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Rewheel research

The state of 4G pricing ̶ 1H2018


Digital Fuel Monitor 9th release
How many 4G gigabytes €5, €10, €15, €20, €25, €30, €40, €50, €60, €70 and €80 could buy in EU and OECD
markets on smartphone and data-only plans. What a difference a 4th mobile network operator makes!

Rewheel research PRO study, 1st May 2018

Unlimited mobile data


̶ After a comeback in 2016 unlimited 4G mobile data is here to stay
̶ Unlimited mobile broadband plans for fixed-to-mobile home broadband substitution (FMS) are now available for less
than €30 in nine markets and for less than €20 in eight markets (including Switzerland!, Poland, Finland)

How many gigabytes €30 buys in 4G smartphone plans?


̶ In April 2018 in half of all 28 EU markets €30 bought consumers 100 or unlimited gigabytes
̶ In all EU28 & OECD markets, except Norway, €30 bought more gigabytes in April 2018 than in November 2017

How many 4G gigabytes €30 buys (smartphones) - April 2018


4G plans (with at least 1,000 mins & 3Mbit/s speed for HD video) per country that for €30 or less includes the most GB
220
∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞
200
180
160
∞ Unlilited mobile data plan
140
120GB
120
GB 100GB
100
80
60GB
60
45GB
40 30GB

20 15GB
6GB 10GB
1GB 2GB 3GB
None
0

Prices: April 2018


Unlimited plans were assinged 200 GB f inite volume. Operator main, sub-brands and MVNOs included. Source: research.rewheel.f i ©

4 versus 3 MNO markets


̶ In EU28 & OECD markets with 4 MNOs consumers could buy in average 3 times more gigabytes for €20 and nearly 2
times more for €30 compared to markets with 3 MNOs
̶ In the German and Austrian 4 to 3 consolidated mobile markets consumers must pay 4 and 3 times more respectively
to buy 50 gigabytes than in the 4-MNO French market

In 4-MNO markets consumers could buy in average 3 times


more gigabytes for €20 than in 3-MNO markets - EU28 & OECD
4G smartphone plans (with at least 1,000 mins & 3Mbit/s speed for HD video)
150
140 3-MNO markets average (27 markets)
130 4-MNO markets average (14 markets)
120 1.9x more
110
100
90
80
GB
70 3.1x more
60
50
40
30 5.6x more
20
10
0
GB for GB for GB for GB for GB for GB for GB for GB for GB for GB for GB for
€5 €10 €15 €20 €25 €30 €40 €50 €60 €70 €80
Unlimited plans were assinged 200 GB f inite volume. Prices: April 2018
Operator main, sub-brands and MVNOs included. Source: research.rewheel.f i ©

© REWHEEL 2018 all rights reserved | research.rewheel.fi | research@rewheel.fi | +358 44 203 2339
The state of 4G pricing, April 2018 – Digital Fuel Monitor 9th release 1H2018 2

