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Lecture on Vibrations and Acoustics

Data · October 2016
DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.22500.17289

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Jean-Mathieu Mencik
Institut National des Sciences Appliquées Centre Val de Loire
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PMAT option 1 / 14 .fr INSA CVL .Vibrations and Acoustics J.GSI 5A .-M.mencik@insa-cvl. France jean-mathieu. Mencik INSA Centre Val de Loire Blois.

Preliminary comments Scope of the study Analytic modeling of vibrating structures interacting with fluids Strong coupling (internal fluids) and acoustic radiation in infinite media Forced response computation Model order reduction Component mode synthesis Example : Automotive structure Internal acoustics Sound transmission Acoustic modes External acoustics Acoustic radiation 2 / 14 .

Application Vibrating plate coupled with an acoustic cavity Simply supported plate Kirchhoff Love theory Mode expansion Acoustic cavity Compressible and barotropic fluid Mode expansion Acoustic radiation of the baffled plate Light external fluid Sommerfeld condition Outline of the lecture Plate modeling Governing equation Simply supported rectangular plate Basics of acoustics Governing equation Parallelepiped cavity with hard walls External acoustics Helmholtz integral equation Baffled plate 3 / 14 .

z) [N/m] • Qy : shearing force acting on surface (z.tt )dxdy = 0 • w : transverse displacement at the mid-plane (z = 0) [m] • Qx : shearing force acting on surface (y. x) [N/m] • f : surface force applied to the plate [N/m2 ] Moment balance (x−direction) −dy Mx dx − dx Mxy dy + Qy dxdy = 0 R h/2 • Mx = −h/2 σyy zdz : bending moment around x [N] R h/2 • Mxy = −h/2 σxy zdz : twisting moment around x [N] Moment balance (y−direction) dx My dy + dy Mxy dx − Qx dydx = 0 R h/2 • My = σ zdz : bending moment around y [N] −h/2 xx R h/2 • Mxy = −h/2 σyx zdz : twisting moment around y [N] 4 / 14 . Kirchhoff Love plate : dynamic equilibrium equation Infinitesimal plate element dx × dy with height h Force balance (z−direction) dx Qx dy + dy Qy dx + (f − ρhw.

εyy = −zw.xx .xx − Mx. Kirchhoff Love plate : dynamic equilibrium equation (cont’d) Governing equation Force/moment balance : summary dx Qx dy + dy Qy dx + (f − ρhw.yy .yy − 2Mxy.tt = f Stress/strain relationships (plane stress) E E E σxx = (εxx + νεyy ) .tt + D∇4 w = f Eh3 • ∇4 w = w.yy + νw.xy + ρhw.xy −h/2 xy ⇓ Governing equation : ρhw. R h/2 Mxy = σ zdz = −D(1 − ν)w.xxyy . γxy = −2zw.xy ⇓ R h/2 R h/2 Mx = σ zdz = −D(w.xxxx + w.xx + νw.yy ) .xx ) −h/2 yy .yyyy + 2w. •D= : bending rigidity 12(1−ν 2 ) 5 / 14 . σxy = γ 2(1+ν) xy 1−ν 2 1−ν 2 Kinematic assumptions (Kirchhoff Love theory) εxx = −zw. σyy = (εyy + νεxx ) .tt )dxdy = 0 −dy Mx dx − dx Mxy dy + Qy dxdy = 0 dx My dy + dy Mxy dx − Qx dydx = 0 ⇓ −My. My = −h/2 σxx zdz = −D(w.

. . 2. x. . . Vibration modes of the simply supported plate Free vibrating solutions. . s = 1. s = 1. 2. x = Lx . ky = Ly r. 0 ≤ y ≤ Ly ) where w = w(Ω. y) Possible solution Ω2 ρh w = Asin(kx x)sin(ky y) ⇒ (kx2 + ky2 )2 − D =0 Boundary conditions w=0 for x = 0. Lx + Ly     Mode shapes : Xrs = sin rπx L sin sπy L r. . . . plate vibrating at pulsation Ω Governing equation −Ω2 ρhw + D∇4 w = 0 (0 ≤ x ≤ Lx . x y 6 / 14 . s = 1. y = 0. sin(ky Ly ) = 0 ⇒ kx = Lx . 2. . y = Ly ⇓ rπ sπ sin(kx Lx ) = 0 . ⇓  q 2  2  D 2 r s Ω = Ωrs = ρh π Lx + Ly Vibration modes  q 2  2  D 2 r s Eigenpulsations : Ωrs = ρh π r.

