
value
by J. Wesseloo*
describes the frequency
f distribution off
magnitudes occurring in a given seismic data
Synopsis set and, as such, is a key component in any
The estimation of the spatial variation of the bvalue of the Gutenberg seismic hazard assessment. Assessing the
Richter relationship is important for both the general interpretation of the spatial variation in the bvalue forms one
mechanism of rock mass response and seismic hazard assessment. The
of the key components of any seismic
interpretation of bvalue as a parameter of rock mass response is discussed
hazard map.
in this paper. The methods applied to evaluate the spatial variation of
bvalue and the algorithm for obtaining the magnitude of completeness and
Apart from the obvious importance of the
bvalue for subsets of data are presented with some verification analyses. bvalue for hazard assessment, it is also a
The algorithms presented enable the automation of a spatial evaluation of valuable parameter for interpreting the rock
bvalue. mass deformation and failure mechanism.
Several studies in both seismology and the
Keywords
mining environment support this notion.
mine induced seismicity, seismic hazard assessment, GuttenbergRichter
relationship, bvalue, spatial evaluation.
Wyss and his coworkers (Wyss et al.,
1997) pointed out that mapping the bvalue is
equivalent to mean magnitude and assumes
that this is proportional to the mean crack
length. They also point out that along fault
Introduction zones the low bvalues seem to correspond
One of the cornerstones of seismic data with asperities (Amelung and King, 1997;
interpretation and hazard assessment is the Wiemer et al., 1998; Wiemer and Wyss, 1997),
GutenbergRichter (GR) relationship in the while high bvalues correspond with creeping
frequencymagnitude plot. Estimation of the sections of faults. High bvalues seem to be a
spatial variation of the bvalue is useful for characteristic of active magma chambers
both the general interpretation of the (Wiemer et al., 1998; Wyss et al., 1997) where
mechanism of rock mass response as well as seismicity is dominated by the creation of new
seismic hazard assessment (Wesseloo 2013). fractures under stress buildup.
The assessment of the spatial variation of Mogi (1962) noted that increasing material
seismic parameters in general is discussed in a heterogeneity results in a high bvalue, while
sister paper in this volume (Wesseloo et al., others have pointed out that an increase in
2014). This paper focuses specifically on applied shear stress (Scholz, 1968; Urbancic
obtaining the bvalue, as it is quite involved et al., 1992; Wyss et al., 1997) or an increase
and warrants a separate discussion. in effective stress decreases the bvalue
To estimate the bvalue requires that the (Wyss, 1973; Wyss et al., 1997).
magnitude of completeness, mmin, is known. In the mining environment different
As both these parameters vary spatially and bvalues have been associated with different
temporally, it is necessary to automatically rock mass failure mechanisms. Legge and
obtain the most likely mmin and bvalue for
every spatial subset of data.
The paper discusses the algorithm for
spatially subsampling the data as well as the
algorithm for obtaining the mmin and bvalue
for every spatial subsample. * Australian Centre for Geomechanics,
The University of Western Australia, Australia.
bvalue © The Southern African Institute of Mining and
Metallurgy, 2014. ISSN 22256253. This paper
The frequencymagnitude relationship (inverse
was first presented at the, 6th Southern African
cumulative distribution) of seismic event Rock Engineering Symposium SARES 2014,
magnitude generally follows a power law 12–14 May 2014, Misty Hills Country Hotel and
relationship which is often described by the Conference Centre, Cradle of Humankind,
wellknown GR relationship. The bvalue Muldersdrift.
