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Table of Contents

Preface Acknowledgements Introduction: Toward a Radical Mycology

vii

ix

xvii

Part I: Expression

Chaos Fungorum

1 Naming Fungi The Fungal Features and Forms The Fungal Phyla Oomycota The Finer Points of the Fungi ElectroMycology and the EZ Hypha Fungal Morphogenesis The Geometry of Fungi

Fungi Being

1

1

4

5

10

11

18

21

24

27

2

The Mycorrhizosphere

Lessons from the Vocal Fungi

28

The Seven Types of Mycorrhizae

31

Nutrients, Cycled

38

The Black Box of Soil: Deeper Insights

41

The Mycobiome

43

The Fungi of Antarctica

46

Successional Enforcers:

48

Recomposing Life: Saprotrophic Fungi

53

Waves of Marine Fungi

58

The Spiral of Succession

59

Of the Hyphosphere

61

3

Pansporia, Prototaxites, and Paleomycology

61

Ethnomycology

66

Fungi of Fire

69

Mycoligarchs No More

71

To Fear Fungi

75

Fungal HERstory: How Women Shaped Mycology By Mara Fae Penfil and Fern Katz

82

Part II: Connection

Seeing Fungi

87

4

To Call a Mushroom by Any Other Name

87

What About Poisonous Mushrooms?

88

MycoShwag

92

In Land, of Land

93

Legal Issues

94

Noting Nuances

94

Identifying Plants

96

Species Lists

96

Grinnell Journaling

96

Harvest, Ritual

97

The Take

98

The Basics of Field Guides and Keys

98

LBMs

100

Macro Mushroomery

100

Mycroscopy

101

Spore Stature

102

Squash Mounts

103

The Taste for Truffles

103

What if I Can’t Identify it?

104

Identifying Endophytes

105

Identifying Slime Molds

105

Identifying Arbuscular Mycorrhizae

106

Fungi for a Future

107

Common AM Genera

107

Commercial Foraging

108

Radical Lichenology

111

By Nastassja Noell

5

What is a Lichen?

111

The Relationship Between Bionts

113

Lichen Needs

113

Seeing Lichens

114

The Reproductive Structures of Lichens

115

Lichen Chemistry

115

Lichen Phylogenetics Photosymbiodemes:

Why Photobionts Matter Lichen Biodiversity and Bioindications Lichens Being Identifying Lichens DIY Chemical Spot Tests Harvesting Ethics and Tips Lichen Herbaria Culturing Lichens in the Lab In Situ Cultivation for Environmental Regeneration Citizen Science Final Thoughts

116

118

118

119

121

126

129

129

132

134

135

139

Part III: Relation

The Spores of Life

143

6

Megafood-Medicine of the Macro Fungi

143

General Preparation Tips

145

Precautions

145

Grain Spawn is Food-Medicine

147

Preserving Mushrooms

152

Of Fermenting Fungi

154

Mycotonics

156

Tried and True Kombucha Brews

157

Spirits and Bread

158

DIY Stir Plates

166

Tempeh

166

Incubators

167

Koji

168

Moldy Cheese

169

Other Fungal Ferments

170

The Pharmycopeia

171

7

Origins

171

The Main Types of Immune Response Cells

174

The Medicine of Mushrooms

174

Notable Species

176

In Preparation of the Medicine

180

MycoIntuiting and Medicine Circles

182

Triple Extracts

182

Customized MycoMedicine

184

Powdered Grain Spawn

184

Mushroom Juice

185

The Medicine of a Liquid Culture

186

Mycomeiopathics

187

MycoFormulations

188

AlcheMycology: Alchemical Explorations Into the Fungal Queendom By Jason Scott

188

Part IV: Collaboration

Working With Fungi

201

8

Mushroom Cultivation: A Play in Four Acts

201

The Species We Grow

202

Fungamental Principles and Patterns of Mushroom Cultivation

202

Working With Contaminants

207

Work Spaces

210

Containers, Air Filtration, and Closure

214

Mushroom Nutrition

216

Substrate Formulation

217

What About C:N?

218

Selenium-Rich Mushrooms

220

Cleaning Substrates

220

A

Note on Safety

223

It

Depends

224

Can I Reuse the Water?

