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Joie Marie S.

Caballero

COMMUNICATION DURING CRISES


I. CRISIS
a. Crisis can be defined as an emergency situation of discomfort, which emerges
suddenly and threatens the ordinary functioning of an organization
b. The origin of the concept of crisis is the ancient Greek word “krisis” that means
"decision"
c. Crisis represents an unstable structure and status, which does not operate
properly and requires a reform

II. CRISIS MANAGEMENT


a. The process by which an organization deals with a disruptive and unexpected
event that threatens to harm the organization, its stakeholders or the general
public
b. An effective crisis management requires being prepared for the crisis and having
plans before

III. RELEVANCE OF CRISIS MANAGEMENT


a. It increases the safety and well-being of the organization and the general public
b. It is good for public relations and can prevent tarnishing the reputation of the
organization or agency
c. It minimizes downtime and increases productivity and provision of service
d. It gives more peace of mind to the public administrators and stakeholders

IV. TYPES OF CRISES


a. Natural Crisis
 Disturbances in the environment and nature lead to natural crisis.
 Such events are generally beyond the control of human beings.
 Tornadoes, Earthquakes, Hurricanes, Landslides, Tsunamis, Flood, Drought all
result in natural disaster.

b. Technological Crisis
 Technological crisis arises as a result of failure in technology. Problems in the
overall systems lead to technological crisis.
 Breakdown of machine, corrupted software and so on give rise to technological
crisis.

c. Confrontation Crisis
 Confrontation crises arise when employees fight amongst themselves. Individuals
do not agree to each other and eventually depend on non-productive acts like
boycotts, strikes for indefinite periods and so on.
 In such a type of crisis, employees disobey superiors; give them ultimatums and
force them to accept their demands.
 Internal disputes, ineffective communication and lack of coordination give rise
to confrontation crisis.
 It can also arise due to the initiative of the general public through rallies and
strikes.

d. Crisis of Malevolence
 Organizations face crisis of malevolence when some notorious employees take
the help of criminal activities and extreme steps to fulfill their demands.
 Acts like kidnapping, terrorism, cybercrime, espionage, false rumors all lead to
crisis of malevolence.

e. Crisis of Organizational Misdeeds


 Crises of organizational misdeeds arise when management takes certain
decisions knowing the harmful consequences of the same towards the
stakeholders and external parties.
 In such cases, superiors ignore the after effects of strategies and implement the
same for quick results.

Three types:

1. Crisis of Skewed Values of Administrators


 This crisis arises when the administration support short term growth and
ignores broader issues.
2. Crisis of Deception
 Organizations face crisis of deception when the administration
purposely tampers data and information.
 The administration makes fake promises and wrong commitments to
the customers. Communicating wrong information about the
organization and products lead to crisis of deception.
3. Crisis of Misconduct
 Organizations face crisis of misconduct when administration indulges
in deliberate acts of illegality like accepting bribes, passing on
confidential information and so on.

f. Crisis due to Workplace Violence


 Such a type of crisis arises when employees are indulged in violent acts such as
beating other employees, superiors in the office premises itself.

g. Crisis Due to Rumors


 Spreading false rumors about the organization and its leaders/administrators
lead to crisis.

h. Financial Crisis
 A crisis also arises when organizations fail to pay its creditors and other parties.
 Lack of fund leads to crisis.
V. STAGES OF CRISIS MANAGEMENT

PREVENTION PREPAREDNESS RESPONSE RECOVERY

a. PREVENTION
 This is also called the PLANNING STAGE
 A well-laid-out plan helps the government minimize any damage that may occur
 Creation of crisis management team
 A comprehensive list of all possible crises that could impact the public should be
created

b. PREPAREDNESS
 Once an effective crisis management plan is in place, it should be reviewed and
updated
 Create mock crises or drills and get a clearer picture of the team's ability to
practice plans into operations effectively

c. RESPONSE
 The crisis response phase is that in which the actual crisis occur
 In preparing a response to the situation, administrators/ officials must determine if
the issue should be addressed or if it will resolve itself

d. RECOVERY
 When the crisis is over, the focus has to shift on rebuilding
 can be time-consuming and expensive
EXAMPLE OF A CRISIS MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK (National Security Council)

The National Crisis Management Framework provides a comprehensive


approach to understanding the components of a crisis or the 5Ps of crisis management:
Predict, Prevent, Prepare, Perform and Post-Action and Assessment.

CRISIS COMMUNICATION PLAN

1. Identify and define the crisis


2. Research
3. Establish a spokesperson
4. Develop key messages
5. Communicate
6. Monitor
7. Follow-up
8. Evaluate
VI. ROLES OF CRISIS ACTORS (Philippines’ National Disaster Response Plan)
REFERENCES

Rosenthal, uriel & kouzmin, alexander (1997), crises and crisis management; toward
comprehensive government decision making, journal of public administration research
and theory,vol. 7/2: 277-304.

Pearson, christine m. & clair judith a. (1998), reframing crisis management. The
academy of management review, vol. 23, no. 1, 59-76.

https://www.westeastinstitute.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/Omer-Faruk-TEKIN.pdf

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crisis_management

http://www.managementstudyguide.com/types-of-crisis.htm

http://www.nsc.gov.ph/index.php/9-about-us/39-crisis-management

http://www.ndrrmc.gov.ph/attachments/article/3031/NDRP_Consequence_Managem
ent_for_Terrorism_related_Incidents.pdf

.com/types-of-crisis.htm