I.

1 Velocity and Distance

(page 6 )

CHAPTER 1
11 .

INTRODUCTION TO CALCULUS

Velocity and Distance

Starting from f (0) = 0 at constant velocity v, the distance function is f (t) = vt. When f (t) = 55t the velocity is v = 55. When f ( t ) = 55t 1000 the velocity is still 65 and the starting value is f (0) = 1000. In goes downward. In that case each case v is the slope of the graph of f . When v(t)is negative, the graph of f(t) area in the v-graph counts as negative.

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Forward motion from f (0) = 0 to f (2) = 10 has v = 6. Then backward motion to f (4) = 0 has v = -5. The distance function is f (t)= 5t for 0 t 5 2 and then f ( t ) equals S(4 - t ) (not -5t). The slopes srs 5 and -6. The distance f (3)= 5. The area under the v-graph up to time 1.5 is 7.5. The domain of f is the time interval 0 t 5 4 , and the range is the distance interval 0 5 f 10. The range of v(t) is only 6 and -5.

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The value of f ( t ) = 3t 1 at t = 2 is f (2) = 7 . The value 19 equals f (6).The difference f (4) - f(1) = 9. That is the change in distance, when 4 - 1 is the change in time. The ratio of those changes equals S, which is the slope of the graph. The formula for f ( t ) 2 is 3t 3 whereas f ( t 2) equals it+7. Those functions have the same slope as f : the graph of f ( t ) 2 is shifted u p and f (t 2) is shifted to the left. The formula for f (5t)is 15t+l. The formula for 5f ( t )is 1st 5. The slope has jumped from 3 to 15.

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The set of inputs to a function is its domain. The set of outputs is its range. The functions f ( t ) = 7+3(t-2) and f ( t ) = vt C are linear. Their graphs are straight lines with slopes equal to S and v. They are the same function, if v = 3 and C = 1.

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1 v=30,0,-3O;v= -l0,20
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2 for 0 < t < 10 l f o r l O < t < 2 0 v(t)= -3 for 20 < t < 30

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for 0 < t < T for T < t < 2T for 2T < t < 3T
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13 f ( t ) = 0,30(t - I, 30; f ( t ) = -Sot, -60,30(t - 6 ) ) 15 Average 8, 20 17 40t - 80 for 1 5 t 2.5 2 1 O < t < 3 , - 4 0 5 f 52O;O<t<3T,O< f <6OT 233-7t 256t-2 273t+7 8t for 0 5 t 5 T 8 for O c t c T 29 Slope -2; 1 f 9 3 1 v ( t )= -2 for T < t < 5 T = 1 2 for T 5 t 5 5T

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49 input * input + A input +A - output ,

input * input - A B * B - C , , input +A - B , B C -+ output

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51 3t+ 5,3t

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slopes 3,3,6,6,-3,9

input +1+ A A * A -+ B A B - output ,

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2 (a) The slopes are v = 2 then v = 1 then v = -3

