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ESTIMATING UNDRAINED SHEAR STRENGTH OF CLAY

FROM CONE PENETRATION TESTS

By

JAMES WILLIAM GREIG

B.A.Sc, The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1981

A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF

THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF

MASTER OF APPLIED SCIENCE

in

THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES

(Department o f C i v i l Engineering)

We accept this t h e s i s as conforming

to the r e q u i r e d standard

THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA

September 1985

© James W i l l i a m Greig, 1985

In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced

degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it

freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive

copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my

department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or

publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written

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Department of

The University of British Columbia
1956 Main Mall
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Date O^+vUz^ / S~ /<?0±'

DE-6(3/81)

i i

ABSTRACT

This paper discusses several proposed methods for

estimating u n d r a i n e d shear s t r e n g t h from cone p e n t r a t i o n tests.

T h i s c o r r e l a t i o n h a s been s t u d i e d in the past, however, most

have focussed only on the cone bearing. In addition to

discussing these traditional methods, this paper evaluates

recently proposed methods of estimating Su from CPT pore

pressure data.

The r e s u l t s o f f i e l d vane and cone p e n e t r a t i o n tests from

five lower mainland sites are presented in relation t o the

different proposed c o r r e l a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s . The r e s u l t s show t h a t

t h e r e i s no u n i q u e c o n e f a c t o r f o r e s t i m a t i n g Su from CPT for

all clays, h o w e v e r , a r e a s o n a b l e e s t i m a t e o f Su can be made by

comparing the p r e d i c t i o n s from s e v e r a l of the proposed methods.

With l o c a l c o r r e l a t i o n s t h e s e t e c h n i q u e s c a n be q u i t e reliable.

The r e s u l t s a l s o show t h a t t h e e s t i m a t i o n of Su from CPT is

influenced by various factors relating to: the c h o i c e of a

r e f e r e n c e Su, c o n e d e s i g n , CPT test procedures and the soil

characteristics. In p a r t i c u l a r , t h e e s t i m a t i o n o f Su f r o m CPT i s

strongly influenced by s u c h s o i l parameters as s t r e s s history,

s e n s i t i v i t y and s t i f f n e s s . I n c r e a s e s i n OCR and s e n s i t i v i t y were

r e f l e c t e d by i n c r e a s e s i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l c o n e factors Nc and

Nk.

The use of pore p r e s s u r e d a t a a p p e a r s t o be a p r o m i s i n g

means o f e s t i m a t i n g . S u f r o m CPT. E x p r e s s i o n s h a v e been d e v e l o p e d

that p r e d i c t excess pore p r e s s u r e s based on cavity expansion

t h e o r y and a t t e m p t t o i n c l u d e t h e e f f e c t s of s e n s i t i v i t y , stress

h i s t o r y and stiffness.

. recommended procedures f o r estimating Su from CPT are given. Lastly. In addition. comparisons between friction sleeve m e a s u r e m e n t s and Su a n d a method f o r e s t i m a t i n g sensitivity from friction ratios are presented.

5.2 C a l i b r a t i o n 18 3.5.4 F i e l d Cone P e n e t r a t i o n Testing .1 Introduction 18 3. INTRODUCTION 1 1. 21 3. TEST PROCEDURES AND DATA REDUCTION 18 3.1 Unwanted D a t a 23 3.4 Data A c q u i s i t i o n Systems 11 2.3 S a t u r a t i o n 20 3.1 Introduction 7 2.4 F r i c t i o n Ratio 27 3.1 I n s i t u Measurement o f U n d r a i n e d S h e a r Strength 1 1.6 F i e l d Vane T e s t i n g 28 3.2 R e s e a r c h V e h i c l e 7 2. EQUIPMENT 7 2.3 P e n e t r o m e t e r s 8 2.5 CPT D a t a R e d u c t i o n 23 3.5.5.5.5 F i e l d Vanes 14 CHAPTER 3.2 R e p o r t O r g a n i z a t i o n 5 CHAPTER 2. iv TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i L I S T OF TABLES viii L I S T OF FIGURES ix ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS xiv CHAPTER 1..5 D i f f e r e n t i a l Pore P r e s s u r e R a t i o 27 3.7 R e d u c t i o n o f Vane D a t a 29 .2 T e m p e r a t u r e Corrections 24 3.3 P o r e Pressure Corrections 24 3..

4 Dynamic Pore P r e s s u r e Response 64 CHAPTER 6.1 Introduction 67 6. A BRIEF REVIEW OF THE CONE PENETRATION TEST 51 5.3.3.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 51 5.2 Use o f E x c e s s P o r e P r e s s u r e s and C a v i t y Expansion Theory 78 6. F I E L D PROGRAMME AND DISCUSSION OF RESULTS 95 7.3. 85 6.1 Introduction 95 .3 E f f e c t s o f A n i s o t r o p y 37 4.3 Use o f V a r i o u s Pore P r e s s u r e P a r a m e t e r s and Cone F a c t o r s 80 6.2 T r a d i t i o n a l Methods o f C o r r e l a t i o n 68 6.6 E s t i m a t i n g Sensitivity 94 CHAPTER 7. METHODS OF CORRELATION BETWEEN CPT AND Su 67 6. V CHAPTER 4.1 Using Effective Bearing to Estimate Su 77 6.5 E v a l u a t i n g Stress History from CPT 87 6.1 Introduction 32 4.5 D i s t u r b a n c e Due t o Vane Insertion 42 4.4 R a t e E f f e c t s 41 4.4 U s i n g Friction Sleeve Measurements t o E s t i m a t e Su ..6 C o r r e c t i o n F a c t o r s 45 4.3 S o i l Profiling 54 5.7 Summary 50 CHAPTER 5.3 R e c e n t l y P r o p o s e d Methods o f C o r r e l a t i o n 76 6. A REVIEW OF THE VANE SHEAR TEST 32 4.2 E v a l u a t i o n of U n d r a i n e d Strength 32 4.2 S o i l Classification 52 5.

2 C o r r e l a t i o n s Between Su and CPT 115 7.2 C o r r e l a t i o n s Between Su and CPT 132 7.3 B.6.1 G e n e r a l G e o l o g y and S i t e D e s c r i p t i o n 95 7.2 C o r r e l a t i o n s Between Su and CPT 125 7.5 Lower 232nd S t .1 G e n e r a l G e o l o g y and S i t e D e s c r i p t i o n 123 7.2.9 E s t i m a t i n g Sensitivity from CPT 146 CHAPTER 8.5 U s i n g CPT P o r e P r e s s u r e D a t a t o E s t i m a t e Su 157 . vi 7.1 Summary of F a c t o r s I n f l u e n c i n g the Estimation o f Su 152 8. S i t e 123 7. S i t e 114 7.1 A c c u r a c y o f CPT D a t a 155 8.4.2 I n f l u e n c e of Layer Boundaries 156 8. H y d r o R a i l w a y C r o s s i n g Site 106 7.2 M c D o n a l d Farm R e s e a r c h S i t e 95 7.4 Upper 232nd S t .2.5. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 152 8.2.2 C o r r e l a t i o n s Between Su and CPT 98 7.4.2 C o r r e l a t i o n s Between Su and CPT 107 7.8 C o r r e l a t i o n s Between Su and S l e e v e F r i c t i o n 146 7.5.1 General Geology and S i t e D e s c r i p t i o n 114 7.2.2 C o n c l u s i o n s 155 8.7 A Summary o f t h e R e s u l t s f o r the Five Lower M a i n l a n d Sites 138 7.2.4 E s t i m a t i n g Su From Cone B e a r i n g 157 8.6.3.2.3 D e t e c t i o n of Thin Layers 156 8.2.1 General Geology and S i t e D e s c r i p t i o n 125 7.1 General Geology and S i t e D e s c r i p t i o n 106 7.C.3.6 Haney Slide Site 125 7.

3 Recommended Procedure f o r Estimating Su From CPT 159 8.2.2 Use o f CPT D a t a W i t h Pore P r e s s u r e s 159 REFERENCES 161 APPENDIX A 1 67 .1 Use o f CPT D a t a W i t h o u t Pore P r e s s u r e s 159 8.3.3. vii 8.6 Use o f F r i c t i o n S l e e v e Measurements 158 8.

1 SUMMARY OF THE F I E L D PROGRAMME 97 7. viii L I S T OF TABLES Table No.2 SUMMARY OF MATERIAL PROPERTIES AT THE DIFFERENT SITES 97 7.1 PERCEIVED APPLICABILITY OF INSITU TEST METHODS 2 6.3 SUMMARY OF CONE FACTORS FOR 5 LOWER MAINLAND SITES 139 7.4 SUMMARY OF CORRELATIONS WITH FRICTION SLEEVE DATA FOR 4 LOWER MAINLAND SITES 149 . Table Title Page 1.2 SUMMARY OF CONE FACTORS (Nk) FOR SCANDANAVIAN CLAYS 71 6.3 SUMMARY OF EXISTING THEORIES OF CONE PENETRATION IN CLAYS 73 7.1 SUMMARY OF CONE FACTORS (Nc) DETERMINED FOR DIFFERENT CLAY DEPOSITS 69 6.

1 SATURATION PROCEDURE 22 3..3 F I E L D VANE SYSTEMS 15 2.2 POROUS FILTER LOCATION AND T I P DESIGN 10 2.2 SHEAR STRESS DISTRIBUTION ON A PLANE MIDWAY BETWEEN VANE BLADES USING A 3D F I N I T E ELEMENT ANALYSIS 35 4.2 TEMPERATURE AND PORE PRESSURE EFFECTS ON CONE BEARING 25 3.6 PLOT OF RATIO OF UNDRAINED SHEAR STRENGTHS IN HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL DIRECTIONS v s P L A S I T I C I T Y INDEX 40 4.4 VARIOUS VANE CONFIGURATIONS USED TO MEASURE STRENGTH ANISOTROPY 39 4.1 SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF CONE PENETROMETERS USED FOR THIS REPORT 9 2. ix L I S T OF FIGURES Figure No.1 STANDARD ANALYSIS OF THE VANE SHEAR TEST 34 4.1 L I K E L Y VARIATION IN UNDRAINED STRENGTH RATIO AND THEIR HIERARCHY FOR VARIOUS TEST METHODS . 2 2.7 VARIATION WITH DEPTH OF UNDRAINED SHEAR STRENGTH AT DIFFERENT RATES OF ROTATION 43 4.3 DISTRIBUTIONS OF EQUIVALENT SHEAR STRESS ON A VERTICAL AND A HORIZONTAL BLADE EDGE 35 4.5 VANE SHEAR STRENGTHS ON PLANES AT VARIOUS ANGLES 39 4.4 NILCON F I E L D VANE AND S L I P COUPLE 16 3.9 CORRECTION FACTOR FOR UNDRAINED SHEAR STRENGTH DETERMINED FROM FIELD VANE TESTS 47 4.8 CORRELATION BETWEEN SHEAR STRESS LEVEL AND TIME TO FAILURE FROM UNDRAINED TRIAXIAL COMPRESSION TESTS ON DRAMMEN CLAY 43 4.10 EMPIRICALLY ESTABLISHED CORRECTION FACTORS FOR RESULTS OF VANE SHEAR TESTS 47 . Figure Title Page 1.3 EXAMPLE OF A NILCON TEST RECORD 30 4.

4 SELECTION OF SOIL STIFFNESS 75 6.6 RELATIVE PROPORTIONS OF THE 10cm CONE 2 PENETROMETER. MEDIUM AND SMALL F I E L D VANES 63 5.2 SUMMARY OF CONE FACTORS (Nk) FOR SCANDANAVIAN CLAYS 71 6..3 E F F E C T OF RIGIDITY INDEX AND CONE ANGLE ON THE PENETRATION RESISTANCE OF CLAY 74 6.3 SIMPLIFIED EXAMPLES OF CONE BEARING PROFILES SHOWING LIKELY AND POSSIBLE INTERPRETATIONS FOR SOIL TYPES AND CONDITIONS 55 5.11 RATIO OF UNDRAINED SHEAR STRENGTH TO VANE SHEAR STRENGTH FOR THREE TYPES OF CLAY 48 4.2 UBC SIMPLIFIED CPT SOIL BEHAVIOUR TYPE CLASSIFICATION CHART FOR THE ELECTRONIC FRICTION CONE 53 5.4 CONE PENETROMETER BEARING RESPONSE IN A LAYERED MEDIA 58 5.5 PROPOSED METHOD FOR OBTAINING Su FROM EXCESS PORE PRESSURE MEASURED DURING CPT 79 6.8 PORE PRESSURE PARAMETER NAu v s PORE PRESSURE PARAMETER Bq 84 . UBC STANDARD SAMPLING RATE AND LARGE.12 VANE SHEAR TEST REDUCTION FACTOR AS A FUNCTION OF THE LIQUID LIMIT ACCORDING TO THE SWEDISH GEOTECHNICAL INSTITUTE 48 5.7 .7 CONE FACTOR Nkt v s PORE PRESSURE PARAMETER Bq 83 6. X 4. 53 5.1 CPT SOIL BEHAVIOUR TYPE CLASSIFICATION CHART . CONCEPTUAL PORE PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION IN SATURATED SOIL DURING CPT BASED ON F I E L D MEASUREMENTS 65 6. PROBABLE ZONE OF INFLUENCE FOR CPT.6 PORE PRESSURE PARAMETER Bq v s OVERCONSOLIDATION RATIO 82 6.5 COMPARISON BETWEEN A CPT BEARING PROFILE AND A CONTINUOUS SAMPLE LOG 60 5.1 EMPIRICAL CONE FACTOR Nk v s DEPTH FOR DIFFERENT CLAY DEPOSITS 70 6.

C ..<T. HYDRO RAILWAY S I T E 110 . HYDRO RAILWAY S I T E 108 7.1 GENERAL L O C A T I O N OF RESEARCH S I T E S 96 7. HYDRO RAILWAY S I T E 108 7. 86 6. )/Su a AND (Qt.13 THE EFFECT OF DENSER O V E R L Y I N G M A T E R I A L ON THE EXTRAPOLATED Qt P R O F I L E FOR A NORMALLY CONSOLIDATED C L A Y L A Y E R 93 7.11 INDEX P R O P E R T I E S .8 AU/Su vs DEPTH FOR D I F F E R E N T POROUS ELEMENT L O C A T I O N S AT MCDONALD FARM 104 7.3 P R O F I L E S FROM 4 CPT SOUNDINGS I N MCDONALD FARM C L A Y E Y S I L T 100 7. F I E L D V A N E STRENGTH AND S E N S I T I V I T Y P R O F I L E S AT B . HOMOGENEOUS C L A Y LAYERS 91 6.13 (Qc.o )/Su vs DEPTH AT MCDONALD FARM 102 7. Co )/Su and (Qt-^ )/Su vs DEPTH AT B .2 T Y P I C A L CPT P R O F I L E AT McDONALD FARM 99 7. C .5 Qc/Su AND Qt/Su vs DEPTH AT MCDONALD FARM 101 7.10 T Y P I C A L CPT P R O F I L E AT B .9 Nkt.11 S T A T I S T I C A L R E L A T I O N BETWEEN Cu/avo RATIO AND P L A S T I C I T Y INDEX FOR NORMALLY CONSOLIDATED CLAYS 89 6.10 NORMALIZED Su/P' RATIO vs OVERCONSOLIDATION RATIO FOR USE I N E S T I M A T I N G OCR 89 6. C . N A U and Nke vs Bq AT McDONALD FARM 105 7.12 Qc/Su AND Qt/Su vs DEPTH AT B . xi 6.6 (Qc-cr.12 E X T R A P O L A T I O N OF THE Qc P R O F I L E AS A N A L T E R N A T I V E METHOD TO E S T I M A T E OVER- CONSOLIDATION I N T H I C K .9 CONE FACTOR Nk vs PORE PRESSURE PARAMETER Bq . C . HYDRO RAILWAY S I T E 109 7.7 (Qc-Ut)/Su AND (Qt-Ut)/Su vs DEPTH AT MCDONALD FARM 103 7.4 F I E L D VANE STRENGTH AND S E N S I T I V I T Y P R O F I L E S AT Mc DONALD FARM 100 7.

31 N k t .17 TYPICAL CPT PROFILE AT UPPER 232nd S t . S I T E 130 7.29 ( Q c . S I T E 128 7.30 AU/Su v s DEPTH AT LOWER 232nd S t .20 Qc/Su AND Q t / S u v s DEPTH AT UPPER 232nd S t .U t ) / S u AND ( Q t .C. VANE SHEAR STRENGTH AND OVERCONSOLIDATION RATIO AT UPPER 232nd S t .26 F I E L D VANE STRENGTH AND S E N S I T I V I T Y PROFILES AT LOWER 232nd S t . S I T E 129 7. SITE 119 7. N A U a n d Nke v s Bq AT B.. HYDRO RAILWAY SITE 113 7. S I T E 116 7.C. S I T E .27 Qc/Su AND Q t / S u v s DEPTH AT LOWER 232nd S t .18 F I E L D VANE STRENGTH AND S E N S I T I V I T Y PROFILES AT UPPER 232nd S t .14 ( Q c .19 COMPARISON BETWEEN CONE BEARING. 116 7.. SITE 120 7.16 N k t .21 ( Q C .22 ( Q c .32 TYPICAL CPT PROFILE AT HANEY SLIDE S I T E 131 . SITE 127 7.o )/Su v s DEPTH AT LOWER 232nd S t . S I T E 124 7.24 N k t .U t ) / S u AND ( Q t " U t ) / S u v s DEPTH AT LOWER 232nd S t .U t ) / S u v s DEPTH AT UPPER 232nd S t . 124 7.C T . SITE 126 7. N A U a n d Nke v s Bq AT UPPER 232nd S t .28 (Qc-oVo )/Su a n d ( Q t . S I T E 121 7.23 AU/Su v s DEPTH AT UPPER 232nd S t . TCl )/Su v s DEPTH AT UPPER 232nd S t . SITE 117 7. N A U a n d Nke v s Bq AT LOWER 232nd S t . HYDRO RAILWAY SITE 111 7. xii 7.25 TYPICAL CPT PROFILE AT LOWER 232nd S t . S I T E .. S I T E 118 7.U t ) / S u AND ( Q t ~ U t ) / S u v s DEPTH AT B. HYDRO RAILWAY S I T E 112 7.C. S I T E 122 7.cr.. O )/Su a n d (Qt-o.15 AU/Su v s DEPTH AT B.

.• 147 7.41 Nkt v s Bq FOR 5 LOWER MAINLAND SITES 143 7.48 ESTIMATING SENSITIVITY FROM CPT 150 . NAU and Nke v s Bq AT HANEY SLIDE S I T E 137 7.39 USE OF EXCESS PORE PRESSURE FOR ESTIMATING UNDRAINED SHEAR STRENGTH 140 7.35 ( Q c .45 Su/Fs v s DEPTH FOR 4 LOWER MAINLAND SITES .43 Nke v s Bq FOR 5 LOWER MAINLAND SITES 145 7.38 N k t .34 Qc/Su AND Qt/Su v s DEPTH AT HANEY SLIDE S I T E 133 7.36 ( Q c .33 F I E L D VANE STRENGTH AND S E N S I T I V I T Y PROFILES AT HANEY SLIDE S I T E 131 7.42 N AU vs. x i i i 7.40 Bq v s OCR FOR 5 LOWER MAINLAND SITES 142 7.C s o )/Su and (Qt-av„ )/Su v s DEPTH AT HANEY SLIDE S I T E 134 7.37 AU/Su v s DEPTH AT HANEY SLIDE S I T E 136 7. Bq FOR 5 LOWER MAINLAND SITES 144 7.44 VANE SHEAR STRENGTH v s SLEEVE FRICTION FOR 4 LOWER MAINLAND SITES 147 7.47 S u r / F s v s DEPTH FOR 4 LOWER MAINLAND SITES 148 7.46 REMOLDED SHEAR STRENGTH v s SLEEVE FRICTION FOR 4 LOWER MAINLAND SITES 1 48 7.U t ) / S u AND ( Q t ~ U t ) / S u v s DEPTH AT HANEY SLIDE S I T E 135 7.

to whom t h i s thesis i s dedicated. f o r their excellent guidance and support during the course of this study. Special thanks go to my w i f e K a r e n f o r h e r p a t i e n c e and support during the p r e p a r a t i o n of t h i s thesis.R. Thanks a r e e x t e n d e d to C l i f f o r d Tsang. P.G. Dr. Lastly. i s g r a t e f u l l y acknowledged. Alex Sy and K a r l Mokkelboost for their help in collecting data. xiv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to express my gratitude to my research supervisors. I would also like to thank Don Gillespie for his invaluable a s s i s t a n c e and many h e l p f u l suggestions. R o b e r t s o n .E. R. The financial support p r o v i d e d by N.C. Campanella and D r .S. M i c h a e l Davies. .K. The Nilcon field vane equipment was kindly provided by Klohn Leonoff L t d . I would like to express my appreciation f o r the tremendous support from my parents. I am a l s o g r a t e f u l f o r the s k i l l f u l work of A r t B r o o k e s and t h e many h o u r s o f a s s i s t a n c e with the computer equipment by Glenn Jolly.

These i d e a s . Su i s n o t a u n i q u e parameter a s i t depends significantly on t h e t y p e o f t e s t u s e d . the r a t e of strain and the o r i e n t a t i o n of the f a i l u r e planes (Robertson and Campanella 1983). W r o t h 1984 a t t r i b u t e d t h i s growth t o the rapid increase in the variety and quality of insitu testing instruments i n addition to our better understanding of the behaviour of real s o i l s and t h e subsequent r e a l i z a t i o n o f some of t h e l i m i t a t i o n s a n d i n a d e q u a c i e s o f conventional laboratory testing. were s u p p o r t e d by t e s t r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d by G h i o n n a et . 1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1. W r o t h 1984). selection of borehole l o c a t i o n s c a n be more efficiently planned by employing cone penetration t e s t s during p r e l i m i n a r y i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . W r o t h 1984 i n d i c a t e d the l i k e l y variation i n undrained strength r a t i o (Su/P') w i t h f r i c t i o n a n g l e and t h e h i e r a r c h y f o r various test methods ( i l l u s t r a t e d i n figure 1.1).1 I n s i t u Measurement o f U n d r a i n e d Shear S t r e n g t h I n r e c e n t y e a r s t h e r e h a s been a g r o w i n g tendancy towards the use of i n s i t u testing techniques for evaluating engineering s o i l parameters. The h i g h c o s t of o f f s h o r e g e o t e c h n i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s and the d i f f i c u l t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e r e c o v e r y of u n d i s t u r b e d s a m p l e s make t h e u s e o f i n s i t u testing techniques particularly attractive. he a d d e d . U n f o r t u n a t e l y . B a s e d on l i m i t e d t e s t d a t a a n d a s p e c u l a t i v e a p p r o a c h to a n a l y s i s . The soil p r o p e r t y most o f t e n m e a s u r e d i n t h e f i e l d i s the undrained shear s t r e n g t h (Su) of c l a y s (Schmertmann 1975. With local e x p e r i e n c e b o r e h o l e s may n o t e v e n be n e c e s s a r y . For routine investigations.

