
provide a safeguard in deteriorating weather conditions and when actual weather conditions are lower than is
reported.

To ensure that the integrity of the guidance signal radiated by the ILS is maintained during aircraft
approaches, all vehicles and aircraft on the ground must remain outside the ILS critical and sensitive areas as
described in ICAO Annex 10, Volume I, Attachment C to Part I, when the aircraft on final approach has
passed the outer marker. If a vehicle or aircraft is within the critical area it will cause reflection and/or
diffraction of the ILS signals which may result in significant disturbances to the guidance signals on the
approach path. Additional longitudinal separation between successively landing aircraft contributes to the
integrity of ILS guidance signals.

Diffraction and/or reflection may also be caused by large aircraft in the vicinity of the runway which may affect
both the glide path and the localizer signals. This additional area, outside the critical area, is called the
sensitive area13 . The extent of the sensitive areas will vary with the characteristics of the ILS and the category
of operations. It is essential to establish the level of interference caused by aircraft and vehicles at various
positions on the apron so that the boundaries of the sensitive areas may be determined. Since it is obviously
not practical to develop precise criteria covering all cases, the size and shape of the sensitive areas for a
particular category of operation must be determined by airport authorities.

The reliability of the ILS ground equipment is a measure of the frequency of unscheduled outages that may
be experienced. Reliability will be increased by providing on-line standby equipment and by duplication or
triplication of key functions, including power supplies. The lowest value of operating minima can only be
achieved with ILS that have high standards of reliability. The specifications in ICAO Annex 10, Volume I, Part
I, indicate the total maximum periods of time allowed outside the specified performance limits for each ILS
facility performance requirement.

For Category Ill operations it is requested to publish the classification of the ILS ground equipment in the
Aeronautical Information Publication.

13
Some States do not distinguish between critical and sensitive areas as defined in Annex 10. These States define instead an area
larger than that defined in Annex 10, but still called the critical area. In addition, this area is protected when an arriving aircraft is within
the middle marker, or when cloud and visibility conditions are below specified values. This affords protection equivalent to that
described above.

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Recommendation: ICAO Annex 10


Specifications for radio and radar aids are given in ICAO Annex 10, Volume I. The criteria for terminal area
fixes and information on the construction of instrument approach procedures are given in PAN S-OPS
(Doc 8168).

Recommendation: Specification between ILS Critical and Sensitive Areas


Certain States fail to distinguish between critical areas and sensitive areas, or else employ these terms not
fu lly in accordance with the definitions specified in ICAO Annex 10. When terms used or protection provided
require clarification, information should be made precisely clear between relevant operators or States.

New developments in precision approach landing systems are underway in the form of Ground-based
Augmentation Systems (GBAS) making use of (GNSS). In Europe, GBAS tests have been performed in
Bremen and Malaga, and GBAS is currently being tested at Frankfurt Airport providing CAT I services for
GBAS-equipped aircraft (A380).

The ultimate goal is to provide GBAS CA TII/II I services at airports for which ICAO is delivering standards and
recommended practices (SARPS) and whereby ILS will be replaced by GBAS. It is expected that one GBAS
is able to replace all the ILS installed at an airport with multiple runway ends. GBAS can be placed at an
optimal location at the airport. The ILS-bound Safety and Critical Areas will not be applicable anymore and
runway throughput during Low Visibility Operations will be improved.

3.3.5.3 Air Traffic Control Towers

3.3.5.3.1 Overview

Historically, control towers covered both ground and airborne aircraft, ATC equipment and staff. At busy
airports today, tower ATC functions are more focused toward the control of aircraft on the ground to the point
at which they physically touchdown or depart the apron. Tower ATC communication and control of aircraft in
general covers the following:

• Radio communication and control of aircraft on aprons, taxiways, runways and in the air, when possible,
by using ground radar equipment for the ground movements

• Runway and taxiway lighting systems control

• Airport ILS control

• Communication handover of the airborne aircraft to the neighboring Air Traffic Control Sector (APP/ACC).

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3.3.5.3.2 Design Characteristics

The primary objective of a modern control tower is to permit the functions listed in Section 3.3.5.3.1 to be
completed effectively, efficiently and, most importantly, safely. The following design characteristics should be
observed by control tower and terminal building planners embarking on the design and placement of new or
upgraded control towers at all code letter categories of airports:

• Ability to clearly see without obstruction the stand perimeter of every stand on the apron (subject to the
requirements of the national ATC provider and operator)

• Ability to see and control all taxiways and runways systems

• Ability to communicate with aircraft and remote ATC organizations

• Provision of ground radar monitors

• Provision of emergency services, dedicated crash/incident alert and security system communications

• Provision of 36o• anti-glare, anti-distortion ATC staff apron viewing glazing at the appropriate height

• Provision of CCTV monitoring for the remote review stands or obstructed stands (subject to the
requirements of the national ATC provider and operator)

• Towers should not be placed too close to flight paths (see ICAO Annex 14)

• Provision of suitable security fencing and access control systems

• Provision of dedicated heating, ventilation and power transformer systems, which should be stand alone
with provision of separate emergency back-ups for each of these systems (subject to the requirements of
the national ATC provider and operator)

Designers should work closely with the ATC operator (private or national organizations) and obtain
design criteria standards provided by the national ATC infrastructure provider (e.g., National Air Traffic
Services- Civil Aviation Authority for United Kingdom airports or Federal Aviation Authority- Air Traffic
Services for USA airports, etc.) pertaining to the country in question.

The ATC control tower building design and fit-out standards will vary slightly from country to country, though
all should define the following generic building and ATC process requirements:

• Control tower height (line of sight requirements)

• Control tower placement within the airfield (line of sight requirements)

• IT systems provision and infrastructure

• ATC access control provision

• ATC staff car parking (if different from general staff car parking)

• Systems commissioning requirements

ATC radar and airborne aircraft communications buildings are often provided away from the airport and in
dedicated facilities. Where this facility is to be integral to the control tower facility, airport building and apron
designers should consult national ATC legislative bodies for precise size and facility performance
requirements.

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Exhibit 3.3.5.3.2 shows the internal detail of a modern control tower with views overlooking the apron.

Exhibit 3.3.5.3.2: Control Tower Facility-Internal View

Source: Alenia Marconi Systems Limited (UK)

3.3.5.3.3 Control Tower Position

The position of the control tower on the apron is vital to the safe operation of the aircraft. Ground aircraft
controllers need to be able to see all stand perimeters, taxiways/runways and final approaches. One of the
more challenging aspects of control tower design is the operational requirement to permit controllers to see
the stand areas and taxiways so that they can control and coordinate pushback operations where pilots are
effectively blind in this regard. The control tower staff must be able to provide clear guidance to pilots by being
able to know the clearance status of the stand and taxiways visually and through communications. Apron
areas are often vast and can be interlaced within intricate building infrastructure.