26 The function increases by 2 in one time unit so the slope (velocity) is 2. 48 fi(t) = S t 3. slopes 0 and -2. This is of the distance between f (3) = 0 and f (6) = 1. If it goes above 40 you can't break even. 6 34 C(F) = (F . if T = 3 then f (4) = 5 . jump from 0 to S at t = 0. 40(t . 6 0 aA function assigns an output to each input -" 52 3(vt C) 1 has slope Sv. f (t) = 6 8 t then 20 t.021/. the velocity is not defined at the jump. 462f(3t)=2(3t-1)=6t-2. 38 Domain 1 < t 5 5.061. 22 Range = {0.4) = 30 at t = 7. 1 4 (a) f (t) = -40t (graph drops linearly to -40 at t = 1) then f (t) = -40 End at f = 20 (b) Second graph rises to 402' at time T. 1 = = 5.2 billion in 1990 to 6. stays constant until time 2T.C has slope v. SO f (t) = 0 then 8 .80. All with corresponding f (t) 1 2 f (t) increases linearly from 5. v(t) is above 55 then equal to 55. 40 Domain 0 5 t < 4 and 4 < t 5 5 (omit t = 4).1 ) for 15 t 2 2 1 6 f (l. (5) + { + + + + + + + % + < < + + + + + + + + + + + .20. thus u(t) = 3 then 6. the average speed is gero between t = and t = lZ. 32 f(t) = 3t = 12 at t = 4. The slope is SO.1) 15 t 1 6 f(t) = 2St54 30 t 2 2 t>4 1 8 v(t) = 8 then 1(after t = 2). then rises more slowly to 602' at time 3T. Apparently only i .1) = 40t . v(t) increases in jumps. To go four times as far in twice the time. jump from 0 to 1at t = 0.40).f(t-l)=(t-l)-l=t-2. v(t) is zero then positive. v(3t 1) C also has slope h. range $ 5 f (t) < oo 42 Domain 0 t 5.jump from 2 to S at t = 0. 20 1200 30%= 40s when 1200 = lox or x = 120 yearbooks. 2(4vt C) has slope 8v.2 t (change at t = 4).015) = . range 5 f (t) < oo.1.04 = . -ut C has slope -v. f2(t) = S t 18. you must accelerate. 28 f (2t) = 2vt must equal 4vt so v = 0 and f=0. o 05t52 30(t .4T) = . The extra distance was 18 in 3 time units.061 10(.2 billion in 2000.1 Velocity and Distance (page 6) (b) The slopes are v = 0 then v = 1/T then v = 0 4 f(t) = 2o(t . f (t) = 2 t C with constant C = f (0).4. But ia(2t)2 does equal 4(iat2). 36 At t = 0 the reading was . range -2 5 f (t) 5 0.. 24 f (t) = 4 t 1 (linear up) or -4t 9 (linear down).015 hours. 8 Average speed = since at both times f = 5. v(vt C) C has slope v2. vt C . then v = 6 gives f (t) = 12 6(t . This was the Exxon Valder accident. 64 A function cannot have two values (the upper and lower branches of X) at the same point. A drop of .021 would take . 44 Jump from 0 to 1 at t = 0. 10 v(t) is negative-zero-positive. jump from 0 to 1 at t = -2. range 2-' (or &) f (t) 5 1.all.f(l-t)=(l-t)-l=-t.82) his slope g.