F i e l d Vane DSS .1 LIKELY VARIATION IN UNDRAINED STRENGTH RATIO AND THEIR HIERARCHY FOR VARIOUS TEST METHODS (adapted from Wroth 1984) METHOD RATING Dynamic Cone c Static MechaC nonical e: B Elec.Moderate applicability C .Kg consol 1 dated t r i a x i a l Q compression FV .Limited applicability Table 1.1 PERCEIVED APPLICABILITY OF INSITU TEST METHODS (adapted from Campanella and Robertson 1982) . Piezo/Friction B B c Acoustic P Dilatometer robe B Vane Shear A Standard Penetration Test C Resistivity Probe C Screw Pla Impact Conete B C Borehole S hear Menard Pressuremeter B B Self Boring Pressuremeter A Self Boring Devices: Lateral Shear Va Pnee netrometer B A Plate Load Tests C A .High applicability B .Pressure meter K TC. 2 (S /C7 ) U V DSS FV KJC a) L i k e l y v a r i a t i o n (n u n d r a i n e d b) L i k e l y h i e r a r c h y of undrained strength ratio for different strength ratio f o r different t e s t methods t e s t methods TEST TYPES PM . Friction B Elec.D i r e c t s i m p l e s h e a r Figure 1. Pie zo Elec.

moderate and limited applicability.1. The FV h a s p r o v e n t o be a r e l i a b l e a n d h i g h l y r e p e a t a b l e t e s t method. Of the e i g h t e e n e n t r i e s o n l y two d i f f e r e n t methods have a r a t i n g of high a p p l i c a b i l i t y . Figure 1. The VST i s incremental with tests usually being conducted a t 1 meter i n t e r v a l s . 3 al. Campanella and Robertson 1982 p r e s e n t e d a t a b l e listing various insitu test methods a n d t h e i r p e r c e i v e d a p p l i c a b i l i t y . One o f i t s m a i n a d v a n t a g e s i s the great deal of experience that has been developed over i t s long h i s t o r y . t h e s h e a r vane (VST) a n d t h e self boring pressuremeter (SBPMT). On the other hand.1 also illustrates the importance of documenting the source of undrained shear s t r e n g t h d a t a . T h e i r h i g h r a t i n g i s a r e s u l t of their being the only t e s t s that allow a d i r e c t e v a l u a t i o n of Su. however. t h e vane shear t e s t o r t h e f i e l d vane (FV) is currently t h e most common i n s i t u method f o r measuring undrained shear strength. The SBPMT. 1983. r e s p e c t i v e l y . A l i s t o f t h e methods relevant to the measurement o f Su i s r e p r o d u c e d i n t a b l e 1. B or C indicating high. i t does s u f f e r some s e r i o u s d i s a d v a n t a g e s . There are several methods available f o r measuring the undrained shear strength of clay insitu. is a specific test (as described by Campanella and Robertson 1982) b e i n g r e l a t i v e l y expensive and slow and not a l i k e l y candidate f o r routine s o i l profiling. The s u i t a b i l i t y o f e a c h method i s i n d i c a t e d by a r a t i n g o f A. However. The m a t e r i a l type i n which the test i s performed must be s p e c u l a t e d f r o m t h e t e s t r e s u l t s o r must be c o n f i r m e d by an . Campanella and Robertson based their grade on a q u a l i t a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n of the c o n f i d e n c e l e v e l a s s e s s e d f o r each method.

sleeve friction and dynamic pore pressure response. The estimation of undrained shear s t r e n g t h i s one such e x a m p l e . The t e s t i s unequalled in i t s ability to define soil layer boundaries and qualitatively evaluate m a t e r i a l types. However. R o b e r t s o n and C a m p a n e l l a 1983 report that s i g n i f i c a n t advances i n research. development and applications of cone penetration testing have been made i n recent y e a r s . p r e b o r i n g i s usually required through coarse grained material. The r e m a i n i n g f o u r methods relate to the static cone (CPT). The t e s t has proved to be rapid. There are nine entries having a rating of moderate applicability. Of these. the e l e c t r i c piezo/friction cone i s t h e most promising. borehole shear. t h e d i l a t o m e t e r and t h e s c r e w p l a t e . b e c a u s e of t h e complex behaviour of soils and the complex changes in stress and strain around the cone t i p . highly repeatable and cost efficient. soil parameters are n e c e s s a r i l y determined from e m p i r i c a l and semi- empirical correlations. most have focussed only on the cone . however. The c o r r e l a t i o n h a s been s t u d i e d by s e v e r a l researchers i n t h e p a s t . Two are incremental tests. p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h the Nilcon equipment. P i e z o / f r i c t i o n cone p e n e t r a t i o n t e s t s p r o v i d e a continuous profile of cone bearing. To prevent damage t o t h e vane b l a d e s . Verticality is not e n s u r e d n o r c a n i t be measured. Menard pressuremeter. The a d d i t i o n o f pore pressure measurements has greatly increased our understanding a n d p o t e n t i a l o f t h e CPT. 4 adjacent borehole. and t h e l a t e r a l p e n e t r o m e t e r . T h r e e o f w h i c h w o u l d be classified as specific tests.

r e s e a r c h v e h i c l e . Test results from five lower mainland s i t e s are presented and compared t o r e s u l t s reported for other sites. the different cone penetrometers. N o n . This report presents the r e s u l t s of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n and is divided into the seven f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r s : Chapter 2 d e s c r i b e s the equipment used for this study.C. The a d v e n t of t h e piezo cone has permitted a semi-empirical approach using cavity expansion t h e o r y and t h e dynamic p o r e p r e s s u r e response to be used to estimate Su.2 Report Organization The research described in this r e p o r t was undertaken i n an attempt to better understand the effects of various soil p r o p e r t i e s on t h e many methods that have been proposed for estimating undrained shear s t r e n g t h from cone p e n e t r a t i o n tests. the data a c q u i s i t i o n s y s t e m s and the field vane e q u i p m e n t a r e presented.B. The correlations usually employ a c o n e f a c t o r Nk o r Nc whose values have exhibited a tremendous range (from 5 t o 70) but are often r e l a t i v e l y well d e f i n e d at individual s i t e s . 1. recently proposed methods of e s t i m a t i n g Su from p o r e p r e s s u r e data are discussed.d i m e n s i o n a l p a r a m e t e r s b a s e d on the excess pore pressures generated during penetration have been found to provide a promising means of i n t e r p r e t i n g CPT data. In addition to the traditional methods. 5 bearing as a means of e s t i m a t i n g Su. v a n e shear t e s t s were u s e d as a reference for this study. A summary of t h e v a r i o u s t e s t p r o c e d u r e s u s e d i s presented . Brief d e s c r i p t i o n s of t h e U. Because the field vane is the most common method o f e v a l u a t i n g Su.

s a t u r a t i o n and actual field testing are given. Various methods of analyzing vane test results and some of the f a c t o r s that affect such results are discussed. . in detail. Methods for estimating vane sensitivity and overconsolidation ratio from CPT are also discussed. a d e s c r i p t i o n of the methods of calibration. soil parameter interpretation. Chapter 6 reviews traditional empirical methods of correlating cone penetration test results with the undrained shear strength of cohesive materials. In addition. recently proposed techniques using CPT pore pressure data are presented. In addition. the field programme conducted for this study and presents the results of the field vane and cone penetration tests. A review of the vane shear test (VST) i s given in chapter 4. Chapter 5 presents a brief review of the cone penetration test. Chapter 8 summarizes the investigation and presents conclusions and suggestions for further research. A comparison i s made between the correlations discussed in chapter 6 and the measured values. In particular. 6 in chapter 3. Such topics as soil classification. generation of dymanic pore pressure and factors affecting cone penetration test results are discussed. Chapter 7 describes. Specific details of the two tests are also included in other chapters. where appropriate. details of the cone penetration and field vane data reduction are presented.

In order t o make a p r o p e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the t e s t r e s u l t s the e f f e c t s and l i m i t a t i o n s of the apparatus must be understood. The vehicle. This chapter briefly describes the important details of the equipment used. H y d r a u l i c c o n t r o l v a l v e s a r e used to manually control p e n e t r a t i o n and a d j u s t a b l e flow c o n t r o l valves regulate the rate of p e n e t r a t i o n .B. The loading system consists of a p a i r of h y d r a u l i c p i s t o n s which a r e l o c a t e d symmetrically about the penetrometer and cone rods and a r e capable o f a p p l y i n g a c o m b i n e d maximum l o a d o f 160 kN. described in detail by C a m p a n e l l a a n d R o b e r t s o n 1981. two data acquisition systems. . i s a self- contained insitu testing unit housing an hydraulic loading system and both analog and d i g i t a l electronic data acquisition systems. 7 CHAPTER 2 EQUIPMENT 2. 2.2 R e s e a r c h V e h i c l e The U. Several types o f e q u i p m e n t were u s e d f o r t h i s report: four types of cones.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n The design o f e q u i p m e n t i s an i m p o r t a n t aspect o f any t e s t . geotechnical research v e h i c l e was u s e d f o r a l l cone p e n e t r a t i o n t e s t s performed f o r t h i s report.C. a n d two f i e l d vane borers.

B.C.i n c l i n a t i o n t e m p e r a t u r e cone (UBC#6) 3) U. 6 channel 10 c m amplified 2 bearing f r i c t i o n .i n c l i n a t i o n .friction - 2 piezometer . 5 c h a n n e l 10 c m bearing 2 . in length) approximately 1 meter behind the f r i c t i o n s l e e v e .B. All four cones have a 60° apex a n g l e .B. 8 2.piezometer .temperature . friction p i e z o m e t e r .t e m p e r a t u r e c o n e (UBC#4) 2) U.C. design permits load c e l l s and transducers of different capacities to be used thereby optimizing the s e n s i t i v i t y of t h e i n d i v i d u a l measurements.i n c l i n a t i o n .i n c l i n a t i o n . 5 c h a n n e l 15 c m bearing . The 10cm 2 cones use a f r i c t i o n r e d u c e r (an e n l a r g e d s e c t i o n o f cone r o d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 5 cm.C. The modified Hogentogler. seismic c o n e (UBC#5) 4) M o d i f i e d H o g e n t o g l e r 10 c m amplified 2 bearing friction . temperature cone The four cones are illustrated in figure 2. The different porous element l o c a t i o n s a r e i n d i c a t e d i n f i g u r e 2. and r e l o c a t a b l e p o r e pressure elements.B. The t h r e e U. e q u a l end a r e a friction s l e e v e s .3 Penetrometers Four t y p e s o f cone p e n e t r o m e t e r s were used: 1) U.s e i s m i c . UBC #4.piezometer . The 15 c m 2 c o n e i s i t s own f r i c t i o n reducer. .B.C. The U.C.1 and their s i m i l a r i t i e s and important d i f f e r e n c e s a r e d i s c u s s e d below. c o n e s a r e similar i n mechanical design featuring independent t i p and friction l o a d c e l l s and e a s i l y r e p l a c a b l e pore pressure transducers which are located just behind the t i p . The UBC #5 c o n e h a s a 15 c m 2 projected base area and a 225 cm 2 friction sleeve.2. a n d UBC #6 c o n e s e a c h have a 10 cm 2 projected base a r e a a n d a 150 c m 2 friction s l e e v e .

1 . 9 F i g u r e 2 .SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF CONE PENETROMETERS USED FOR THIS REPORT .

2 . Standard UBC filter b) P o r o u s F i l t e r Locations gure 2 .POROUS F I L T E R LOCATIONS AND T I P DESIGN . 10 1.

2. c o n e to allow for r e l o c a t a b l e pore p r e s s u r e elements.C. It features the b e a r i n g and f r i c t i o n load c e l l s placed in series. To determine the f r i c t i o n load a d i f f e r e n t i a l amplifier circuit i s used t o e l e c t r o n i c a l l y s u b t r a c t t h e two m e a s u r e m e n t s . The s e i s m i c aspects of the U. t h e H o g e n t o g l e r cone used f o r t h i s r e p o r t was m o d i f i e d t o accommodate an equal end area friction sleeve.4 D a t a A c q u i s i t i o n Systems Two data acquisition s y s t e m s were u s e d t o c o l l e c t t h e CPT data forthis r e p o r t . however. The UBC #5 cone c o n t a i n s a t r i a x i a l geophone p a c k a g e a n d i s d e s c r i b e d i n greater d e t a i l by R i c e 1984.5% t o 10% o f b e a r i n g ) friction r e a d i n g s . The Hogentogler design i s known a s a s u b t r a c t i o n cone. A serious consequence of this design i s that both l o a d c e l l s must be o f comparable c a p a c i t y which can r e s u l t in poor sensitivity and resolution o f t h e much l o w e r (typically 0.B. The r e a d e r i s referred t o Rice 1984 a n d Campanella and Robertson 1984 f o r more details. cones are beyond the scope of this r e p o r t . Data from the non-amplified cones were . In addition. the f r o n t end ( t i p end) d e s i g n was made s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f a U. The UBC #6 c o n e i s a UBC #4 s t y l e c o n e m o d i f i e d t o i n c o r p o r a t e a geophone (velocity transducer) o r an a c c e l e r o m e t e r a n d an a m p l i f i e r board.B. 11 The design o f t h e UBC #4 c o n e h a s been d e s c r i b e d i n g r e a t e r detail by Campanella and Robertson 1981. The load c e l l nearest t h e t i p r e c o r d s t h e cone b e a r i n g w h i l e t h e other load c e l l measures both the bearing and friction. The c o n e was originally designed with an unequal end a r e a friction s l e e v e .C.

M a r y l a n d . A t y p i c a l Hogentogler system c o n s i s t s of: 1) 5 c h a n n e l a m p l i f i e d cone 2) 10 c o n d u c t o r c a b l e 3) d a t a c o l l e c t i o n and s t o r a g e unit 4) printer 5) H e w l e t t Packard HP 7470A plotter Some modifications were made to the system i n order to accommodate t h e e x t r a d e v i c e s p r e s e n t i n t h e U. Signals from the amplified cones were recorded using a Hogentogler digital data acquisition system. 12 recorded on a s i x c h a n n e l Watanabe s t r i p c h a r t r e c o r d e r . A more c o m p l e t e d e s c r i p t i o n of this analog data r e c o r d i n g s y s t e m i s g i v e n by C a m p a n e l l a a n d R o b e r t s o n 1 9 8 1 . ' Internal components of the digital data collection unit i n c l u d e a power s u p p l y . The cable was c o n n e c t e d t o a j u n c t i o n box mounted i n t h e t r u c k directing the s i g n a l s t o the a p p r o p r i a t e data c o l l e c t i o n system. c o n e s . Variable attenuation resistors permitted the chart recorder to plot the data d i r e c t l y i n engineering u n i t s . The a m p l i f i e d c o n e s were u s e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a d i g i t a l data acquisition s y s t e m m a n u f a c t u r e d by H o g e n t o g l e r & Co. Inc. and electronic interface circuits.B. of G a i t h e r s b u r g . a m i c r o c o m p u t e r . The external components include a 16 c h a r a c t e r LED ( l i g h t e m i t t i n g d i o d e ) d i s p l a y a n d . The non-amplified signals were routed through a signal c o n d i t i o n i n g box c o n t a i n i n g b a l a n c e and attenuation resistors.. In order to c h a n g e r a n g e s on t h e s t r i p c h a r t r e c o r d e r without i n t r o d u c i n g an o f f s e t v o l t a g e i n d i v i d u a l balance resisitors were used t o zero each transducer. ROM ( r e a d o n l y memory) b a s e d software.C. a 12 b i t analog to digital (A/D) c o n v e r t e r . Both systems used a 16 conductor cable and a 10 volt excitation.

. Because of t h e l a g i n t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the data the thermal s t r i p c h a r t r e c o r d e r i s r e q u i r e d in order to d i s p l a y the instantaneous bearing. Graphical presentation of the data is provided by a plotting routine stored in ROM a n d t h e HP 7470A p l o t t e r .5 cm. In addition. a digital c a s s e t t e t a p e d r i v e .. inclination and temperature) are l i s t e d by t h e p r i n t e r . friction. Since the f r i c t i o n sleeve i s located behind the t i p there is a lag between the current depth of penetration and that f o r which the data i s listed on t h e p r i n t e r . 13 alphanumeric touchpad. The r e c o r d i n g system i s t r i g g e r e d when m e t a l event markers p a s s a p r o x i m i t y s w i t c h . friction r a t i o . a n d 10 cm. an analog single channel thermal strip chart recorder. As t h e r o d s a r e a d v a n c e d t h e e v e n t wheel r o t a t e s thereby t r i g g e r i n g the system. Three sampling r a t e s were available: 2.5 cm. CONEPLOT makes the necessary c o r r e c t i o n s (discussed i n chapter 3) t o t h e d a t a p r i o r to plotting. pore p r e s s u r e . 5 cm. To overcome t h i s problem t h e author has w r i t t e n a f l e x i b l e graphics routine (CONEPLOT) t o be u s e d on a m i c r o c o m p u t e r . some o f which are inappropriate f o r t h e range of data c o l l e c t e d i n soft soils. analog BNC c o n n e c t o r s and s e r i a l and p a r a l l e l i n t e r f a c e p o r t s f o r use with peripheral devices. The d i g i t a l data collected f o r t h i s r e p o r t were s a m p l e d e v e r y 2.. During a sounding a l l parameters (bearing. The e v e n t m a r k e r s a r e e q u a l l y s p a c e d on the c i r c u m f e r e n c e of a rubber wheel which i s placed in contact with the cone rods. pore p r e s s u r e r a t i o . The program p l o t s each v a r i a b l e to fixed s c a l e s .

placed just behind the vane.5 Field Vanes Two t y p e s of f i e l d v a n e s were u s e d . A . The Geonor v a n e i s h o u s e d w i t h i n a p r o t e c t i v e m e t a l sheath during penetration. t h e N i l c o n vane borer and t h e Geonor f i e l d v a n e . The s l i p couple i s illustrated in figure 2. The vane is advanced using a m a n u a l c r a n k and a chain d r i v e n y o k e . The capacity of the loading s y s t e m i s 9900 Newtons f o r p e n e t r a t i o n and 113 Newton- meters f o r torque. The vane rods a r e pushed d i r e c t l y i n to the ground without ' a protective casing or sheath. The Nilcon borer consists of a t o r q u e loading/recording u n i t mounted on a j a c k i n g f r a m e . A ball screw mechanism i s used to advance the s h e a t h and the casing that follows i t t o a d e p t h j u s t above that desired f o r the t e s t .4.3. vane r o d s . The two systems are illustrated in figure 2. torque required t o overcome r o d friction the s l i p couple. The loading head a p p l i e s the torque through a c l u t c h assembly and a deflection arm scribes the torque-rotation curve on a wax p a p e r d i s k . They d i f f e r primarily in their method of recording and i n t h e i r method o f v a n e i n s e r t i o n . B o t h vane borers use s i m i l a r v a n e s . To apply and record the load a torque head is connected t o the t o p of t h e casing. 20 mm. An inner s e t of rods are then used to push the vane t o t h e r e q u i r e d d e p t h . Reaction is provided by augers located in the corners of the frame b a s e . and a special s l i p couple. To determine the. 14 2. The friction can be d e t e r m i n e d from the test record. permits 15° of rod rotation before transferring the load to the vane.

a) Geonor System b) N i l c o n System Figure 2.FIELD VANE SYSTEMS .3 .

NILCON F I E L D VANE AND SLIP COUPLE . cn a) F i e l d Vane and S l i p C o u p l e b) S l i p Couple Detail Figure 2.4 .

There i s no permanent record of the test. 17 deflection n e e d l e and f o l l o w e r indicate t h e maximum t o r q u e on an arbitrary scale. Calibration charts provide the correlation between t h e scale r e a d i n g and t h e u n d r a i n e d strength. .

It is important t o f o l l o w a r i g o r o u s s e t of t e s t procedures t o achieve repeatable t e s t s and t o gain c o n f i d e n c e i n the results. The cone load cells were calibrated i n the research vehicle using a configuration i d e n t i c a l to that used during field testing. The vane torque recorders were c a l i b r a t e d i n the laboratory using a hanging weight and p u l l e y assembly. In addition to checking the l i n e a r i t y and stability of the instrument. i f not impossible. field testing.1 Introduct ion Another important aspect o f any t e s t is the procedure by which i t i s c o n d u c t e d . In this respect. The u s e o f n o n .2 C a l i b r a t i o n To maintain a high level of accuracy the various instruments were periodically calibrated. c o n e p e n e t r a t i o n c a n be t h o u g h t o f a s having four d i s t i n c t steps (Gillespie 1981): calibration. 3. the i n f l u e n c e of each channel on t h e o t h e r cone c h a n n e l s ( c r o s s t a l k ) was recorded. This chapter describes the t e s t p r o c e d u r e s u s e d f o r t h e cone p e n e t r a t i o n a n d t h e f i e l d vane t e s t s performed f o r t h i s report. and data reduction. 18 CHAPTER 3 TEST PROCEDURES AND DATA REDUCTION 3 . . For the non-amplified c o n e s i t was o f prime importance to calibrate the cone using the same 16 conductor cable used during a sounding. saturation.s t a n d a r d methods c a n make the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the r e s u l t s d i f f i c u l t .

19

A 7 t o n l o a d i n g frame a n d a 10 t o n h i g h q u a l i t y reference

l o a d c e l l were u s e d f o r c a l i b r a t i o n of t h e b e a r i n g and friction

load c e l l s . A pressure chamber h y d r a u l i c a l l y c o n n e c t e d t o a d e a d

weight pressure t e s t e r was u s e d t o c a l i b r a t e the pore pressure

transducers. Large volume constant temperature water baths

served as references f o r t h e t h e r m i s t o r s and t h e i n c l i n o m e t e r s

were c a l i b r a t e d a g a i n s t an a d j u s t a b l e s e t s q u a r e a n d p r o t r a c t o r .

The outputs from t h e r e f e r e n c e l o a d c e l l and the non-amplified

cone channels were m o n i t o r e d on a 6 d i g i t multimeter having a 1

microvolt r e s o l u t i o n a n d were r e c o r d e d on a s i x channel strip

chart recorder. Data from the amplified cones were listed

directly i n engineering u n i t s on t h e p r i n t e r .

Calibration adjustments f o r the U.B.C. cones, when

r e q u i r e d , were r e l a t i v e l y e a s y t o make c o m p a r e d t o t h o s e f o r the

Hogentogler c o n e . The n o n - a m p l i f i e d cones r e q u i r e d only changes

in the attenuation r e s i s t o r s e t t i n g s . Changes t o t h e c a l i b r a t i o n

o f t h e UBC #6 c o n e were made by a d j u s t i n g the individual gain

potentiometers. The H o g e n t o g l e r system uses f i x e d gain resistors

and fixed c a l i b r a t i o n constants s t o r e d i n ROM m a k i n g calibration

adjustments d i f f i c u l t .

It was found that the calibration of t h e cones d i d not

change a p p r e c i a b l y u n l e s s t h e y were l o a d e d near c a p a c i t y . There

was no s i g n i f i c a n t c r o s s t a l k i n a n y o f t h e c o n e s . C a m p a n e l l a a n d

Robertson 1982 r e p o r t t h a t when t h e c o n e i s s u b j e c t e d t o an a l l

round p r e s s u r e the measurement of friction and bearing is

commonly in error. For friction, unbalanced forces due t o

u n e q u a l end a r e a s of the f r i c t i o n sleeve result i n a net force.