Apron, runway and taxiway control rooms should, wherever possible, be consolidated into a single elevated
apron control room, with 360• unobstructed panoramic vision of the areas mentioned (subject to the
requirements of the national ATC provider and local operator). Dual elevated apron control rooms may be
used (subject to the requirements of the national ATC provider and local operator) where any one or more of
the following situations have been met:

• Taxiways and runways are placed extra-long distances away from the terminal apron stand areas, which
results in the need to raise the control tower for this purpose only

• More controllers will have a better vision of specific areas of the apron

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Exhibit 3.3.5.3.3: Typical Control Tower Considerations

Typical Control Tower Cons iderations

Angle of \11sion Dependent on National


ATC PrOVider Reqt.irements

'-t···--·- - ------ ---- ------------------ ---------------j Clear Visual Path ~----------- -------- ---------------------- . -----l>l

L _ __ _ _JI-------------·-------------------------·-··-)>1
H1

ill
.Q
,"c:
()
TypiCal Tennlnal "0 I
, J!l
Buildirg Pier 1
c:
&l
'0 '0,_
"'
Structure
-0
"0
c
g
rJ)
-,_.
o _,
c "
l!!O.
VJ ,
,., Eo
15.!!
""
:.: "'c
~l!!
u
IDVJ "'"
IDO:

Notes
(I) H1 • Denotes Primal)' Full Apron Control Roo~n Height
Dimension is dependent on Terrninal Building Design ATC visual requirements

(ii) H2 -Denotes Secondary Apron Conlfol Room Height


Dimension Is aepenaert on Ter~ntnal Bull:ltng Des~n ATC 'llsual requirements

(iii) All stand peri~neters . runwatS and taxtwavs to be visible from apron control
roo~n (s)
(lv) A single Apra1 Control Room solution Is generically a ;refen-ed solution though
this ATC dependent (Designer should consult national ATC pi"O'Yider/cperator)

Source: ADRM , 9th Edition

Recommendation: Control Tower Design Consultation


Terminal building and apron designers must liaise with national ATC providers and operators at the earliest
opportunity to understand the precise operational specifications of the control tower. Designers should also
consult ICAO Annex 14.

Recommendation: Control Tower Design Considerations


Terminal building and apron designers must observe the design characteristics stipulated in Section
3.5.4.3.2 and the control tower positioning requirements defined in Section 3.3.5.3.3.

Recommendation: Visual and Non-Visual Aids Reference Material


Designers embarking on the development of control towers should refer to Section 3.3.5.1 Visual Aids and
Section 3.3.5.2 Non Visual Aids of this manual.

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lATA Planning-Passenger Terminal

3.4 Passenger Terminal

3.4.1 Introduction

Contemporary airport passenger terminals serve many different functions, accommodate a wide variety of
stakeholders who frequently have diverging objectives, and have to respond to one of the world's most
dynamic industries. Airport terminals need to be functionally and operationally efficient, commercially viable
and offer passengers as effortless and straightforward a travel experience as possible.

This chapter of the Airport Development Reference Manual (ADRM) addresses the key requirements
associated with typical airport passenger terminals and provides guidance on many of the specific challenges
associated with airport facilities.

Note: The ADRM does not provide a definitive guide on how to design an airport terminal and it is not
intended to be used in that context.

Although many airport terminals face similar design challenges, every airport is unique and has to satisfy
many varying parameters, including:

• Volumes of passenger traffic in annual, busy (design) hour and peak hour numbers;

• Growth projections with different design and construction phasing requirements;

• Compositions of aircraft fleet traffic (e.g., wide-body/narrow-body/regional);

• Mixes of passenger traffic (e.g., domestic/international, long haul/short haul, origin and destination,
transfer, first-class/business class/premium economy/economy);

• Types of airline operations (e.g., multiple carriers/dominant alliances, full-service airlines, New Model
Airlines, home-based carriers);

• Environmental and sustainability objectives;

• Local, regional and national security/immigration/emigration/customs requirements;

• Adoption of Internet processing facilities, self-service desks, self-service bag drop facilities and biometric
immigration/emigration facilities;

• Level of Service standards (e.g., waiting times, bag drop waiting times, security waiting times, immigration
and emigration waiting times and transfer waiting times);

• Local customs with significantly different numbers of "meeters and greeters" and "well-wishers";

• Cultural/religious behaviors regarding proximity, orientation and availability of amenities;

• Average number of checked baggage and/or cabin baggage;

• Requirements for "front of house" or "back of house" checked baggage screening;

• Demand and opportunity for retail and food & beverage offers;

• Perspectives on utilization of advanced technology/engineering systems; and

• Kinds of intermodal connections to public transit, vehicles, rail, etc.

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As a consequence of these numerous variables, it is wholly misleading to surmise that the rigid application of
the information contained within the ADRM will necessarily deliver the most appropriate solution.

Recommendation: Experienced Professional Assistance


It is strongly recommended that appropriate benchmarks be rigorously reviewed and critiqued and that any
commissioning airline, airport or government authority select professionals with ample relevant experience to
assist them.

Nevertheless, the challenges faced by each airport are frequently similar. Consequently, with reference to
international best practices and targeted benchmarking, it is possible to gather a broad set of design guidance
principles. These form the basis for the recommendations contained in the ADRM.

3.4.2 Terminal Design Considerations

3.4.2.1 Terminal Concept and Processes

3.4.2.1.1 General Considerations

The planning and configuration of passenger terminals must be related closely to the runway/taxiway system,
apron configuration and airport access (road and rail) systems. In design "FORM FOLLOWS FUNCTION". So,
the requirements of the airport operation and how the major airline users operate within the airport complex
must be fully understood. The basic operational strategies and priorities of the major airlines need to be
understood in order to fully appreciate the terminal's required functionality. The dominant type of operation,
such as transfer hub versus origin and destination airport, and the associated differences in passenger
requirements, should be taken into consideration. Understanding the "right" functionality will play an important
role in the layout and flexibility of the airport terminal building. As discussed in the Master Planning chapter of
the ADRM, the types and category of aircraft that can be accommodated by the runway system/configuration
will significantly influence the appropriate terminal concept layout.

3.4.2.1.2 Key Functions

The passenger terminal complex is fundamentally a series of interconnected subsystems. Ideally, each
subsystem is capable of expansion as and when demand dictates. The interconnected sub systems include:

• Ground transportation systems (e.g., vehicles, rail, etc.);

• The main terminal spaces. For departing passengers, this comprises the departures forecourt and
departures hall and any associated commercial (i.e., retail and food & beverage) offerings. For arriving
passengers, this comprises the Arrivals Hall and Forecourt (for "meeters and greeters") and the related
commercial spaces);

• Outbound (emigration) and Inbound (immigration) inspection services (i.e., security checks on departures
and health checks, immigration and customs control on arrivals);

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• Primary and centralized lounges to accommodate airside waiting prior to boarding (i.e., the main
departure lounge and the associated retail and food & beverage offerings);

• Secondary and dispersed lounges (i.e., finger piers and/or satellites containing gate lounges). These
zones can also contain associated commercial offerings; and

• Baggage Handling System (BHS) to collect, screen, sort, store, transfer and deliver bags to aircraft on
departures, and on arrivals to unload and deliver bags into the terminal for redistribution back to
passengers.

As developed further in this sub-chapter, certain basic criteria should be observed in the selection of a
terminal concept and the planning of passenger terminals. The criteria include those considerations outlined
below.

(a) Modularity and Expandability

Each of the interconnected subsystems in an airport terminal is subject to modification and therefore
requires the integration of tangible methodologies to adjust, grow and adapt. Whether it is a capacity
enhancement issue (i.e., more security screening positions) or a change in security protocol (i.e., more
detailed search criteria), utilizing modular building design, materials and systems is one proven way to
accommodate changes over time. Another way to improve adaptability of the basic building to collocate
"fixed" facilities like structural elements, mechanical systems and vertical circulation cores, with
designated internal "growth" zones in the form of atrium s or interstitial spaces that can absorb expansion
capability within the building without unnecessarily disrupting existing airline operations and/or functions.
In this way, new regulatory developments and changes in the nature and volume of passenger flows can
be readily and quickly accommodated without the need for wholesale changes to existing facilities or for
constructing "more building".