How many gigabytes consumers could buy in 4G smartphone plans with at leat 1,000 mins and at least 3Mbps for HD video in EU28 & OECD markets? - April 2018
EU28 OECD Country code Country name GB for €5 GB for €10 GB for €15 GB for €20 GB for €25 GB for €30 GB for €40 GB for €50 GB for €60 GB for €70 GB for €80
Greece 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 5.00 5.00
Country 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.00 2.00 12.00 12.00 12.00
Country 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.30 1.00 3.60 6.60 Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited
Country 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 4.00 15.00 Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited
Country 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.25 0.50 2.00 10.00 12.00 12.00 20.00 20.00
Country 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.50 0.50 3.00 8.00 12.00 16.00 22.00 22.00
Country 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.00 3.00 4.00 8.50 30.50 32.50 40.50
Country 0.00 0.50 1.00 2.00 3.00 6.00 12.00 30.00 40.00 40.00 60.00
Country 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.00 6.00 6.00 14.00 20.00 30.00 30.00 50.00
Country 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.00 7.00 7.00 7.00 7.00 7.00 10.00
Country 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 10.00 10.00 25.00 25.00 25.00 40.00
Country 0.00 3.00 5.00 5.00 10.00 10.00 15.00 15.00 15.00 15.00 20.00
Country 0.00 0.20 2.00 5.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 32.00 32.00 50.00 50.00
Country 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 7.00 12.00 20.00 30.00 30.00 30.00 30.00
Country 0.00 2.00 5.00 8.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 25.00 28.00 28.00 Unlimited
Country 0.00 1.00 10.00 10.00 15.00 15.00 15.00 40.00 40.00 40.00 40.00
Country 0.00 0.00 0.00 5.00 20.00 20.00 25.00 50.00 50.00 150.00 150.00
Country 0.00 0.00 0.00 19.00 25.00 25.00 38.00 38.00 38.00 38.00 38.00
Country 2.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 20.00 30.00 30.00 30.00 30.00 30.00 30.00
Country 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 25.00 30.00 40.00 60.00 60.00 60.00 60.00
Country 0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 30.00 30.00 30.00 30.00 50.00 50.00 60.00
Country 0.00 2.00 6.00 15.00 28.00 45.00 52.00 96.00 96.00 150.00 200.00
Country 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00
Country 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 30.00 60.00 60.00 60.00 60.00 60.00 60.00
Country 0.00 0.60 20.00 40.00 60.00 60.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
Country 0.00 4.00 8.00 10.00 25.00 100.00 100.00 Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited
Country 0.00 2.00 4.00 24.00 100.00 100.00 Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited
Country 0.00 10.00 20.00 20.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
Country 0.00 30.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
Country 10.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
Country 0.00 2.00 20.00 120.00 120.00 120.00 120.00 120.00 120.00 120.00 120.00
Country 0.00 10.00 10.00 20.00 25.00 Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited
Country 0.00 5.00 5.00 27.00 Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited
Finland 0.00 0.00 0.00 6.00 Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited
Country 0.00 0.00 0.00 5.00 Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited
Switzerland 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited
Country 0.00 8.00 16.00 16.00 Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited
Country 0.00 0.00 0.00 Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited
Country 0.00 0.50 6.00 Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited
Country 0.00 0.00 20.00 Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited
Country 0.00 4.00 12.00 Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited

How many gigabytes €30 buys in 4G mobile broadband or stationary (fixed-wireless) plans?
̶ Unlimited mobile broadband plans for fixed-to-mobile home broadband substitution (FMS) are now available for less
than €30 in nine markets and for less than €20 in eight markets (including Switzerland!, Poland, Finland)
̶ In April 2018 in 9 out of 28 EU markets €30 bought consumers 500 or unlimited gigabytes
̶ A mobile-only operator from a challenger European group sells an affordable (less than €30) 4G unlimited mobile
broadband plan for fixed-to-mobile broadband substitution packed with 1 terabyte (1,000 gigabytes)
How many 4G gigabytes €30 buys (mobile broadband) - April 2018
4G plans (with at least 3Mbit/s speed for HD video) per country that for €30 or less includes the most GB
1100
∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞
1000
900
∞ Unlilited mobile data plan
800 Mobile broadband plans with full mobility and 750GB
stationary (4G fixed-wireless) plans for home
700
fixed-to-mobile broadband substitution included
600
GB 500GB
500
400
300GB
300
200 160GB
100GB
100 30GB 50GB 50GB
5GB 12GB 22GB
2GB
0

Prices: April 2018


Unlimited plans were assinged 1,000 GB f inite volume. Operator main, sub-brands and MVNOs included. Source: research.rewheel.f i ©

© REWHEEL 2018 all rights reserved | research.rewheel.fi | research@rewheel.fi | +358 44 203 2339
The state of 4G pricing, April 2018 – Digital Fuel Monitor 9th release 1H2018 3