1 6 f (t) = 3 + 2 t for t 2 1 is continuous. T h e 1991 r a t e s o n t h e front cover have only three brackets. . f (t) approaches a s t e p function. 0. 14 6 h(t) = 9t 6.1). . the slope is the cost per ounce (or per gram). which means that f (t 6) = f (t) for every t.28(x . The slope of the tax graph is the tax rate. 5 9 7.4. 8 f(t)=l+lOtforO<t< $. These are the slopes of the f -graph.St + 3. . 9.f (6) is 1 ..5.800. Jumps in Velocity (page 14) When the velocity jumps from ul to y. The difference 2 j .900) = 2782. The slope of a step function is eero o r infinity.8.Distance increases four times as fast and velocity is multiplied by 4. The piecewise linear sine has slopes 1.260.37.1. The sum of the first j odd numbers is f j = j2.89. The velocities u = 1.50 .260.8.l 35 require = . 1 Those form a piecewise constant cosine.50 is f(44. For distances 0.t = 10/V 5 1 . uj = ($)j 2 1 j2 j 27 uj = 23' 29 f3i = 5 3 1 a j = -fj 33 0.2. the slopes of f . f (t) = 4 + 2 t is discontinuous (because f (1) = 5). After the jump at t = 1.28x.5 < 2 .18. The distance function f (t) is piecewise linear. the distance is VT. If f (T) = 1and V increases.~ l 57 uj = ~(4)'-I 4 1 uj = 2(-l)j. 25 at unit times. + + With distances 1. 1. 12 . 5.800) up to x = 186. 9 < g2 < 29.4t 1 13 T x = . -13 and 4.Then flo is 100 and the velocity ulo is 19. 12 10.15x & + < + . In case fo = 6 all distances are increased by 6 and all velocities are t h e same. N + + + (p 1 2 f (6). functions have period equal to 6. add slopes 7 f = 2t then 3t . 28.2j-I equals d-l. Their slopes are negative-positive and negative-positive-negativepositive.33 (x . the velocities are 4 and 20. f (x) = .5 = 9 and 18 . 3. f (7) are 66. 0. -11. The velocities approach a delta function. 8t 4. 4. 9 the velocities are 1. 6 h(t) = .. then F(x) = 20.f (1) are 12 . If f (t) is the postage cost for t ounces or t grams. V.160..2.8.550). + . have uj = d-l.28x beyond 186. Both 1 1 .000 1 5 19i% a 23 flo = 38 25 (101' . 1 4 F(x) = 2f ( i x ) = . the function u(t) is piecewise constant.28(44. 8. which is concentrated at t = 0 but has area 1under its graph. 4 The increases f (4) .5 = . The sum of 1.3 = 9 and 14 . multiply slopes 1 16.900 . the formula is f (t) = f (1) v j ( t . -2.321 .f(t)=2fort> 1 0 f (3) = 12.-2. When V approaches infinity. 0. the burst lasts only to T = 1/V.100) up to x = 89.9 = 9. 4 .100.4.5.2. 5. 1. E x for x 37. g( f (t)) = g(4t) = 8t + 1.6. / < 2(+) < < 2lI9 47 M. W are graphs.5 and 3 . h are 3. In that case fo = 1and f j = 3. After a burst of speed V to time T.T 1 1. 2. g. 77 and -11. 8t then 36 . g(f (3)) = g(12) = 25.1 39 uj = -($)j 45 v = 1000. then F(x) = .1. 280. In the first time interval. Then f (7) . 16 is 31. ui = (-1)'-I. S 6. then F(x) = 5565 + . f (t) = f (0) v l t. .2 Jumps in Velocity (page 14) U. sum is f j . -15.9g2)/2 = 1 7 All uj = 2.

then f3 is 27 and f4 is 81. The instantaneous velocities at t = 6 and t = 8 are S . fa .. 3C. I v is velocity then is acceleration.1 . .550. The answer is always C (by Problem 30). f j = {-1 for odd j. If the square wave is distance.18.550) has a jump at $18. vj = f j .1) is aero except between t = 0 and t = 1 (where it equals 1). + + + ij. and f (16) = 15 1 0 = 16. fi . fa = O .3 The Velw'ty at an Instant (page 21) then SO00 .fj-1 = ~ j false when all uj = 1.fj-1)..2(3C) C = C. f3 = 7. Subtracting 2j-' leaves 2j-l. ij2 .Ndo Examples 2j and j2 and 2 j give vj = 2 and vj = 2j . . Cancelling leaves only f j . then the distance is f(t) = t up to t = 1.-1 equals f j . 2C. . by division last f j = f (j2+j) which is 1 2 j. 1.1 . The big triangle has area = $ (base)(height) = ij2 the j small triangles have area and Together they .. Then f = C.. I 13 .Oforeven j) = &(-l)j . f U(t) . . the smallest multiple of both 6 and 10. 6C. VN)) brings back vl . The period of v + w is SO.1 and vj = 2j-'..fj-1 FINDV (FINDF (vl . = f j (p is the period) because then V j + p = fj+p .1= 1023. by addition third f j = j2 j.fo equals vl = 2fo = 2 so fl is 3. Forj= 1.fj-1) = vj+l. second f j = j.fo) (fa .) An example for functions is v = sin and w = sin y ( v w has a nice graph). Then f(14) = 1 2 + 1 + 2 = 15 f(l2) = ( 1 + 2 + 1 + 0 ) + ( 1 + 2 + 1 + 0 ) + ( 1 + 2 + 1 + 0 ) = 1 2 . The second is 2 = (Notice how the second sum is times the first.f 0 . . Take v = C. the average velocity is 25. f doesn't have period 4 since X I + 22 23 xd is not aero. .foe The average age increases with slope 1 except at a birth or death (when it is discontinuous). Adding the V'S gives (fl .fl equals = 2f1 = 6 so f2 is 9. 2. 3C.fj-1 equals d -d-'. The example f3 . + - a s + =w'. Its slope is a sum of three delta functions. I this is the velocity.fj+.5. + + + + + + + + + + + + . i. Assume fo = 0. give rectangles of total area 1 2 . The first sum is 1024 .fN)) produces O s f l . 2j is 2 times 2j-l.1).fl) + (f3 . .U(t . f N .VN. The average velocity in between in 3.( f j .2f2 fl gives 6C . The Velocity a t an Instant Between the distances f (2) = 100 and f (6) = 200. The sum jumps up by 1 at t = 0.fa) + (fj .f2 = 3 .fo = d . But FINDF (FINDV (fo. fl = 1. .2fj fj-1 equals (fj+1 .( i ) j . I f (t) = f t2 then f (6) = 9 f and f (8) = 16. then v(t) is a delta function at t = 0 minus a delta function at t = 1. fl = .fj) .28 (x .f0. false when the uj are . Problem 36 shows that f j = 3 j fits the requirement vj = 2fj. then f(t) = 1: a 'short burst of speedn.. (Then v completes five cycles and w completes three. f3 = -1. Similarly 3 j is 3 times 3'-I and subtraction leaves 2 times d-1. true when all fj+. V j = f j .vj.A f /At = 40212 = 201.) The sum formula is in Problem 43 and also Problem 18. fl . . First f j = j2. . . f (99) = 9900 and f (101) = 10302.1. f 2 .1. " ' . j Note: Another drawing could move the diagonal line up by The big triangle still has area and the strip across the bottom has area j .I . + . False when the vj are ( i ) j . f fj+1 . f j = 3 .

