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Concepts, Systems & Practices

Professor, NVSU CF
Agroforestry = Trees + Non-tree Crops and/or Animals

Combination of crops in agroforestry
A collective name for land-use systems and
technologies where woody perennials are
deliberately used in the same land
management unit as agricultural crops
and/or animals either in some form of spatial
arrangement or temporal sequence. Growing crops together
at the same time Growing crops in rotation
(Lundgren and Raintree 1983)

Materials from one are used to benefit

Trees in agroforestry
Agroforestry includes a recognition
Sun light of the interactions of crops, both
favorable and unfavorable.
 Help conserve soil,
especially on hillsides
Trees Trees

 Improve soil fertility
 Add beauty
c c
 Provide shade
Litter Litter
Litter Litter

b  Source of materials or
products (food, lumber,
d d sap, resins, tannins,
Negative effects Positive effects medical compounds,
a = shading c = litter fall fuel)
b = root competition d = deep roots of trees
act as ‘safety-net’
Legumes fix nitrogen


 Animals for feeding the farmer.  Crops for feeding the animals.  Crops for good nutrition.  Crops for feeding the farmer. Benefits from Agroforestry Maximum use of land Grass strips hedgerows Increases production/income Conserves soil 2 .Crops (non-tree crops) in Animals in agroforestry agroforestry  Crops for making money.  Animals for furnishing manure.  Crops for self sufficiency.  Animals for non-food products.  Animals for using crop residues.  Animals for making money.  Crops for protecting the soil.  Animals for supplying labor.

are piled at the base of the rows of nitrogen fixing A-frame is used to locate contour. branches and leaves. terraces will be formed which will anchor the precious soil in its right place. strong. and so trees. As the years go by. Green terraces enriches the soil and effectively controls erosion Organic materials such as straw. twigs. and also rocks and stones. permanent is the “cow back” method. Improves soil Improves soil timber wheat rice corn Protects water sources Short term food production offsetting cost of establishment of trees 3 . stalks.

PICOP system 8. Live fence/Boundary planting 5.g. Alley cropping system 3. Windbreak systems 6. or for timber to be lands harvested productive  Agroforestry = Short-term crops + Long-term crops  Agroforestry = Short-term investment + Long-term investment  Economic implication: reduced risks because of diversification of crops Economically productive ! Cogon Agroforestry systems in the Philippines and the humid tropics 1. Rice-terraces forest system Fallowing Indigenous agroforestry systems Indigenous agroforestry systems 4 . Multistorey systems 4. Forest in agroforestry systems/Agroforest Long term production of fuelwood and timber e. Short-term crops providing income while Makes farmers are waiting for the permanent unproductive crops to bear fruit. Silvipastoral systems 9. Taungya system 7. Indigenous agroforestry systems 2..

SALT is an alley cropping system Alley cropping systems Coconuts Gliricidia Cacao Sloping Agricultural Land Technology Cassava SALT is a package technology on soil conservation and food production. integrating different soil conservation measures in just one setting. Multistorey Systems Live fence/Boundary planting Windbreak systems 5 .

the remaining 20% is used for growing agricultural crops. Farmers grow timber on 80% of the land that PICOP owns. Taungya system PICOP system Gmelina arborea Grass + LCC (Callopogonium) Silvipastoral systems Silvipastoral systems Problems? Forest in Agroforestry systems 6 .

Hedgerows occupy approximately 20% of the farm. Notes Proof of better production and income Hedgerows take area of farm out of production thereby reducing production Yes. production will increase. For example. in SALT demo farm. it was reported that the yield of corn increased by fourfolds. Maraming Salamat Po! Agroforestry will provide solutions. But once hedgerows are contributing to soil fertility. this is true particularly during the first year or first few years. 7 .

97 kg N or 12.A Valuable Species in Soil Conservation • High. Slope (%) Interval (m) 60) 10-15 25-30 16-25 20-24 26-40 15-19 41-60 10-14 >60 4-9 Some agroforestry species Characteristics of desirable trees Flemingia strobilifera • Nitrogen fixers • Multiple uses • Must not cast too much shade Stylosanthes guyanensis • Deep rooted but roots should not spread too much Flemingia macrophylla .6 bags of solphos (0-20-0) Hedgerow interval • 101. open crown and sparse foliage Recommended species: -Ipil-ipil (leucocephala and diversifolia) -Calliandra tetragona/colothysus -Flemingia macrophyalla -Gliricidia sepium ** Cassia species are doubful nitrogen fixers Desmodium tortuosum Desmodium triflorum 8 .85 kg og K or 13. small.4 bags of muraite of potash (0-0.7 bags of urea (45-0-0) 153 kg P or 13. 20.37 ton/ha • • 291.Ipil-ipil prunings.