How many gigabytes consumers could buy in 4G mobile broadband or stationary (fixed-wireless) plans with at least 3Mbps for HD video in EU28 & OECD markets? - April 2018
EU28 OECD Country code Country name GB for €5 GB for €10 GB for €15 GB for €20 GB for €25 GB for €30 GB for €40 GB for €50 GB for €60 GB for €70 GB for €80
Country 0.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 5.00 10.00 20.00 20.00 30.00
Country 0.00 0.00 1.00 1.00 5.00 5.00 25.00 50.00 50.00 150.00 150.00
Country 0.00 0.00 0.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited
Country 0.00 1.00 2.00 2.00 5.00 10.00 20.00 20.00 20.00 20.00 20.00
Country 0.00 0.50 1.00 5.00 10.00 10.00 Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited
Country 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.00 12.00 12.00 23.00 23.00 23.00 23.00 23.00
Country 0.00 10.00 20.00 20.00 20.00 20.00 75.00 100.00 200.00 200.00 200.00
Country 0.00 5.00 12.00 12.00 22.00 22.00 350.00 350.00 350.00 350.00 350.00
Country 0.00 0.00 11.00 22.00 22.00 22.00 40.00 40.00 40.00 40.00 40.00
Country 0.00 0.00 7.00 7.00 15.00 30.00 50.00 100.00 300.00 300.00 300.00
Country 0.00 3.00 3.00 12.00 15.00 30.00 90.00 200.00 Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited
Country 0.25 2.00 2.00 15.00 25.00 30.00 30.00 30.00 40.00 40.00 40.00
Country 0.00 0.00 5.00 5.00 30.00 30.00 30.00 30.00 30.00 30.00 30.00
Greece 0.00 0.00 5.00 30.00 30.00 30.00 30.00 30.00 40.00 40.00 40.00
Country 0.60 2.00 15.00 30.00 30.00 30.00 30.00 30.00 30.00 30.00 30.00
Country 0.00 0.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 40.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00
Country 0.00 10.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 40.00 50.00 50.00 100.00 200.00 200.00
Country 1.00 2.00 5.00 30.00 30.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00
Country 0.00 5.00 20.00 25.00 40.00 50.00 200.00 500.00 500.00 500.00 500.00
Country 5.00 30.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00
Country 0.00 1.50 2.50 60.00 60.00 60.00 60.00 60.00 60.00 60.00 60.00
Country 0.00 1.50 3.00 60.00 60.00 60.00 60.00 60.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
Country 0.00 2.00 2.00 20.00 20.00 100.00 200.00 200.00 200.00 200.00 200.00
Country 1.00 4.00 25.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
Country 10.00 20.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
Country 20.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
Country 0.00 0.00 1.00 1.50 60.00 120.00 120.00 120.00 240.00 240.00 240.00
Country 0.00 0.00 10.00 10.00 30.00 150.00 200.00 200.00 200.00 200.00 200.00
Country 0.00 6.00 10.00 50.00 80.00 160.00 500.00 500.00 1000.00 1000.00 1000.00
Country 1.00 1.50 60.00 300.00 300.00 300.00 300.00 300.00 300.00 300.00 300.00
Country 5.00 15.00 30.00 500.00 500.00 500.00 500.00 500.00 500.00 500.00 500.00
Country 0.00 0.00 15.00 25.00 25.00 750.00 750.00 750.00 750.00 750.00 750.00
Country 0.00 0.00 10.00 50.00 Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited
Country 3.00 10.00 50.00 Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited
Finland 0.00 1.00 1.00 Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited
Country 2.00 100.00 100.00 Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited
Country 0.00 5.00 200.00 Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited
Switzerland 0.00 0.00 1.00 Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited
Country 0.00 30.00 30.00 Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited
Country 0.00 30.00 Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited
Country 10.00 50.00 Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited

Fully allocated gigabyte prices in 4G smartphone plans


̶ The EU28 median fully allocated gigabyte price fell from €2.4/GB in November 2017 to €2.3 GB in April 2018
̶ The OECD median fully allocated gigabyte price fell from €3.3/GB in November 2017 to €2.9 GB in April 2018
̶ The country median gigabyte prices in Korea, Canada, United States, Germany and Japan continue to be a universe
apart compared to the country median price (€0.8/GB) of the competitive 4-MNO French market

Fully allocated gigabyte price (smartphones) - April 2018


Fully alocated¹ GB price of 4G smartphone plans (with at least 1,000 minutes and 3Mbit/s for HD video) - Country median
€18

€16 In Korea, Canada and US, operators


charge exorbitant GB prices
€13.9
€14

€12

€10 €9.6

€8 €7.0

€6

€4 2.9 €2.7
€2.3
€1.7 €1.5
€2
€0.8
€0.2
€0

¹ Fully alocated GB price = tarif f retail monthly price (incl. VAT) divided by included gigabyte allowance Prices: April 2018
Unlimited tplans were assinged a f inite volume of 200 GB. Source: research.rewheel.f i ©

