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# Engineering

CIV2226

Design
g of Concrete & Masonry
y
Structures

Dr. Ye Lu
Lecture #4 (week 5)
P
Previously
i l on this
hi topic
i
• Serviceability Design: Deflection
1. calculate ∆tot = ∆l + ∆s ≤ ∆allow
2. check span-to-depth ratios Lef/d
• Ser iceabilit Design
Serviceability Design: Crack Width Control
1. Reinforcement ratio > pmin
2 Check concrete cover and bar spacing
2.
3. Steel stresses < allowable stress

## Some key concepts

• dn for uncracked section is not equal to dn for fully cracked section
• Ief ≈ Icr for RC beams
• Bending moments for calculating ∆l and ∆s are different because of load factors
Today’s Lecture (Chapters 3)
A l i and
Analysis d Design
D i off Flexural
Fl l Strength
St th off RC Beams
B
Stress-strain diagram for steel

s

fsy

yield point
r pt re
rupture

## sy = 0.0025 for 500MPa steel st

Stress-strain diagram for concrete in compression

c

crushing of concrete
f’c

cu=0.003

c
Changes in compressive stress with increasing
moment
c c c c f’c
c=u =0.003
kd/3
dn

dn C
jd=d-kd/3
jd d kd/3

st
st st
ct ct
T = Ast st
Before cracking After cracking Crushing of concrete
(Bottom concrete: linear (Bottom concrete: cracked (Bottom concrete: cracked
Top concrete: linear) Top concrete: linear) Top concrete: non-linear)
non linear)
Distribution of compressive stresses in concrete
near failure of beam
f’c f’c
c=u =0.003

 Kud/2
 ku d

dn = ku d C C

NA
N.A. NA
N.A. NA
N.A.
b
Strain diagram Actual stress Equivalent stress
distribution block

d
f’c
ku: Depth of neutral axis factor

cu=0.003 Ast

c
Distribution of compressive stresses in concrete
near failure of beam
f’c f’c

 Kud/2
 ku d

C C

N.A. N.A.

## Actual stress Equivalent stress

distribution block

## For normal strength concretes with f’c≤ 50 MPa:

=0 85
=0.85
Failure modes defined through strain state in
section
f’c c = u = 0.003
kud < kubd
dnbb = kubbd
ductile failure
c (under - reinforced) balanced failure

## kud > kubd

s
brittle failure
fsy
(over - reinforced)

## st < sy

sy st st = sy
st > sy

## (sy = 0.0025 for 500MPa bars)

Over-reinforced beam brittle failure

f’c

c

s
fsy

sy st
Under-reinforced beam ductile failure

f’c

c

s
fsy

sy st
Ductility limits on depth of NA factor ku
 The depth of neutral axis dnb = kub d in a balanced failure state:
c = u = 0.003

kub d 0.003
 ,  sy 0.0025 for 500 MPa bars kud < kubd
d  kub d  sy ductile failure
dnb = kubd
balanced failure
(under - reinforced)

kub 0.003
 kud > kubd

## 1  kub 0.0025 brittle failure

(over - reinforced)

kub 0.545 b

d
st < sy
st = sy

## Ast st > sy

Ductility Limits on depth of NA factor ku
 To ensure a gradual ductile failure, the beam has to be
under-reinforced. This can be satisfied by setting a limit
on the depth of neutral axis factor ku to be less than that
corresponding to a balanced failure state:
ku < kub

##  According to AS 3600, ku  0.36. This will result in an

adequate ductility provided in the beam.
Ductility limits on the amount of tension steel
  2 fc  ku d b = Ast max fsy (force equilibrium)
 Maximum allowable steel ratio for sections with tension
reinforcement only:
pmax = Astmax / bd = 2  ku fc / fsy
 Steel
St l ratio
ti p = Ast / bd < pmax 0.85 f c

b
 kk2uud/2
d
 ku d

C C
d

A st N.A.
Equivalent
E i l t stress
t
block
Minimum amount of flexural reinforcement
 AS3600 sets a lower limit on the steel ratio pmin based on
the requirement that the ultimate moment capacity Mu be
greater than the cracking moment Mcr by at least 20%.
20%
 This is to avoid sudden collapse by steel fracturing upon
initiation of cracking.
cracking