▲
The Journal of The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy VOLUME 114 OCTOBER 2014 823
which bvalue. 1997). Aki (1981) related the bvalue and the fractal radius smaller or equal to Rmax. (2004) Increasing material heterogeneity Mogi (1962) Increase in applied shear stress Scholz (1968). 2014).∆) are excluded from the analysis.5. Wyss et al. Urbancic et al. and a bvalue of 1. different planes dispersed in a threedimensional volume. 1997. stress change and extensive planar discontinuities. Evaluation of the spatial variation of bvalue In order to evaluate the spatial variation of bvalue. ➤ The value of mmin must be within reasonable expected The spatial assessment of the bvalue is. similar to the approach used by Wyss and his coworkers. as on a single distance to the NNth neighbouring event. Wiemer and Wyss (1997). and the purpose of the analysis. Rmax is a userdefined an Australian mine Table I Typical interpretation of bvalue in terms of rock mass deformation mechanism Low bvalue High bvalue References Events localize on a plane Events spread out within the volume Legge and Spottiswoode (1987) Corresponds with asperities on a fault Correspond with creeping sections of faults Amelung and King (1997). 1998.Evaluation of the spatial variation of bvalue Spottiswoode (1987) pointed out that higher bvalues may value which depends on the resolution off the data. only the maximum search distance is while lower bvalues will be associated with events specified and the real search distance is determined by the distributed uniformly in two dimensions. Legge are consistent with a fractal interpretation of the Several quality checks are built into the analysis. Each grid point plane. Several crustal seismology studies were performed where the spatial variation in bvalue was evaluated (e. therefore. Wiemer and Wyss. In which could be interpreted as planar spatial distribution of addition to these. the purpose of which is to dimension as D = 2b. the mmin and bvalue are obtained from the closest N points and calculated with the search Figure 1—Illustration of the search distance and associated bvalue for radius limited to a value Rmax. 1997).g. Including these very small events also has a negative impact on the overall algorithm performance as it reduces the number of events useful for bvalue calculations within the search distance Rmax from each grid point ➤ For each grid point. A generalized and simplified summary of the literature on the interpretation of the bvalue is provided in Table I. Further along the scale. where the sizes of the spheres illustrate the search could result from the interaction between the mininginduced volume with radius Rmax. bounds valuable for both hazard assessment and the interpretation of ➤ The number of events with magnitude greater than the rock mass response to mining.. Wiemer et al.. very low bvalues can be therefore has a unique search distance. the following checks are also implemented events. D. A userdefined Rmax value limits the analysis to be The bvalue has in some cases been linked to a fractal performed on grid points with N or more values within a dimension. which could in relation to the bvalue assessment: be associated with a threedimensional distribution of events. The method used in this study can be summarized as follows: ➤ Events with magnitudes much smaller than the estimate of the overall sensitivity based on the whole dataset (mmin . Wyss et al. The conclusions of Spottiswoode and restrict the grid point bvalue to local data. which Figure 1. mmin must exceed a set threshold value. the be expected to result from seismic events occurring on data density. a grid is generated over the volume of interest and the bvalue obtained for every grid point. With this method. This is done to speed up the calculations by excluding very small events that do not contribute to obtaining the bvalue.. are discussed in the sister paper (Wesseloo et al.. The methodology presented here is. This is illustrated in associated with onedimensional linear distributions.5 relates to a D of 3. where a bvalue of 0. in general terms.7 would relate to a D of 1. (1992) ▲ 824 OCTOBER 2014 VOLUME 114 The Journal of The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy . These studies used the methods developed by Wyss and coworkers that are incorporated into a Matlab library (Zmap) (Wyss et al.
This described process is bestfit relationship near the mmin value. mmin value and works against local minimum values The process for obtaining mmin can be described as for small values of k. is therefore defined as follows: Independent check for the algorithm [2] Check on the second moment Figure 3a shows the result of the mmin algorithm applied to mmin and bvalue using the proposed algorithm ▲ The Journal of The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy VOLUME 114 OCTOBER 2014 825 .e. while minimizing the deviation balancing effect of residual values on both sides of the from the loglinear GR relationship. grid point. That is: each subset of data is defined as consisting of data points 1 to k where k varies between 10 and the full [4] number of data points in the data set. The purpose deviation of the bvalue is inversely proportional to the of this minimum value is simply to ignore erratic square root of the number of events used in the bvalue behaviour for the very high tail end of the distribution calculation (the number of events above mmin) (Kijko and ➤ For each subset k. where number of data points in the full dataset. This parameter is not sensitive to the exponential tail end of the distribution [1] and is. with bvalue. I developed an algorithm to automatically obtain the each of these components combined to provide a good mmin and bvalue for the subset of data associated with every and stable estimate of mmin. KS. well suited for the stable estimation of mmin ➤ The decision parameter. performed for any dataset for which the mmin and bvalue B gives more weight to more data included above the need to be obtained.: goodness of fit parameter. is defined as follows: Algorithm for finding mmin and b for a given subset of [3] data In order to obtain the gridbased spatial distribution of the The decision parameter has the form (A( · B ) · (C ). therefore. Examples of the results obtained by the algorithm A gives more weight to steeper bvalues. component mitigates against the search algorithm The algorithm aims to maximize the number of data overshooting the true mmin value as a result of a points included above mmin. obtain the KolmogorovSmirnov Funk. with larger values defining a better fit ➤ Sort the dataset of magnitudes in descending order ➤ The value of k for which Ck is a maximum defines the ➤ Calculate the bvalue for subsets of the data. as the standard practical lower limit and can be set higher. This are shown in Figure 2. follows: C defines the goodness of fit. r C. 1994). i.Evaluation of the spatial variation of bvalue This added quality check is necessary to ensure that ➤ The minimum value off k = 10 is an arbitrarily chosen reasonably stable bvalues are obtained. The bvalue for each subset. i.