Therefore, only equal e n d a r e a c o n e s were u s e d f o r t h i s report.

20

Even w i t h an equal end area s l e e v e , however, a net friction load

can exist i f the pore p r e s s u r e distribution around the sleeve is

uneven. B e i n g a t o t a l s t r e s s element the tip should record a

bearing equal to the a l l round p r e s s u r e . A close examination of

any cone w i l l reveal that some t r a n s f e r of t h e load takes place

resulting in a recorded tip stress less than the applied

pressure. Corrections f o r these pore pressure effects can be

made and are discussed i n more d e t a i l i n s e c t i o n 3.5.3.

Campanella and Robertson 1981 also pointed out that load

cells are often temperature dependent. Using large volume

constant temperature water baths the c o n e s were c a l i b r a t e d f o r

temperature. A f t e r reaching temperature e q u i l i b r i u m i n the bath

the cones were quickly loaded from zero l o a d t o near working

c a p a c i t y . The UBC #6 cone was the only one used that was

significantly s e n s i t i v e t o t e m p e r a t u r e . The data from t h i s cone

were c o r r e c t e d using the p r o c e d u r e s d e s c r i b e d i n s e c t i o n 3.5.2.

An adjustable set square was used to calibrate the

inclinometers. The c o n e s were p l a c e d on the s e t s q u a r e and the

o u t p u t of t h e inclinometers were monitored as the angle of

i n c l i n a t i o n was changed. Because a l l p e n e t r a t i o n t e s t s performed

for t h i s r e p o r t were n e a r v e r t i c a l c o r r e c t i o n s were u n n e c e s s a r y .

3.3 Saturation

For proper interpretation of the pore p r e s s u r e profiles

c o m p l e t e s a t u r a t i o n of t h e p i e z o m e t e r t i p was essential. Prior

to each s o u n d i n g t h e p o r o u s e l e m e n t and the c a v i t y between the

filter and the transducer were carefully saturated with

glycerin. Because it develops a high a i r entry t e n s i o n and is

21

m i s c i b l e w i t h w a t e r , g l y c e r i n has been used as a saturating

fluid a t U.B.C. f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s . In p r e p a r a t i o n for saturation

a cup was placed over the i n v e r t e d c o n e and s e a l e d w i t h an o-

r i n g . With the filter, t i p , and access screw removed, the cup

was filled w i t h g l y c e r i n . A i r b u b b l e s were e x p e l l e d by injecting

t h e c a v i t y w i t h g l y c e r i n f r o m a h y p o d e r m i c s y r i n g e . When no more

bubbles could be seen the filter was put i n t o p l a c e and the

screw and tip were replaced. Figure 3.1 illustrates the

saturation system used.

3.4 F i e l d Cone P e n e t r a t i o n Testing

Prior to saturating the cone and after allowing the

electronic systems to warm up, each channel (except for

temperature) was checked by a p p l y i n g small loads to the cone.

After s a t u r a t i o n t h e c o n e was attached to the first cone rod and

hung f r o m t h e l o a d i n g chuck f o r a l i g n m e n t . When the cone was

p r o p e r l y a l i g n e d i t was lowered t o j u s t above the ground surface

and held there until t h e c o n e came i n t o e q u i l i b r i u m w i t h the

surrounding a i r t e m p e r a t u r e . Once i n e q u i l i b r i u m , t h e excitation

v o l t a g e was c h e c k e d and t h e c o n e c h a n n e l s were z e r o e d . For the

amplified cones the baseline readings were t a k e n . Penetration

began a f t e r the zero l o a d i n f o r m a t i o n was recorded.

All t e s t s were p e r f o r m e d a t a p e n e t r a t i o n r a t e of 2 cm/s.

Rod changes occurred a t one meter i n t e r v a l s d u r i n g which time

pore pressure d i s s i p a t i o n s were recorded.

An important detail i n the t e s t p r o c e d u r e was to check the

zeroes for each channel after the c o m p l e t i o n o f a h o l e . To do

this, t h e e l e c t r o n i c s were l e f t on as the rods were withdrawn.

S A T U R A T I O N P R O C E D U R E . 22 F i g u r e 3.1 .

the data required manipulation to eliminate incorrect data a t r o d breaks and s p u r i o u s data due to electrical power spikes. The t h e r m i s t o r data i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e s h i f t s were p r i m a r i l y due to temperature changes. Zero shifts were occasionally encountered. A discussion of the different corrections applied to the data and the various c a l c u l a t e d parameters follows. The d i g i t a l l y collected data was transferred from the Hogentogler unit t o an IBM XT m i c r o c o m p u t e r f o r m a n i p u l a t i o n a n d p l o t t i n g . A t e x t e d i t o r was u s e d t o remove these data from the record. I n addition to correcting f o r temperature and pore pressure effects. The a n a l o g r e c o r d s were digitized using a graphics t a b l e t a n d t h e U. 3. m a i n f r a m e c o m p u t e r . Corrections were made to the data t o account f o r the temperature effects. . This d a t a was s i m p l y i g n o r e d d u r i n g d i g i t i z i n g . 23 After removing the cone from t h e h o l e i t was h e l d vertically j u s t above t h e ground s u r f a c e i n o r d e r t o r e c o r d t h e zero load information.5 CPT D a t a Reduction The method o f d a t a r e d u c t i o n was d e p e n d e n t upon t h e t y p e o f data a c q u i s i t i o n system used. Due t o power surges and f o rother e l e c t r i c a l reasons the d i g i t a l system occasionally recorded spurious d a t a .5.C.B. 3. For interpretation of t h e data v a r i o u s parameters also needed to be calculated.1 Unwanted D a t a At each r o d break the analog data recorded the drop in bearing load a s t h e l o a d i n g h e a d was l i f t e d o f f the rods.

the bearing load cell does not r e c o r d a l l of t h e pore p r e s s u r e a c t i n g on t h e t i p and the friction sleeve readings c a n be i n e r r o r b e c a u s e o f end a r e a effects. 24 3.2 T e m p e r a t u r e C o r r e c t i o n s B e c a u s e t h e c o n e s h a d been c a l i b r a t e d f o r the effects of temperature. As discussed p r e v i o u s l y . The temperature c a l i b r a t i o n s indicated that the load c e l l s underwent a zero shift r a t h e r than a change i n t h e i r c a l i b r a t i o n . The d i g i t a l d a t a were c o r r e c t e d u s i n g a program (CPTCORR) w h i c h a d j u s t e d t h e data f o r each channel according to the load c e l l temperature c a l i b r a t i o n .5.3 P o r e P r e s s u r e Corrections B o t h b e a r i n g and f r i c t i o n measurements were affected by pore pressure. only bearing v a l u e s were a f f e c t e d . and t h e b a s e l i n e temperature. t h e d e p t h a x i s was s i m p l y shifted the appropriate amount during d i g i t i z i n g . For the most part.5.1 . the recorded temperature. Temperature corrections were quite substantial i n soft soils a s i n d i c a t e d i n f i g u r e 3. A l t h o u g h the load c e l l records t h e c o r r e c t f o r c e a c t i n g on i t . An e x a m i n a t i o n of figure 2. 3. i t i s i n c o r r e c t l y assumed t o be acting over an a r e a equal t o that of the t i p area (10 c m 2 o r 15 cm 2 d e p e n d i n g on t h e c o n e u s e d ) . Bearing The configuration of t h e f r i c t i o n s l e e v e and b e a r i n g load cell l e a d s t o an i n c o r r e c t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e s t r e s s applied to t h e t i p due t o p o r e p r e s s u r e .2. corrections to the data were e a s i l y made. To c o r r e c t t h e analog data.

2 .F i g u r e 3.TEMPERATURE AND PORE PRESSURE EFFECTS ON CONE BEARING .

correctly interpreted.2. negative f r i c t i o n v a l u e s h a v e been o b s e r v e d . 26 indicates t h a t t h e e f f e c t i v e a r e a of t h e l o a d c e l l i s less than t h a t of the t i p because of the p r e s e n c e of the f r i c t i o n sleeve. One needs o n l y t o add to the recorded pressure t h a t f r a c t i o n which was not r e c o r d e d .1 where Qt = corrected bearing Qc = recorded bearing a = net area r a t i o U = pore p r e s s u r e measured behind the t i p To properly correct the bearing the pore p r e s s u r e must be recorded behind the t i p . the net force may incorrectly be attributed to soil friction or i t may subtract from the a c t u a l friction. I f pore p r e s s u r e s are measured on the f a c e t h e y must be c o n v e r t e d t o an e q u i v a l e n t b e h i n d the t i p pore pressure before calculating Qt. P o r e p r e s s u r e c o r r e c t i o n s were s i g n i f i c a n t in soft normally c o n s o l i d a t e d s o i l s a s shown i n f i g u r e 3. and calculate i t a c c o r d i n g to the f o l l o w i n g e x p r e s s i o n : Qt=Qc+(1-a)-U 3.4 d e s c r i b e s how one m i g h t make t h i s conversion. I n t h e l a t t e r -case. C a m p a n e l l a and Robertson term the corrected bearing. S e c t i o n 5. The bearing load due to soil stress i s . Friction I f t h e two ends of the f r i c t i o n sleeve are of different cross s e c t i o n a l areas the pore pressures w i l l a p p l y a net force on t h e s l e e v e . Even if the ends of the . T h i s r a t i o h a s been termed 'the net area r a t i o ' by C a m p a n e l l a and Robertson 1981. D e p e n d i n g upon w h i c h end i s larger. however. During c a l i b r a t i o n t h e c o n e i s s u b j e c t e d t o an a l l round pressure to determine the ratio of t h e t o t a l a p p l i e d p r e s s u r e t h a t i s r e c o r d e d by t h e t i p . Qt.

3. i t i s u s u a l l y assumed t o act at the center of the sleeve.4.2 Q where F s sleeve f r i c t i o n Q c o n e b e a r i n g Qc o r Qt The exact location of where the friction a c t s i s unknown. The a n a l o g bearing. friction and pore pressure records are d i g i t i z e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p e a k s and valleys in their respective records and.5. I t is a dimensionless r a t i o and i s d e f i n e d a s : Rf=Fs«100% 3. The f r i c t i o n r a t i o s were c a l c u l a t e d a t t h e d e p t h s of the offset friction values using linearly interpolated bearing values. approximately 1Ocm behind t h e t i p .4 Friction Ratio Friction ratio (Rf) i s a c a l c u l a t e d parameter t h a t i s used a s an i n d i c a t o r of s o i l behaviour type. Because the digital data is recorded at discrete i n t e r v a l s the friction r a t i o s a r e e a s i l y c a l c u l a t e d . 3. The H o g e n t o g l e r unit assumes t h e f r i c t i o n / b e a r i n g o f f s e t t o be 1Ocm and a u t o m a t i c a l l y makes t h i s a d j u s t m e n t when recording the data.5. a net f o r c e can r e s u l t i f the pore pressure d i s t r i b u t i o n about the s l e e v e i s not u n i f o r m .5 D i f f e r e n t i a l Pore Pressure Ratio Although pore pressure is an indication of s o i l type. thus. 27 friction s l e e v e a r e of e q u a l a r e a . . h o w e v e r . the three parameters are not necessarily digitized at corresponding d e p t h s . The distribution of pore p r e s s u r e s about the cone is discussed in section 5.

3 where Ud = t h e dynamic p o r e p r e s s u r e ( i . Vane t e s t s were c o n d u c t e d at 1 meter intervals with remolded tests b e i n g performed at each t e s t depth a f t e r 20 turns of the vane r o d s . As a f i r s t approximation.C. t h a t measured d u r i n g a s o u n d i n g ) Ue = e q u i l i b r i u m pore p r e s s u r e An equilibrium pore pressure profile can be determined by conducting complete pore pressure dissipations at selected depths. B. 28 Campanella and R o b e r t s o n 1981 suggested that differential pore pressure was more f u n d a m e n t a l . a hydrostatic distribution is often assumed. e . The differential pore pressure ratios calculated from t h e a n a l o g r e c o r d s were done so at t h e d e p t h s o f t h e p o r e p r e s s u r e measurements using linearly interpolated bearing values. The majority of t h e t e s t s were performed at 0.6 Field Vane Testing The Geonor field vane t e s t s a t M c D o n a l d Farm (Richmond.5 meter intervals at shallow depths ( <l0m ) and a t 1 meter intervals at greater depths. Remolded tests were usually performed at a l t e r n a t e t e s t s depths a f t e r 20 t u r n s of the vane rods. The Nilcon vane t e s t s were p e r f o r m e d by the author and a s s i s t a n t s . The differential pore p r e s s u r e i s defined as: AU=Ud-Ue 3. 3. C a m p a n e l l a and R o b e r t s o n 1981 report that the differential pore pressure ratio (AU/Q) i s a good indicator of soil t y p e and p o s s i b l y stress history. All vane tests were conducted at a strain rate .) were p e r f o r m e d by t h e National Research Council (NRC). Division of Building Research under the supervision of t h e a u t h o r .

Because the s l i p couple was designed to return the vane to the c o r r e c t p o s i t i o n after 1 meter of penetration. There has been much discussion by researchers (see chapter 4) as to the c o r r e c t interpretation of the vane test. however.4 7TTD 3 where Su = undrained shear strength T = a p p l i e d torque D = diameter of the vane This expression applies only for a vane having a height to diameter ratio of 2. The distances Mf and Mp represent the rod friction and t h e peak applied torque. special attention was paid to rotating the vane rods to regain the 15° slip before advancing t h e v a n e . An example of a N i l c o n test record i s shown in figure 3. most engineers use the above expression. To avoid confusion i t was very important to document each test record on the disk immediately following a test. 29 approximately equal to the g e n e r a l l y accepted standard rate of 6° per minute. Correlation charts based on the above expression were used to determine the undrained strength from the peak readings on the Geonor equipment. respectively. The value (Mf-Mp)«K represents the torque . The radial distance from the outer zero line multiplied by a calibration constant (K) g i v e s the a p p l i e d torque. Two to three vane tests were recorded on a single wax disk. 3.7 Reduction of Vane Data All undrained strengths were determined using the standard expression: Su= 6T 3.3.

a s shown i n f i g u r e Mp . a s shown i n f i g u r e K . 30 Su = (Mf .3 .Mp) x K x a where: Su . t o r q u e head s p r i n g c o n s t a n t a . vane c o n s t a n t (6/(77rD )) 3 F i g u r e 3.EXAMPLE OF A NILCON TEST RECORD . undrained strength Mf .

The d e t e r m i n a t i o n of u n d r a i n e d strength is sensitive to the ability to accurately define the r o d f r i c t i o n . 31 applied to the vane and is substituted for T in equation 3. . It is therefore important t o use t h e largest possible vane to maximize the output on t h e d i s k .4.

Wroth 1984 and o t h e r s . B e c a u s e of its simplicity. I t has o n l y been i n the last decade or two that engineers have begun to c r i t i c a l l y study t h e vane s h e a r test. T h e s e s t u d i e s have l e d t o a b e t t e r appreciation o f some of t h e factors that influence the vane test. foundations and other engineering structures. F l a a t e 1966. 32 CHAPTER 4 A REVIEW OF THE VANE SHEAR TEST 4. 1975. however. Aas 1965. In l i g h t of t h i s relatively recent research i t i s felt that a brief review of the main factors i n f l u e n c i n g vane r e s u l t s i s appropriate. A g r e a t deal of experience has been g a i n e d with its use in the design of slopes. 4. D o n a l d e t a l . embankments. the a b i l i t y to incorporate a l l of t h e s e factors and other unquantifiable soil characteristics i n t o the analysis of the vane is still incomplete. Arman e t a l . 1977.1 Introduct ion The field vane t e s t was introduced i n Sweden 60 years ago (Bjerrum and F l o d i n 1960) and has been u s e d by e n g i n e e r s in i t s present form since 1948 ( C a d l i n g and O d e n s t a d 1950). Schmertmann 1975. Menzies and Merrifield 1980. B j e r r u m 1972 and 1973. repeatability and relatively low cost of operation i t has f o u n d wide s p r e a d use i n p r a c t i c e .2 Evaluation of U n d r a i n e d Shear Strength The traditional method of interpreting the vane test assumes that failure occurs over the cylindrical surface circumscribed by t h e vane w i t h the shear s t r e s s being uniformly .

Their results indicate that a uniform distribution of shear stress i s a reasonable assumption on the vertical plane.h e i g h t of vane (consistent units) The most commonly used vane. 33 distributed on t h e t o p . Su= 6M 4. The material i s assumed t o be isotropic. however.1.1.1 TTD H(3+D/H) 2 where Su . E x p r e s s i o n 4. 1977 and M e n z i e s and Merrifield 1980 that the distribution of shear stress is likely t o be non-uniform. and s i d e s of the cylinder. bottom. t h e peak shear stress being equal to the undrained s t r e n g t h .4 and repeated here: Su= 6M 3. and that which i s the recommended standard according to ASTM (ASTM D2573). particulary on t h e ends of the vane. Su. Using a three dimensional linear elastic finite element formulation. has a height to diameter ratio (H/D) of 2.4 7TTD 3 It is equation 3. It has recently been showen by Donald e t a l . These b a s i c assumptions lead t o e x p r e s s i o n 4. the d e r i v a t i o n of which is shown in figure 4.measured peak t o r q u e D . derived the stress distribution shown i n f i g u r e 4. the shear stresses on the h o r i z o n t a l plane increase from z e r o at the a x i s of rotation to a maximum at the blade .1 thereby reduces to the standard e x p r e s s i o n shown e a r l i e r as 3.2 f o r a p l a n e midway between the blades.u n d r a i n e d s h e a r s t r e n g t h M .4 that is implied in t h e method of vane interpretation described by ASTM D2573 and in the manuals a c c o m p a n y i n g vane equipment.d i a m e t e r of vane H . Donald et al.

STANDARD A N A L Y S I S OF T H E V A N E SHEAR TEST .1 . "dSdh 2 H S v o o M = r R_2jr a a 3 M =r R 2TTH v v 2 3 r =Su a at peak T =Su V a t Peak M = 7rD3 e S u M = irD HSu v J 12 2 M=M +2M v e M=SuirD H(3+D) 2 6 H Figure 4. 34 On End (Horizontal Plane) On V e r t i c a l Surface dM =r Q rdrd0«r dM =r dA «R v v fdM =T jVdrdSa a JdM = i.R / .

vertical blade edge _ horizontal blade edge Note: shear s t r e s s e s have been s c a l e d to g i v e equal torque Figure 4.DISTRIBUTIONS OF EQUIVALENT SHEAR STRESS ON A VERTICAL AND A HORIZONTAL BLADE EDGE (adapted from Menzies and M e r r i f i e l d 1980) .SHEAR STRESS DISTRIBUTION ON A PLANE MIDWAY BETWEEN VANE BLADES USING A 3D FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS (adapted from Donald et a l .2 .3 . 35 Figure 4. 1977) a .

Their results.5 177TD 3 .3. shear s t r e s s T M . the results just presented suggest that the shear stress distribution on t h e h o r i z o n t a l p l a n e s c a n be a p p r o x i m a t e d by t h e e x p r e s s i o n : n •T = R where T . I t i s encouraging t o see t h e a g r e e m e n t between t h e a n a l y t i c a l a n a l y s i s and t h e field testing. They u s e d this vane t o p e r f o r m tests in a fine sand a n d i n an overconsolidated clay. Wroth 1984 reported that n i s approximately 5. thus.4 t h e r e b y yields: Su= 16M 4. E x p r e s s i o n 4.3 TTD H( (3+n)+D/H) 2 F o r t h e u s u a l c a s e where H/D=2. 36 edge. however. i n d i c a t i n g that the d i s t r i b u t i o n along the t o p of the blade i s indeed non-uniform. one might expect the elastic analysis to adequately predict the behaviour of an overconsolidated clay and.1 becomes Su= 2M(3+n) 4.3 r e d u c e s t o : Su= 2(3+n)M 4. r a d i a l d i s t a n c e from a x i s of r o t a t i o n Using t h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n e x p r e s s i o n 4.4 TTD (2) (3. e q u a t i o n 4. maximum s h e a r s t r e s s R . i t would be very interesting t o see r e s u l t s from tests i n a soft normally consolidated clay. a p p e a r t o be s i m i l a r to those of Donald et a l . Menzies and Merrifield instrumented a vane w i t h c l o s e fitting strain gauged c a n t i l e v e r s a l o n g the top edge of one blade and along the vertical edge o f a n o t h e r .5+n) 3 B a s e d on t h e r e s u l t s o f M e n z i e s and M e r r i f i e l d 1980. shown in figure 4. As W r o t h 1984 points out. r a d i u s o f vane r .

6 indicates that f o r the standard vane (H/D=2) t h e vertical face c o n t r i b u t e s 86% t o 94% o f t h e s h e a r resistance for values of n=0 (uniform shear distribution) and n=5.6 7rD H2 (3+n)H Equation 4. 37 Comparing e q u a t i o n 4. The r e s i s t a n c e t o s h e a r c a n be separated into the contributions by each surface of the cylinder. R i c h a r d s o n et a l . In other words. respectively. B l i g h t 1970. Denoting t h e shear strength on t h e h o r i z o n t a l surface as Sh and t h a t on the vertical face as Sv equilibrium is satisfied by t h e e q u a t i o n : _2M_ = Sv + Sh-D 4. By u s i n g vanes of v a r i o u s proportions several researchers have studied the e f f e c t s of a n i s o t r o p y . A a s 1965 and 1967.3 E f f e c t s o f A n i s o t r o p y The effect of anisotropy is one of t h e most commonly studied aspects o f t h e vane t e s t .4 there is an almost 10% underestimation of the undrained shear strength using the standard a n a l y s i s i f one a c c e p t s that n i s 5. the vane test is strongly d o m i n a t e d by t h e a v a i l a b l e s t r e n g t h on t h e v e r t i c a l plane. Several other a s s u m p t i o n s a r e made i n t h e a n a l y s i s of the vane and a r e d i s c u s s e d i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s : 1) S t r e s s c o n d i t i o n s remain unchanged d u r i n g vane i n s e r t ion 2) t h e s o i l a r o u n d t h e vane remains undisturbed 3) s h e a r i n g t a k e s p l a c e under u n d r a i n e d conditions 4) t h e s h e a r s t r e n g t h i s f u l l y m o b i l i z e d ( s i m u l t a n - e o u s l y ) on a l l s u r f a c e s 5) t h e s o i l i s i s o t r o p i c with respect to strength 6) t h e r e i s no p r o g r e s s i v e f a i l u r e 4. E i d e 1968. . B j e r r u m 1973.5 to 3. W i e s e l 1973.