Recommendation: Modularity
It is recommended that, on an unconstrained "greenfield" or "bluesea" site, a plan be based on modular
flexibility and expandability reflected in a single terminal complex or "campus" capable of accommodating the
entire site's passenger handling needs. The goal is always to deliver excellent passenger service and
experience, and the most effective and efficient operations. To achieve this, the functions that drive airport
and airline operations need to be fully understood and incorporated into the design and development.

(b) Compatibility and Flexibility

Contact stands and parking positions for aircraft should be designed with built-in flexibility to
accommodate larger future-generation aircraft. Current longer length variants such as the 6737-900,
A340-600 and B777-9X need to be considered. Piers and satellites should have expansion zones
reserved in order to allow for flexibility. Gate lounge areas within these faci lities need to provide the same
flexibility. This will ensure that existing and proposed facilities have the ability to accommodate varying
aircraft types and differing traffic mixes.

(c) Cost-Effective Design Solutions

Capital expenditure (CAPEX) proposals to extend or construct new passenger terminal facilities should be
substantiated by a business case and cost-benefit analysis that has been vetted and agreed to by the

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user community. The business case must demonstrate and quantify clear benefits in terms of increased
capacity to satisfy existing and projected demand, improved passenger experience and operational
efficiency.

As previously outlined, it is preferable that new construction be viewed as an additional module to an


existing but expandable operational system. Design, management and construction costs should be
optimized by adopting a repetitive, low risk approach that should not adversely impact existing operations.
Expensive, above-average cost solutions with unique "one off' architectural fixtures and fittings or
engineering features should be avoided. Highly functional and aesthetically pleasing design solutions that
provide an atmosphere that enhances the passenger experience will provide a competitive advantage that
will benefit and reflect positively on all stakeholders.

(d) Centralization

In the process of planning a terminal concept, airport authorities and/or their consultants must consider
the functionality needed to support the strategic goals of their airline business partners. This will include
determining the degree of centralization of the processing activity required, or the degree that can be
accommodated by the base carrier, alliance partnerships and other carriers by physical as well as
technological means.

In centralized terminal concepts, all the major components (i.e., surface access systems, passenger
processing and BHS) are located in a single passenger terminal complex, independent of any particular
traffic segment (i.e., domestic, international, short-haul, long-haul, etc.). In a centralized termin al, airlines
and alliances can avoid unnecessary duplication of activities, common facilities can be shared and
associated CAPEX and resulting charges can be optimized to the benefit of the aviation community.

3.4.2.1.3 Passenger Segregation

When developing plans for expanded terminal capacity, either through an extension to an existing facility or
construction of a new terminal area, the requirement to physically separate non secure arriving and transfer
passengers from departing security-screened passengers must be taken into consideration. The preferred
solution is to segregate the different passenger flows on different levels of the facility. Other less optimal
solutions use other means of physical separation (e.g., glazed screens, etc.).

3.4.2.1.4 Wayfinding and Passenger Orientation

The simplest decision is "no decision". A good example is limiting the number of air terminals at any given
airport to one. Similarly "straight ahead" is always the simplest way to maintain passenger orientation. Many
of the most successful air terminal facilities employ these key design principles.

When it is necessary to make a choice or change direction and/or level, the simplest way to maintain
passenger flow and orientation is to limit the number of choices available. At key decision points the options
should be limited to "A" or "B" (only two choices). Where multiple directional decisions are necessary, these
should be arranged in sequential decision points, each with only an "A" or "B" option.

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The best airport terminals are those that provide the most clear and direct path from departures processing to
aircraft gate. Intuitive wayfinding, limiting decision points and using materials, lighting, outdoor views and
other physical directional clues that enhance passenger orientation is significantly more effective than a
reliance on signage. Passenger orientation within the terminal can be greatly enhanced by adopting a
transparent building philosophy. There is no simpler way to orientate passengers than to allow them to see
their final destination. For departing and transfer passengers, this means views of aircraft. For arriving
passengers, this means sight lines toward landside surface access systems and/or "meeter/greeter" areas.
Directional information should only be needed to support ancillary facilities that may be away from the
primary, clearly evident circulation routes (i.e., to information/transfer counters, Commercially Important
Passenger (CIP) lounges, toilets and associated support services, etc.).

To avoid confusion, passengers should not be subjected to changes in direction greater than 90 degrees and
should not be made to perform repeated 90-degree turns within a short distance. In no instance should
passengers have to backtrack or walk against passenger flows.

(a) Passenger Cross-flows

Situations where passenger movement routes cross must be avoided to limit confusion and congestion.
Movement flows also include routes for people with reduced mobility and assisted vehicular passenger
transfers. Where it is impossible to avoid cross-flows, it is imperative to provide sufficient space to amply
absorb the volume of people.

(b) Minimized Travel Distances

Airports are daunting places, even for those without mobility challenges. Walking distances from the
forecourt to the gate and vice versa should be minimized. Convoluted circulation routes that include
changes in direction or level negatively impact orientation. Walking distances in excess of 300 meters
should always be augmented with moving walkways.

At all times w here departing and arriving passengers must transport their checked baggage they should
be provided with baggage trolleys. Terminal conveyance systems (i.e., elevators, escalators and moving
walkways) should permit passenger movement w ithout the need to off-load and reload trolleys w hen
changing levels. Circulation routes should also permit passengers to pass one another, with or without
baggage trolleys.

On the airs ide of the passenger terminal complex, baggage trolleys should be smaller to assist with
permitted cabin baggage, and they should be easily accommodated within all concession outlets.

Passenger flow routes should be clear and easily understood. Concession areas along the way to
passenger boarding areas should be convenient and available to passengers w ithout impeding direct
access to gates, or increasing the overall walking distance. Passengers w ho wish to make quick, easy
and direct routings through terminals should be accommodated. Dedicated "fast-track" procedures,
especially for CIPs, should be considered.

(c) Minimal Level Changes

If possible, departing and arriving passengers should not be required to change levels. The use of ramps
to facilitate such level changes is encouraged where the overall walking distance is not increased
excessively.

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In cases where difficult site conditions, existing operations or building structures leave no altern ative, then
level changes should be achieved by modes of conveyance (i.e., escalators and elevators) with an
associated staircase and/or ramp as backup should the mechanical devices fail.

3.4.2.1.5 Aircraft Methods of Access

There are two primary aircraft access methods: Passenger Boarding Bridges (PBS) and aircraft stairs.

It is important to understand the impact of these methods in the full context of the function of the airport.
Airport operators, airlines and agents/ground handlers that use the boarding areas and associated gates will
be the primary stakeholders determining the appropri ate access methods to be utilized. Ongoing research
continues to indicate that access to the aircraft via a PBB is perceived by most passengers to offer the best
level of service. However, it is still quite common for smaller aircraft (under 75 passengers) to be boarded
directly from the apron utilizing remote or aircraft stairs. In addition, New Model Airlines tend to prefer apron
boarding to minimize aircraft turnaround times. Nevertheless, PBS use enhances safety and security and
provides a perceived greater service level.

"Contact stands" are aircraft parking stands that can be accessed directly from the terminal or satellite
building without recourse to a busing operation. Aircraft on stands that are accessed via a passenger bus are
deemed to be parked on "remote" "stands". Inactive aircraft are often "pushed back" onto remote stands to
allow other active aircraft to utilize a contact stand. Apron boarding stands adjacent to and accessed directly
from the terminal are also deemed "contact stands" but are not necessarily provided with a PBB.

Recommendation: Contact Stands Designed for Passenger Boarding Bridges


It is recommended that all contact stands be designed to accommodate a passenger boarding bridge even if
the boarding bridge is not initially installed.