This graph serves as an independent check of the algorithm. For the GR relationship. Algorithm verification using synthetic datasets In order to verify the developed algorithm. For a negative exponential distribution. These enable the known values of the bvalue and mmin to be compared with those obtained automatically through the use of the proposed algorithm. Figure 3c shows the first and second proposed algorithm. relationship. moment values of the distribution with mmin assumed to be at each of the event magnitude values. respectively Figure 4—Example results of the verification tests performed on synthetic datasets ▲ 826 OCTOBER 2014 VOLUME 114 The Journal of The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy . synthetic datasets were generated. In this case. The change in the decision parameter resulting dataset provides one data sample for testing the is shown in Figure 3b. The dashed lines show the GR to determine which events will be detected by the system. therefore. It should be recognized that the openended GR relationship is the negative exponential distribution of the translated values of (Magnitude . As the second moment is not used in the mmin algorithm.mmin). The relationship for b ± σb. the first and second moments (mean and standard deviation of the distribution) are equal. To generate the synthetic dataset. the algorithm estimate of mmin is at the smallest magnitude before the values of the first and second moments start to deviate from each other. the translated first and second moments should be equal. That is the smallest value of mmin at which the distribution exhibits the characteristics of a negative exponential distribution. and the first and second moment of the magnitude. (a) provides the frequencymagnitude relationship. This dataset was randomly distributed in a while (b) and (c) plot the change in the value of the decision parameter rectangular volume with an arbitrary chosen array of sensors.Evaluation of the spatial variation of bvalue data from f an Australian mine. Figure 3c shows the 1st and 2nd moment values of the distribution with mmin assumed to be at each of the event magnitude values. random deviate Figure 3—Results from mminbvalue algorithm applied to data from an sampling was performed from a specified Truncated GR Australian mine. The change in the calculated first and second moments of the dataset is shown in Figure 3c. this provides independent support for the reliability of the algorithm. with magnitude The distance between the event and sensor location was used change.
This can be seen in synthetic datasets Figure 5. Also shown in the right hand chart is one of the several hundred sampled datasets in red. The distributions of bvalues follow a normal distribution around the specified bvalue.81. intermediate. together with its corresponding mmin value as a black dot on the curve and the fitted GR relationship as a solid blue line. a histogram of estimated bvalues is shown in green. Figure 6 shows the isosurfaces enveloping the higher. a histogram of the estimated mmin values is shown in blue on the chart on the right side. orange indicates 0. and lower bvalues for different dates during the history of the mine. With further mining deformation mechanism is dominated by larger structures with an associated lower bvalue. Some areas show a high bvalue which reduces as mining progresses. while the open blue histogram shows the distribution of results for which the true mmin value is specified. It should be noted that a variation in the estimated bvalue will result from the fact that each of the samples provides only a Figure 5—Example results of the verification tests performed on small portion of the true population. Results of evaluation of the spatial variation of bvalue The method described previously was applied to the data base of Tasmania Mine (formerly known as Beaconsfield). The volume covers changes over time as mining progresses and the seismically active volume increases. the western (left) abutment continues to exhibit a low bvalue throughout the mining history. and later increases with further progressing of the mining.2.8 < b < 1. The green volume indicates b > 1. In contrast to some of the other areas.2. The similarity in the distributions confirms the reliability of the method for obtaining a good GR relationship for the dataset. On the left side in Figure 4. In the figure. and red b < 0.Evaluation of the spatial variation of bvalue The abovementioned process was repeated several hundred times to obtain the distributions of mmin and bvalues. Two examples are shown in Figure 4. but that the inherent uncertainty in the bvalue is not increased by applying the algorithm to calculate mmin. 1Note that these isosurface values were chosen for the local magnitude scale used on site. This implies that seismic deformation in this area is typically concentrated on major structures. Note that it is not implied that same bvalue is always obtained for the two cases. The solid green histogram shows the variation in the estimated bvalue obtained from the dataset for which the mmin value is estimated. which tends to give lower bvalues than for moment Figure 6—Examples of the spatial variation of the bvalue at Tasmania magnitude Mine at different stages throughout the mine life ▲ The Journal of The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy VOLUME 114 OCTOBER 2014 827 . This is similar to the results reported for a deeplevel South African environment by Legge and Spottiswoode (1987). This method clearly demonstrate that the bvalue changed over time for different areas. The original high bvalue is associated with fracturing taking place as stress change occurs. At later stages in the mining. The distribution of mmin values follows a fairly narrow distribution around the true value. the stresses on these structures are released and the seismicity takes the form of continued fracturing in the hangingwall.