• αrs = αrs (Ω) : mode amplitudes ⇓ ! ! RLx RLy RLx RLy −Ω2 ρh ∇2 δXpq ∇2 Xrs dxdy P P Xpq Xrs dxdy αrs + (1 + iη)D αrs = rs x=0 y=0 rs x=0 y=0 RLx RLy Xpq Fδx−x0 δy−y0 dxdy x=0 y=0 7 / 14 . δy−y0 : Dirac delta functions Variational form RLx RLy RLx RLy RLx RLy −Ω2 ρh δw w dxdy + (1 + iη)D ∇2 δw∇2 w dxdy = δwFδx−x0 δy−y0 dxdy x=0 y=0 x=0 y=0 x=0 y=0 Mode expansion P w= αrs Xrs and δw = Xpq rs • Xrs = Xrs (x. y) : mode shapes . Harmonic forced response of the simply supported plate Damped plate (loss factor η) subject to point force Governing equation −Ω2 ρhw + (1 + iη)D∇4 w = Fδx−x0 δy−y0 • δx−x0 .

y) ∀(x. . q) x=0 y=0 x=0 y=0 RLx RLy Lx Ly • mpq = ρh Xpq Xpq dxdy = ρh 4 : modal mass x=0 y=0 RLx RLy • kpq = D ∇2 Xpq ∇2 Xpq dxdy = Ω2pq mpq : modal stiffness x=0 y=0 Equation of motion in modal coordinates ⇒ −Ω2 mpq + (1 + iη)kpq αpq = Fpq  ∀pq   ⇒ −Ω2 + (1 + iη)Ω2pq αpq = Fpq /mpq Fpq /mpq ⇒ Mode amplitudes : αpq = −Ω2 +(1+iη)Ω2pq RLx RLy • Fpq = Xpq Fδx−x0 δy−y0 dxdy = FXpq (x0 . y) = pq αpq (Ω)Xpq (x. np . . y0 ) : modal force x=0 y=0 Determination of the displacement P w(Ω. y) for p = 1. .Harmonic forced response of the simply supported plate (cont’d) Mode properties RLx RLy RLx RLy Xpq Xrs dxdy = 0 . . . y) ≈ pq α̃pq (Ω)X̃pq (x. y) for p = 1. . ∇2 Xpq ∇2 Xrs dxdy = 0 for (r. x. q = 1. . . . s) 6= (p. . q = 1. . . ∞ Expansion using a reduced basis {X̃pq } ⊂ {Xpq } P w(Ω. . ∞. . . . nq 8 / 14 . x.

compressible inviscid fluid undergoing small perturbations around a reference configuration Pressure : p0 + p with p << p0 Density : ρ0 + ρ with ρ << ρ0 Wave equation . x) and p = p(Ω. x) = peiΩt where Q = Q(Ω.tt − ∇2 p = Qδx−x0 c2 0 • Q = ṁ.t = −∇p Barotropic fluid : p.t ⇓ 1 p.t = c20 ρ.t + ρ0 ∇T v = ṁδx−x0 Force balance (Euler equation) : ρ0 v.harmonic case Q(t.t Helmholtz equation . x) ⇓ −k2 p − ∇2 p = Qδx−x0 • k = Ω/c0 : wave number 9 / 14 .conservation laws and constitutive equations Mass conservation : ρ. x) = QeiΩt and p(t. Acoustic fluid Governing equation Assumptions .

sin(ky Ly ) = 0 . . t = 0. . z = 0. z = Lz ⇓ rπ sπ tπ sin(kx Lx ) = 0 . sin(kz Lz ) = 0 ⇒ kx = Lx .n = 0 for x = 0. kz = Lz ⇓ r 2  2  2 r s t Ω = Ωrst = c0 π Lx + Ly + Lz Vibration modes r  2  2  2 r Eigenpusations : Ωrst = c0 π Lx + Ls + Lt r. Vibration modes of a parallelepiped acoustic cavity Free vibrating solutions Governing equation −k2 p − ∇2 p = 0 where p = p(Ω. y = 0. . 2. 1.     y  z rπx sπy tπz Mode shapes : Xrst = cos L cos L cos L r. ky = Ly . . y = Ly . . . s. x. x y z 10 / 14 . 2. z) Possible solution p = cos(kx x)cos(ky y)cos(kz z) ⇓ (kx2 + ky2 + kz2 ) − k2 = 0 Boundary conditions p. y. x = Lx . t = 0. 1. s.