#at3 = 6 (limit is 6). The velocities are 2t and 2t and 8t.4 Circular Motion (page 28) and 4. + + + On the graph of f (t)..t o - + + + + 5).2t gives a line through (0. M & 6 lim = lim(1 h) = 1= slope of the parabola at t = 0.t2 gives a parabola through (0.1.l).3+h. = at = velocity at time t.i t 2 through (0. true (because A f = AF). If f (t) = t2 then uaw = 2 t h. If the distance is f (t) = *at2 then the velocity is u(t) = at and the acceleration is a. The average velocity is computed from f (t) and f (t h) by uave = h ( f ( t h) . This is because u. slope of u(t) = 12t is a = 12 = acceleration.O).l). It completes a full circle at t = 2 x .slopeoffis1+2t 16. 1 8 The graph is a parabola f (t) = i t 2 out to f = 2 at t = 2. false (the curve is partly stdper and partly flatter than the secant line which gives 1 4 ' h e (the slope is the average slope). .) (The quadratic formula for i t 2 t . the distance is increasing.1 the average is 2.0. The graph of f (t) through these points is parabola-line-parabola (symmetric)-line-parabola to zero. T ) ) ) 1 7 f (6) = 18 2 1 ~ ( t= -2t then 2t 23 Average to t = 5 is 2.9t2.4 Circular Motion (page 28) A ball at angle t on the unit circle has coordinates x = cos t and y = sin t. the average velocity between A and B is the slope of t h e secant line.ya. to t = 2 is i . f (t) is the same parabola until (1.9 SVelocityatt=lis3 1 6 Time 2. (c) (a) h h = at $ah (limit = 0 (limit is 0 ) . 2t 1 18 12 lot2. f (t) = 3t .t2 until (1.18t.! h Q= 1 h. to t = 4 is to t = 5 is *. ). Its area is the base 2h times the average height at. + + + + 1. = -1 f 9.3) and (1.13 84.2t). ~ ( t = 2t + + i 3a(t'+2th+ha). F. Its speed is 1 Its velocity points in the direction of the tangent. F.$a(t .2. The velocity at A is found by letting B approach A. (1. 20 Area to t = 1 is *.3. (d) t+h-(t+h)'-(t-t)= = 1.1. This is 8v(St). The slope of f (3t) is 3 . The velocity at B is found by letting A approach B. then $$= lie u = at is a trapezoid.1. height 1.O) with maximum at (g.(t) = f M td U .-12. but the second half goes up to (2. f (t) = i t 2 t 1equals 41 when t = 8.0). to t = 3 is 2. which is perpendicular to the radius . When the velocity is increasing. The instantaneous velocity is the limit of Uave. (and f(t) = t2 gives U=a-O= = 3.2t . f (t) is the parabola 2t . 2.h)2 = 2 ath. the slope of u is the constant a.t2 has v(t) = 1. 1 6 The functions are t2 and t2 . (e) h = 2t h). After that the slope of f stays constant at 2. &om t = 1 to t = 1.2 and 4t2. *). 10 Slope of f (t) = 6t2 is u(t) = 12t. (b) 6(t+h)+2-("+21 = 6 (limit also 6).h (limit is 1. 2 lot2 9 F.40 = 0 gives t = -1 f d 26 f (t) = t . 28 To find f (t) multiply the time t by the average velocity. the car is accelerating. When the velocity is positive.6. *). 22 f (t) is a parabola t . false (V could be larger than u in between). and (2. stays above f from t = to % 1 2. + 9 3.f (t)). area from t = 0 to t = 6 is zero.O) and (3. 7Areaf=t+t2.2t and f (3t) = 3t .l) and then a horizontal line since u = 0. The region under the 1 2 A f = i a ( t h)' . ~ ( 5= 7 26 4u(4t) 27 Uave = t. At 1 2' u(t) = 3 . 24 The slope of f is v(t) = at b. (f) the limit is u(t) = 2t is at).