The passenger throughput of the overall airport, the airlines' preferences and the aircraft types served, in
addition to the various physical and operational aspects of the terminal building in relation to the apron area,
all play a role in determining the type, size and number of boarding bridges that will be installed per contact
stand. Many models of passenger boarding bridges are designed to serve a range of aircraft and sizes by
providing a telescoping mechanism that will reach all aircraft types within the limits of the available distance
from the building to sill height of the aircraft door. Other features relate to the anchoring support system
mechanism and functional requirements for the range of maneuverability. Some designs address baggage
handling req uirements (e.g., last-minute checked baggage). Some passenger boarding bridges are designed
with a mechanical system that allows the mechanism to glide up and down the face of the terminal building
(called a luffing mechanism) to accommodate the boarding and deplaning of passengers at segregated levels
of the passenger terminal building. PBS manufacturers also offer a range of enclosure options including
glazed walls to allow the passengers views to the aircraft and apron as they move through the bridge.

Levels of service for apron boarding operations can be augmented by various passenger protection devices.
Access to similar sized, smaller aircraft adjacent to or near the terminal building may be enhanced with a
covered or enclosed walkway that provides protection from inclement weather. The protected walkway may

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extend from the base of the terminal building to the foot of the aircraft stairway. At remote stands, aircraft
stairs may be covered.

When evaluating various aircraft methods of access, the following issues must be considered:

(a) Passenger boarding bridge

• Sizes of aircraft to be served;

• Single or multiple bridges to accommodate larger wide-body aircraft or multiple aircraft using a single
stand (Multiple Aircraft Receiving Stands-MARS);

• Types of bridges per manufacturer;

• Local and national codes and regulations governing the acceptable slope of the boarding bridge and
safety requirements related to fuelling and jet blast;

• Passengers, including those with reduced mobility, and last-minute baggage handling;

• Access to the ramp for airline and ground handling staff;

• Exiting requirements where boarding bridge systems are deemed part of the terminal building
emergency evacuation route; and

• Maintenance and reliability;

(b) Apron boarding

• Type of stairs (aircraft or remote);

• Accessibility for passengers with reduced mobility (PRMs);

• Weather protection to the aircraft or at the aircraft stairs; and

• Busing operations to remote stand positions;

(c) Aircraft/airline preference

• Possible rear aircraft door access for enplaning/deplaning;

• Access for ramp servicing vehicles (e.g., fuelling , catering, etc.);

• Airline operations, crew and ramp personnel; and

• Self-boarding/card readers and other technology.

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Exhibit 3.4.2.1.5: lncheon Airport, Self-boarding and Document Check

Source: lncheon Airport

3.4.2.1.6 Operating, Maintaining and Servicing the Air Terminal

(a) Objectives

All terminals must be planned for efficient and uninterrupted operations. Standard Operating Procedures
(SOPs) must be developed and implemented to mitigate the negative effects of irregular operations
(IROPs) and unexpected events such as natural disasters.

Access to the landside, terminal and airside facilities must plan to accommodate all types of emergency
vehicles (e.g., ambulance, fire, etc.).

(b) Terminal Building Assets

The multitude of building components (i.e., structural, mechanical, electrical, lighting and plumbing
systems, baggage and IT equipment, materials, fixtures , furn ishings and cladding) will require different
form s of maintenance to ensure their cleanliness, safe functioning and long-term effectiveness.
Maintenance regimes will vary depending on many factors including but not limited to:

• Usage (system operations space vs. public space);

• Materials (details, connections, durability);

• Location (interior or exterior, height, climate factors); and

• Age of assets.

For expansion and renovation projects to existing facilities, it is recommended that project teams and
design consultants meet freq uently with existing airport maintenance experts to understand the issues
and lessons learned for that particular facility .

For new terminals, researching and vetting should include not only how materials and systems will
perform, but also the means and methods for ongoing maintenance. Thi s critical analysis should be
started in the concept planning and design phases. Engaging with the airport's facilities department

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experts should continue periodically throughout the design and construction process, including through
commissioning of the building. Project handover should include suitable inventories of assets and
maintenance schedules.

(c) Other Airport Assets

In addition to the terminal building, the following airport assets should be considered during planning and
design in terms of ease of access and level of efforUexpense to maintain. At a minimum, the following
should be included in the airport active maintenance programs:

• Building utility infrastructure (water supplies and power);

• Roads, tunnels and bridges;

• Staff and passenger fire escapes;

• Passenger boarding bri dges; and

• IT infrastructure.

The following apron systems must also be considered with regard to maintenance:

• Taxiway lighting and control;

• Runway lighting and control;

• Perimeter fencing and security detection;

• Access control systems;

• Fire services systems;

• Storm water collection and treatment;

• Sewage treatment and disbursal system; and

• Fuel farm and fuel delivery systems.

3.4.2.1.7 Sizing of Facilities

Right-sizing terminal facilities requires a blend of research, calculation, modeling (simulation) and, in
particular, experi ence. A fundamental understanding of the operational parameters needed to serve
passengers and aircraft is mandatory. The different functions that support the movement of passengers from
the landside forecourt to and from aircraft as described and illustrated throughout this document, each require
special attention. Each of these functions also occupy different spaces and the criteria that drive these spaces
must be based on a full understanding of the functions that take place in a particular space. This functional
understanding is particularly complex as the aviation industry continues to evolve. Process improvements and
innovations impact many of the key functional spaces in today's air terminals.

In particular, departing passenger processing has changed dramatically. Increasing numbers of travelers no
longer "check-in" (obtain a boarding pass and tag their checked luggage) at the terminal building. Innovations
such as "web check-in", common use self-service (CUSS) kiosks and "bag drop" zones are having a dramatic
impact on the traditional "check-in" process. As a result, the spaces that must accommodate this are also

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evolving. Indeed, future terminals are likely to feature only Self-Service Bag Drop units as passengers will
arrive at the terminal with all processes complete and will only need to introduce their self-tagged bags into
the Baggage Handling System (BHS). In some cases, passengers may no longer be required to bring their
checked luggage to the airport at all, but will send this on ahead to meet them at their final destination. These
process changes are already having a dramatic impact on the functions and space requirements of the air
terminal's departing passenger areas.

Other major terminal processing areas that will see a considerable amount of evolutionary change in the
commg years are:

• Security screening areas (e.g. "Smart Security", a joint program between lATA and ACI)

• Immigration and customs areas due to process automation such as "Trusted Traveler" programs; and

• Baggage claim areas (see the "IATA Baggage Book")

Process improvements will change how these areas function. The purpose of these modified functions is to
remove choke points and bottlenecks in today's passenger processing sequences and enhance passenger
throughput and flows. These improvements will allow existing terminals to process more passengers without
the need for physical expansion. However, the overall spatial design must be able to adapt quickly and
effectively to these new processes as they come on line.

It is vital that airport owners and operators as well as design professionals understand these functional
process changes and design the supporting spaces so they can adapt to the evolution of functions throughout
the terminal building. Today, some airport terminal buildings are being designed to accommodate functions
that will no longer exist at airport terminals in the near future. Spaces must be designed to be FLEXIBLE to
allow for simple and straight forward reconfigurations that can easily and cost-effectively accommodate the
evolving airport functionality.

The factors that most significantly impact the size of a terminal facility are:

• The current and future capacity of the airfield (i.e., runway, taxiway systems);

• The types of aircraft (size/capacity) that serve the airport; and

• The "peak hour" flow of passengers through the terminal complex.

Ideally, all of these elements are aligned to ensure that all components work together and support one
another. "Balanced Capacity" is an important aspect of effective airport design (see Chapter 3.2 Master
Planning).

