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BRENIO, MAYNEL GRACE S.

CE122 / C1

● ACTIVITY 1

1. Define:
a. Traffic
- Refers to all the vehicles that are moving along the roads in a particular area. It also refers
to the people and goods that are being transported.

b. Traffic Engineering

- A discipline which includes the design of highways and pedestrian ways, the study and
application of traffic statistics, and the environmental aspects of the transportation of goods
and people.

c. Highway Engineering

- A branch of civil engineering that includes planning, design, construction, operation, and
maintenance of roads, bridges, and related infrastructure to ensure effective movement of
people and goods.

2. Enumerate at least 5 important historical milestones (like important inventions or any notable
developments and their corresponding dates, local or international) in the development of roads
and highways.
➔ Traces of such hard roads were obtained from various ancient civilization dated
as old as 3500 BC. The earliest authentic record of road was found from Assyrian
empire constructed about 1900 BC.
➔ French roads or Tresaguet road - during the regime of Napoleon in about 1764
➔ Telford Construction - The next development was done by Scottish engineer
Thomas Telford (1757-1834)
➔ British roads or Macadam Road - The British engineer John Macadam
introduced what can be considered as the first scientific road construction method.
➔ Use of bituminous concrete and cement
3. Tell/describe what are the major contributions of the following persons & company in the
development of roads and highways:
a. Napoleon the Great

cambering the surface and providing deep side ditches. All this structure was placed in a trench in order to keep the running surface level with the surrounding countryside. Trésaguet’s base. c. The structural layer of broken stone was eight inches thick and used stone of two to three inches . and (3) a top layer of gravel or broken stone up to one inch thick. d. Drainage was essential to the success of McAdam’s method. seven inches thick. consisting of flat stones set on edge and hammered in. . spread to Central Europe and Sweden and was adopted by the Scottish road builder Thomas Telford. Thomas Telford . first employed in a highway from Paris to the Spanish border via Toulouse. he prepared a memoir describing in detail a method of building a hard-surfaced roadway by successive courses of broken stone. also seven inches thick. providing good strength and drainage. His basic design. He also enunciated the necessity for continuous organized maintenance. John Loudon McAdam . b. Jerome Tresaguet . Smaller pieces of broken stones were then compacted into the spaces between larger stones to provide a level surface. was laid parallel to the curving road surface. consisting of broken stone of two-inch maximum size. This created major drainage problems which were counteracted by making the surface as impervious as possible. Finally the running layer was made with a layer of 25 mm sized broken stone. He developed a cheaper method of construction than the lavish and locally unsuccessful revival of Roman practice. Appointed inspector general in 1775. His roadways were 18 feet wide and built in three courses: (1) a lower layer. instead of intermittent repairs if the roads he roads were to be kept usable all times. and he required the pavement to be elevated above the surrounding surface. For this he divided the roads between villages into sections of such length that an entire road could be covered by maintenance men living nearby. The pavement used 200 mm pieces of quarried stone of a more compact form and shaped such that they had at least one flat side which was placed on a compact formation. Telford progressed to designing bridges and building roads. (2) a middle layer. consisting of good-quality foundation stone carefully placed by hand (this was known as the Telford base). He gave much importance for drainage. He placed great emphasis on two features: (1) maintaining a level roadway with a maximum gradient of 1 in 30 and (2) building a stone surface capable of carrying the heaviest anticipated loads.