© REWHEEL 2018 all rights reserved | research.rewheel.fi | research@rewheel.fi | +358 44 203 2339
The state of 4G pricing, April 2018 – Digital Fuel Monitor 9th release 1H2018 4

Fully allocated gigabyte price in 4G mobile broadband or stationary (fixed-wireless) plans


̶ The EU28 median fully allocated gigabyte price fell from €1.0/GB in November 2017 to €0.84 GB in April 2018
̶ The OECD median fully allocated gigabyte price fell from €1.2/GB in November 2017 to €1.1 GB in April 2018
̶ In Canada and the United States operators continue to charge exorbitant mobile broadband gigabyte prices

Fully allocated gigabyte price (mobile broadband) - April 2018


Fully alocated¹ GB price of 4G LTE mobile broadband plans (with at least 3Mbit/s for HD video) - Country median
€10

€9 In Canada and US operators


charge exorbitant GB prices Mobile broadband plans with full mobility and
€8 € 7.7 stationary (4G fixed wireless) plans for home
fixed-to-mobile broadband substitution included
€7

€6 €5.6

€5

€4 €3.5
€ 2.8
€3

€2 €1.5
€1.1 €0.95 € 0.84
€1 € 0.39
€0.02
€0

¹ Fully alocated GB price = tarif f retail monthly price (incl. VAT) divided by included gigabyte allowance Prices: April 2018
Unlimited plans were assinged a f inite volume of 1,000 GB Source: research.rewheel.f i ©

The OECD methodology is flawed and the OECD mobile baskets are no longer fit for purpose
̶ The OECD methodology is flawed. The European Commission measures only the higher priced plans offered by
incumbent operators by using the outdated OECD mobile baskets that have tiny data volume allowances (250
megabytes to 5 gigabytes for handset plans) while completely ignoring the lower priced plans (with very large or
unlimited gigabyte allowances) that the challenger no.4 and some no.3 operators sell
̶ In 21 and 30 out of 41 countries €10 and €20 respectively buys a 4G smartphone plan with at least 1,000 minutes!

Lowest priced 4G smartphone plan with at least 1,000 minutes - April 2018
Country lowest priced 4G smartphone plan with at least 1,000 mins, 3Mbit/s for HD video and some data allowance
€70
€65
€60
€55 The OECD mobile baskets used by the European Commission to
benchmark prices do no longer fit-for-purpose, they are badly outdated!
€50 In 21 and 30 out of 41 countries €10 and €20 respectively buys a 4G
€45 smartphone plan with at least 1,000 minutes!
€40
Unlimited
€35 GBs for €21
€30
€25
=<€20
€20
€15
=<€10
€10
=<€5
€5
€0

Prices: April 2018


Operator main, sub-brandsand MVNOs plans included Source: research.rewheel.f i ©

© REWHEEL 2018 all rights reserved | research.rewheel.fi | research@rewheel.fi | +358 44 203 2339
The state of 4G pricing, April 2018 – Digital Fuel Monitor 9th release 1H2018 5

Context
Rewheel’s Digital Fuel Monitor bi-annual releases have been tracking mobile data prices, price discrimination practices (zero-
rating) and network economics metrics (data and spectrum usage) in the EU28 & OECD mobile markets since 2014. In this
Digital Fuel Monitor 9th release 1H2018 we tracked and analysed the state of 4G pricing during the first half of 2018 (April 2018)
and reported the main price developments compared to the second half of 2017 (November 2017).

As with every release, in this 9th release we have collected and analyzed thousands of eligible smartphone and mobile broadband
plans (and as well stationary fixed-wireless plans indented for fixed-to-mobile broadband home substitution) from 41 markets in
accordance with Digital Fuel Monitor’s methodology1.

In this 9th release we analyzed the gigabyte prices and ranked the EU28 & OECD countries using the maximum gigabytes for €30
price metric, as we have done the 2016 and 2017 releases, but as well using many more EUR baskets. We have ranked the
EU28 & OECD countries using the maximum gigabytes that €5, €10, €15, €20, €25, €30, €40, €50, €60, €70 and €80 could buy.
Similarly to the 2016 and 2017 releases, we have as well calculated the fully allocated country median gigabyte prices and
ranked the EU28 & OECD counties also based on this metric.