Passenger flow volumes in the air terminal are driven by the capacity of the aircraft that serve the airport. The
frequency and density of air services directly impacts the "peak hour" passenger flow rate through the
building. This determines the terminal capacity needed to handle the volume of passengers in reasonable
timeframes. However, the frequency and density of an airport's air services are related directly back to the
capacity of the airport's runway and taxiway system.

The mix of aircraft types that serve the airport will also influence the configuration and size of the terminal
facility (see Chapter 3.2. 7 Requirements Analysis (Master Planning) . The types of air services offered at
the airport (e.g., domestic vs. international, transfer vs. origin and destination) will also impact passenger

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flows , volumes and routes. It is vital that this information is understood and taken into account in the terminal
design.

Other factors that impact the size and functionality of the terminal are:

• Prevailing passenger profiles (e.g., leisure or business, families, elderly);

• Type of Baggage Handling System (BHS);

• Average number of checked bags per person; and

• Surface access arrival profiles of passengers coming to the airport based on modal split data and/or
surveys.

Passenger throughput calculations are the primary inputs that impact the handling capacity and functionality
of all areas of the terminal. The capacity of the BHS is determined by the volume of checked baggage
processed through the airport. Support functions such as airline offices and other tenant accommodation
spaces are influenced by the number of passengers being served and flights being handled. Types and sizes
of commercial activities such as retail and food & beverage concessions are influenced by the passenger
throughput. Some consideration should also be given to the needs of the airlines and customers during
periods of mass disruption. At these times, volumes will spike to extraordinary levels with an emphasis on
rebooking, reticketing and overnight accommodation for disrupted customers.

Sizing passenger processing spaces within the terminal uses capacity and Level of Service figures to
generate requirements. These are detailed in Chapter 3.4.8 Passenger Process.

3.4.2.2 The Planning Context

3.4.2.2.1 Incremental/Phased Growth

Airports facilities must be designed so they can respond to growth in a logical, phased manner. This is a
fundamental element derived from the airport's Master Plan (see Chapter 3.2 Master Planning).

In order to facilitate future growth, airport owners, developers and designers should seek to ensure that
airports can be expanded incrementally. Additional infrastructure should be added in an economically efficient
manner on a "just in time" basis to meet increasing demand without negatively impacting investments in
earlier facilities. Furthermore, ongoing expansions and development must be planned so as not to negatively
impact on-going airport operations. A comprehensive Master Plan that addresses the phases of development
is crucial. The aim of good terminal design should be that all incremental developments are consistent with
the outcome shown in the Master Plan (see Chapter 3.2 Master Planning).

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Airports must accommodate a variety of different facilities and systems to meet specific functional needs.
Each of the following major airport elements needs to be capable of managed phased growth to
accommodate growing demand:

• Airspace availability;

• Airside infrastructure (including runways, taxiways and stands};

• Landside infrastructure (including surface access systems such as roads, rail and car parking); and

• The terminal building.

Each of these elements must be in balance with the others; there is no benefit in having surplus capacity in
one element if others are constrained.

Incremental expansion is also important for other airport facilities. Cargo and catering facilities will require
expansion as air traffic increases. Maintenance hangers will also need to expand in phases dependent on the
aircraft fleet mix serving the airport.

A modular design philosophy enables capacity enhancements to be added to individual subsystems and
facilities without unnecessarily disrupting airline and terminal operations. As a consequence, new regulatory
developments and changes in the nature and volume of passenger flows can be readily and quickly
accommodated.

The defining principle of efficient planning is to have a robust plan that adapts effectively to capacity increases
and process changes without disruption to the airport's fundamental business processes.

3.4.2.2.2 Flexibility

One of the most significant challenges for airports is adapting to change. The aviation industry continues to be
an extremely dynamic business. There will continue to be major changes to the way airlines operate, the way
passengers interact with airlines and the way airlines and passengers use airports. These changes will, in
part, continue to be driven by dramatic developments in technology which will significantly change space
utilization at airports.

Airlines and passengers will continue to challenge airports to optimize their facilities; to generate the most
efficient facilities at the least cost. Given the extremely dynamic nature of the aviation industry, the future
requirements for any airport cannot be predicted with certainty. Airport owners, developers and designers are
faced with the challenge of providing cost-effective airport facilities that offer the greatest possible flexibility.
The most successful airports are able to respond to changing requirements and adapt their facilities with
minimal disruption.

Designing terminal facilities that embrace flexibility is paramount. There are proven methodologies that
enhance flexibility. Large structural spans and "column-free" spaces improve flexibility. However, these
solutions must also be cost-effective. Clustered siting of physical elements that are difficult, costly and
disruptive to relocate (i.e., structural elements, vertical circulation and service cores) is effective. Another

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example is the use of vertical partitions that can be moved simply without extraordinary disturbance and
expense.

Building services also need to be designed to allow flexibility. The location of key aspects of the primary plant
should be carefully considered with regard to future expansion. Distribution systems need to balance initial
cost vs. the requirement for future fl exibility.

Airports must be designed to minimize the physical constraints each element imposes on future expansion by
ensuring that all elements address flexibility.

3.4.2.2.3 Systems Integration

Technically sophisticated systems are the norm at airports. An extensive variety of data systems support and
enhance the operation of the airport and its partners (i.e., the airlines and other business associates). These
systems include:

• Data management systems including Airport Operational Databases (AODBs);

• Flight Information Display Systems (FIDS);

• Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) systems;

• Public address systems;

• Fire alarm and evacuation systems;

• Security systems;

• Communication systems;

• Building management systems;

• Crowd management systems; and

• Staff management systems.

Many of these systems exchange data inform ation with each other in order to provide a comprehensive
airport operational system. Integrating and coordinating the input and output of these various data systems is
an important part of comprehensive airport management. Often the core of the data system is the AODB
where all the data comes together to be stored and extracted to other information systems when and as
needed. The extent of integration of the various IT and data systems must be managed to ensure that
systems can also operate independently should one or more of the data systems fa il.

The development of new airports and the upgrade/expansion of existing airports req uires a dedicated team of
systems experts. Management of projects in large airports frequently also results in a zoned approach. This
allows the system coordination exercise to be managed with fewer components. System management zones
should be discussed with and aligned to those of the airport operational team.

Significant training is required to ensure that airport operators are familiar with and able to make the most of
enhanced systems. This training requirement is a must for a significant part of the start-up ORAT (Operational
Readiness and Trials/Training) program.

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3.4.2.2.4 Cost-effectiveness

Airport facilities must provide a cost-effective and fully functional operational solution. As one of the primary
business partners of the airports, airlines want to see that functional requirements are addressed efficiently.

Capital expenditure proposals supporting the provision of new or expanded passenger terminal facilities need
to be accompanied by a robust and quantifiable business case. This must be accompanied by a cost-benefit
analysis that is vetted and has the consensus of the aviation community. The business case must
demonstrate clear benefits in terms of increased capacity commensurate with proven and sustainable trends
in air traffic growth. The objective of both the business case and the CAP EX proposal must be to satisfy
existing and projected demand and improve operational efficiency that results in increased revenue and/or
savings to businesses at the airport.

As outlined in Chapter 3.4.2.1 Terminal Concept and Processes, expansions and new construction should
be conceived as additional modules to existing operational facilities and systems. Design, management and
construction costs can be minimized by adopting a repetitive, modular approach that does not adversely
impact existing operations. Simple, fu nctional design philosophies should be adopted .

3.4.2.3 Life Cycle

3.4.2.3.1 Principles

It is important to think beyond a building's first time capital costs and to take into consideration its useful life.
Airport terminals are amortized over extended periods {25+ years) and the costs to maintain and operate
these facilities over their entire lifetime should be part of the business case analysis supporting these facilities.