1978. Bjerrum 1973 plotted the r a t i o of Sh/Sv for several clays against their plasticity index concluding that the ratio decreases with increasing p l a s t i c i t y . 1977. In his state of the art address Bjerrum 1973 presents a rationale as to why this relationship should e x i s t . however.5 and they indicate that the greatest strengths are observed on the vertical plane and the minimum strengths occur on the horizontal planes. 38 1975.6. Wiesel 1973 recommends using vanes of equal diameter but different lengths to eliminate the problem of the peak strengths not being simultaneously mobilized on the horizontal and v e r t i c a l planes. 1975 used diamond shaped vanes (figure 4. Donald et a l . From two curves they inferred the side resistance (and thus the end resistance) by multiplying the difference between the two curves . The results from their tests are shown in figure 4. they suggest that Bjerrum's curve should be adjusted. Richardson et a l . and Poplin et a l . The trend of decreasing Sh/Sv ratio with increasing PI was also observed. Donald et a l . Richardson et al. 1975 added their data to Bjerrum's figure and t h i s i s shown in figure 4.4) to determine the anisotropy on planes at various angles.6. At least two torque measurements using vanes of different H/D ratios are required at each test depth to solve for Sh and Sv in equation 4. They reported that the strengths observed on planes at various angles describe an e l l i p s e having Sv as the radius on the major axis and Sh the radius on the minor axis. 1977 attempted to analyse the effect of anisotropy by recording the full torque-rotation curves for vanes of various H/D ratios but of equal diameters.

VANE SHEAR STRENGTHS ON PLANES AT VARIOUS ANGLES (adapted f r o m R i c h a r d s o n e t a l .VARIOUS VANE CONFIGURATIONS USED TO MEASURE STRENGTH ANISOTROPY (adapted f r o m R i c h a r d s o n e t a l . 1975) Vane sheer strength ( kg /cm) 0. 39 © © F i g u r e 4. OPS OIO 0J5 0 20 0_25 F i g u r e 4.5 .4 . 1975) .

40 1 1 "I Symbol Cloy Reference 1 Manglerud (Silty Quick) Bjerrum (1973) 2 Lierstranda ( — d o — ) do . 1975) .6 . Lean Drammen (Silty Sens) do — Plastic Drammen do Loan Drammen ( D«ep ) — do Bangkok ( Eioe ) do— Ska-Eck^(Avg.Sens ) Memon (1973) CO © .C tn Bjerrum'* Relationship * 7 O 40 60 80 100 Plasticity Index (%) Figure 4.&xribJctt)Wiesel (1973).3 KjeU a s ( Quick ) — do . P L O T OF R A T I O OF U N D R A I N E D S H E A R STRENGTHS IN HORIZONTAL AND V E R T I C A L DIRECTIONS VS PLASTICITY INDEX (adapted from Richardson et a l . Bangpli ( Silty.

Wiesel .7 Sv = 2T. H. Berre and Bjerrum 1973. their a b i l i t y to reasonably estimate the Sh/Sv ratio met with limited success suggesting that this method is unreliable. 41 by the r a t i o of the length of the f i r s t vane to the difference in the lengths of the two vanes. \ H H. Most methods used to estimate the Sh/Sv ratio assume a uniform d i s t r i b u t i o n of stress on both planes.4 Rate Effects It has been commonly found that the undrained shear strength i s dependent upon the rate of shear.8 where 0= / 2T 2 .3 simultaneously for tests that have recorded different torques T. and H 2 2 i t can be shown that: Sh = (3+n)0 4. As shown e a r l i e r . 2T. Aas 1965. and T . 4. Their analysis indicated that the ends reached their peak strengths before the sides which would mean that the peak torque would be dominated by the strength of the v e r t i c a l plane even more than considered previously. However. 2 TTD^H" j'H. By solving expression 4. this may be a reasonable assumption on the v e r t i c a l planes but is probably not very accurate for the horizontal planes. This assumption has a significant effect on the Sh/Sv r a t i o . 2 ^D. and D . used vanes of different 2 diameters D.| 0 4.fD.D -H D 2 2 1 The value of n does not affect the estimation of Sv but i t does have a s i g n i f i c a n t effect on Sh. and d i f f e r e n t vane heights H. Blight 1968. Bjerrum 1972. Flaate 1966. .

5 D i s t u r b a n c e Due t o Vane Insertion It i s generally assumed that the s o i l remains undisturbed during vane i n s e r t i o n . 42 1973. T h i s effect is illustrated i n f i g u r e s 4. Blight 1968 p r o p o s e d a method by w h i c h t h e p r e s e l e c t i o n of a t e s t d u r a t i o n c a n be made to ensure that t h e vane t e s t in s i l t y soils i s c o n d u c t e d under undrained conditions.7 a n d 4.7 shows the variation in undrained strength with depth a t different rates of vane r o t a t i o n whereas figure 4. Both of t h e s e e f f e c t s c a n r e s u l t i n a measured u n d r a i n e d shear strength less than t h e a c t u a l insitu value. Figure 4. T o r s t e n s s o n 1977. however.8 shows the correlation between shear stress level and t i m e to failure f o r undrained triaxial compression tests established by Berre and Bjerrum 1973 f o r Drammen c l a y . 4. B j e r r u m 1972 s t a t e s that the rate effect is associated with the cohesive component of shear and that there a r e good r e a s o n s to assume that the rate effect should increase with increasing p l a s t i c i t y of the c l a y . This e f f e c t i s r e l a t e d t o the d i s s i p a t i o n of the pore pressures generated during insertion of the vane resulting in the consolidation of the surrounding clay. a n d K i m u r a and S a i t o h 1983 i n d i c a t e that the shear strength can vary with the time delay between vane i n s e r t i o n and t h e s t a r t of shearing.8. i t has been d o c u m e n t e d that high pore pressures can be g e n e r a t e d and t h a t t h e i n s e r t i o n of the blades can p a r t i a l l y destroy the n a t u r a l soil s t r u c t u r e . . Tests by Aas 1965. In t h e results p r e s e n t e d by F l a a t e 1966 a t i m e d e l a y of only 15 m i n u t e s led t o an i n c r e a s e i n the undrained strength by more than 10%. Flaate 1966.

C O R R E L A T I O N BETWEEN SHEAR S T R E S S L E V E L AND T I M E TO F A I L U R E FROM UNDRAINED TRIAXIAL C O M P R E S S I O N T E S T S ON DRAMMEN CLAY (adapted from Berre and Bjerrum 1973) .8 . kN/m 2 0 10 20 30 Figure 4. 43 SHEAR STRENGTH. V A R I A T I O N WITH D E P T H OF UNDRAINED SHEAR S T R E N G T H A T D I F F E R E N T R A T E S OF R O T A T I O N (adapted from Wiesel 1973) Figure 4.7 .

one having an average sensitvity of 50. It is important to note that La Rochelle was testing Champlain clay. They also found that the pore pressure changes during vane rotation were very small. Kimura and Saitoh 1983 instrumented a laboratory vane and a t r i a x i a l c e l l with pore pressure transducers to investigate the effects of vane insertion. 44 La Rochelle et a l . He presented the results for only the most sensitive site and stated that the results from the other site were not as marked. Clays from two different sites were used for his study. . 1973 performed tests using four different thicknesses of vane blades to evaluate the effect of disturbance due to vane insertion. the other having an average sensitivity of 20. This suggests that the effects of vane insertion ' are probably not as significant in less b r i t t l e and less sensitive soils. By plotting the measured Su values against the vane perimeter ratio (ratio of 4 times the blade thickness e to the vane perimeter . 4e/7rD) he was able to extrapolate the results to estimate the shear strength corresponding to a zero blade thickness. His results indicated that the disturbance due to the insertion of the standard vane reduced the apparent strength by about 16%. Evidence of the generation of high pore pressures and their subsequent dissipation confirms that the time delay between vane insertion and the start of rotation can be a controlling factor i-n the measured undrained strength. a highly sensitive and b r i t t l e glacial marine clay characterised by chemical bonds between the clayey platelets. They found that high pore pressures in the order of 75% of the consolidation pressure were generated during vane insertion.

K 0 consolidated undrained. These laboratory tests have included unconfined compression. consolidated undrained. 4. Bjerrum 1972 reviewed 14 known failures (FS=1) and discovered that the theoretical factors of safety differed from 1 and varied with the p l a s t i c i t y index of the clay. This problem has led to the concept of applying correction factors to the vane strength. More importantly. with which the vane strength . 45 Flaate 1966 also indicated that an unknown degree of disturbance can be caused by s o i l sticking to the vane blades thereby increasing the area ratio of the vane (ratio of the actual vane blade area to the projected area of the vane 7rD ) 2 for tests at other depths. n. however. The discrepencies are not surprising since the f a i l u r e mechanism of the vane test is unlike that of any other test. He therefore introduced a correction factor.6 Correction Factors Several papers appear in the l i t e r a t u r e in which attempts have been made to correlate the results of vane shear tests to those obtained from laboratory tests. Rightly so. Back calculations from actual f a i l u r e s should y i e l d the true i n s i t u undrained strength and i t has been found that in many cases the vane strength overpredicted the value at f a i l u r e . direct shear and simple shear among others. i s the fact that there are many examples of vane tests producing non- conservative stability c a l c u l a t i o n s . no single c o r r e l a t i o n has been established between the vane and laboratory tests which would help in 'correcting' the vane strength.

f i e l d Su Suv .10) represents a correction factor for cases where the minimum factor of safety will be reached in a matter of weeks or months after construction. Bjerrum's correction factor is illustrated in figure 4. Bjerrum 1973 a t t e m p t e d to separate the two effects and this is shown in figure 4. Azzouz et al.10. He i n t r o d u c e d two factors M R and M 3 representing the factors for rate effects and anisotropy respectively and s t a t e d that the shear strength to be u s e d in a stabilty analysis should be: Suf= SuvM M r a 4. .11. correction factor for anisotropy Bjerrum 1973 p o i n t s out that LL T (figure 4. The S w e d i s h G e o t e c h n i c a l I n s t i t u t e (SGI) uses a reduction factor n based on the liquid limit (W| ) o f the soil. He d i d consider that progressive failure may also be a c o n t r i b u t i n g factor but he concluded that it is only a minor one. A different v a l u e may be required for shorter time periods. 1983 p r o p o s e d a new field vane correction curve to be used in the d e s i g n of embankments to account for their three d i m e n s i o n a l mode o f failure. He a l s o indicates that the value of M A will vary along the expected failure surface depending on its inclination and can be e s t i m a t e d from figure 4. 46 should be multiplied before it is introduced into a stability analysis. vane Su MR .9 where Suf . correction factor for rate effects MA . He speculated that the d i s c r e p a n c y was d u e p r i m a r i l y to rate effects and s o i l strength anisotropy.12.9. The SGI correction curve is compared to Bjerrum's curve (as plotted against W|) in figure 4.

E M P I R I C A L L Y E S T A B L I S H E D CORRECTION FACTORS FOR R E S U L T S OF V A N E SHEAR T E S T S (adapted from Bjerrum 1973) . CORRECTION F A C T O R FOR U N D R A I N E D SHEAR STRENGTH DETERMINED FROM F I E L D V A N E T E S T S (adapted from Bjerrum 1972) Figure 4.10 .9 . 47 Figure 4.

30 MEDIUM PLASTIC S 0 a«s 0.—. OFCIAV Ip IH.8 o.11 .—.—. 48 0. VANE SHEAR TEST REDUCTION FACTOR A S A FUNCTION OF THELIQUID L I M I T ACCORDING TO T H E S W E D I S H G E O T E C H N I C A L INSTITUTE (adapted from Helenelund 1977) .12 .SO Figure 4. RATIO OF UNDRAINED SHEAR STRENGTH TO VANE SHEAR STRENGTH FOR THREE TYPES OF C L A Y (adapted from Bjerrum 1973) Figure 4.SO 0.0 O.ts HIGHLY PLASTIC 100 a so 0.—I—.— 90' 60* 30* 0* 30* 60* 90* | PASSIVE " ACTIVE m.—.—.0 3 JO' '1 0. »« t>» Om tOW PLASTIC 10 O.—.0-1—.—.) it f.15 1 5* 1.30 10* 2.—.

B j e r r u m ' s c o r r e c t i o n i s used t o reduce the measured strength to account for the effects of the relatively high r a t e of s t r a i n associated with t h e VST. Schmertmann 1975.9. depending on i t s o r i e n t a t i o n . a f t e r r e v i e w i n g the different factors affecting the vane test. the s t r e n g t h should be increased. F o r example. a s i n g l e correction factor i s often applied t o vane s t r e n g t h data. However. 49 Helenelund 1977 presents several different methods f o r reducing the undrained shear strength of c l a y . i t does not seem correct to apply Bjerrum's correction to field vane data when it i s t o be compared t o CPT r e s u l t s . Some e n g i n e e r s a r e o p p o s e d to the a p p l i c a t i o n of c o r r e c t i o n factors t o vane s t r e n g t h s . Although the effects of anisotropy should vary along the expected failure plane. the rate of s t r a i n during cone p e n e t r a t i o n i s greater than that in a vane t e s t . stated that any engineer who d e s i r e d t o apply these state-of-the-art corrections would probably be at a l o s s a s how t o u s e h i s p a r t i c u l a r Suv d a t a and he t e r m e d t h i s the "current correction c r i s i s " . I f anything. i t would be f o o l hardy t o accept t h e a p p r o a c h of e q u a t i o n 4. Kenney and Folkes 1979 considered the problem of s o f t Canadian soils and their u n i q u e b e h a v i o u r and c o n c l u d e d that i n t h e absence of sufficient empirical information. This writer has o b s e r v e d that correction factors are often applied without regard t o t h e p r o b l e m a t hand and how i t r e l a t e s to the conditions for which the correction factors were introduced. .

7 Summary The use of the f i e l d vane test has a long history and engineers have attained a great deal of experience in the interpretation of VST r e s u l t s . The calculation of this r a t i o . however. is highly sensitive to the assumed shear stress d i s t r i b u t i o n on the ends of the vane. tests indicate a trend of decreasing Sh/Sv with increasing plasticity. 50 4. that the standard method of analysis is likely incorrect. F i e l d vane results are dependent upon the rate of strain with greater strengths being measured at higher rates of s t r a i n . It has also been shown that the v e r t i c a l face contributes up to 90% of the shear resistance. inexpense and highly repeatable method of determining undrained shear strength. Despite t h i s feeling. Using vanes of various shapes and dimensions to study the e f f e c t s of strength anisotropy. Because of these problems and due to our lack of complete understanding of the VST. some consider the test to be nothing more than a strength index test (Schmertmann 1975). Delays between vane insertion and the start of shearing also influence VST results due to the consolidation of the surrounding soil that takes place as the pore pressures induced during vane insertion dissipate. p a r t i c u l a r l y on the ends of the vane. . Laboratory studies and f i n i t e element analyses suggest that the d i s t r i b u t i o n of shear stress i s not uniform. Recent work has shown. however. the VST is s t i l l used extensively because it is a quick.

t h i s review w i l l present only some of the important aspects of cone penetration testing that are relevant to the estimation of undrained shear strength and cone testing in clays. 1985 and Jamiolkowski et a l . These reviews have discussed such t o p i c s as equipment design. Wroth 1984.1 I n t r o d u c t ion The cone p e n e t r a t i o n test is unequalled in its ability to indentify soil layer boundaries and qualitatively evaluate material t y p e s . Because of the complex behaviour of soils and the complex changes in stress and s t r a i n around the cone t i p . 51 CHAPTER 5 A BRIEF REVIEW OF THE CONE PENETRATION TEST 5. Campanella et al. . However. R o b e r t s o n and Campanella 1984. test procedures. t h e highly repeatable nature of the test has led to a g r e a t deal of confidence in the various correlations. Comprehensive r e v i e w s of the use and interpretation of cone penetration tests have been presented by Schmertmann 1978. interpretation techniques. Hence. 1985. applications to geotechnical design and the factors affecting test results and their interpretation. Although Schmertmann's report is primarily concerned with the interpretation and application of m e c h a n i c a l cone d a t a . there are many good discussions that are applicable to electronic cone data. correlations between CPT data and material parameters are necessarily empirical.

They c o n s i d e r that the chart essentially c o n s i s t s of three zones of different soil type: cohesionless coarse grained soils.3). Figure 5.1.C. 52 5. From a practical point of v i e w .B. it may be of .2 shows a simplified v e r s i o n used by U. fabric. f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g CPT data. Their chart indicates the effect of v a r i o u s soil i n d i c e s on the penetrometer response.2 Soil Classification The current method of interpreting soil type from CPT is based on the cone b e a r i n g (Qc) and the friction ratio (Rf). Douglas and Olsen correctly i n d i c a t e that cone penetration tests reflect an aggragate behaviour of the soil and that a more appropriate description for soil classification is soil behaviour type rather than just soil type. ductile fine grained soils and mixed soils. local stress conditions and soil behaviour within a zone of influence that e x t e n d s ahead and behind the cone (discussed i n more detail in section 5. Experience has shown t h a t high bearing values and low friction ratios are a s s o c i a t e d with coarse grained noncohesive materials and lower bearing values and increasing friction ratios are associated with fine grained cohesive materials of increasing plasticity. however. This is not a s e r i o u s problem in coarse grained materials (except perhaps offshore). The cone responds to an interaction of the soil composition. D o u g l a s and Olsen's chart i s not a very easy one to use. It should also be pointed out that the classification charts developed to date are all based on uncorrected cone bearing Qc. Douglas and Olsen 1981 describe their work i n developing the classification chart illustrated in figure 5.

) F i g u r e 5.2 UBC SIMPLIFIED CPT SOIL BEHAVIOUR TYPE CLASSIFICATION CHART FOR THE ELECTRONIC FRICTION CONE .1 CPT SOIL BEHAVIOUR TYPE CLASSIFICATION CHART (adapted from Douglas and O l s e n 1981) F i g u r e 5. 53 FRICTION R A T 13 ['/.

J o n e s and R u s t 1982 and Senneset and Janbu 1 9 8 4 ) . Future c l a s s i f i c a t i o n charts should be b a s e d on c o r r e c t e d bearing Qt. Of special interest for this report are the t y p i c a l shapes of b e a r i n g profiles in clay deposits. Schmertmann 1978 p r e s e n t e d some s i m p l i f i e d examples of typical profiles and indicated the l i k e l y and possible interpretations. interpretation of data from deep s o u n d i n g s may also p r e s e n t a p r o b l e m . These examples are reproduced i n f i g u r e 5. Figure 5. Senneset e t a l .3. These materials generally have low cone b e a r i n g s and plot i n the lower left portion of the c h a r t . S i n c e most c l a s s i f i c a t i o n c h a r t s have been developed from soundings that are generally less t h a n 30m. Some m a t e r i a l s a r e characterized by typical profile shapes. S e v e r a l p r o p o s a l s have been made t o i n c l u d e pore pressure data in the interpretation of s o i l types ( J o n e s e t a l . a clay from a deep s o u n d i n g may be interpreted as a s a n d . I t i s recommended that future classification charts use normalized parameters. u n t i l a standard is developed for the pore pressure element location(s) the a c c e p t a n c e of a classification system based on p o r e p r e s s u r e i s u n l i k e l y . 54 significance when i n t e r p r e t i n g d a t a from soundings i n m a t e r i a l s that tend to generate high excess pore pressures. 1982. The effect of high overburden pressure i s to increase t h e cone bearing.3 Soil Profiling An evaluation of m a t e r i a l t y p e and i t s stress history can often be obtained by considering the e n t i r e bearing profile. However.3a indicates that the t i p r e s i s t a n c e in . 1981. 5. consequently.

55 F i g u r e 5.3 SIMPLIFIED EXAMPLES OF CONE BEARING PROFILES SHOWING LIKELY AND POSSIBLE INTERPRETATIONS FOR SOIL TYPES AND AND CONDITIONS (adapted from Schmertmann 1978) .

Penetration tests performed in a multilayered media by Treadwell 1976 indicated that a t r a n s i t i o n zone exists at layer boundaries within which the t i p resistance is affected by the soil properties of an adjacent layer. An extrapolation of the p r o f i l e should extend through the origin (this idea i s modified in section 6. 56 a normally consolidated clay deposit typically increases l i n e a r l y with depth ( i f groundwater conditions are hydrostatic). the cone bearing may remain constant or may decrease with depth u n t i l the depth where the deposit is normally consolidated. Treadwell considers that this transition zone consists of upper and lower parts. This can be seen in the CPT p r o f i l e shown in figure 7. It was observed that the t i p resistance i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y influenced by the material ahead and behind the t i p . It has also been found that the friction ratio for some fine grained soils may decrease with increasing overburden stress (Robertson and Campanella 1983).3. For aged clays where the OCR is constant with depth. Robertson and Campanella 1983 report that for most young clays where overconsolidation has been caused by erosion or dessication. the upper portion being the depth over which the t i p resistance is influenced by the next layer and the lower portion being the distance that the t i p must advance beyond the layer interface for i t s resistance not to be affected by the overlying material.4). the t i p resistance may continue to stay constant with depth. Evidence of this can be seen in the various CPT p r o f i l e s presented in chapter 7. This result may lead to d i f f i c u l t y when interpreting deep soundings. Treadwell reports that the upper portion of the t r a n s i t i o n zone t y p i c a l l y begins 3 to 4 .

It can be seen that at a shallow depth the t i p resistance in the dense material i s almost equal to that for a uniformly dense deposit. however. The • lower portion appears to depend on density. modulus and f r i c t i o n angle. increasing in size with increasing depth.4. he found that the t r a n s i t i o n was made quickly (in 3 to 5 diameters) when penetrating from a dense layer to a loose layer. when penetrating from a loose layer to a dense layer the t r a n s i t i o n zone was significantly larger. On the other hand. However. 57 cone diameters above the layer interface. This can lead to d i f f i c u l t y when estimating such parameters as r e l a t i v e density. the t i p resistance in the loose layers i s equal to or slightly greater than that in a uniformly loose material. Schmertmann found that the greater the difference in strength and compress.ibilty between the layer to be sensed and the adjacent soil the thinner the layer that can be detected. Similar work by Schmertmann 1978 shows that the influence of the soil layer interface i s f e l t from a distance of 5 to 10 cone diameters on either side of the layer boundary. On the other hand. It must be recognized that the cone bearing w i l l not reach its full resistance in thin layers of sand. He added that the smaller the cone diameter the more sensitive the t i p i s to local variations with depth. These effects are of great importance when interpreting strength parameters from CPT data. depth and the relative s t i f f n e s s between the two layers. These effects are illustrated in figure 5. With regards to the lower portion of the t r a n s i t i o n zone. at greater depth the cone bearing does not a t t a i n i t s f u l l resistance. much thinner layers of clay are required to .

58 F i g u r e 5.4 CONE PENETROMETER BEARING RESPONSE IN A LAYERED MEDIA (adapted from Treadwell 1976) .

These r e s u l t s r a i s e the question as to how thin a layer cone penetration tests can detect. i t i s best t o use the minimum b e a r i n g values ( i . Clearly. e . A recent report by Davies 1985 reveals that t h i s can be of i n t e r e s t i n the identification of shear planes. Schmertmann's r e s u l t s s u g g e s t that a l a y e r must be at least 10 to 20 cone d i a m e t e r s thick (36cm t o 72cm f o r a 10cm 2 cone) to attain full penetration resistance. the v a l l e y s i n the bearing record) rather t h a n an average line drawn t h r o u g h the profile since the local v a r i a t i o n s in bearing are a reflection of the non-cohesive materials. During logging of the borehole sample o n l y l a y e r s of thickness 1cm or greater were r e c o r d e d as . When estimating shear strength of cohesive materials in s t r a t i f i e d deposits. penetration t e s t s can detect layers thinner than 36cm.5.C. The modified H o g e n t o g l e r cone (see chapter 2) was used for the CPT and a GMF 67mm d i a m e t e r continuous sampler was used for the borehole. The borehole log i s based solely on a visual classification of the sampled a f t e r i t had been e x t r u d e d from the sample tube and split in half lengthwise. the interpretation of material parameters may be seriously affected. The ability of CPT to d e f i n e soil layers is illustrated in figure 5. A portion of a CPT bearing profile is presented alongside a continuously sampled b o r e h o l e log obtained at the B. however. The complete bearing/continuous sample log i s included i n a p p e n d i x A. Hydro r a i l w a y crossing site (described in chapter 7). 59 record the true bearing. and reference will be made t o i t in the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n . The CPT was performed 1m f r o m the borehole.