1. Clockwise around the unit circle from (1.9983 and = . the vertical velocity is -3 sin 3t (= horizontal velocity of original ball).0) with speed 1. 4 5+ + + + + + + + + + + with this maximum point: f (t) equals fisin(t ). y = s i360. speed 10 29 Counterclockwise with radius 1from (cos 1.sin q = -1 . sin 3t). (cos 3t.4and4t.l). &. the velocity is cos(t r ) which equals . Its graph is a sine curve .v = 2cos(t+B) 35Upanddownfrom(O.O) to (-1. The ball goes halfway around the circle in time n.sin0 = 5. sin 1-sin0 = .4costand-4sint 9 2n/3.O) with velocity 5 cos 5t. When t = */2 the height is f = 1and the velocity is v = 0.sin t. A mass going up and down level with the ball has height f (t) = sin t.2). . + .-1) and (1./-2/2.5).a415 and 1 Counterclockwise with radius 3 starting at (3. The distance is . and sin The radius is 2 and time is speeded up by 3 so the velocity is 6 with minus sign because the cosine starts downward (ball moving to left).the sine is y = .1 and 1. then -= .0). the position is x = cos(: 3t) = . speed 1. y) and back down at right angle). . The ball is a half-circle ahead of the original ball.l) with x and y velocities . Along the 45' line y = x between (. The area is still f (t) = sint. $. Counterclockwise with radius 1around center at (1. its velocity is v = 2 COB 2t.1.9999.O) 1 13 Speed 1 5 Area 2 1 7 Area 0 2 1 f from radius times 4 from angle gives 1in velocity 19 4 from speed. v = -sint 33Upanddownbetween2 and-2. 110.O).1.1 = -2. The velocity is v(t) = cos t. = cos 39 I think there i s a stop between backward and forward motion. the speed is 1so the added time is and Not easy. Starts from (2.O) to (x. v is velocity = slope = derivative. 1 The area is f (t) = sint. = fi.0) with speed 12. For the mass to fall a distance 2 in time a we need 2 = ? a 2 so a = 4 1 9 .$)/(2/6) = 27 Clockwise with radius 5 from (0. I a speeded-up mass f reaches f = sin 2t at time t.sin t. distance and velocity triangles both grow by R. the total time is 4 x = R cos t and y = R sin t. speed 1 31Left andrightfrom (1. speed n~ vu.256 25 Clockwise with radius 1from (1. f = sin(t a ) equals .(0. t 9 + 4. sin I). 4 from angle 3 = .4 / 2 1 Clockwise starting at (1.sin t. This is called simple harmonic motion. Starting at (1.99999983. A shadow traveling under the ball has f = cost and v = -sin t. .O). speed 3 23 Slope average (1 . 6 The angle is 3t. velocity -R sin t and R cos t.cos t. The upward velocity is cos t and the horizontal velocity is . y = sint. The distance between them is always \/eosz t sinZt = 1. -3 sin 3t and 3 cos 3t 7 x = cost.start 2sin8. The maximum is at t = 45' = 2 when f a = 2. the tangent is = -&. Then f .0).v=sinit 3 7 z = c o s E . starting at (0. the ball has a distance & to go (draw triangle from (0. The new mass at x = cost. Up and down between . f (t) = sin t cos t has f a = sinz t 2 sin t cos t cos2 t which is the same as 1 2 sin t cos t (or 1 sin 2t).2a 5 3t.4 Circular Motion (page 28) coming out from the center. = . y = 0 never meets the old mass at x = 0.-10 3(4cost.-2)to(0.4sint). When f is distance = area = integral. % 2 The cosine of is x = -A .-1. and sin .sin 3t and y = sin(: 3t) = cos 3t. i.cos 5t.