Temporal and threedimensional Mine). vol. 2013. Geophysical Research Letters. 831–853. important for quantitative seismology in mines. evaluation of the rock mass response to mining and changes MOGI. Bulletin of the Earthquake Research Institute. 24.I. 507–510. Newcrest Mining.. Kirkland Lake Gold... 1968. BHP Billiton Nickel West. SHIMAZAKI. 102.. S. J. pp.P. 410–421. Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. 10. vol. 179–185. and FUNK.. Magnitudefrequency relation for elastic shock accompanying in seismic hazard as a result of mining. deformation mechanism of the rock mass and as such is LEGGE. Earthquake scaling laws for creeping and non. 2004. California. Mapping active magma AMELUNG.M. seismic data. J.W. Towards realtime probabilistic hazard assessment of the current hazard state for mines. and YOUNG. Fractal dimension and method for obtaining the mmin and bvalue for subsets of bvalue on creeping and locked patches of the San Andreas Fault near data. Towards a physical understanding of the earthquake frequency Prediction. Montreal. A. C. S. Agnico. Xstrata Copper (Kidd WIEMER. 399–415. 1981.)... vol. vol. TRIFU. an International Review. K. no. vol.Evaluation of the spatial variation of bvalue KIJKO. pp.. Fracturing and microseismicity ahead of a deep gold mine stope in the preremnant and remnant stages of mining. Japan. K. the Mine Seismicity and Rockburst Risk Management project: WESSELOO. NADEAU. I thank the following correlations of bvalues with stress release. 1987. Hecla USA. 40. 1992. M. Earthquake WYSS. 114. 4. and PEREIRA. Pure and Applied Geophysics. and SPOTTISWOODE. vol. 31. 566–574. 94. 815822. S. 2014. Independence Gold (Lightning Nickel). Gold Fields. Caldera. Balkema. pp. Spacetime Ray Durrheim for reviewing the paper. A probabilistic synthesis of precursory phenomena. J. C. 139. and WYSS. SCHOLZ. The Minerals Research Institute of spatial analyses of the frequencymagnitude distribution near Long Valley Western Australia. successfully implemented on a grid basis with an automated SAMMIS. 1997. pp. 1997. Parkfield. pp. Moscow. 1973. WOODWARD. 1994. C. 15115–15128. 102. and temporal evaluation of the bvalue is important for the pp. Simpson. N. organizations who provided funding for this research through vol. 449–462. BHP Symposium on Rockbursts and Seismicity in Mines. The assessment off seismic hazards in mines. University of Tokyo. and WYSS. Rotterdam.. The bvalue of seismicity has been linked to the seismic no. 341–359. WESSELOO. pp. D. pp. S. vol.G.. SaintPetersburg  Billiton Olympic Dam. LONG. WYSS. WIEMER. M. J. and Richards. LKAB. Vale Inc. K. Proceedings of the 8th International Barrick Gold of Australia. 1998. 20413–20422. vol. and WIEMER. (eds. 94. Canada. Xstrata Nickel Rim. distribution. 307–312. Mapping the frequencymagnitude distribution in asperities: An improved technique to calculate recurrence times? Journall References of Geophysical Research. ◆ ▲ 828 OCTOBER 2014 VOLUME 114 The Journal of The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy . 134. T. Maurice Ewing Series.. G. My sincere appreciation to Mr William Joughin and Professor URBANCIC. P. Geophysical Research. Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society. 1997. M. F. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. WIEMER. The spatial 6th ISRM Congress. 1962. and KING. pp. Perilya Limited (Broken Hill Mine). M. The frequencymagnitude relation of microfracturing in rock Acknowledgements and its relation to earthquakes. pp. vol. 1071–1077. chambers by bvalues beneath the offIto volcano. pp. S. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. Washington. fractures of various materials and some related problems in earthquakes. Grid based analysis of Eagle Canada. pp. Journal of creeping faults. 58. S. MCNUTT. 1–13. Concluding remarks Journal of the South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. AKI. American Geophysical Union. The evaluation of the spatial variation of the bvalue was vol. pp. R. Geophysical Journal International.I. pp. vol. and WYSS. R. C. K. M.. MMG Golden Grove.. 7. California.