0 grey silty clay. 5 Figure 5 . 5 COMPARISON BETWEEN A CPT BEARING PROFILE AND A CONTINUOUS SAMPLE LOG . 1cm) ^ f i n e sand ) (A grey s11ty clay L a +> a CTi E I O silty fine sand D_ Ul / laminated silty fine sand and s i l t y clay a grey silty c1 a y f i ne sand grey s 11ty c1 a y silty fine sand grey s i 1ty clay 7. occasional sand lense fine sand 1 grey s iIty clay layered silty clay and s i l t y fine sand (layers approx. CONE BEARING CONTINUOUS BOREHOLE LOG Qt (bar) 14 5.

5 was sampled at the U.B.1e .52m (figure A.C.5cm. the new material having an average pore size of 120 microns). inclined sand lense). The layers of sand were approximately 1cm thick. resulting in a poor pore pressure response (Hogentogler & Co. the standard Hogentogler porous element used for the CPT at t h i s site had a very small average pore size (approximately* 20 microns) which tended to . The p r o f i l e presented in figure 5. unfortunately. clog.5. 11. The a b i l i t y to confidently identify thin layers also depends upon the r e l a t i v e stiffness between the thin layer and the .1d . It i s quite clear from figure 5.47m (figure A.1c . however. alternating with layers of s i l t y clay. may be a result of the influence of several thin sand layers that are r e l a t i v e l y close together. has since changed the material for their porous elements.sandy clay) and 13. standard rate of 2. A pore pressure p r o f i l e should be of considerable help in detecting different layers. The detection of thin layers i s complicated by the sampling rate used during CPT. There are some examples of thinner layers. Although thin layers may be detected at t h i s rate. 61 individual layers. Had there been only a single sand layer the response of the bearing may not of been as pronounced. possibly as thin as 1cm thick being detected.5m (figure A. many can e a s i l y be missed. The detection of layers less than 10cm thick can also be seen at depths of approximately 9.5 that layers of the order 10cm thick were easily detected by the t i p resistance. The increased bearing. This can be seen in the layered s i l t y clay and s i l t y fine sand at 5.s i l t y fine sand).58m in figure 5.

I t can be shown t h a t the estimation of layer thickness for layers thinner than the sampling rate i s highly speculative and can often be i n e r r o r . One s o l u t i o n might be to d i g i t i z e a continuous record obtained from a strip chart recorder. sampling rate. Sampling at discrete intervals can also lead t o subdued p e a k s i n the CPT profile. 62 surrounding material. i f the thin layers are discontinuous the drainage conditions may be such t h a t pore pressure response i s i n h i b i t e d . On the other hand. However.6 illustrates the relative proportions of the 10cm 2 cone. Robertson 1985 indicates that a fully saturated piezometer cone can usually respond to pore pressure changes w i t h i n a t i p advancement of 5mm at the standard r a t e or p e n e t r a t i o n of 2cm/sec. it may be difficult to identify a thin clay layer within a silt deposit since a small drop i n the cone bearing may be attributed to the natural variability of the silt. Estimating the thickness of a layer (as opposed to detecting a thin layer) is highly dependent upon the sampling rate. Figure 5. the likely transition zone required to attain full penetration resistance and the standard U.C. However. this a u t h o r ' s e x p e r i e n c e has shown t h a t the resolution of the digitizing pad can be of the same o r d e r as the minor v a r i a t i o n s of i n t e r e s t i n the CPT profile and that the minor variations are often ignored during the digitizing process. the three commonly u s e d s i z e s of field vanes a r e also shown. The pore pressure profile can be of considerable use in detecting stratigraphic details. For comparison. a t h i n cemented sand layer may easily be detected.B. The same s a m p l i n g rate problems . For example.

63 PROBABLE ZONE OF INFLUENCE FOR CONE BEARING 10D V 10cm 2 60° cone 55 x 110mm 65 x 130mm 80 x 160mm 10D STANDARD NILCON AND GEONOR FIELD VANES STANDARD UBC SAMPLING RATE (2. UBC STANDARD CPT SAMPLING RATE AND LARGE.5cm) F i g u r e 5. MEDIUM AND SMALL FIELD VANES . PROBABLE ZONE OF INFLUENCE FOR CPT.6 RELATIVE PROPORTIONS OF THE 10cm* CONE PENETROMETER.

interpretation and application of the electric cone. The pore p r e s s u r e response i s highly influenced by the porous element location.7 and c l e a r l y shows t h e dramatic effect that the element location has on the measured response. 1985 explain that the t i p i s i n a zone of maximum compression and shear. Complete saturation of t h e p o r e p r e s s u r e m e a s u r i n g system is essential in order to record high q u a l i t y and r e p e a t a b l e d a t a . indicate stress history. 64 occur for both the r e c o r d i n g o f dynamic p o r e p r e s s u r e s and t i p resi stance. high p o s i t i v e pore p r e s s u r e s are . evaluate consolidation characteristics and e s t i m a t e soil permeability and undrained shear strength. unlike the area immediately behind the t i p which i s i n a zone of n o r m a l stress relief. 5. A comprehensive review of t h e u s e s and interpretation o f dynamic pore p r e s s u r e s and the f a c t o r s that affect their measurement is presented by R o b e r t s o n and C a m p a n e l l a 1984 and C a m p a n e l l a e t a l . Campanella et a l . The measurement of pore pressure aids in soil layer identification and c a n be u s e d to establish equilibrium groundwater conditions. The two main factors affecting t h e measurement o f p o r e pressures are: saturation and p o r o u s element location. thus. The large normal stresses dominate the pore pressure r e s p o n s e on t h e f a c e and.4 Dynamic Pore P r e s s u r e Response The recording of dynamic pore pressures during cone penetration significantly improves t h e use. 1985. A c o n c e p t u a l pore p r e s s u r e d i s t r i b u t i o n around the cone is illustrated in figure 5. The importance of saturation has been discussed i n c h a p t e r 3 of t h i s report.

SENSITIVE HEAVILY CLAY i « ^-O.C. u/u„ CLAY COMPACT SILT (dilative) j.C. CLAY 10 15 /\N.C. 1985) .c I CLAY ! LIGHTLY I O. CLAY I HEAVILY . 65 no N. o.7 CONCEPTUAL PORE PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION IN SATURATED SOIL DURING CPT BASED ON FIELD MEASUREMENTS ( a f t e r Campanella e t a l . SILT SANO I —I—L_4I 10 15 F i g u r e 5.—LOOSE SILT V» (compressible) DENSE FINE .C.

Work by G i l l e s p i e 1981 showed that predicted pore pressure response using cavity expansion theory compared well with measured values. 1982. The fact that tremendously different pore pressures are recorded on the face than behind the t i p i s of significance when correcting the bearing for pore pressure e f f e c t s .7 indicates that the pore pressure at the top of the f r i c t i o n sleeve i s different from that at the bottom. This particular definition has been termed Bq by Senneset et a l . Figure 5. . If pore pressures are recorded at other locations then an estimate of the r a t i o of behind the t i p to on the face pore pressure must be made before adjusting the bearing data. 66 generally recorded. Pore pressures must be recorded behind the t i p to properly correct the bearing. The excess pore pressure i s commonly presented as a normalized value and has been found to be a rough indicator of stress history. Robertson and Campanella 1984 list four AU different definitions and suggest that Q ffo be adopted as a standard. This can lead to an incorrect friction measurement as the imbalance of pore pressures produces a net force on the f r i c t i o n sleeve. Large shear stresses dominate the response behind the t i p and the recorded pore pressures more closely r e f l e c t the volume change c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the s o i l . A similar but much less dramatic situation may occur when correcting f r i c t i o n data. Pore pressures generated on the face were best predicted using spherical cavity expansion whereas pore pressures generated behind the t i p and up the sleeve were best predicted using c y l i n d r i c a l cavity expansion.

A semi-empirical a p p r o a c h b a s e d on c a v i t y expansion theory has been adopted by Campanella e t a l . Recently proposed methods make use o f excess pore p r e s s u r e s measured d u r i n g penetration.1 Introduct ion This chapter discusses the d i f f e r e n t methods t h a t have been proposed for correlating CPT results with undrained shear strength. Various theoretical cone factors have also been proposed by different researchers. most have focussed only on t h e cone bearing as a means of estimating Su. This t o p i c h a s been s t u d i e d by s e v e r a l r e s e a r c h e r s i n the past. however. Senneset et al. 1982 p r o p o s e d the use of ' e f f e c t i v e ' bearing for estimating Su. This chapter concludes with a presentation o f some p r o p o s e d methods of evaluating the s t r e s s h i s t o r y of a d e p o s i t from CPT and a method for estimating sensitivity from friction ratios. . These have been termed t h e "traditional methods" by t h i s a u t h o r and t h e y usually employ a cone factor Nk o r Nc whose v a l u e s have e x h i b i t e d a t r e m e n d o u s range b u t a r e o f t e n relatively well defined at individual sites. 67 CHAPTER 6 METHODS OF CORRELATION BETWEEN CPT AND Su 6. 1985 in an attempt to find a satisfactory correlation technique. Several researchers have a l s o proposed the use of friction measurements t o e s t i m a t e Su. 1985 and v a r i o u s pore pressure p a r a m e t e r s and c o n e f a c t o r s have been u s e d by Lunne et al.

68

6.2 T r a d i t i o n a l Methods of C o r r e l a t i o n

The undrained shear s t r e n g t h of c l a y has t r a d i t o n a l l y been

evaluated from cone b e a r i n g d a t a using a bearing capacity type

equation of the form:

Qc = Su Nk + cr 6.1

where Qc i s t h e cone b e a r i n g
Nk i s the cone f a c t o r
cr i s a measure o f i n s i t u stress

Various forms o f i n s i t u stress have been used; total vertical

stress, total horizontal stress and octahedral s t r e s s . The

insitu stress i s sometimes ignored, in which case the cone

factor is u s u a l l y d e f i n e d as Nc. A wide r a n g e o f v a l u e s f o r Nk

and Nc have been r e p o r t e d by Brand et a l . 1974, Schmertmann

1975, Lunne et a l . 1976 Schmertmann 1978, B a l i g h e t a l . 1979,

Lunne and K l e v i n 1981 and J a m i o l k o w s k i e t a l . 1982. I t was noted

in chapter 1 that Su is not a unique parameter as i t is

dependent on t h e t y p e of test u s e d . T h i s may p a r t l y e x p l a i n the

wide range i n r e p o r t e d cone factors s i n c e many different types

of t e s t s have been u s e d to e s t a b l i s h a r e f e r e n c e Su.

Table 6.1 summarizes Nc cone factors f o r v a r i o u s c l a y s from

around the world and illustrates t h e wide r a n g e of r e p o r t e d

values. B a l i g h e t a l . 1979 p r e s e n t e d a plot o f Nk a g a i n s t depth

for nine d i f f e r e n t clays (reproduced i n figure 6.1), the v a l u e s

for Nk r a n g i n g from 5 t o 28. The l o w e s t and h i g h e s t v a l u e s o f Nk

were recorded for materials of high plasticity and high

sensitivity (St>40), respectively. The c u r v e s which e x h i b i t e d a

decreasing cone factor with depth correspond to deposits where

sensitivity decreased with depth. Table 6.2 p r e s e n t s a summary

of m a t e r i a l p r o p e r t i e s and cone factors for some Scandanavian

Clay Properties
Reference Clay Avg Cone

Factor 1
W% W1% PI% Su. kPa Sens i 1 1 v 1 t y

Thomas ( 19G5) London Clay 18 20-30 80-85 50 49-285* -
Ward e t a l . ( 1965) London Clay 15.5 22-26 60-7 1 36-43 206-510* -
Melgh & C o r b e t t (1969) Arabian Gulf Clay 16 30-47 38-62 20-35 4.9-39" 5

Ladanyl 6 Eden (1969) Leda C l a y (Gloucester) 7.5 50-57 50 23 25" 30 - 50

Ladanyf & Eden (1969) Leda C l a y (Ottawa) 5.5 7.2-84 40 20 56" 10 - 35

Pham ( 1972) Bangkok Clay (City) 16 60-70 70-80 40-50 12.8-28.5" 5 - 7

Anagnostopou1os (1974) Patras Clay 17 30 35 18 29.4-68.7* 1. 5 - 3

Brand e t a l . ( 1974) Bangkok Clay (Bangpli) 19 60-130 60-130 60-120 12.8-37.3" 5 - 7

Brand e t a l . ( 1974) W e a t h e r e d Bangkok Clay 14 100-130 100-135 60-80 12.8-19.6" 6 - 8
(Bangpli )

Author Richmond C l a y e y Silt 11.9 23-40 25-42 3-20 45-94" 2 - 7

Author Langley Clay 14.4 27-53 32-59 16-34 19-80" 2 - 19

Author Haney Clay 14.2 40-45 44 18 33-96" 3 - 13

1 - cone f a c t o r c a l c u l a t e d from Qc/Su
* - unconflned compression
" - f i e l d vane

Table 6.1 - SUMMARY OF GONE F A C T O R S (Nc) DETERMINED
FOR D I F F E R E N T C L A Y DEPOSITS

(revised from Brand et a l . 1974)

Figure 6.1 - E M P I R I C A L CONE F A C T O R Nk v s D E P T H
FOR D I F F E R E N T C L A Y D E P O S I T S

(adapted from Baligh et al. 1979)

3-2.8-4. + 13-19 u 13-17 < LEGEND: O SUNDLAND x z 10 0 DANVIKS GT 10-15 o u V E.2 .5 10-21 2.5-5. SUMMARY O F C O N E F A C T O R S ( N k ) FOR SCANDANAVIAN CLAYS (adapted from Lunne et a l .5 ~40 13-17 13-14 Table 6.0 30-50 10-15 10-12 GfHeborg 3-10 1.8-2.2 45-80 6-10 8-9 4-12 0.6-1.5-2. I % Figure 6. 1976) >50 V Range in Sensitivity 20 3-4 z O 10-25 1 0 o 1 5 " o ~2 * A Cn 5-10 Z 15 2-4 • rr 4-7 15-24 O 6-9 A • + i. 1976) .5-4 ~10 3-4 15.2-1.5 22-28 10-15 17-18 Drammen 9-14 2-4.2 .8 35-40 4-7 13-18 Ska-Edeby 1-4 0.5 -10 ~2 20 14-22 2.5 ~5 50-160 20-24 Ons«ly 1-9 1. B0RRESENSGT x a ONS0Y 6-10 + G0TEBORG X SKA-EOEBY 10 20 30 40 50 60 PLASTICITY.5-14.5 Dansvigj gats 5-10 2-3 20-25 6-9 14-15 Drammen 11-30 24 10-11 2-4 14-16 80rresens gats 5.2 50-55 13-19 13-14 21-30 4.5-4. SUMMARY O F C O N E F A C T O R S ( N k ) FOR SCANDANAVIAN CLAYS (adapted from Lunne et a l .5-12 3-2 -15 15-25 16-20 Drammen 12-30 1.4 20-30 5-10 16-18 10-20 1. 71 Tart Ospth Rang* Plasticity Con* Factor titi (m) T (t7m ) f 2 y%> Sensitivity "k Sundland 4-9 2-2.5 50-60 15-24 13.

theories which have been described by Gibson and Anderson 1961.2. Note. or steady penetration analysis. Using the steady penetration approach. For a given PI there is also a trend of increasing Nk with increasing sensitivity. 1979 presented a review of existing theories of cone penetration in clays and reported that there are basically three different approaches: plane-strain s l i p .3. that Ladd's curves are in terms of Eu and not Gu (G = E/2(1+f)). The second method is based on the expansion of c y l i n d r i c a l or spherical cavities. 1975 demonstrated the effect of r i g i d i t y index G/Su (a parameter central to cavity expansion theory) and cone angle on the penetration resistance of clays.l i n e solution. The steady penetration approach is a combination of the f i r s t two methods. 72 clays. This effect is shown in figure 6. Baligh et a l . Baligh et a l . Various shape and depth factors have been proposed to determine an appropriate cone factor. 1976 as shown in figure 6. The p l a i n . however.4). A summary of the different cone penetration theories is presented in table 6.s t r a i n s l i p . expansion of cavities. There appears to be a general trend of decreasing cone factor with increasing PI. 1977 (figure 6.3 and it clearly illustrates that Nk increases with increasing s o i l stiffness. Vesic 1972 and Ladanyi 1972. These cone factors were plotted against p l a s t i c i t y index by Lunne et a l .l i n e approach treats cone penetration as a bearing capacity problem where the material is in a state of incipient failure. An estimate of the r i g i d i t y index can be made from the curves presented by Ladd et a l . Low values of G/Su correspond to highly plastic .

04 11.28 u °oct i 11. 3 3 ( 1 + t n C/s ) .57 10.03 a tt ' c u vo N <x K U Vealc (1975.100 C/s .6 0 ' p o Approach R e f e r e n c e Expresfllnn f o r Nk C/s .2 • ame a vo Blehop e t a l 1 .28 + 2 4 + c o t <5) 10.63 -18.30 unspecified u (1945) a o Clbaon (1950) 1.01 « c o u U H U> P.33 i + c o t 6 ) + 11. 1979) . 2 ( 5 .02 + 6.33(1 + l n c / e )+ cot 6 9.400 u u Tenaghl (1943) (nltape f a c t o r ) ( d e p t h f a c t o r ) x 0 Heverhof (1951) 5.87 u u °oct -rt > A l Awkatl (1975) (correction factor) x (1 + I n C / a ) 10.09 t o 1.3 .57 + 2 S + c o t 6) 9.99 "ho •a M (1 * I n C / » ) u + 5.25 lane vo Bearing Capacity H l t c h e l l and (shaoe f a c t o r ) ( d e p t h f a c t o r ) x Dorgunoglu (1973) (2.61 a •> d -16. U Table 6. 7 1 + 3.47 9.63 anme a vo Meyerhof (1961) (1. 3 3 ( 1 + I n C / s ) + 2.1977) 1 .65 13.02 • Ballgh (1975) 1 . 7.15) x (6.Nka + p Nk f o r 2 6 . SUMMARY OF E X I S T I N G THEORIES OF CONE PENETRATION I N CLAYS (adapted from B a l i g h et a l . Type o f q .14 9.21 11.

Figure 6. 1975) . E F F E C T OF R I G I D I T Y I N D E X AND CONE A N G L E ON T H E P E N E T R A T I O N R E S I S T A N C E OF C L A Y (adapted from Baligh et a l .3 .

4 0 •26 At ehaf alayo 6 CH Clay •24 & 200 L L * 9 5 Pl = 75 _ Taylor River P e a t w =50 0 % 100 CKo U simple shear 80 tests 60 all soils normally 40 c ons oil d ate d 20 0-2 04 0-6 0-8 APPLIED SHEAR STRESS RATIO T / c h u Figure 6. S E L E C T I O N OF S O I L STIFFNESS (adapted from Ladd et a l . 1977 ) . 75 2000 No. DESCRIPTION cu/p' Port smouf h CL C l a y PI»15 •20 if-IO LL«35 1000 Boston c L Cloy LL«4I P l * 2 2 •20 800 Bangkok CH •27 Cloy L L ' 6 5 P I * 4 ! 600 4 Maine CH OH 2 9 Clay LL«65PI*38 400 _ AGS CH Clay 0 LL»7I P 1 .4 .

S e n s i t i v i t y i s commonly e x p r e s s e d i n terms of t h e vane s e n s i t i v i t y and r e f l e c t s t h e s t r u c t u r e and f a b r i c o f the cohesive material. In addition. As has been m e n t i o n e d several times throughout this report. strength anisotropy and s e v e r a l factors relating t o cone d e s i g n d e t a i l s . 2 ) . These properties are difficult to quantify and equally difficult to incorporate into analyses.3 Recently P r o p o s e d Methods o f C o r r e l a t i o n The data presented i n the p r e v i o u s section clearly indicate that correlations between cone bearing and Su are heavily influenced by s u c h soil c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as soil stiffness and sensitivity. Many o f t h e s e f a c t o r s have not or can not be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e t r a d i t i o n a l methods o f c o r r e l a t i o n and are the l i k e l y reasons f o r t h e tremendous r a n g e in reported cone factors. effects of secondary compression and creep are necessarily omitted. 6. This d e p e n d e n c e on s o i l s t i f f n e s s explains the trend of decreasing Nk w i t h increasing PI o b s e r v e d in the data from Lunne e t a l . 76 materials. G/Su. Stress history is generally expressed as o v e r c o n s o l i d a t i o n r a t i o but such factors as aging. Soil s t i f f n e s s i s usually e x p r e s s e d as a rigidity i n d e x . the correlations are a f f e c t e d by stress history. 1976 ( f i g u r e 6 . the consequences of certain cone design details must be considered when analyzing CPT d a t a . The dependence on t h e s e factors indicates that t h e r e c a n n o t be a u n i q u e cone factor that i s applicable to a l l clays. I t i s now becoming widely accepted that bearing v a l u e s must be c o r r e c t e d f o r pore pressure .

2 . Another problem is that the t i p load c e l l is usually working in the range of 2% to 5% of capacity and. numerically small errors in the bearing may actually be quite substantial (see figure 3. results presented in chapter 5 indicate that the recording of pore pressures at locations other than the t i p can create problems in making the proper corrections. therefore. A great deal of attention must also be paid to details in test procedures. On the other hand. in particular. Zero offsets can often be caused by temperature i n s t a b i l i t y . soil stiffness and sensitivity into their analyses. the saturation procedure and the checking of zeroes before and after penetration. the pore pressure transducer is generally working near capacity and may be more reliable and consistent than the bearing values. 77 effects.3. Effective bearing is defined as Qc'=Qc .2). Ut 6. These new methods make an attempt to incorporate stress history.1 Using Effective Bearing to Estimate Su Senneset et a l . 1982 recommended the use of effective bearing (Qc') for estimating Su. recently proposed correlation methods make significant use of pore pressure data allowing correlations to be based on semi-empirical methods such as cavity expansion theory. However. the resolution of the data recording system may be inadequate. 6. Because bearing values are typically low in normally consolidated clays. For these reasons.

