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Palmos, Jonathan B.


Assessment Techniques as applied in Values Education

A) Formal Assessments

Imagine that you are a fifth grade teacher at an elementary school. You are looking for ways to
evaluate whether or not your students are learning and understanding the material being taught to
them. You also want to compare the performance of your students to the performance of other fifth
grade students in your school. But how do you do this? One of the ways in which you can accomplish
this goal is by using formal assessments.

So, what are formal assessments? Formal assessments are systematic, preplanned methods of
testing students that are used to determine how well students have learned the material that is
being taught in the classroom. In other words, formal assessments provide a way to know what the
students know.

Each formal assessment has the same set of expectations for all of the students who are taking the
assessment. Each formal assessment also has specific criteria used for scoring and interpretation.
The main purpose of formative assessment is to measure the amount of knowledge that students
have retained from what they have been previously taught. Other uses of formal assessments

1. Comparing a student to other students in the classroom.

2. Comparing a student to a larger group beyond the classroom. For example, standardized tests
allow you to one student's assessment results to the results of students across the
county, district, and country.

3. Identifying a student's strengths and weaknesses compared to peers.

4. Finding out new information about the student

Formal assessments have data which support the conclusions made from the test. We usually refer
to these types of tests as standardized measures. These tests have been tried before on students
and have statistics which support the conclusion such as the student is reading below average for his
age. The data is mathematically computed and summarized. Scores such as percentiles, stains, or
standard scores are mostly commonly given from this type of assessment.

Types of Formal Assessments
There are four main types of formal assessments:

1. Standardized tests
2. Program tests
3. Essay tests
4. Criterion-referenced tests

these take numerous forms and are simply the teachers. ACT. are used to evaluate how students are doing when compared to a larger group of students. Provide ongoing documentation of learning that may be shared with students.) Anecdotal Assessments Anecdotal Assessments are used to record specific observations of individual student behaviours. Anecdotal notes for a particular student can be periodically shared with that student or be shared at the student’s request. running records are informal assessments because they indicate how well a student is reading a specific book. or in collaboration with the student by engaging student .B) Informal Assessments Informal assessment is a procedure for obtaining information that can be used to make judgements about children's learning behaviour and characteristics or programs using means other than standardized instruments. parents and teachers. consistent manner. we should first differentiate them from formal assessments. Informal assessments are not data driven but rather content and performance driven. objective and focused on specific outcomes. These are standardized tests. For example. and parent's way of measuring that student's progress. tests that are presented and graded in a formulated. skills and attitudes as they relate to the outcomes in the program of studies. informal assessments are those that are used to evaluate a student's own performance and progress individually. and guidelines for using them. They are brief. Authentic assessment can be devised by the teacher. and portfolios are just some of the informal methods of assessment available to early childhood educators. Informal vs. Observations. On the other hand. In the classroom. Such notes provide cumulative information on student learning and direction for further instruction. C. Anecdotal notes are often written as the result of ongoing observations during the lessons but may also be written in response to a product or performance the student has completed. Formal assessments are designed to tell how well a student has progressed as evaluated against other students. The table below outlines methods for informal assessment. and so on. Capture observations of significant behaviours that might otherwise be lost 4. and meaningful. Provide ongoing records about individual instructional needs 3. through the gathering of data. Scores such as 10 correct out of 15. Provide information regarding a student's development over a period of time 2. The purpose of anecdotal notes is to: 1. These tests. percent of words read correctly. as contrasted to multiple choice standardized tests. They can also be shared with students and parents at parent–teacher–student conferences. students. significant. such as the SAT 9. and most rubric scores are given from this type of assessment. checklists. Notes taken during or immediately following an activity are generally the most accurate. their purposes. Formal Assessments In order to properly understand what informal assessments are. D) Authentic Assessments Authentic Assessments are the measurement of "intellectual accomplishments that are worthwhile.

or demonstrating use of a particular knowledge 2. Authentic assessments can be contrasted with conventional test questions. but cannot take the place of authentic assessments. and the value of achievement beyond the school. Examples of authentic assessment categories include: 1. strategically selecting items. Conventional tests have an important place in college courses. they can then devise a rubric to evaluate how well a student demonstrates the ability to complete the task. clear. . with the question: What should students be able to do? Once the instructor answers that question. consistent. which are often indirect measures of a student’s ability to apply the knowledge and skills gained in a course. Rubrics are an "attempt to make subjective measurements as objective. Simulations and role plays 3. disciplined inquiry. Studio portfolios. a teacher applies criteria related to “construction of knowledge. they tend toward the subjective end of the assessment scale. and as defensible as possible by explicitly defining the criteria on which performance or achievement should be judged. This framework for assessment begins the same way curriculum design begins. Because most authentic assessments require a judgement of the degree of quality. Performance of the skills. Authentic assessment tends to focus on contextualised tasks.voice. When applying authentic assessment to student learning and achievement. enabling students to demonstrate their competency in a more 'authentic' setting.