q 6= 0) . q = 0) 8c2 4c2 2c2 c2 0 0 0 0 Lx Lz Lz ∇Xopq ∇Xopq dxdydz = Ω2opq mopq : modal stiffness R R R • kopq = x=0 y=0 y=0 Equation of motion in modal coordinates   −Ω2 + Ω2opq αopq = Fopq /mopq Lx R Ly R Lz R • Fopq = Xopq Qδx−x δy−y δz−z dxdydz = QXopq (x0 . t) 6= (o. y) rst Mode properties RLx RLy RLz RLx RLy RLz Xopq Xrst dxdydz = 0 . = (o. = (o. q) x=0 y=0 z=0 x=0 y=0 z=0 Lx Ly R Lz • mopq = 1 R R Xopq Xopq dxdydz : modal mass c2 x=0 y=0 z=0 0 Lx Ly Lz Lx Ly Lz Lx Ly Lz Lx Ly Lz = (o. y0 . s. p or o. z0 ) : modal force x=0 y=0 z=0 0 0 0 11 / 14 . p. p. q or p. Harmonic forced response of the cavity Parallelepiped cavity subject to point source Governing equation : −k2 p − ∇2 p = Qδx−x0 δy−y0 δz−z0 Variational form : RLx RLy RLz RLx RLy RLz RLx RLy RLz −k2 δpp dxdydz + ∇δp∇p dxdydz = δp Qδx−x0 δy−y0 δz−z0 dxdydz x=0 y=0 z=0 x=0 y=0 z=0 x=0 y=0 z=0 Mode expansion : P p= αrst (Ω)Xrst (x. p. y) and δp = Xopq (x. = (o or p or q = 0) . ∇Xopq ∇Xrst dxdydz = 0 for (r. q = 0) .

y0 )F + δwp dxdy x=0 y=0 x=0 y=0 x=0 y=0 RLx RLy RLz RLx RLy RLz RLx RLy −Ω2 1 δpp dxdydz + ∇δp∇p dxdydz = δw(x00 . Simply supported plate coupled with a cavity Damped plate subject to point force .z dxdy c2 0 x=0 y=0 z=0 x=0 y=0 z=0 x=0 y=0 ⇓ RLx RLy RLz RLx RLy RLz RLx RLy −Ω2 12 δpp dxdydz + ∇δp∇p dxdydz = δw(x00 .acoustic cavity subject to excitation source Governing equations −Ω2 ρhw + (1 + iη)D∇4 w = Fδx−x0 δy−y0 + p −k2 p − ∇2 p = Qδx−x0 δy−y0 δz−z0 0 0 0 Variational forms RLx RLy RLx RLy RLx RLy −Ω2 ρh δww dxdy + (1 + iη)D ∇2 δw∇2 w dxdy = δw(x0 . y00 . y00 . z00 )Q + δpp. z00 )Q + Ω2 ρ0 δpwdxdy c 0 x=0 y=0 z=0 x=0 y=0 z=0 x=0 y=0 Mode expansions α0rst Xrst 0 P P w= αrs Xrs . p= rs rst 12 / 14 .

Simply supported plate coupled with a cavity (cont’d) Damped plate subject to point force .acoustic cavity subject to excitation source Equations of motion in modal coordinates ! RLx RLy 0 −Ω2 mpq αpq + (1 + iη)kpq αpq = Fpq + α0rst P Xpq Xrst dxdy rst x=0 y=0 ! RLx RLy −Ω2 m0opq α0opq + kopq 0 α0opq = Fopq 0 + Ω2 ρ0 0 P Xopq Xrs dxdy αrs rs x=0 y=0 Alternative formulations ! RLx RLy −Ω2 mu αu + (1 + iη)ku αu = Fu + Xu Xv0 dxdy α0v P v x=0 y=0 ! RLx RLy −Ω2 m0v α0v + kv0 α0v = Fv0 + Ω2 ρ0 Xv0 Xu dxdy P αu u x=0 y=0 Matrix system diag{−Ω2 mu + (1 + iη)ku }u      −C α F = −Ω2 ρ0 CT diag{−Ω2 m0v + kv0 }v α0 F0 RLx RLy • C = {Cuv } where Cuv = Xu Xv0 dxdy x=0 y=0 13 / 14 .

r0 ) = 0 for r0 ∈ ∂Ωfext Kirchhoff integral formula : G. r0 )p(r0 ) − G(r.n0 )p − G(p. r0 ) = δr−r0 √ −ik||r−r0 || Free space solution : G0 (r. • Invoke Green’s formula [(∇2 G)p − G(∇2 p)]dV = − [(G. r0 ) − ∇2 G(r. • Multiply −k2 G − ∇2 G = δ by p and multiply −k2 p − ∇2 p = 0 by G .n0 )]dS R R Case of a baffled plate p.n0 (r0 ) dSr0 R  p(r) = f ∂Ωext Quick proof. Acoustic radiation of a baffled plate Helmholtz integral equation Green’s function : −k2 G(r.n0 = −iΩρ0 vn0 = 0 on the baffle ⇓ G(r. r0 )vn0 (r0 )dSr0 R p(r) = iΩρ0 Splate View publication stats 14 / 14 .n0 (r.n0 (r. Substract the resulting equations to each other. r0 )p. r0 ) = e 4π||r−r0 || √ G satisfies the Sommerfeld radiation condition √ G can be chosen as G = G0 + G̃0 such that G.