sin(. sin(s . Two ratios (the tangent and the cotangent) can take any value.) 1 2 *om the inside front cover or the addition formulas: sin(* .) S8 Choose k = 2r. The distance to angle 8 is BY. a formula needed in calculus. by changing from a triangle to a circle. Since cos2 8 = 6 Notice the patterns in this table.5 Review of lkigonometry (page 33) 36 Along the line z y = 1between (1.O) the z and y velocities are -2 sint cost and 2 sin t cos t. Going clockwise changes the sign of 8 and sin 8 and tan 8. F. + + + .sin 2t sin t = 4 cos3 t .sin2 t) sin t or 3 sin t .O) to (cos(s . The speed is 21r and the upward velocity is 2% cos Zrt. $ radians. l Since cos(-8) = cos 8. the cosine is unchanged (or even). is 120' and the alias of -lo is 559'.sin 2t and sin 2t : Discuss.4 sin3 t. 8 Straight distance quarter-circle distance semicircle distance also -: + i.O) and (0. when the distance around is 2rr. 1OQ1= b 29 4 = q + + : + 2 r. COS(.8) = -COB 8.3r. this also has period r. 1 T. producing 30' angle 9 d = 1. Two ratios (the cosine x/r and the sine y/r) are below 1. . 4 cos 2(8 r) is the same as cos(28 2u) which is cos 28.t)= cos s cos t Changing the sign of t gives cos(s t) = cos s cos t .1 Therefore $ ( l cos 2t) = cos2 t.t) = cos(5 . A l six functions have period 2%. Starting at (1.s . + 9)' !+ + 5. cos(r .t). The angle 8 is measured in radiana. 90°.4) is d = The d b sin s sin t. Coming fmm x2 9 = 9 are the three identities sin2 8 cos2 8 = 1 and tan28 1= see2 8 and 1 cot2# = csc28.) The distance from (2. 5. The six functions are defined for all angles 8.cos 2t to find velocities . -45'.~cos(s-t)-?cos(s+t) 17cos8=sec8=flat8=nr I9 Use cos(5 . T. (Maybe introduce cos2 t = $ $ cos 2t and sin2 t = $ . + 6) = cos 8. radians equal 180°.Then 12d = 6.5 Review of Trigonometry (page 33) Starting with a right triangle. (Divide by r2 and x2 and y2. the six basic functions are the ratios of the sides. 270' equal f. This equals (2 sin t cos t) cos t + (cos2 t .3 cos t 15$cos(s-t)+~cos(s+t).l). F 1 I S cos(2t t) = cos 2t cos t . 10 8 = (0 (1 = 1. a. + + + + + + + a. Also 60°.5) to (3.21. + + i 1.1. This is the distance around a twelvesided figure that fits into the circle (curved distance is 2r. tance from (1.sin2t or 2 cos2t .8) sin t 2 3 8 = $+ multiple of 2 r 25 8 = multiple of r 27 No 8 S 1 lOPl= a. . e) = -sin e.fi. 540°.8) COB t sin(. Sr 7 $ + area ?r28 1Connect corner to midpoint of opposite side. Two ratios (the secant r/x and the cosecant r/y) are above 1.8) = sin 8. Choosing s = t gives cos 2t = cos2 t . A full circle is 8 = 2r.t)) leads to the addition formula cos(s . 1 4 sin 3t = sin(2t t) = sin 2t cos t cos 2t sin t.sin s sin t. The alias of 480' + ? + ? cos 26. distance around hexagon < distance around circle.fi f = 2 .