They are responsible for developing transportation strategies that encompass the needs of all transport users including pedestrians and cyclists. why or why not? . The top layer was two inches thick. are you in favor of acquiring such loans. What are the pros and cons of doing such? And what is your stand on the matter.to one- inch stone to fill surface voids between the large stones. They can work in the private or public sector. the Philippines. World Bank/Asian Development Bank) to support the development and construction of its infrastructures. Aveling and Porter (company name) . Oftentimes. using three-fourths. e. One of the first manufacturers of agricultural engines and steam rollers in the 1860s. What is a "planner" (in relation to traffic & highway engineering) and what are its roles? A planner in relation to traffic and highway engineering are considered as Transportation Planners (or Transport Planner). By the mid- 1860s. 4. maximum size laid in layers and compacted by traffic—a process adequate for the traffic of the time. would acquire loans from foreign lending institutions/banks (e. he and Richard Thomas Porter had invented their own steam engine. The production of a steam traction engine prompted the company's formation in Great Britain. on transport systems ➢ designing research methods and survey techniques ➢ modelling traffic flows using mathematical techniques and specialist computer applications ➢ analysing and interpreting data ➢ preparing reports and publications ➢ giving presentations about proposed transportation options ➢ acting as an expert witness during public inquiries ➢ staying knowledgeable about government transport and planning policy 5. a device that converted the thermal energy of steam into mechanical work.Aveling’s use of technology in machinery set the standard for many modern traction engines and steamrollers today. Some of its roles are: ➢ developing potential solutions to problems such as congestion ➢ assessing the impact of recent building developments. such as a new housing estate. and which consider environmental.g. Continuing maintenance was essential. efficiency and safety issues. countries like ours.

active sensors use internal stimuli to collect data about Earth. The loan strategy of the Development banks is The strategy for financing the loans of the inherently risky. Development banks remarkably efficient. They record natural energy that is reflected or emitted from the Earth's surface. 2. Passive sensors respond to external stimuli. 6. I would go and risk loaning to such banks as long as the project that I am proposing is to improve and innovate the current state of my country. 3. developing countries by innovating the current infrastructure. The Bank also provides development expertise and economic research. Long-term loans. Such banks provide services in three ways: 1. a laser-beam remote sensing system projects . grants. It can be either passive or active. as well as evaluations of existing financial institutions. These sensors can be on satellites or mounted on aircraft. Development banks are international financial institutions that specialize in providing loans. Define (a) remote sensing and (b) Geographic Information Systems or GIS ● Remote sensing Remote sensors collect data by detecting the energy that is reflected from Earth. I would also stand firm if this will be means of corruption for government officials or even members of the bank. CONS PROS The public infrastructure projects funded by the The new objectives of the Development banks will Development banks have consistently been improve the quality of lives of the populations of recognized as unmitigated disasters.These very long-term loans are provided at well below market interest rates and are funded largely by direct contributions from donor governments. The largest and best known is the World Bank. The most common source of radiation detected by passive sensors is reflected sunlight. For example.These are normal loans provided to developing nations made at market interest rates. and financial expertise to developing nations. Advice and technical assistance. Credits. In contrast. The main purpose of these loans should be to help developing countries reach stability in all aspects.

com/dictionary/english/traffic-engineering > https://oceanservice. and preserve spatial data. such as latitude and longitude. The location can be expressed in many different ways. and related activities necessary to acquire. c. Hazard assessment: Track hurricanes. standards. map wetlands. and track sea ice. and displaying data related to positions on Earth’s surface. storing. GIS technology is a crucial part of spatial data infrastructure.noaa. erosion. checking. or ZIP code.” GIS can use any information that includes location. which the White House defines as “the technology. Data can be used to assess the impacts of a natural disaster and create preparedness strategies to be used before and after a hazardous event. track sediment transport. ● Geographic Information Systems or GIS It is a computer system for capturing. Data can be used to minimize the damage that urban growth has on the environment and help decide how to best protect natural resources. b. Natural resource management: Monitor land use. d. human resources. GIS can help individuals and organizations better understand spatial patterns and relationships. and map coastal features. By relating seemingly unrelated data. earthquakes. process. REFERENCES > https://www. Ocean applications: Monitor ocean circulation and current systems.html . maintain.a laser onto the surface of Earth and measures the time that it takes for the laser to reflect back to its sensor. Coastal applications: Monitor shoreline changes. measure ocean temperature and wave heights. address. Remote sensing has a wide range of applications in many different fields: a. and flooding.collinsdictionary. policies. Data can be used to better understand the oceans and how to best manage ocean resources.gov/facts/remotesensing. distribute. Data can be used for coastal mapping and erosion prevention. use. and chart wildlife habitats.

slideshare.org/encyclopedia/geographic-information-system-gis/ > https://www.org/backgrounder/world-bank-and-international-development-lenders > https://www.nationalgeographic.cfr.net/AbhishekDixit64/history-of-road-66457729 .> https://www.