2 The Use of E x c e s s Pore Pressures and Cavity Expansion Theory An estimate of undrained shear strength can be made from excess pore pressure data using the charts shown in figure 6. The cone factor Nc 1 was later defined as Nke by Lunne et a l .3. The effect of soil stiffness is also included by using the rigidity index G/Su. 0.3 Nc ' They suggested that an average value of Nc'=9 (±3) should be used. 78 and Su is to be determined using an effective cone factor Nc' and the expression Su = Qc_l 6. 6. .5 Su 3 \Su/ These equations incorporate the effects of overconsolidation and sensitivity by using Skempton's pore pressure parameter.5. These charts were presented by Campanella et a l .73Af . Af. Cone bearing must be corrected for pore pressure effects in order to use this method. In a study of pile driving in clay slopes Massarch and Broms presented expressions for the d i s t r i b u t i o n of pore pressures within the plastic zone adjacent to a spherical or cylindrical cavity: spherical MJ = _4ln/G \ + 2Af .3. 1985 and were based on expressions developed by Massarch and Broms 1981. 0.577 6.3. 1985 and is discussed in greater detail in section 6. It has been noted earlier that the dynamic pore pressure can often be greater than the recorded bearing which is impossible since the t i p is a total stress element.667 6.4 Su 3 \Su/ cylindrical _AU = A l n ( J L J + 1.

3 . 0 Figure 6.7 Highly overconsolidated -0. 79 Saturated Clays A p p r o x i m a t e Af Range Very s e n s i t i v e t o quick 1.5 .3 Lightly overconsolidated 0. 3.5 .7 . 1985) . 0.5 . 1.0 Normally consolidated 0.PROPOSED METHOD FOR OBTAINING Su FROM EXCESS PORE PRESSURE MEASURED DURING CPT ( a f t e r C a m p a n e l l a e t a l .

the expected pore pressure response. Typical values for Af are given below the charts. Given a value for s o i l s t i f f n e s s . It has been mentioned several times that pore pressure response i s also dependent on the soil s t i f f n e s s . Alt Using Senneset's pore pressure parameter Bq ( Q Q-. therefore. A review of the two charts reveals that they describe. i t s value should adequately r e f l e c t the volume change characteristics of the s o i l for the purposes of correlation..3 Use of Various Pore Pressure Parameters and Cone Factors A different approach was adopted by Lunne et a l . This expected behaviour i s also predicted in figure 6.) they found .5. heavily overconsolidated materials are often dilative and this is reflected by a negative Af value. Sensitive soils tend to generate high pore pressures when sheared and. 80 Because measured pore pressures are also dependent on the porous element location. as would be expected. two charts are shown in figure 6. 6. q u a l i t a t i v e l y . On the other hand. the charts indicate that AU/Su increases as Af increases. with s t i f f e r s o i l s generating greater pore pressures. The diagonal lines correspond to different values of Af.3. have a corresponding high Af value. Although Af is a parameter associated with triaxial testing.5 reflecting the different porous element locations and the corresponding equation. 1985 for c o r r e l a t i n g pore pressure data with undrained shear strength. The face of the cone i s often considered to be in a zone of spherical cavity expansion whereas the region behind the t i p i s thought to be in a zone of c y l i n d r i c a l cavity expansion.

With this in mind. Lunne et a l . NAU and Nke: Nkt = Qt .7 shows Nkt (the t r a d i t i o n a l cone factor) plotted against Bq. Other dimensionless parameters were defined and attempts were made to correlate these parameters with Bq as a means of i s o l a t i n g stress history. This i s not surprising since Bq should also be affected by s o i l s t i f f n e s s and s e n s i t i v i t y .6) and concluded that Bq generally decreased with increasing OCR.o 6.4 that many researchers have observed that Bq i s a rough indicator of stress history. cr. however.Ut 6. It was stated in section 5.7 Su Nke = Qt . Lunne et a l . For a given value of s e n s i t i v i t y the upper part of the band should represent materials of high s t i f f n e s s (low PI) and the lower part of the band should represent less s t i f f materials (high PI). 81 that i t had a rough correlation with overconsolidation ratio.8 Su Lunne et a l .8) provides a more promising correlation as data appear to define a narrow band. Figure 6.6 — s n — N AU = _AU_ 6. Three dimensionless parameters were defined. the data define a relatively wide band. . Nkt. The high degree of scatter might be expected since i t has been shown that Nkt varies with s e n s i t i v i t y and s t i f f n e s s in addition to OCR. 1985 plotted values of Bq versus OCR for different North Sea clays (figure 6. Plotting N AU against Bq (figure 6. plotted these dimensionless parameters against Bq in an attempt to isolate stress history. This conclusion appears to be v a l i d .

6 . 1 LU CC 0. 1985) . U 0.6 2 < < e v.-«o :i_J 1 I 1_ I 2 4 6 8 10 OVERCONSOLIDATION RATIO .4 z> CO CO u rr CL 0. u me. 82 1. PORE P R E S S U R E P A R A M E T E R B q vs OVERCONSOLIDATION RATIO (adapted from Lunne et al.2 if Ld J max i i i or o CL A u .0 3 b < I ci" 0. OCR Figure 6.8 er CD tr Ld r- v..

83 Figure 6. 1985) .7 . CONE F A C T O R N k t vs PORE PRESSURE PARAMETER B q (adapted from Lunne et al.

1985) .PORE P R E S S U R E P A R A M E T E R NAU VS PORE P R E S S U R E PARAMETER B q (adapted from Lunne et a l . 84 3 12 i- 3 «3 rr LOW PI S< o H u 8 if LU rr / / 'vo to ' / HIGH PI cn LU iii Umax rr o_ V rr o J I o.2 1.6 Au PORE PRESSURE PARAMETER. 0. B = q Figure 6.8 1.8 .4 0.

l i k e l y did not experience this problem because of the great depth of water under which the tests were made. This author cautions that the calculation of Nke can present some problems. the problems of low bearing values previously discussed may exist. Aside from the d i f f i c u l t i e s of correcting for pore pressure effects.8»FPP) for penetration tests in different clay types. Because of these problems. Lunne et a l .7 clearly shows that a unique value of k does not exist. In addition. Despite the problems. The most promising correlation is shown in figure 6. they correctly indicate that pore pressures measured on the face (FPP) must be converted to an equivalent behind the t i p pore pressure (BTPP). Lunne et a l .9 where an 'effective' cone factor Nke is plotted against Bq. correlations between Nke and N AU d o show considerable promise. BTPP=0. However. tests on land may result in a greater degree of scatter than was found for the offshore tests. 85 recommended using an average line to estimate Su with upper and lower bounds being defined by the outer edges of the band. Lunne et a l . Figure 5. stress that corrected bearing must be used when calculating Nke. adopted a single conversion value (k) of 0.4 Using Friction Sleeve Measurements to Estimate Su Some researchers have proposed the use of f r i c t i o n sleeve measurements to estimate undrained shear strength. This author suggests that the band acutally represents varying degrees of soil stiffness with the upper and lower line corresponding to materials of low and high PI respectively. Therein lies a problem. 6. Begeman 1965 .8 for converting FPP to BTPP (i.e.

6 Au PORE PRESSURE PARAMETER.8 1.2 1.4 0. CONE FACTOR Nk v s PORE PRESSURE PARAMETER Bq (adapted from Lunne et a l .B = q Figure 6. LU 4 ^2* O U \ \ 0. 86 16 r - e E 3 12 UJ A of 8 2* o r- O < LL.9 . 1985) .

This problem does not occur with the electric f r i c t i o n cone. therefore. indicating that FS=(1.28)«Su. Fs. not a true reflection of the stress on the f r i c t i o n sleeve. should be approximately equal to Su. The f r i c t i o n measurements are. It is important to note that a l l of the above conclusions. hence. 87 suggested that the f r i c t i o n measurement.19- 1. 1974 presented some results from tests using a mechanical f r i c t i o n cone and consolidated undrained t r i a x i a l tests. It seems unlikely that the f r i c t i o n measurement should be greater than the undrained shear strength of the s o i l . They concluded that the friction measurements were s l i g h t l y greater than the undrained shear strength. except for that by Robertson and Campanella. Friction measurements made with this type of cone are usually relatively high because of the end bearing on the f r i c t i o n sleeve. one must be cautious when using existing correlations between Fs and Su. Considering the extent of remolding that must take place during penetration. Robertson and Campanella 1984 suggested that the f r i c t i o n measurement is equal to the remolded strength. 6. were based on experience with the mechanical f r i c t i o n cone. They cited work by Cleveland 1971 and Wesley 1967 that showed similar results. Drnevich et a l . Schmertmann 1978 considered Fs to be an average between peak strength and remolded strength.5 Stress History An estimation of the extent of overconsolidation of a clay . this author suggests that Fs should reflect a value close to the remolded strength of the s o i l . particulary in sensitive materials.

8. Ladd e t a l . 1977 s u g g e s t e d that the curve in figure 6. (Su/P')/(Su/P')nc. Robertson and Campanella 1983 slightly modified Schmertmann's method by suggesting that the undrained shear strength can also be e s t i m a t e d from t h e dynamic p o r e pressure profile and t h a t t h e n o r m a l l y c o n s o l i d a t e d Su/P' be established . Using data from Ladd and Foott 1974 and K o u t s o f t a s and Fischer 1976. Su/P') to the normalized undrained shear strength f o r the normally consolidated material. The f i r s t method made use of a correlation between normalized undrained shear strength ratio and overconsolidation ratio from laboratory tests. m. m i s the volumetric strain ratio. with physical properties of c l a y .9 (Su / P*)nc w i t h m=0. Based on t h e c u r v e in figure 6. Schmertmann suggested using an a v e r a g e normally c o n s o l i d a t e d Su/P' o f 0.10. with overconsolidation ratio (on a logarithmic scale). Wroth 1984 p r e s e n t e d a theoretical argument b a s e d on Critical S t a t e S o i l M e c h a n i c s t h e o r y a s t o why t h i s correlation should e x i s t .33 t o e s t i m a t e OCR. Schmertmann 1978 proposed two methods for estimating the overconsolidation r a t i o and maximum p a s t pressure of c l a y .10 a n d t h e undrained shear s t r e n g t h determined from t h e cone b e a r i n g . The second method employed a g r a p h i c a l t e c h n i q u e to estimate OCR. Schmertmann p r e s e n t e d a correlation of the ratio of the current normalized undrained shear strength (normalized with effective overburden pressure. 88 deposit c a n be made u s i n g CPT r e s u l t s .10 can be r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e f o l l o w i n g e x p r e s s i o n : (Su / P') = OCR m 6. in particular. This correlation is illustrated in figure 6. He i n d i c a t e d that the theory relates the exponent.

89 1 1. 1 present (0^= p') gure 6.11 . past a . STATISTICAL RELATION BETWEEN / C u a v o R A T I O AND P L A S T I C I T Y I N D E X F O R N O R M A L L Y CONSOLIDATED CLAYS .10 . INDEX PI% Figure 6. NORMALIZED Su/P* RATIO v s OVERCONSOLIDATION R A T I O FOR U S E I N E S T I M A T I N G OCR (adapted from Schmertmann 1978)- 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 PLASTICITY.9 2 1 4 5 • 7 i > 10 OCR = Overconsolidation Ratio = max.

Schmertmann 1978 offered an alternative method for estimating OCR in sufficiently thick and homogeneous clay layers. from this value and from an estimate of the e f f e c t i v e overburden pressure (Su/P')nc can be calculated. e .12. This author further suggests that the normally consolidated Su/P' can be determined from the cone bearing or pore pressure p r o f i l e . are the same deposit) this (Su/P')nc value can be applied in the overconsolidated material. As described e a r l i e r in section 5. For a homogeneous normally consolidated material t h i s extrapolation should pass . By extrapolating the l i n e a r l y increasing Qt profile to the intersection of the depth axis (Qt=0) one can define the highest probable past ground surface. The difference in elevation between this surface and the existing ground surface suggests past erosion and overconsolidation due to this depth of material.11. the tip resistance is linearly increasing with depth in normally consolidated clay deposits with hydrostatic groundwater conditions. However. Hence. If the overconsolidated and the normally consolidatd material have the same origin ( i .3. 90 using the well known (but controversial) Skempton correlation between (Su/P')nc and p l a s t i c i t y index shown in figure 6. From the linearly increasing portion of the cone bearing profile or the corresponding portion of the pore pressure p r o f i l e an estimate of (Su)nc can be made using one of the methods previously described. Using t h i s method an estimate of PI is not required (except possibly for estimating Su from the pore pressure profile). Robertson and Campanella's method does require a knowledge of PI. This method i s shown in figure 6.

91 extrapolated past surface if c » 0 and q Q c 0 • estimate of removed overburden depth causing overconsolidation a. Oessicated "clay crust" layer. then signal that this layer not same clay as b above. Figure 6. E X T R A P O L A T I O N OF T H E Qc P R O F I L E AS AN ALTERNATIVE METHOD TO ESTIMATE OVER- C O N S O L I D A T I O N IN T H I C K . ignore d.12 . bottom of clay Note: If log b' obtained here. HOMOGENEOUS C L A Y LAYERS (adapted from Schmertmann 1978) . Homogeneous clay layer interrupted by: c Silt or sand lenses. Sand layer. ignore (can also occur below GWT) b.

a. t h i s method of estimating OCR i s s e n s i t i v e to the e x t r a p o l a t i o n of the bearing profile. Therefore. The extrapolated Qt profile in figure 6. The site c o n s i s t s of an upper 2m layer of organic silty clay 7=18. indicated in figure 6. the author recommends u s i n g the . 3 The water table i s a t a d e p t h of 1m. B e c a u s e the closure angle. 7=20 kN/m ).8 kN/m ).13 shows t h e bearing profile from one the sites u s e d by the a u t h o r and discussed in greater detail in chapter 7. 7=18. An equivalent d e p t h of the normally consolidated material w o u l d be 17.5m above e x i s t i n g g r o u n d s u r f a c e . the u n i t weight of the material overlying the clay deposit and the p o s i t i o n of the water table can affect the l o c a t i o n of the i n t e r s e c t i o n of the extrapolated Qt profile and the d e p t h a x i s . The effect of the p o s i t i o n of the water t a b l e and the denser overlying material is to cause the point of i n t e r s e c t i o n t o be a t an elevation greater than the existing ground surface. 2.5m..13 intersects the depth axis approximately 2m above the e x i s t i n g ground surface.12 is typically small.4 kN/m ) 3 which i s underlain by approximately 11m of loose t o dense sand (avg. Very erratic bearing values in the linearly increasing portion of the profile or insufficiently thick deposits make the extrapolation of the profile difficult. the e x i s t i n g ground surface should be repositioned by r e p l a c i n g the overlying material with an equivalent depth of the normally consolidated material on the basis of bouyant weight. 92 through the origin. Below3 13m is a 2m transition layer of silty sand t o c l a y e y silt followed by a thick deposit of normally consolidated clayey silt (avg. F i g u r e 6. In o r d e r to determine the depth of erosion. However.

d i s p l a c e d ground s u r f a c e 30 F i g u r e 6.13 .THE EFFECT OF DENSER OVERLYING MATERIALS ON THE EXTRAPOLATED Qt P R O F I L E FOR A NORMALLY CONSOLIDATED CLAY LAYER .

the most common value quoted i s that obtained from field or l a b o r a t o r y vane tests.10 Rf% This method implies that t h e s t r e s s on t h e f r i c t i o n sleeve is close t o the remolded s h e a r s t r e n g t h of the soil. Equation 6. Robertson and C a m p a n e l l a 1983 p r o p o s e d a similar method for use w i t h t h e e l e c t r i c cone: St = J_0_ 6. 6.6 Sensitivity Sensitivity i s defined as the ratio of undrained shear strength of undisturbed clay to u n d r a i n e d shear s t r e n g t h of totally remolded clay. . However. Schmertmann 1978 p r o p o s e d a method for obtaining a rough estimate of the vane sensitivity f o r t h e Begemann m e c h a n i c a l cone. I t s value is dependent upon the test method used.10 also ignores the e f f e c t of o v e r b u r d e n p r e s s u r e . 94 first method for estimating OCR from cone p e n e t r a t i o n tests.

Hydro Railway C r o s s i n g 3) Upper 232nd S t .1 and a summary of the f i e l d t e s t s conducted f o r t h i s investigation is presented i n t a b l e 7. 5) Haney Slide The general l o c a t i o n s of the s i t e s are shown i n f i g u r e 7. L a s t l y .2. 4) Lower 232nd S t .1.1 General Geology and S i t e Description McDonald Farm i s l o c a t e d at the northern edge of Sea Island in the m u n i c i p a l i t y of Richmond.2. This chapter presents the t e s t r e s u l t s from each s i t e and d i s c u s s e s them i n r e l a t i o n to the various correlation methods described i n chapter 6. correlations between friction sleeve measurements and vane shear strength are presented. 7. 95 CHAPTER 7 FIELD PROGRAMME AND DISCUSSION OF RESULTS 7. A summary of the m a t e r i a l properties for the d i f f e r e n t s i t e s i s given i n t a b l e 7.2 McDonald Farm Research S i t e 7. In a d d i t i o n .1 Introduction The f i e l d programme c o n s i s t e d of cone p e n e t r a t i o n and field vane shear t e s t s at f i v e lower mainland s i t e s : 1) McDonald Farm 2) B. A summary compares the r e s u l t s from the f i v e s i t e s . e s t i m a t i n g vane s e n s i t i v i t y from CPT data i s d i s c u s s e d . The i s l a n d i s one of several that make up the Fraser River delta. The general geology consists of deltaic distributary channel fill and overbank .C.

7.1 G E N E R A L L O C A T I O N OF R E S E A R C H SITES

SITE CPT CPT DATE CONE VST VST DATE VANE TYPE
PROFILE

1 Apr 1 1 15 1981 UBC MA 1 Sept 27 1983 GEONOR
MCDONALD FARM 2 Ju 1 y 23 1982 UBC #4 2 Sept 29 1983 GEONOR
RICHMOND 3* Aug. 04 1982 UBC #4
4 Jan. 26 1984 UBC #6
5 May 05 1984 UBC #6
B.C. HYDRO RAILWAY 1 Nov. 04 1982 UBC MA 1 Feb. 15 1984 NILCON
SITE LANGLEY 2 Oct . 24 1982 MOD. HOG.

232nd S t . - Upper 1 Dec. 08 1983 UBC 15cm' 1 Feb. 10 1984 NILCON
LANGLEY (UBC *5) 2 Feb. 10 1984 NILCON

232nd S t . - Lower 1 Nov 17 1984 UBC #4 1 Nov. 17 19S4 NILCON
LANGLEY 2 duly 17 1984 UBC #6 2 dan. 1 1 1984 NILCON
3 dan. 20 1984 NILCON

HANEY S L I D E SITE 1 dune 22 1984 UBC MG 1 dune 22 1984 NILCON

• pore p r e s s u r e measured on face

Table 7.1 SUMMARY OF T H E F I E L D PROGRAMME

SITE S.G. Wl Wp Wn PI St

range avg range avg range avg range avg range avg

MCDONALD FARM 2.8 25-42 35 22-25 24 23-40 34 3-20 15 2- 7 5

B.C. HYDRO R A I L . SITE 2.8 32-59 42 16-27 21 27-53 45 16-34 24 7- 10 9

232nd S t . SITE 2.8 40 20 42-47 45 19 2-19 11

HANEY SLIDE SITE 2.8 44 26 40-45 42 18 3-13 6

S.G. « s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y Wl' " l i q u i d l i m i t (%) Wp » p l a s t i c l i m i t (X)
Wn « n a t u r a l water content ('/.) P I '= p l a s t i c i t y index (%) St = sensitivity

Table 7.2 SUMMARY OF M A T E R I A L P R O P E R T I E S AT
THE D I F F E R E N T S I T E S

98

deposits which overlie post glacial estuarine and marine

sediments (Armstrong 1978). A t y p i c a l CPT p r o f i l e from t h e site

is presented in figure 7.2 and shows that the general

stratigraphy consists of:

0-2m soft organic s i l t y clay

2-13m l o o s e t o dense c o a r s e sand;
some l a y e r s o f f i n e sand

13-I5m f i n e s a n d , some s i l t ; transition zone

l5-300*m soft normally consolidated clayey silt

This report i s concerned only w i t h the clayey s i l t below 15m.

C o r r e c t e d b e a r i n g and dynamic pore pressure profiles from

four soundings i n the c l a y e y silt a r e shown i n f i g u r e 7.3. N o t e

t h a t h i g h e r p o r e p r e s s u r e s were r e c o r d e d f o r t h e profile where

the pore pressures were m e a s u r e d on t h e f a c e . T h e s e profiles

illustrate t h e r e p e a t a b i l i t y o f CPT a n d t h a t b o t h cone bearing

and pore pressure increase linearly w i t h depth i n a n o r m a l l y

c o n s o l i d a t e d m a t e r i a l . Note in figure 7.2 that the friction

r a t i o tends t o decrease w i t h depth.

U n d r a i n e d s h e a r s t r e n g t h a n d vane s e n s i t i v i t y p r o f i l e s from

two VST s o u n d i n g s a r e shown i n f i g u r e 7.4. The u n d r a i n e d s h e a r

strength increases l i n e a r l y with depth (Su/P'=0.34) and the.

sensitivity i s r e l a t i v e l y constant w i t h depth (avg. St=5).

7.2.2 C o r r e l a t i o n s B e t w e e n Su a n d CPT

The results of the various correlation techniques f o r

M c D o n a l d Farm a r e shown i n f i g u r e s 7.5 through 7.9. Plots of

Qc/Su and Qt/Su vs depth (figure 7.5) provide a fairly

r e a s o n a b l e e s t i m a t e o f S u . The s c a t t e r i s r e d u c e d when c o r r e c t e d

.

100 PORE PRESSURE CONE BEARING U <bar) Ot (bar) F i g u r e 7.4 FIELD VANE STRENGTH AND SENSITIVITY PROFILES AT MCDONALD FARM .3 PROFILES FROM 4 CPT SOUNDINGS IN MCDONALD FARM CLAYEY SILT UNDRAINED SHEAR STRENGTH Su (ViPo) VANE SENSITIVITY St 20 40 60 BO IS 20 - LEGEND VST 1 • VST 2 I- (b> (a) F i g u r e 7.

VST 1 & 2 • CPT 4 . 101 Nc Nc Oc / Su Ot / Su (a) (to) LEGEND a CPT 1 . VST 1 & 2 igure 7. VST 1 & 2 o CPT 3 . VST 1 & 2 & CPT 2 .5 Qc/Su AND Q t / S u v s DEPTH AT MCDONALD FARM .

B ffl • to 43*20 D D<°AO - D IS AO ri? & D D ^ O • AO 1 1 1— (a) LEGEND • CPT 1 .S I C V ) / S u 10 15 20 •ao €EO BO * A ° •flflo BUO.o )/Su A N D (Qt-<r„ )/Su v s D E P T H AT MCDONALD FARM .VST 1 & 2 A CPT 2 .VST 1 & 2 Figure 7. 102 Nk (Qe .VST 1 & 2 O CPT 3 .6 (Qc-cr.VST 1 & 2 * CPT 4 .