sin x cos z equals near \/Z at x = The graph of t sin t oscillates between f 45' lines. (Ask why this replacement is allowed.20 has to be on the z axis. The amplitude and period of 2 sin x z are both 2. (Draw graphs of sin 8 and 8.sin2t 2 i sin t cos t. a n d t a n d = A c o e d . Notice the parallelogram law: (diagonal)2 (other diagonal)2 = 2a2 + 2b2 which is (side)2 (next side)2 (third side)2 (fourth side)2. sec 8 = -2 when cos 8 = -+.2.) tan(. Then the double-angle formulas give cos 2t i sin 2t. A sin(%+ 4) equals A sin z cos 4 A e m z sin 4. Reason: The right side has slope 1 and the left side has slope cos 8 < 1. + + + + -* + + + z:?. Matching with a sin z b cos x gives a = A cos 4 and b = A sin#.g T~~ S = = m A A sin4 b' The distance squared from (0. It is not easy for a student to explain. Then at all angles 2x13 27rn and 4x15 2 m . sin(x The graph should show a sine function with maximum By Problem 30. The ratio y/z is r u o when y = 0. t) = =: f TOsimplify. The graph of sin 4t sin t oscillates inside the g r a p h of sin t.1. . which happens first at 0 = 120' = 2x13. :: + + + + + + + + + + i.:.) 1tan 0 = 0 when 8 is a multiple of r. + 6 + 2). at the end of Section 7. sin 8 = 8 at 8 = 0 and never again.= 3x12 is not bad. Replacing t by -t gives formula (8) for sin(s . hen a 2 + b 2 = A ~ C O S ~ # + A ~ S ~ ~ U ~ A d ~ . A solution with negative 8 would give a solution for positive 8 by reversing sign. divide top and bottom by cos s and cost : tan(s t) = l'_"PA:t::jt. Formula (9) is sin(s t) = sin s cos t cos s sin t.5 Review of fiigonometry (page 33) (cost + i sin t)2 = cos2t .t). Also at 8 = 240' = 4x13. so the point on the circle in Figure 1.O) to R is (a b cos 8)2 (b which simplifies to a2 + 2 a b cos 8 b2. See the nraph on pane 294. t A complete solution is not expected! Finding a point like s = ~ 1 2 .

b' -g .edu/terms.5 Review of fiigonometry (page 33) (cost i sin t)2 = cos2t . For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use. Resource: Calculus Online Textbook Gilbert Strang The following may not correspond to a particular course on MIT OpenCourseWare. Then the double-angle formulas give cos 2t MIT OpenCourseWare is not expected! Finding a point like s = ~ 1 2 .= 3x12 is not bad. but has been provided by the author as an individual learning resource.mit.mit.sin2t 2 i sin t cos t.1.edu + + + i sin 2t.O) to R is (a + b cos 8)2 + T ~ U S Ad m a n d t a n d = = (b which simplifies to A coed A sin4 . t A complete solution http://ocw. visit: http://ocw. The distance squared from (0.

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