A D
2
f ct' , f
OR p  st  p min   b  
bw d d  f sy
Minimum amount of flexural reinforcement

bef

Ds(tf)
d

Ast

bw
bef: effective width of the flange
g
bw: width of web
fsy: characteristic yield strength of steel reinforcement
ct f: characteristic flexural tensile strength
f’ct,f g of concrete = 0.6 √f’c
Ds: overall depth of a slab (= tf, depth of flange)
Summary

## 1. The stress c ( ) f’c when strain reaches cu

2. Over reinforced, brittle failure
Concrete crush ( ) steel yield
3 Under reinforced,
3. reinforced ductile failure
Concrete crush ( ) steel yield
4 How to ensure a ductile failure
4.
ku < ( ), or p < ( )
5. Check
C ( ) to avoid sudden collapse
Ultimate Moment Capacity of RC Beams: Mu
Moment capacity of under-reinforced rectangular
sections b  =0.003 f’ c
cu

C
ku d ku d

d
ju d

Ast
stt T = A st fsyy

C=T
 2 fc  ku d b = Ast fsy
Ast f sy Ast f sy f sy
ku   p
 2 f c  bd bd   2 f c  2 f c'
' '

## Satisfying ku  0.36 is equivalent to p  pmax=  2  ku fc / fsy

 k d   k 
M u T ju d  Ast f sy  d  u   Ast f sy d 1 u 
 2   2 
Strength design requirements
 Mu: ultimate
lti t momentt capacity
it off section
ti
 M*: design bending moment
 : capacity reduction factor
M*
 M u M , *
or M u 

Ast f sy Astt f sy f sy
ku   p
 2 f c  bd bd   2 f c  2 f c'
' '

  ku d    ku  M *
M u T ju d  Ast f sy  d    Ast f sy d 1 
 2   2  
, capacity
i reduction
d i factors
f

## =0.8 for simplicity

AS3600 p.30
Flanged Beams

bef
bef
Ds bw bw

L L
Effective flange width bef
• T
T-Beams:
Beams: bef = bw + 0.2
02a
• L-Beams: bef = bw + 0.1 a
• a: the distance between points of zero bending moment
a = L for simply supported span
a = 0.7
0 7 L for
f continuous
ti span
bef
bef
Ds bw bw

L L
Analysis of T-Beams

 2 f'c
bef  cu =0.003

C
ku d  k u d

tf
d
ju d

A st
T = A st f sy
 st

bw
Depth of compression block within the flange

bef  2 f'c
 cu=0.003

C
ku d k u d

d
tf
ju d

A st
T = A st fsy
 st

bw
 2 f’c γ ku d bef=Ast fsy

##  Analyse as a singly reinforced rectangular section

Depth of compression block outside the flange

bef
 2 f'c
 cu =0.003

Cf
flange flange ku d ku d
web
tf Cw
d

d - tf/2
ju d

A st
T = A st f sy
 st

bw
bef  2 f'
cu=0.003
0 003 c

Cf
flange flange ku d ku d
web
tf Cw
d
d - tf/2
ju d

Ast
st T = Ast fsyy

bw
 Compression
p g Cf = 2 f'c ((bef - bw) tf
force in the flange:
 Compression force in the web: Cw = 2 f’c bw  ku d
q
 Equilibrium in horizontal direction:
 Cf + Cw = Ast fsy
  ku = (Ast fsy - Cf) / ( 2f'c bw  d)
 Moment capacity:
 Mu = Cw ju d + Cf (d - tf /2)
 = Cw (d -  ku d /2) + Cf (d - tf /2)
Singly and doubly reinforced sections

b
b dsc
bef
Asc

ku d

tf d
d
d

A st A st Ast

bw

(next week)
Strength design for RC beams in bending
1. O
1 Over reinforced:
i f d b brittle
ittl ffailure
il
2. Under reinforced: ductile failure
3 B
3. Bending
di capacity it
a) force equilibrium (C=T)
b) check ku or p for under-reinforced beam design
c) ultimate moment capacity = force x lever arm
4. Check pmin to avoid sudden collapse