Life cycle analysis takes into consideration the following elements:

• Initial capital costs for construction, installation, start-up;

• Energy operating costs;

• Repair replacement costs and frequency;

• Manpower operational costs;

• System adaptation costs to accommodate change; and

• Decommissioning costs at the end of useful life.

Life cycle analysis can be either predictive or comparative:

• Comparative life cycle analysis is a design tool for system selection; and

• Predictive life cycle analysis is a way to predict the overall actual costs over the lifetime of a facility.

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The assumptions used as the basis of life cycle analyses need to be documented to ensure completeness
and constancy. It is also important that sensitivity to assumptions be tested and documented. Examples of
typical assumptions are the future price of energy (i.e., gas, oil, electricity) and the future cost of labor.

3.4.2.3.2 Design

An air terminal can be evaluated in terms of its internal systems. Each system has a different life cycle. Some
typical life cycle periods are highlighted below in Exhibit 3.4.2.3.2.

Exhibit 3.4.2.3.2: Examples of Typical Life Cycle Periods

Servers,

0 10 20 30 40 50 years

lifetime (years)

Source: HOK

During the concept and design phases of an air terminal project it is important to understand how the specific
systems under consideration will impact the facility's overall operational life.

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Comparative life cycle analysis compares the differences between system life cycles to optimize system
selection. The criteria being compared should be a combination of all the applicable parameters to get a full
view of the cost of a system, including:

• Energy;

• Manpower operating costs;

• Maintenance costs;

• Replacement costs;

• Adaptation costs; and

• Decommissioning costs .

Comparative life cycle analysis uses consistent assumptions to establish which system is the most cost-
effective over its life span.

For example, assuming the existing energy cost structures are maintained, System A uses 20 percent less
energy than System B. Therefore, no matter the actual future cost of energy, System A will always be more
cost-effective than System B.

Another example: a certain structural system may provide sufficient adaptability (i.e., open spans and modular
construction) to require no changes over the facility's life span. A different structural solution with an initial
lower cost may limit flexibility and require significant modifications to adapt to changing functional
requirements over a facility's life cycle. The costs of these future structural changes may negate the initial cost
savings of the less expensive structural system.

Predictive life cycle analysis is used to evaluate multiple variables when there are variables that impact
options differently. For example, manpower operating costs, maintenance costs and energy prices may all
vary in different ways. In such cases, sensitivities combined with agreed upon assumptions will give a clearer
picture of the preferred design option. In addition, the exercise will also provide a range of operating cost
data.

When using predictive life cycle analysis, it is important to agree upon and record assumptions about the
variables being considered. Examples of such variables include:

• Weather extremes or fluctuations;

• Energy costs;

• Labor costs;

• Unscheduled maintenance (repairs);

• Operational changes;

• Impact of irregular operations (IROPs);

• Cost of future constru ction work and disruption; and

• Changing regulatory or security requirements.

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3.4.2.3.3 Commissioning

Thorough commissioning is essential to obtaining optimum life cycle cost results.

Commissioning covers the full range of operational systems within the terminal complex. Commissioning is a
thorough process whereby every individual system is first te sted separately and then together with all other
systems to verify its performance. Commissioning also requires testing of the interrelationships between
various systems to ensure that the whole is operating as predicted in normal, irregular and emergency
circumstances.

Commissioning should not be confused with operational trials. Operational trials are a separate process
whereby actual systems are used by tri al "passengers" to evaluate the readiness of a faci lity for actual live
operations. Trials are part of the Operational Readiness (ORAT) Program.

3.4.2.3.4 Adaptation

In air terminal complexes it is important to provide sufficient flexibility to allow primary systems to adapt to
changing circumstances without the need for additional major capital investment. When performing life cycle
analysis, change scenarios must be taken into consideration. The analysis will look at the capital cost of
additional flexibility and expandability versus the future cost of renovations and expansion.

3.4.2.3.5 Decommissioning

The fi nal element of a life cycle cost analysis is the cost of decommissioning a system or building element
once it has reached beyond its useful life. A complete life cycle analysis must consider how systems will be
replaced and include this cost in the analysis.

3.4.2.4 Environmental Sustainability

3.4.2.4.1 Concept

Integrating sustainability in aviation requires a holistic approach in addressing three key aviation industry
components: aircraft, airports and infrastructure. The most comprehensive approach needs to address issues
of greenhouse gas emissions, noise, local air quality and natural resource conservation .

The aviation industry has achieved major improvements in its environmental performance. Today's aircraft are
75 percent quieter than 50 years ago and 70 percent more fuel efficient than the first jet aircraft. Emissions
from aircraft engines have been reduced through the introduction of improved engine designs. Over time, this
has gradually reduced the emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO) and has almost
completely eliminated emissions of unburned hydrocarbons (HC) and smoke. In addition to the development
and introduction of new aircraft designs and technologies, the industry is working hard to further mitigate its
environmental impact through flight and on-ground operational and management practices.

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Even though much of the aviation industry's environmental impact relates to operations outside the airport's
building infrastructure (i.e., aircraft and ground-handling operations), airport operators and aviation industry
stakeholders are realizing that designing and operating airport buildings sustainably and efficiently is a
significant component of their environmental responsibility. The industry as a whole is working together to
mitigate its environmental impact in both the transportation and building sectors. Airports are a critical
component in driving sustainability in aviation. All across the globe, airport operators are recognizing that
partnership and collaboration among all stakeholders is an essential factor in achieving its environmental
responsibility goals.

3.4.2.4.2 Efficient Use of Resources

The strategic and efficient use of resources in aviation includes both the protection of natural resources and
reduction in demand for natural assets. A balanced approach is key to successful outcomes. This approach
needs to include:

• Economic viability;

• Operational efficiency;

• Natural resource conservation; and

• Social responsibility.

This is known as the EONS model. This model, coined by Airports Council International-North America (ACI-
NA) redefines the known "Triple Bottom Line" approach by adding operational efficiency as a significant
contributor to a successful implementation. When using the EONS lens in evaluating the efficient use of
resources, the following elements need be addressed:

• Economic viability: initial cost vs. life cycle benefits of implementation/design considerations;

• Operational feasibility: customer service, operational process efficiency, training, congestion and delay
reduction;

• Natural resources: improved air quality, emissions and noise abatement benefits, water quality protection
and conservation, energy reduction, use of renewable energy, solid waste reduction and material
efficiency, wildlife management and landscape restoration; and

• Social benefits: supports and benefits to the community, provision of improved quality of life while
responding to needs, promotion of diversity, education and public outreach, and enhancement of
community welfare.

In airport building design, responding to the local climate, context and natural environment is the first step in
implementing natural resource efficiency. Buildings that are designed to be in tune with their local climate,
respond to solar impact, make efficient use of daylight, energy and water resources, rely on local materials
and have robust waste management practices are set to use fewer resources in building operations. Focusing
on the efficient use of land, energy, water and materials from the start yields the best results in building and
operating efficiencies.

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Operational practices also play a key role in the reduction of air pollutants. These include:

• Reducing taxiing and queuing;

• Providing electrical power and preconditioned air to aircraft at terminal gates.

Ultimately the solution requires a comprehensive and balanced long-term assessment that includes: reduction
at the source, land-use planning considerations and review of operational procedures. Many airports are
modernizing ground service equipment and vehicle fleets by using more efficient and less polluting vehicles.
Some are introducing bicycles for employees and bike paths for short distances around the facility. Many
airports are also building or enhancing mass transit lines into cities, replacing buses and maintenance
vehicles with hybrid and hydrogen-powered ones, and optimizing transport options for the many thousands of
people employed at airports.