CO c 20H DO °C?o D fi 0 D rf o D D °o ft <fc B 8 0 0 °a °o 25 °D 0 O B % D D ° 0 tP 0° °oD ° o 0 30 (b) (a) LEGEND • CPT 1 .VST 1 & 2 O CPT 2 .Ut> / Su 15 .U t ) / S u vs DEPTH AT MCDONALD FARM .7 (Qc-Ut)/SuAND ( Q t . 103 Nke <Qt . c • • .VST 1 £. . 2 * CPT 4 .VST 1 & 2 Figure 7.

a- B o'.VST 1 & 2 O CPT 4 * CPT 5 VST 1 & 2 Figure 7. ON THE TIP S 10 15 20 15. B 25- r3 III iii nt "ma. 1 04 N<MJ Olt . P.Uo) / Su OJt. ° 8 .Uo) / Su P. _1 I 1— a- a - 20. Au » u V 30- (b) (a) LEGEND LEGEND D CPT 1 VST 1 & 2 a CPT 2 VST 1 & 2 VST 1 & 2 o CPT 3 . BEHIND THE TIP P. .8 AU/Su v s DEPTH FOR DIFFERENT POROUS ELEMENT LOCATIONS AT McDONALD FARM .P.

1. .SICV) / Su in c ft) PORE PRESSURE F A C T O R .Ntu (Ut. > tat .i „ a o z CONE FACTOR . > N> N> to -3 2 n 1 1 1 1 1 1i 1 J _ . < < < PJ ~ Tl o > 0 www z f X < -3 -3 -3 a 01 < 0 CO fr> (?•• tr» w i .u o / Su sr 1 a > c i» c . Nk.Of 2 # s in . CONC FACTOR .M. c in •n tr - a Ni -» I S m< ' f •" intn c C z I I I W X s m .I CQt . £ -i i * • i ' • • ' i SO I .U«J / Su z z O r> • E» n n n •» a• r <&-<< C 0> TJ TJ TJ -3-3-3 ~ JO .

Plots of Nkt. i s u s e d . There i s no d i s c e r n i b l e c o r r e l a t i o n .C.3 B. Hydro R a i l w a y C r o s s i n g Site 7.3. Qt.C.1 G e n e r a l G e o l o g y and S i t e Description This site is l o c a t e d a t t h e b a s e o f a 5m c u t a d j a c e n t t o the Trans Canada Highway in Langley. F i g u r e 7.6.8 where AU/Su i s p l o t t e d a g a i n s t d e p t h f o r two d i f f e r e n t p o r o u s e l e m e n t locations. T h i s i s due to the small variation i n Bq. except p o s s i b l y f o r Nke v s Bq.9. In section 7. as the data tend to cluster in one a r e a . The u s e o f e x c e s s p o r e p r e s s u r e p r o v i d e s a v e r y good means of estimating Su a s shown i n f i g u r e 7. 1 06 b e a r i n g .6b). An even better estimate can be made if overburden stress i s i n c l u d e d as shown i n f i g u r e 7.7a illustrates the necessity f o r u s i n g c o r r e c t e d b e a r i n g when e m p l o y i n g Senneset's effective bearing approach. the scatter i s r e d u c e d when Qt i s u s e d . w h i c h m i g h t be e x p e c t e d s i n c e t h e material is normally c o n s o l i d a t e d and i t s p r o p e r t i e s are f a i r l y u n i f o r m . N A U and Nke v s Bq a r e shown i n f i g u r e 7. t h e s c a t t e r a p p e a r s to be slightly g r e a t e r than that observed f o r the t r a d i t i o n a l methods ( f i g u r e s 7.5b and 7. It is situated approximately 100m west o f t h e B. Again. H y d r o r a i l w a y o v e r p a s s . The site i s l o c a t e d a t the e a s t e r n e x t e n t of t h e C a p i l a n o sediments which consist of raised deltas. 7. h o w e v e r . A fairly u n i f o r m cone f a c t o r i s attained using t h i s method. intertidal and b e a c h deposits and g l a c i o m a r i n e s e d i m e n t s ( A r m s t r o n g 1 9 7 8 ) . The CPT profile in .7 t h e d a t a a r e compared t o t h o s e from the o t h e r sites where t h e r a n g e i n Bq i s g r e a t e r .

)/Su.10 shows t h a t t h e site stratigraphy i s : 0-2. P r o f i l e s of index properties and u n d r a i n e d s t r e n g t h and sensitivity f r o m l a b o r a t o r y and field vane tests are shown i n f i g u r e 7.13). The c o n e f a c t o r . Note t h a t the laboratory values tend to be less than the insitu values indicating possible sample disturbance or size e f f e c t s . The subsequent increase i n c o n e f a c t o r w i t h d e p t h may be a reflection of the decrease i n p l a s t i c i t y and the slight increase in sensitivity of the m a t e r i a l w i t h depth.12 t h r o u g h 7. Nc tends to i n c r e a s e w i t h depth.4m) i s p r o v i d e d i n a p p e n d i x A. i n i t i a l l y d e c r e a s e s w i t h d e p t h t o a depth of 10m. . Nc (Qc/Su o r Qt/Su. f i g u r e 7. S e n s i t i v i t y does not vary much and has an average value o f 9. The undrained strength increases with depth having Su/P'=0.3. The i n i t i a l d e c r e a s e i n Nc and Nk may be a result of the decreasing overconsolidation of the clay. A s i m i l a r trend is o b s e r v e d f o r Nk ((Qc-cr.0 figure 7. Below t h i s . Note the significant reduction i n s c a t t e r when c o r r e c t e d b e a r i n g is u s e d .2 C o r r e l a t i o n s Between Su and CPT The r e s u l t s of t h e v a r i o u s c o r r e l a t i o n m e t h o d s a r e shown i n figures 7.16. The plasticity index decreases s l i g h t l y with depth.o)/Su o r (Qt-cr.31 in the normally consolidated region.5m m i x e d g r a v e l and sand fill 2.12).5-10 m l i g h t l y overconsolidated s i l t y clay w i t h o c c a s i o n a l s i l t y sand l a y e r s l0-30*m normally consolidated s i l t y clay with occasional s i l t y sand l a y e r s A detailed log from a continuously sampled borehole (to 14. 7.11. 1 07 f i g u r e 7.

C .• 0 • • D * (b) •oa tk F i e l d Vane ( P e a k ) O F i e l d Vane ( R e m o l d e d ) a O Lab Vane ( P e a k ) a * L a b Vane ( R e m o l d e d ) a (c) a A F i e l d Vane a • Lab Vane Figure 7. S. Su Von. •_ i qu i d L i m i t ONatural Moisture a D » Content :. HYDRO RAILWAY SITE MOISTURE CONTENT Von. HYDRO RAILWAY SITE . 1 08 Figure 7. F I E L D VANE STRENGTH AND S E N S I T I V I T Y P R O F I L E S AT B . C .11 INDEX PROPERTIES.10 TYPICAL CPT PROFILE AT B .n.ltlvlty (X) ChPol 10 30 30 40 SO LEGEND (b) (a) A P l a s t i c Limit A.

HYDRO RAILWAY S I T E . 1 09 Nc Nc Oo / Su Ot / Su (b) LEGEND • CPT 1 a CPT 2 F i g u r e 7.12 Qc/Su AND Q t / S u v s DEPTH AT B.C.

HYDRO RAILWAY SITE .S1CV) / Su (Qt .O i .SIGV) / Su _L_ 10 IS 20 A a A • a O A a A • a • A • A • A • A • A • (a) LEGEND • CPT 1 A CPT 2 Figure 7.C. ) / S u v s D E P T H AT B.13 (Qc-cr„ ) / S u a n d ( Q t . 1 10 Nk Nk <Qc .

U t ) / S u v s DEPTH B. 111 Nke Nke COc .U t ) / S u AND ( Q t .C. HYDRO RAILWAY S I T E .U O / Su (a) (b) LEGEND o CPT 1 a CPT 2 Figure 7.14 ( Q c .U O / So <0t .

) / Su P. HYDRO RAILWAY SITE .P.15 A U / S u vs DEPTH AT B.u. BEHIND TIP LEGEND • CPT 1 * CPT 2 Figure 7.C. 1 12 ait .

NAu (Ut . « X C t-H Q) -3 = O.Nkt COt . COME FACTOR . r> o o w t> • D3 TJ TJ za m H Z -3 -3 n x * r» > to — : tr < 01 ' • I 1 1 1- CO > •3 CONE FACTOR . 1*1 X > t> c • ty.Hum CO COt . 1 £z . » X c m v 5 r» X <x ci -i i — i .SIGV) / Su 1 c PORE PRESSURE FACTOR .U%3 / Su CTi W Z > t-H rr tr .U O / Su X -»—e- a» X o O .

exit of the Trans Canada Highway i n Langley.14b where the r a t i o of e f f e c t i v e b e a r i n g t o Su (Nke) i s plotted against depth. 7.15. Although the data are s c a t t e r e d .16. H y d r o r a i l w a y s i t e . i n t e r c h a n g e .3. two similar numbers. C o n s i s t e n t trends are observed for N A U and Nke vs Bq i n f i g u r e 7. Qt and Ut. t h e t r e n d s i n the c u r v e s are similar and suggest t h a t t h e use of effective bearing works well in normally consolidated deposits. The v a l u e of AU/Su i n c r e a s e s w i t h d e p t h as shown i n f i g u r e 7.4 U p p e r 232nd S t . No correlation i s observed f o r Nkt vs Bq. This is as expected since Qt should i n c r e a s e and Ut (measured behind the t i p ) should decrease with i n c r e a s i n g OCR.3.4.1 General G e o l o g y and Site Description This site i s l o c a t e d a t t h e 232nd S t . A noticable decrease in AU/Su is observed because of the lower excess pore pressure in the o v e r c o n s o l i d a t e d m a t e r i a l . The cone factor tends to i n c r e a s e w i t h i n c r e a s i n g OCR. there appears to be a distinct kink i n the curve a b o v e 5m. Site 7. t h e u p p e r and lower sites. I t i s approximately 1km e a s t of the B. are s u b t r a c t e d to a t t a i n a s m a l l number which may be prone to error. Two s i t e s have been d e s i g n a t e d at the 232nd S t . However. 11 4 Two d i s t i n c t curves are observed i n f i g u r e 7. t h i s m i g h t be a r e f l e c t i o n of the decrease in plasticity and the s l i g h t increase in sensitivity with depth. The s e p a r a t i o n between t h e two curves might r e f l e c t the problem of accuracy d i s c u s s e d i n s e c t i o n 6. the latter having the least s c a t t e r . The lower site .C. Again.

organic 2. The site lies at the western extent of the Fort Langley Formation. The cone factor Nc exhibits considerable s c a t t e r and g e n e r a l l y i n c r e a s e s w i t h depth (figure 7.19. i n c r e a s i n g i n sand c o n t e n t w i t h d e p t h The cone b e a r i n g i s compared w i t h t h e f i e l d vane r e s u l t s and t h e overconsolidation ratio i n f i g u r e 7. N o t e how b o t h t h e cone b e a r i n g a n d v a n e s t r e n g t h d e c r e a s e w i t h depth i n the overconsolidated m a t e r i a l .17 a n d t h e f i e l d vane profiles are shown in figure 7.24. This formation has recorded at least three advances and retreats of a valley glacier and c o n s i s t s of interbedded marine. The u p p e r s i t e i s s i t u a t e d on a compacted c l a y f i l l that forms t h e approach f o r t h e 232nd St. There i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s s c a t t e r f o r Nk v s d e p t h . overpass. The OCR was calculated using the f i r s t method d e s c r i b e d i n s e c t i o n 6. The s t a t i g r a p h y c o n s i s t s o f : 0-2.5-20*m normally consolidated s i l t y c l a y w i t h o c c a s i o n a l sand l e a s e .2 C o r r e l a t i o n s B e t w e e n Su a n d CPT The r e s u l t s f o r t h e upper 232nd St.5m overconsolidated silty clay 7.23).5m compacted c l a y f i l l . Note that the cone bearing clearly indicates the o v e r c o n s o l i d a t i o n o f t h e u p p e r 7m. 1 15 is discussed in section 7. 7.18.5-7. A CPT p r o f i l e from t h e upper s i t e i s shown i n f i g u r e 7.5.4.20). I t does a p p e a r t h a t Qc/Su i n i t i a l l y d e c r e a s e s w i t h depth reflecting t h e d e c r e a s e i n OCR. Both i n c r e a s e l i n e a r l y with depth i n the normally consolidated region (Su/P'=0. site are shown in figures 7. t h i s i s not observed for Qt/Su.20 through 7. h o w e v e r . glaciomarine and glacial sediments (Armstrong 1 9 7 8 ) .5.

p.18 F I E L D VANE STRENGTH AND S E N S I T I V I T Y PROFILES AT UPPER 232nd S t . 1 1 6 FiiCTiai RATIO oirrrjxxriM. S I T E .17 TYPICAL CPT PROFILE AT UPPER 232nd S t .p. _l I F i g u r e 7. S I T E UNOR AINED SHEAR STRENGTH VANE SENSITIVITY Su CKPoJ St 50 100 0 2 4 S 8 10 12 14 IB IB 20 10- 13- 20- 23- (a) 30. imutMim • f CD RATIO i i v s t pacrtu: 70 0 3 0 I 0 F i g u r e 7.

VANE SHEAR STRENGTH AND OVERCONSOLIDATION RATIO AT UPPER 232nd S t . 11 7 LEGEND a. SITE . VST 1 a VST 2 Figure 7.19 COMPARISON BETWEEN CONE B E A R I N G .

S I T E .20 Qc/Su AND Q t / S u v s DEPTH AT UPPER 232nd S t . 11 8 Nc Nc Qt/Su Oo / Su (a) (b) LEGEND A VST 1 D VST 2 Figure 7.

SICV) / Su (a) LEGEND • VST 1 A VST 2 Figure 7.21 (Qc-tj.. )/Su vs D E P T H AT UPPER 232nd S t .. )/Su and (Qt-a. SITE .SICV) / Su (Qt . 119 Nk Nk <0e .

Ut) / Su (a) (b) LEGEND • VST 1 & VST 2 F i g u r e 7.U t ) / S u v s DEPTH AT UPPER 232nd S t .22 ( Q c . S I T E .U t ) / S u AND ( Q t . 120 Nke <Ot .

S I T E .23 AU/Su v s DEPTH AT UPPER 232nd S t .Us) / Su 10 13 20 OA DA. 121 NAU ( l i t . • A A Q A A o a L E G E N D • VST 1 & VST 2 F i g u r e 7.

U«J / Su to M Z UJ rO rr 3 - Qj Z tr 1 CO r> rr c t> O ra O Cu < < ra CO 3 CO CO z a -3 -3 ra z ro — < tn M > -3 CONE FACTOR . CONC FACTOR .Nk« COt .Ut) / Su G TJ TJ W » 221 .SIGV) / £u C PORE PRESSURE FACTOR KAu CUt .Nkt COt .

A dramatic decrease in Nke with decreasing OCR can be seen i n f i g u r e 7. . a f a i r l y consistent trend i s observed f o r N A U and Nke v s Bq. Again.23) b u t t a k e s a curious jump a t a d e p t h o f 15m. of course.22b. I n t h e n o r m a l l y c o n s o l i d a t e d r a n g e Nke i n c r e a s e s with increasing sensitivity. a p p e a r t o be a correlation between N k t and Bq.22a clearly illustrates the need to correct bearing data f o r pore pressure e f f e c t s when u s i n g the effective bearing approach as the value of Nke i s n e g a t i v e which.23 a n d i s o b s e r v e d t o i n c r e a s e d r a m a t i c a l l y w i t h depth i n the overconsolidated silty clay. Below 8m. 123 (figure 7.5. Nk initially decreases with depth to approximately 8m where the material i s essentially normally consolidated. 7.21).26. The n e a r surface material i s overconsolidated due t o d e s s i c a t i o n .5 Lower 232nd S t . T h e r e does n o t . i s . Figure 7. h o w e v e r . A t y p i c a l CPT profile i s shown i n f i g u r e 7. Nk increases with increasing sensitivity. The undrained shear s t r e n g t h profile generally i n c r e a s e s w i t h d e p t h (Su/P'=0. S i t e 7. impossible. N flU (AU/Su) v s d e p t h i s shown i n f i g u r e 7.25 a n d t h e f i e l d vane results are shown in figure 7. T h i s increase i n Su i s l i k e l y due t o t h e i n f l u e n c e of sand lenses.1 General G e o l o g y and S i t e D e s c r i p t i o n The lower site i s situated slightly above highway l e v e l and a b o u t 5m below t h e e l e v a t i o n o f t h e u p p e r s i t e .

SITE .26 F I E L D V A N E STRENGTH AND SENSITIVITY P R O F I L E S A T LOWER 2 3 2 n d St. 124 Figure 7.

7. site are shown in figures 7. It features a hummocky topography made up of the slide blocks from the retrogressive failure (Davies 1985).32. The general trend is consistent with the results from the other sites. The CPT p r o f i l e from a sounding adjacent to the FV b o r i n g is shown in figure 7. The soil profile consists of: .27 through 7. The traditional cone factors.6 Haney Slide Site 7.30 indicates the same trends observed at the other sites. Nc or Nk increasing with increasing sensitivity. The general geology consists of interbedded marine.29b shows considerable scatter.31.31. glaciomarine and glacial sediments of the Fort Langley Formation. 1880. The plot of N A U vs depth in figure 7.27 and 7.6.28 respectively) show c o n s i d e r a b l e scatter even though the scatter is r e d u c e d when Qt is used. There is a decrease in Nc a n d Nk between 13m a n d 17m d u e to the unrealistically high Su v a l u e s . Consistent trends are also observed for N u A and Nke vs Bq i n figure 7. 125 7.1 General Geology and Site Description The Haney Slide site is located approximately 30km e a s t ' of Vancouver almost directly below the town centre of Haney. again likely due to the influence of the sand lenses on the measured pore p r e s s u r e s . The plot of Nke vs depth in figure 7.2 Correlations Between Su a n d CPT Results for the lower 232nd St. The site is a remnant of the Haney slide of January 30.5. Nc and Nk (figures 7.

SITE .VST 1 • CPT 2 .VST 3 Figure 7. on • * CO 13 m A DO • A 20 «A* A rtl A» U oa 30J ' ~ 1 L (t>) (a) LEGEND • C P T 1•.Vs. 1 26 Nc Nc Oo / Su at / su 10 13 20 23 o4 o ° cP - * cB A.27 Q c / S u AND Q t / S u v s DEPTH A T LOWER 2 3 2 n d S t . D A - A. A °.V S T 1 A> CPT 1 ~ VST 3 O CPT 2 .

1 27

Nk Nk
<0o - SICV) / Su «0t - SICV) / Su

20 13 20
3 10 13 3 10

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1


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CPT
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o CPT 2 - VST 1
• CPT 2 - VST 3

Figure 7.28 (Qc- cr, )/Su and (Qt-cr,» )/Su v s DEPTH
0 AT
LOWER 232nd S t . S I T E

1 28

Nke Nke

LEGEND

• CPT 1 - VST 1
a.CPT 1 - VST 3
O CPT 2 - VST 1
• CPT 2 - VST 3

Figure 7.29 ( Q c - U t ) / S u AND ( Q t - U t ) / S u v s DEPTH AT
LOWER 2 3 2 n d S t . S I T E

1 29

NAU
CUt - Ua> / Su

0 5 10 13 20
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Figure 7.30 AU/Su v s DEPTH AT LOWER
232nd St. SITE

31 N k t . c?A Ii i 10- 0*0.2 1.8 .Bq PORE PRESSURE PARAMETER .8 .-«.i .8 I 1.. of CD o H e ". (a) (b) 20 1 — 1 1 T " ~ l 1 - Pi IM 8 3 *>° 14 14- 1 O 0.SICV) (Ut .Bq PORE PRESSURE PARAMETER .4 . S I T E .U«) / (Dt .6 .4 . (Ut ..4 . VST 3 O CPT 2 .U.SICV) (Ut .2 1. 1 1 1 1 1 r— 0* -I 1 1 1 r 1. CPT 1 .SICV) CO O LEGEND • CPT 1 .. VST 1 • CPT 2 .8 1 1.8 I 1. A < 5> - U u p B or o a.8 . o Si )2 . VST 3 Figure 7.U.) / (Qt . N*u and Nke v s Bq AT LOWER 232nd S t .4 PORE PRESSURE PARAMETER .4 l.) / (Qt .2 . VST 1 a. iii|ii<l iii 2H 6 « •»«.

o f w a t e r ) (BAR) Ot (BAR) RATIO (%) RATIO (AU/Qt) Figure 7. P . P . 131 PORE P R E S S U R E FRICTION BEARING FRICTION DIFF.32 T Y P I C A L C P T P R O F I L E A T HANEY S L I D E SITE UNDRAINED SMEAR STRENGTH VANE SENSITIVITY Su CkPo) St Figure 7.33 F I E L D V A N E S T R E N G T H AND S E N S I T I V I T Y P R O F I L E S A T HANEY S L I D E S I T E . (m.

36b is uniform with depth which is consistent with the sensitivity profile.6. On the other hand. 1 32 0-2m f i l l 2 . The cone factors Nc a n d Nk (figures 7. N 4 U vs depth (figure 7.33. OCR was calculated using the first method described in section 6.30*m s a n d y silt to silty clay with numerous thin fine sand layers Undrained shear strength and vane sensitivity profiles from the two VST soundings are shown in figure 7.34 and 7. Sensitivity does not vary much h a v i n g an average value of 6.6 indicating an overconsolidated material.37) appears to be scattered. Although the Nke data is clustered.34 through 7. the plot of Nke vs depth in figure 7. they do seem to be in line with what has been observed at the other sites.38b.2 Correlations Between Su and CPT The results of the various correlation techniques for the Haney Slide site are shown in figures 7.38.5. .5 at a depth of 20m. The Su profile increases only slightly with depth (disregarding the data obviously influenced by sand lenses) with an average Su/P'=0. A consistent trend is observed for N A U vs Bq in figure 7. however this is likely due to the influence of the sand layers on the pore pressure response.3m sand 3 .35) tend to increase slightly with depth a n d be somewhat scattered. The OCR r a n g e s from 9 near the surface to approximately 2. 7.

133 Nc Oc / Su 10 IS 20 _L_ _J 0 A * A A * A A * 8 a 4 • • (a) (b) LEGEND • VST 1 A VST 2 Figure 7.34 Qc/Su AND Q t / S u v s DEPTH AT HANEY SLIDE S I T E .

. 1 34 Nk Nk «Dt.. )/Su v s DEPTH AT HANEY SLIDE S I T E .* . 3 5 ( Q c . )/Su and (Qt-tr.SICV) / Su (b) LEGEND a VST 1 A VST 2 Figure 7 .SICV) / Su COc .

36 ( Q c .U t ) / S u v s DEPTH AT HANEY S L I D E S I T E .Ut> / So <0t .U U / Su (a) (b) LEGEND Q VST 1 A VST 2 F i g u r e 7. 1 35 Nice Nke (Oe .U t ) / S u AND ( Q t .