In previous releases when calculating the fully allocated gigabyte prices (i.e. monthly reoccurring fee including VAT divided by the
included gigabyte allowance) we assigned to plans with unlimited volume a finite volume that was determined by the maximum
finite gigabyte volume that €30 bought in any of the EU28 & OECD countries. In DFMonitor’s 8 th release 2H2017 the finite volume
assigned in smartphone plans with unlimited volume was 100 gigabytes.

In this 9th release we had to adjust this rule for consistency across all EUR baskets. We assigned to plans with unlimited volume
the maximum finite gigabyte volume that €80 bought (the highest EUR basket we analyzed) in any of the EU28 & OECD
countries. The reason for this adjustment was the fact that while €30 bought during April 2018 at most a finite volume of 120
gigabytes in smartphone plans across all EU28 & OECD countries €80 bought a higher finite volume of 200 gigabytes. Hence, if
we were to stick to the €30 rule we would have created an artefact whereby unlimited volume plans that cost considerably less
than €80 (e.g. 50) could end up having a higher fully allocated gigabyte price than more expensive plans with a large finite
volume. This rule modification ensures that cheaper plans with a truly (i.e. 3 Mbps speed at all time for HD video) unlimited
volume are always ranked higher than more expensive plans with large finite gigabyte volumes.

1
http://research.rewheel.fi/downloads/Methodology_DFMonitor_8th_release_2H2017.pdf

© REWHEEL 2018 all rights reserved | research.rewheel.fi | research@rewheel.fi | +358 44 203 2339
The state of 4G pricing, April 2018 – Digital Fuel Monitor 9th release 1H2018 6

Table of Contents
1 How many 4G gigabytes €5, €10, €15, €20, €25, €30, €40, €50, €60, €70 and €80 buys? ................................ 8
1.1 4G smartphone plans with at least 1,000 minutes and 3 Mbps speed for HD video ........................................................... 8
1.2 4G mobile broadband or stationary (fixed-wireless) plans with at least 3 Mbps speed for HD video ................................ 23

2 Fully allocated country median gigabyte prices ...............................................................................................33


2.1 4G smartphone plans with at least 1,000 minutes to all networks and 3 Mbps speed for HD video ................................. 33
2.2 4G mobile broadband or stationary (fixed-wireless) plans with at least 3 Mbps speed for HD video ................................ 34

3 Gigabyte prices in 4 versus 3-MNO markets .....................................................................................................36


3.1 Do consumers in 4-MNO markets get more gigabytes for their money compared to 3-MNO markets? ........................... 37
3.2 Are gigabyte prices higher, or conversely gigabyte allowances lower, in more expensive OECD countries? .................. 40

4 OECD mobile baskets are no longer fit for purpose (they are badly outdated) ............................................42

© REWHEEL 2018 all rights reserved | research.rewheel.fi | research@rewheel.fi | +358 44 203 2339
The state of 4G pricing, April 2018 – Digital Fuel Monitor 9th release 1H2018 7

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About Rewheel
New radio spectrum bands, 4.5G and 5G technology, unlimited mobile data plans and the Internet of Things radically change
mobile network operators’ cost, revenue and profitability dynamics. Rewheel's mission is to help operators prepare for the
paradigm shift in network and spectrum strategy, spectrum valuation, network sharing, M&A, MVNO economics and
mobile data pricing.

Founded in 2009, Rewheel is a Finland based boutique management consultancy. Our clients are mainly European mobile
network operators, telco groups, MVNO groups, sector regulators, governments, global internet firms, mobile data-centric start
ups, PE and VC investors.

We delivered management consultancy work for clients in the United Kingdom, United States, Ireland, Switzerland, Finland,
Sweden, Belgium, Greece, Poland, Slovenia, Hungary, Russia, Romania. Buyers of our research reports and related strategic
workshops include many companies and authorities across Europe and worldwide.

Since 2010 we have been supporting a number of European challenger mobile operators in multiband (700, 700 SDL, 800, 900,
1400 SDL, 1800, 2600, 3.5 GHz) auctions with spectrum valuation and strategic advisory services.

Network economics metrics

For comprehensive data usage, spectrum usage and capacity utilisation metrics in EU28 and OECD markets visit
 http://research.rewheel.fi/networkeconomics/

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