Issues related to the efficient use of resources at airports are closely tied to waste reduction. State and local
requirements and airline/vendor goals also help support these efforts. Successful airport operators realize that
partnerships with users, tenants and operators are essential to the successful implementation of waste
reduction efforts. It is essential to plan waste management and reduction processes early throughout the
facility while providing ample opportunities for occupants and visitors to participate in waste reduction
programs. Today, there are numerous examples where, through a mix of incentives and requirements, airport
operators are effectively implementing waste management programs.

3.4.3 Terminal Planning Concepts

The design of passenger terminals must be related closely to and balanced with the capacity of the
runway/taxiway system, apron configuration and airport surface access systems. The requirements of the
major airline users must also be fully understood and incorporated in the functional design considerations.
This will play an important role in the layout and flexibility of the airport facilities, now and for years to come.
More information on this subject can be found in Chapter 3.2.8.10 Integration and Chapter 3.4.2.2.3
System Integration

The types and categories of aircraft that can be accommodated by the runway system will dictate the viable
terminal concept layouts and relationship with the stands. The terminal concept will also relate closely to the
types of airlines and passenger business markets that will use the facility.

Recommendation: Passenger Terminal Concept


It is recommended that the chosen passenger terminal concept provide a simple, functional, cost-effective,
expandable and user-friendly solution that allows airlines to undertake efficient, profitable operations in one
location.

A modular design philosophy is required such that capacity enhancements can be easily added to individual
subsystems without unnecessarily disrupting existing airline operations and/or terminal functions. In this way
new regulatory developments and changes in the nature and volume of passenger flows can be more readily
and quickly accommodated.

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3.4.3.1 Terminal and Apron Configurations

There are generally three main terminal configurations recognized globally:

1. Linear

2. Pier/Finger

• X-Type

• Y-Type

• H-Type

3. Satellite

When designing a transfer/hub airport the terminal configuration should allow for timely passenger and
baggage connection within an agreed Minimum Connecting Time (MCT). Exhibit 3.4.3. 1 Best Practice
Minimum Connecting Time provides example of Best Practice Minimum Connecting Time for different transfer
situations.

Exhibit 3.4.3.1: Best Practice Minimum Connecting Time

Domestic to Domestic to International to International to


Domestic International Domestic International
Minimum Connecting Time 35-45 35-45 45-60 45-60

Source: lATA

3.4.3.1.1 Linear

The linear terminal consists of a centralized passenger processor and an associated airside concourse. In
linear configurations the airside concourse is often integrated and adjacent to the processor. Although the
concourse generally has a linear configuration, the overall geometry is determined by landside and airside site
conditions. Typically, aircraft parking positions are oriented along one side of the concourse. In many cases
these positions may wrap around the each end of the concourse.

All originating and departing passengers and baggage flow through the central processing area and circulate
to and from the aircraft parking positions on the concourse. (see Exhibit 3.2.8.6.3b in Master Planning).

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The possible advantages and disadvantages of the linear passenger terminal design concept are summarized
in the following table:

Exhibit 3.4.3.1.1: Linear Pros and Cons Summary

Criteria Possible Advantages Possible Disadvantages


Airport/Airline
Operations

• Centralized terminal processor simplifies • Centralized processor may


landside access experience forecourt
Landside
congestion during peak
• Landside expansion may not conflict with
hours.
airside operations

Airside • Efficient use of continuous perimeter • Single loaded linear piers are
aircraft stands not space efficient

• Centralized processor centralizes airline • Aircraft parking is limited to


and government inspection services one side of the concourse
operations adjacent to the main
Terminal processor, which limits
• Simplifies signage and displays
efficient use of pier space
• Compact baggage conveying/sorting
systems
Financial
Initial Capital
• Low to Moderate initial costs
Operating/Maintenance
• Low operational and maintenance costs
Passenger
Convenience
Processing • Reasonable processing/close-out times
Concourses spanning long
• Acceptable walking distances for most
lengths from the central terminal
passengers to/from their gate if concourse
Walking Distances area may result in long walking
length is limited or with use of moving
distances if not limited in
walkways, etc.
expansion.
Orientation • Simple signage and easy wayfinding

Transfer • Permits short Minimum Connecting Time


within the main concourse/terminal area
Amenities
• Amenities can be located in close proximity
to the main processing area and departure
lounges
• Food & beverage and retail concessions
can be centrally located in the main
processing hub, increasing potential traffic

Source: HOK

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3.4.3.1.2 Pier/Finger Terminal Concept

The pier/finger terminal concept (see Exhibit 3.2.8.6.3a in Master Planning) consists of a centralized
passenger termin al for processing passengers and linked piers (airside concourses) in single or multiple pier
configurations. In large examples of this type, the main processor may consist of several semi-centralized
areas such as passenger processing or baggage claim, sharing a common departures/arrivals forecourt. The
geometry of pier/finger concourses vary and configurations can accommodate aircraft parking positions on
one or both sides of the concourse.

All originating and departing passengers and baggage flow through the central processing area and circulate
to and from the departure lounges and aircraft parking positions located along the piers. In large terminal s of
this type, secondary baggage sorting areas may be located in the piers to facilitate processing and connection
times.

Subsets of this configuration include X-Type, Y-Type and H-Type. See Chapter 3.2.8.6.3 Terminal Options
in Master Planning for examples. More information on these types will be included in a subsequent update of
the Airport Development Reference Manual (ADRM).

The possible advantages and disadvantages of the pier/finger passenger terminal design concept are
summarized in the following table.

Exhibit 3.4.3.1.2: Pier/Finger Pros and Cons Summary

Criteria Possible Advantages Possible Disadvantages


Airport/Airline
Operations

• Centralized terminal simplifies landside • Centralized terminal may


access experience forecourt
congestion during peak hours.
Landside In this case, multiple traffic and
parking lanes and multiple
passenger islands are
required.

• Aircraft parking on both sides of the • Airside areas between


pier/concourse increases efficiency of adjacent piers can be
space congested or impacted by
limited access and aircraft
maneuvering area
Airside • Multiple pier configurations can
result in lengthy taxi routes
and increased taxi times
• Long apron cui-de-sacs
between concourses can
increase congestion and
impact push-back times

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Criteria Possible Advantages Possible Disadvantages

• Can accommodate many passengers • Requirements to segregate


under one roof arriving and departing
passengers may require
• Centralizes airline and government
secondary circulation routes
inspection service operations within piers, or multiple levels
• Simplifies signage and displays
• Extending piers can increase
Terminal • Individual piers can be secured or walking distances and
managed without terminal-wide impacts negatively impact connection
times
• Piers can be extended in length with little
impact to operations and at relatively low • Expansion of hub operations
cost to multiple piers can result in
increased airline operating
• Pier extensions can be incremental and complexity
tailored to demand
Financial
Initial Capital • Moderate initial costs
Operating/Maintenance • Low operational and maintenance costs
Passenger
Convenience
Processing • Simplified passenger processing

• Moderate walking distances from • Adding or extending piers


departure forecourt to gate and from increases complexity and
Walking Distances arrival gate to forecourt walking distances and may
trigger a requirement for
moving walkways

Orientation • Pier configuration simplifies signage


requirements

• Supports low Minimum Connecting Time • Long connecting times


Transfer (MCT) if flight pairs are properly between multiple piers, often
coordinated, due to compact nature of requiring screening at the
terminal central processing point

• Concessions can be consolidated where • Long piers may limit


piers join main processor to maximize passenger access to major
Amenities exposure to passenger flow concession nodes and require
secondary concessions areas
within concourses

Source: HOK

3.4.3.1.3 Satellite

The satellite terminal concept (see Exhibit 3.2.8.6.3e in Master Planning) consists of a central processing
building for passenger and baggage processing and remote concourses around which aircraft are parked. The
remote concourses or satellites are connected to the main terminal by combinations of above- or below-
ground links to facilitate the movement of passengers and baggage between the satellites and the main

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terminal. These connections may include monorail mass transit systems, Automated People Mover (APM)
systems or underground walkways equipped with moving walkways.