37 AU/Su vs DEPTH AT HANEY SLIDE SITE . 136 LEGEND • VST 1 A VST 2 Figure 7.

Ut) / Su > Z PJ «3 TJ D X c m c r» TJ 1 X m c in O) • in ~£ ~ t B • D > f X t > X m in — n n x < *.i a £J 1 1 I I 1 1 1——I 1 LZi .Nkt (Ot . * in *-< c ~ c • -3 < < PJ X D t» PJ D) CO CO a N in ~ X «- •O * D Rl D > Qi -3 -3 z r> X > ro —• a 1 z m Z in i m n x <I " B < X w to > •-3 CONE FACTOR .U«) / Su LO 00 UJ Z i-i rr TJ D <fiZE> D. -X c in PJ r» TJ Z i a m tn r> o O C In a .Nk* COt . CDHC FACTO* .SICV) / Sw in c fD PORE PRESSURE FACTOR .Htu CUt .

Values for (Qc-Ut)/Su have been purposely left out. The scatter in the correlations using cone bearing was reduced when the bearing was corrected for pore pressures and when o v e r b u r d e n stress was accounted for. 1985. An a v e r a g e value for all the sites is given for each c o r r e l a t i o n method. among them were the effects of anisotropy.3.C. stress paths. The predicted S u was b a s e d on the method by Campanella et al. variations in strain rate.2. The dependance upon soil stiffness was not readily apparent except at the B. All the correlation techniques were influenced by the stress history and most notably. The use of pore pressure data appears to be a promising means of estimating undrained shear strength. Hydro railway site.3. this is probably because the range in plasticity for the five sites was not great. The scatter in the data was also c a u s e d by many other contributing factors. 1 38 7. which is described in section 6. The results have shown that there can not be a single cone factor that is applicable to all clays. disturbance due to insertion of the instruments and the influence of sand lenses on the vane test results and the CPT bearing and pore pressure measurements.7 A Summary of the R e s u l t s f o r the Five Lower Mainland Sites A summary of the various cone factors for the five lower mainland sites is presented in table 7. however. progressive failure in the vane tests.39 shows a comparison between predicted and measured Su for the normally consolidated clayey silt at the McDonald Farm site. the sensitivity of the deposit. Excellent agreement was found for the predictions from the pore pressures measured . Figure 7.

7 18.3 10.7 5. 1 8.9 6.7 8.6 1 .3 6.6 ALL SITES 14. Nc Nk Nke 0c Ot Qc-O"»o ot-cr.6 14.3 5.3 SUMMARY O F C O N E FACTORS FOR 5 LOWER MAINLAND S I T E S .0 12. pore p r e s s u r e measured behind the t i p 4 . 1 3.4 18. HYDRO RAILWAY 9 24 15. 2 15.3 5.9 13.0 16.8 8. 3 UPPER 232nd S t .3 4.5 10.4 B .2 16 .a B.3 9.9 LOWER 232nd S t .0 13.8 11.C.5 7. 1 2. 0 Ot-Ut AU' All' SITE St' PI • Su Su Su Su Su Su Su MCDONALD FARM 5 15 11.4 8.0 8.9 8.9 HANEY SLIDE 6 18 14 . 8 19 1 1 .9 11.5 8. pore p r e s s u r e measured on the face Table 7. average s e n s i t i v i t y 2 . average p l a s t i c i t y index 3 . 14 19 16.

u a MCDONALD FARM UNDRAINED SHEAR STRENGTH Su <KPa) 100 • t.39 USE OF EXCESS PORE PRESSURE FOR ESTIMATING UNDRAINED SHEAR STRENGTH . 1 40 UNDRAINED SHEAR STRENCTH Su (hPa) L X t- a. ui a LEGEND A Vane Su D P r e d i c t e d Su F i g u r e 7. a t» 9 E a.

A correlation coefficient of 0.81 was determined from the data for the five sites. The variation of Bq with OCR is illustrated in figure 7. particularly when there are several techniques available. A more promising correlation is that between N A U and Bq shown in figure 7.40 through 7.69. This writer again points out the difficulties one may have in calculating Qn.41 indicates that there i s no discernible correlation between Nkt and Bq. 141 behind the tip (cylindrical cavity expansion approach) as well as for those measured on the face (spherical cavity expansion approach). The plot of Nkt vs Bq for a l l five sites in figure 7. This should not present a problem.42. A regression analysis of the data indicates a correlation coefficient • of 0.43. The best correlation was between Nke and Bq as shown is figure 7. 1985 applied to a l l five of the lower mainland sites. Bearing and pore pressure values are very similar in soft normally consolidated soils and a loss of accuracy in the bearing can significantly affect the calculation of Nke. (Qt-Ut). however.40 and shows that the pore pressure parameter decreases with increasing OCR. There is considerable scatter in the data indicating that Bq i s not solely affected by stress history. . since a prudent engineer is unlikely to rely on a single correlation method.43 show the approach adopted by Lunne et al. Figures 7.

r4 q . 142 T — i — i — i — r B IT* A F H H <r • ^ H H A J " m i > or u Iii i .ui H ui .C HYDRO RAIL SITE Q 232nd St.UPPER 232nd St.LOVER H HANEY SLIDE Figure 7.40 Bq vs OCR FOR 5 LOWER MAINLAND SITES .6 H z I OA Hf7 < cc *> < a H a.2 H "0 iii ~ r 10 OVERCONSOLIOATION RATIO . ui s K Ul 0 U) 3 Ul CC I CL •> Ui 3 CC ~ a a. OCR LEGEND O McOONALO FARM A B.

143 PORE PRESSURE PARAMETER . HYDRO RAIL SITE D 232nd St.Bq (Ut . UPPER • 232nd St.C.U«> / CQt SICV) LEGEND O HcOONALO FARM A B. LOWER H HANEY SLICE Figure 7.41 Nkt vs B q F O R 5 LOWER MAINLAND SITES .

6 l 1. • (j <i u. HYORO RAIL SITE 0 232nd St. a 1 I N a a tr n aa 10. iii A V 14.C.2 1. LOVER H HANEY SLIOE Figure 7. D _ D 3 < 3 a Z W 12. • * D — r — i — . • B- z~ a u 4- • • • 2. Uo) / (Qt . 1 44 20- 18- a 16.42 Niu vs Bq FOR 5 LOWER MAINLAND SITES . S1GV) LEGEND: O .6 PORE PRESSURE PARAMETER . UPPER • 232rvd St. HcOONALO FARM A B.4 1.Bq <Ut .

C.43 Nke vs B q F O R 5 LOWER MAINLAND SITES . UPPER • 232nd St. HYDRO R A I L SITE 0 232nd St. 145 LEGEND. o MCDONALD FARM A B. LOVER H HANEY SLIDE Figure 7.

Figures 7. 7.44 and 7. 1 46 7.45). At shallow depths the total force on the sleeve is around 4 kg to 10 kg w h e r e a s the capacity of the friction load cell is 1500 kg. Sur. however. This may be p a r t l y due to the low stresses that the friction sleeve experiences. Neglecting this.44 shows that a reasonable estimate of Su can be made using Su/Fs=5. the best estimate of St can be made from 6/Rft.1.45 compare friction sleeve measurements to peak vane shear strength. the average ratio of Sur to Fs is 1.46 and 7. Figures 7.9 Estimating Sensitivity from CPT It was reported in section 6. Neglecting the scatter at shallow depths.47 indicate that the friction measurement is closer to the remolded shear strength of the soil. A summary of Su/Fs and Sur/Fs for the different sites is given in table 7. Again there is some scatter at shallow depths.4. . Su.47 compare sleeve friction to remolded shear strength.46 and 7.8 Correlations Between Su and Sleeve Friction Figures 7.3.6 that a rough estimate of sensitivity c o u l d be made from St = J_0_ 6. there is considerable deviation from this relationship. particularly at shallow depths (figure 7.10 Rf% Figure 7.48a shows a plot of St«Rft (Rf calculated using corrected bearing Qt) against depth for four of the sites with an average value of 8. Figure 7.

UPPER a0 o H HANEY S L I O E o 20- 10 20 30 40 50 o o . HYDRO R A I L S I T E C *» o.C. Su / F» 2 4 6 8 10 too i " i • — . I Figure 7. H a D H _ 40 A A A • II • L a o a a A D LEGEND E 15- 20- o A MCDONALD FARM B. Slaeva FVIctJon o Fa (kPo) o LEGEND o o o O HcOONALO FARM A B. HYDRO RAIL S I T E 25- • 2 3 2 n d St.C. UPPER Figure 7.44 VANE SHEAR STRENGTH v s S L E E V E H HANEY SLIDE F R I C T I O N F O R 4 LOWER M A I N L A N D o o o SITES o o 30. 0 2 3 2 n d St.r— — -i _J I I I o 80. D od o o ° o B B a 60- °o H H A a o H 10.45 Su/Fs vs DEPTH FOR 4 LOWER MAINLAND SITES .

47 S u r / F s v s DEPTH FOR 4 LOWER MAINLAND SITES ./ Fm CD O O HcOONALO FARM Figure 7. Sur.46 REMOLDED SHEAR STRENGTH v s B. UPPER SLEEVE FRICTION F O R 4 LOWER HANEY SLIOe MAINLAND SITES Figure 7.C. HYDRO RAIL SITC 232nd St.

4 SUMMARY O F C O R R E L A T I O N S W I T H FRICTION S L E E V E DATA F O R 4 LOWER M A I N L A N D S I T E S . 1 1 . HYDRO RAILWAY 9 24 5.f r i c t i o n r a t i o calculated using corrected cone b e a r i n g Qt Table 7.84 8.4 9. 1 12 1 1 .3 0. 5 HANEY SLIDE 6 18 5. 8 B. 1 0.0".60 9.2 16. 1 10. 8 19 5.0 6.92 12. 0 SITE St' PI ' Fs Fs Fs Fs.0 9 0 ALL SITES 5.2 0.C. 1 UPPER 232nd S t .average p l a s t i c i t y index 3 .7 0. 1 49 Su Sur St R f t ' Ot.average s e n s i t i v i t y 2 . St MCDONALD FARM 5 15 5.67 8.

48 ESTIMATING SENSITIVITY FROM C P T .C. UPPER O o H HANEY SLIOE o H HANEY SHOE o 25 O 25. UPPER • 232nd St. (Ot .SICV)/<Fa»St > St * Rft 10 IS 20 10 IS 20 25 i H H A • A H °P • H H ° • . _J 3D la) (b) Figure 7. O o A B. o o O o O o O o O o O o 8 8 30. HYDRO RAIL SITE O • 232nd St. a. H • • 10 10. HYDRO RAIL SITE O A B. a HA o H • a A 15- IS A c o c *> »> a.C. a o a • a O O O O LEGEND 20 LEGEND 20- O o HcOONALO FARM O O McDQNALO FARM.

4. A summary of these two methods is given in table 7.48b having an average value of 11 (neglecting scatter).1 Nst-Ps where St . Assuming Fs is close to Sur it may be possible to estimate St from St = Qn 7.Ut Fs . there is c o n s i d e r a b l y more scatter using this method than there is using St=6/Rft. sleeve friction A plot of Qn/(Fs-St) for four sites is shown in figure 7.10 neglects the effect of overburden stress. . factor for estimating St Qn . sensitivity Nst . 151 Expression 6. Q t . However. net b e a r i n g .

The results have shown that there is no unique method for estimating Su from CPT for all clays. Recent work has shown that the standard analysis is likely incorrect. the rate of strain and the orientation of the failure planes. delays between vane insertion and the start of shearing. The likely variation in Su for various test methods was illustrated in chapter 1 and was the reason for selecting a single test method (field vane) as a reference for this investigation. The use of different reference shear strengths also makes comparisons between results reported in the literature difficult. However. 1 52 CHAPTER 8 SUMMARY AND C O N C L U S I O N S 8. with . Furthermore. the estimation of Su from CPT is heavily influenced by various factors relating to: 1) material type and soil characteristics 2) cone design and CPT t e s t procedures 3) the choice of a reference Su The choice of a reference Su is significant because Su is not a unique parameter. rate effects. soil disturbance. the assumed shear stress distribution and the method of analysis. The undrained shear strength determined from field vane tests is also influenced by several factors such as strength anisotropy. It depends on the type of test used.1 Summary of Factors Influencing the Estimation of Su This paper has discussed the results of field vane and cone penetration tests from five lower mainland sites in relation to several p r o p o s e d methods of estimating Su from C P T .

using a vane of H/D=2 and analysing the data using the standard equation: Essential to the correlation of Su w i t h CPT i s confidence and accuracy in the CPT data. It is also essential that zero load readings be checked before and a f t e r a profile in order to determine whether drifts have occurred in the electronics. the cone penetration test has proved to be unequalled in its ability to identify soil layer . Drifts due to temperature have been observed. the effects of which can be substantial as was shown in chapter 3. Despite these problems. Chapter 5 illustrated that pore pressures measured at different locations on the cone can be radically different depending on the type of material in which the test is made. Pore pressure corrections to bearing must be made using pore pressures measured behind the tip. 153 our present lack of complete understanding of the VST it is best that we continue to use the method for which we have the greatest experience. Complete and proper saturation of the pore pressure measuring system is required to ensure high quality pore pressure data. The cone bearing can suffer accuracy problems in soft normally consolidated clays because the tip load cell is often only stressed from 1% t o 3% o f its capacity. One must understand the limitations of the instrument and their effects on the test results. This behaviour must be recognized in order to properly make pore pressure corrections and to compare CPT r e s u l t s . A further loss of accuracy can occur if pore pressure effects on the cone bearing and sleeve friction are neglected.

the estimation of layer thickness is complicated by the sampling rate. 154 boundaries and q u a l i t a t i v e l y evaluate material types. sensitivity and stiffness. The use of pore pressure data appears to be a promising means of estimating Su from CPT. Considerable scatter was often observed but was minimized when pore pressure effects and overburden stress were accounted for.C. However. Layers as thin as 1 cm h a v e been detected by the cone bearing. At the B. This effect can cause a bearing value to be recorded that does not truely represent the material being tested. however. They attempt to include the effects of sensitivity and stress history through the use of Skempton's pore pressure . E x p r e s s i o n s have been developed that predict the excess pore p r e s s u r e s b a s e d on c a v i t y expansion theory. It is clear that there is no unique value for the traditional cone factor Nk that is applicable to all clays. this effect is more pronounced in stiffer soils than in soft layers. Significant to the estimation of undrained shear strength is the influence that the surrounding layers have on the tip resistance. The results presented in chapter 7 indicated that increases in OCR a n d sensitivity were reflected by increases in the traditional cone factors Nc and Nk. A zone of influence extends about 5 to 10 cone diameters ahead and behind the tip depending on the relative stiffness of the layers. Hydro railway site the cone factors also increased with decreasing plasticity index (with OCR and sensitivity essentially constant). The estimation of Su from CPT appears to be strongly influenced by such soil properties as stress history.

2 Conclusions This section presents the most important conclusions regarding the factors that affect the estimation of Su from CPT. Correlations between NAU and B q a n d Nke and Bq l o o k p r o m i s i n g and should be investigated further with data from other sites. 1985 appears to work well. 8. 8. The effects of soil stiffness is i n c l u d e d by using the rigidity index G/Su. The method of Campanella et al. 1 55 parameter Af. particularly in normally consolidated deposits. A spherical cavity expansion approach should be used for pore p r e s s u r e s measured on the face and a cylindrical approach for those measured behind the tip.1 A c c u r a c y of CPT Data Attention to the follwing details in test and data reduction procedures are essential in-order to obtain meaningful results.2. i) bearing must be corrected for pore pressure and temperature effects ii) friction measurements must be corrected for the effects of unequal end a r e a s and temperature iii) pore p r e s s u r e s must be m e a s u r e d b e h i n d the tip in order to properly correct the bearing and friction for pore pressure effects iv) all cone c h a n n e l s s h o u l d be calibrated for temperature effects v) complete saturation of the pore pressure measuring .

2.3 Detection of Thin Layers i) layers of the order 10cm t h i c k are easily detected by the tip resistance ii) it may be possible to detect layers as thin as 1cm. the material properties of this thin layer would have to be considerably different from the surrounding soil to be detected .2. however. 156 system is essential vi) porous elements s h o u l d have an average pore size of at least 100 microns to prevent clogging vii) zero load readings must be checked before and after a profile to detect zero shifts 8. however this effect is more significant in coarse grained materials ii) the cone bearing will not reach its full resistance in thin (less than from 5 to 10 cone diameters thick) layers of sand iii) thinner layers of clay are required to record the true bearing iv) the valleys in the bearing record s h o u l d be used for estimating the undrained strength in cohesive deposits 8.2 Influence of Layer Boundaries i) the cone bearing is influenced by surrounding soil layers.

particularly in normally . 1985 (figure 6.2.2.e. increasing soil stiffness) iv) scatter in the cone factor was minimized when -pore pressure effects and overburden stress were accounted for v) there is no unique value for the traditional cone factor Nk that is applicable to all clays 8. 157 iii) estimating the thickness of a layer is highly dependent on the sampling rate iv) the estimation of layer thickness for layers thinner than the sampling rate is highly speculative and can often be in error v) sampling at discrete intervals can a l s o lead to subdued peaks in the CPT profile 8. sensitivity and stiffness ii) increases in OCR a n d senstivity resulted in increases in the traditional cone factors Nc and Nk iii) the cone factors also increased with decreasing plasticity index (i.5) appears to work well.4 Estimating Su from Cone Bearing i) the estimation of Su from CPT i s strongly influenced by stress history.5 U s i n g CPT P o r e Pressure Data to Estimate Su i) the use of pore pressure data appears to be a promising means of estimating Su from CPT ii) the method of Campanella et al.

6 Use o f Friction Sleeve Measurements Comparisons between friction sleeve measurements and Su indicate that the sleeve friction is close to the remolded shear strength Sur. 158 consolidated deposits iii) when using a cavity expansion approach.2.between Bq and OCR since Bq i s also a function of sensitivity and soil stiffness v) there is no d i s c e r n i b l e relation between Nkt and Bq vi) there appears to be fairly consistent relationships between N A U and Bq and between Nke and Bq vii) the best correlation is between Nke and Bq. unless careful attention is paid to the details discussed in section 8. Estimates of sensitivity (field vane) were best made using St = _6 Rf t% where the friction ratio Rft has been calculated using bearing and friction corrected for pore pressure effects. spherical cavity expansion methods should be used for pore pressures measured on the face and cylindrical cavity expansion for those measured behind the tip iv) the pore pressure parameter Bq d e c r e a s e with increasing OCR.2. however. but there is no unique realtionship. particularly in sensitive soils.1 considerable error in the calculation of Nke can result 8. .

3 or from figures 6. or 7. it is best that local correlations be used. 8. 159 8. Sensitivity can be estimated from the friction ratio a n d OCR c a n be estimated from the site geology or the cone bearing. or 7.2.1 Use of CPT D a t a Without Pore Pressures It is not recommended t h a t CPT d a t a be used that does not include pore p r e s s u r e s .2.3 Recommended P r o c e d u r e s for Estimating Su f r o m CPT The fact that Su a n d CPT c o r r e l a t i o n s can be affected by many various parameters indicates that a single method can not work in all clay types.2 Use of CPT D a t a With Pore Pressures T o make use of a combination of the various proposed methods of correlation an iterative approach can be used.3.3. An estimate of the appropriate cone factor would have to be made from tables 6. The engineer s h o u l d not rely on a single method but instead s h o u l d use a variety of methods to determine the best estimate of S u .1. 6. The following describes recommended procedures for estimating Su from CPT. This can be d o n e using the following steps: 1) Estimate Sensitivity (St) from Rf (friction ratio) 2) Estimate OCR f r o m Bq (figure 7. 8. 6. Where possible. An knowledge of PI.40).41. The variation in Nc a n d Nk is too great and without pore pressures there is no alternate method for confirming the appropriate cone factor.1. or . site geology. sensitivty a n d OCR w o u l d be helpful.

4 5) from figure 6. 160 cone bearing 3) knowing St a n d OCR e s t i m a t e Af 4) Estimate G / S u from PI using figure 6.43) and Nkt (using table 7.41) .42 using Bq 7) Iterate until the NAU v a l u e s are compatibale 8) Using N AU e s t i m a t e Su 9) check the estimate of Su a g a i n s t those estimated from Nke (using Bq a n d figure 7.5 estimate NAU 6) Compare this value with NAU obtained from figure 7.3 or figure 7.

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1 67 APPENDIX A COMPARISON BETWEEN A CPT BEARING PROFILE AND A CONTINUOUS SAMPLE LOG .

grey silty clay •silty fine to medium sand grey silty clay sandy clay grey silty clay grey silty clay. HYDRO R A I L SITE LANGLEY B.C. occasional sand lense Figure A. some fine sand flne sand grey silty clay. C.CONE BEARING CONTINUOUS BOREHOLE LOG Qt (bar) 20 START OF CONTINUOUS BOREHOLE fine to coarse sand B.la COMPARISON BETWEEN A CPT BEARING PROFILE AND A CONTINUOUS SAMPLE LOG .

C. HYDRO R A I L SITE layered a l l t y c l a y and s i l t y fine sand L A N G L E Y B.CONE BEARING CONTINUOUS BOREHOLE LOG Qt (bar) 20 gray s i l t y clay. ( l a y e r s a p p r o x . occasional sand tense fins sand gray s i l t y clay B.lb COMPARISON BETWEEN A CPT BEARING PROFILE AND A CONTINUOUS SAMPLE LOG . 1cm) fine aand grey a l 1 t y clay VC- i l I t y f Ine sand laminated s i l t y f i n e sand and s i l t y clay grey a l l t y clay fine sand grey a l l t y clay a l I t y f Ine aand grey s i l t y clay Figure A.C.

Ic COMPARISON BETWEEN A CPT BEARING PROFILE AND A CONTINUOUS SAMPLE LOG . slightly inclined . C . HYDRO R A I L SITE In sand content with depth L A N G L E Y 9. little clay F i g u r e A.My clay silty fIne sand grey fine sand grey silty cI ay silty sand. CONTINUOUS BOREHOLE LOG CONE BEARING Qt ( b a r ) • 20 grey silty cI a y grey silty clay.grey s 1 1 t y c 1 av ffne sflty sand. interbedded fine silty sand and 5. C. some clay grey slIty clay. some f i n e sand lenses grey sl1ty clay grey silty clay and f i n e sand sand lense. some clay g' e y 5 f 1 t y clay grey s u ty snnd grey silty clay — grey silty clay grey silty sand. Increasing B.

5 • F i g u r e A. o c c a s 1ona 1 f t ne sancl I ayer —grey silty clay" - grey silty clay. 0 grey s f 1 ty c 1 ay. some fine sand partings grey s1J t y c l a y B. CONTINUOUS BOREHOLE LOG CONE BEARING Ot ( b a r ) 20 10.Id COMPARISON BETWEEN A CPT BEARING PROFILE AND A CONTINUOUS SAMPLE LOG . HYDRO RAIL SITE LANGLEY B.C. UJ sandy clay. some f1ne sand partings fine t o medium sandy clay grey silty clay. t r a c e silt grey silty c1 a y s11 t y f I n e sand laminated grey sflty clay and f i n e sand s11ty sand. C. sand content increasing with depth a f \ ne s a n d . Inclined sand layer 1cm thick fj L a E grey s11ty clay 0. grey silty c1 a y . some she 1 I fragments grey silty clay 12. some s i l t y fine sand u grey silty clay.

Figure A.le COMPARISON BETWEEN A CPT BEARING PROFILE AND A CONTINUOUS SAMPLE LOG .