Satellite concourses typically include centralized concession nodes oriented around the APM stations, a
circulation spine and departure lounges. However, this is dependent on the number of gates served from the
satellite.

Outbound baggage is collected at central passenger service counters, sorted and conveyed to the baggage
makeup areas either in the central processor or in the satellite. Baggage is transported to the aircraft by
mobile apron equipment or mechanical systems.

This concept is often used in conjunction with pier/finger and linear configurations to provide additional aircraft
contact stands.

The possible advantages and disadvantages of the satellite passenger terminal design concept are
summarized in the following table:

Exhibit 3 .4 .3.1 .3: Satellite Pros and Cons Summary

Criteria Possible Advantages Possible Disadvantages


Airport/Airline
Operations

• A centralized terminal processor • Forecourt congestion in peak


simplifies landside access hours if percentage of
originating departures/arrivals
traffic is high
Landside
• Addition of satellite contact
stands will likely require
modification and/or expansion
of access roadways/forecourts
at processor

• Usually provides excellent access to


aircraft stands
Airside • Linear satellites permit direct aircraft
routing between stands and runways
• Efficient use of continuous perimeter
aircraft stands on the satellites

• Separation of arriving and departing • May require airlines to have


passengers within satellites can be secondary or multiple
easily achieved, if required Commercially Important
Passenger {CIP) lounges in
• Facilitates control of passengers, if
satellites to accommodate
required
Terminal individual traffic segments
• Variety of incremental expansion
• Airline and airport staffing
possibilities
requirements can be higher due
• Additional satellites can be designed to to separation from main
accommodate future aircraft design terminal building
developments

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Criteria Possible Advantages Possible Disadvantages


Financial

• High initial capital costs for the


APM system between the main
terminal and satellites,
especially if these are below
Initial Capital
ground
• High initial capital costs for the
baggage conveying/sorting
systems

• High operating and


maintenance costs for the APM
system between the main
terminal and satellites,
especially if these are below
Operating/Maintenance
ground
• High operating and
maintenance costs for the
baggage conveying/sorting
systems
Passenger
Convenience

Processing
• Normally provides for the centralization • Early processing (check-in) and
of airline and government inspection close-out times
services staff
Walking Distances
• Short walking distances (to/from APM)

• Permits a relatively simple flight • Multiple level changes required


Orientation information display system
• Passengers must learn the
APM system

• Permits short Minimum Connecting Time • Minimum Connecting Time


within individual satellites between flig hts in differe nt
satellites are increased due to
distance and the need to locate,
wait for and use the APM
Transfer
system,
• Passengers can be required to
be processed through the
central processor, which
increases connection time

• Permits centralization of major • Requires secondary concession


concession outlets (i.e. food & beverage, outlets in satellites
duty-free, etc.)
Amenities • Commercial revenue can be
impacted by the perceived
passenger journey time to
satellites where outlets are not
in the same volume

Source: HOK

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3.4.3.2 Terminal Layouts

3.4.3.2.1 Centralized vs. Decentralized Facilities

Recommendation: Centralized Facilities


It is preferable to have a single centralized passenger processing facility rather than a series of multiple-unit
facilities. A centralized terminal provides cost benefits associated with operating centralized facilities. A
centralized terminal also simplifies passenger journeys.

(a) Centralized f acilities: One area for processing all passengers and baggage within the same facility,
regardless of airline.

Centralized facilities inherently provide many benefits to the operator, airlines and passengers, minimizing
confusion and putting all service offerings together in one place. New airlines entering the airport market
for the first time can be collocated with their alliance partners without the need to displace or move other
airlines to other terminal facilities.

For large airlines in a centralized facility, particularly if they are the base or a primary carrier, operations
can be focused in a preferred operating zone that also accommodates operations of partners. The cost-
effectiveness of the terminal is increased by the optimal use of space.

In centralized facilities passenger traffic can be directed past centralized concession offerings. This
assists in improving concession revenue perform ance.

Airport owners, operators and designers need to be aware of some of the challenges that need to be
addressed when working with centralized facilities. Long walking distances to and between gates may
need to be mitigated with an internal transportation system such as an Airport People Mover (APM). The
complex nature of the terminal may also be addressed by providing different processing areas for different
travel segments (e.g., International, Domestic, Schengen and non-Schengen in Europe, and trans-border
in Canada/USA).

(b) Decentralized Facilities: Due to existing site constraints it may only be possible to provide additional
capacity by creating a separate terminal facility within the airport site for processing passengers and
baggage. These facilities may be separated by airline, alliance, departure, arrival or transfer, or any
combination of these types, but the inherent difficulties in managing the different passenger flows usually
creates potentially costly management challenges.

The primary question during project definition and conceptual design is which of these two models is most
appropri ate.Considerations include:

• Existing site conditions/constraints;

• The local market and the passenger types to be served;

• The level of service that can be achieved and maintained for both airlines and passengers;

• The need to accommodate the changing needs of airlines;

• The nature of the dominant base carrier(s) and ever-changing alliance partnerships;

• The economies of scale;

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• Emerging trends;

• The integration of state-of-the-art technologies; and

• Integrated IT systems.

3.4.3.2.2 Terminal Levels and Sections

Recommendation: Minimal Level Changes


It is recommended that level changes be minimized in all terminal designs. Departure and arrival flows can
be accommodated and processed on separate levels of a terminal building or complex, but level changes
within the same passenger journey should be kept to a minimum.

Minimizing level changes in the passenger j ourney can increase the footprint of the building and, therefore,
walking distances; so a considered and balanced approach to the building design must be taken. Site
constraints may impose further challenges and opportunities.

Terminals can be split into two types for simplicity when considering level and design:

(a) Complex multi-level terminals

(b) Simple single-level terminals

In order to establish the optimum arrangement of levels for a new terminal building, the following key factors
should be considered:

• Landside interface with forecourt, multimodal interchange and connection to adjacent terminals on the
site;

• The size of the key processing spaces in relation to one another;

• Segregation requirements;

• Minimum level changes and optimum travel distance for passengers;

• The baggage system and space for expansion;

• Airside interface, configuration of piers and aircraft stands; and

• Need for Automated People Mover (APM) or light rail link through the site.

(a) Complex multi-level terminals

Large modern air terminal should have a significant landside "inter-modal" interface with local, national
and international ground transport networks. These may include cars, buses, metros, light rail, reg ional
rai l networks, high-speed national and international rail networks and even maritime links.

lntermodal connectivity requires careful planning to minimize level changes and segregate different flows
(e.g., passengers, surface vehicles, rail links, etc.). The following diagrams are typical cross-sections for a
complex multimodal interchange/terminal interface where the routes have been carefully planned to
optimize the passenger arrival and departure experience and to ensure minimum crossover of passenger
and vehicle routes.

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Exhibit 3.4.3.2.2a: Terminal Flows

Departures
Multimodal l nterchange

Arrivals

Departures
Multlmodol l nterchonge
Main Concourse
Arrivals

Source: HOK and NACO

The full list of accommodations required in a terminal building is substantial and should be developed in
detail through the briefing process. General sizing of each space should be undertaken as described in
Chapter 3.4.2.1. 7 Sizing of F