Food-Medicine for Low to No Dough

226

Questions to Consider

227

Mental Preparation and Self Care

228

About Agar

228

Stage 1: Agar and Liquid Inoculum

228

The Agar Vessel

230

Wrapping Plates

232

Sourcing Inoculum

233

Heat Sources for Sterilizing Tools

234

When is Inoculum Ready for Stage 2?

246

Stage 2: Grain Spawn

247

When is Grain Spawn Ready for Stage 3?

252

Stage 3: Preparing and Inoculating Fruiting Substrates

253

On Sourcing Hardwood

254

On Sourcing and Using Soft Wood

255

No-Tech Kits

257

Fruiting With the Seasons

264

Planning and Scheduling

265

Coffee and Cardboard as Substrates:

266

The Fungi in Compost

270

The Cobweb Mold of Casing Layers

272

Stage 4: Fruiting

273

The Fruiting Room of Fungi Ally

277

Dual Function Timers

278

PF Tek

279

What Do I Do With Myceliated Substrates When They Stop Fruiting?

280

Preserving Genetics and Culture Libraries

281

Stopping Early

284

Suggestions for Running a Community Lab

284

How I Back Up Cultures

285

Advanced Skills

287

The Mycocultural Revolution

291

9

The 15 Principles of Natural Mushroom Farming and Regenerative Mycology

Weaving the Web Tighter

292

The Fungal Needs Revisited

296

Naturalized Inoculum

296

Naturalized Inoculations

299

Making Plug Spawn

303

Mycorrhizae Cultivation

309

Spent Spawn Beds

309

Isolating and Identifying Mycorrhizal Spores

313

Cultivating Truffles

314

Trichoderma Compost Activator and Plant Supporter

315

Working With Endophytic Fungi

316

Mycodynamics: The Sidereal Timing and Bioenergetics of Mushroom Cultivation

317

Other Helpful Design Elements

320

Integrating the Elements:

324

Spent Spawn Plant Hormone

326

Mycelium: The Plastic of the Future, Now

328

Mycosystematics: The Art of Natural Mushroom Farming Design

329

Zones of Fungal Homes

331

Natural Mushroom Farming in Extreme Environments

332

TLC

334

Fungi for a Future

335

10

Mycoremediation at a Glance

Example Scenarios of Common Problems

336

Holistic Remediation

336

Sorbing Soils

338

A Standard of Care

340

Site Assessment and Case History

343

Safety First!

344

Determining Efficacy

345

DIY TLC Plates

347

The Facets of Fungal Remediation

348

Sources, Forms, and Habits of Heavy Metals

353

Trichodermamediation

359

Petroleum Hydrocarbons

360

The Cast of Chemical Characters

360

Strategies for Chemical Remediation

365

Commerical Remediation

366

Fungi and the Plastics Problem

370

Experimental Design: A Primer

371

Putting it All Together:

372

Where to Grow from Here

374

Part V: Integration

The Mycelium is the Message

379

11

Digging to the Rhizomorphic Level

Radical Mycologists as Change Agents

382

Mycomemetics: Be the Media, Spread Your Spores

388

Mycomimicry:

388

Enzyme Production: Other Skills

390

Case Study: The Olympia Mycelial Network

392

Case Study: Bay Area Applied Mycology By Joseph Soeller

393

Sharing Fungi With Children By Maya Elson

395

The Sex Life of Mushrooms By Willoughby Arevalo

398

MycoGnosis

403

12

The Varieties of Psychoactive Fungi

404

But Why?

407

On “Bad Trips”

408

The Life Cycle of Amanita muscaria

409

Insects, Mammals, and Psychedelics

411

Psychoactive Fungi and the War on Drugs

412

Psychoactive Fungi and Culture

413

Know Your Rights

413

The Varieties of “Shamanic” Experiences

415

Santa Claus the Mushroom

418

Psychoactive Fungi in Symbolism and Myth

423

Mushrooms and Religion

424

Philosophy and Psychoactive Mycology By Peter Sjöstedt-H

429

Psychedelics in the 20 th Century

432

Psilocin Mushrooms in Mexican Cultures

433

Psiloc(yb)in in the 21 st Century

436

Psychedelics in Perspective

437

Closing Spores

443

Species Profiles

Non-Cap and Stalk

447

Cap and Stalk

465

Lichens

487

Appendices

A ID Forms

499

B Endangered Fungi

507

C Fungal Toxins

511

D Fungal Dyes and Paper

515

E Mycelial Healing Exercises By Mara Fae Penfil

521

F Equipment List

525

G Cultivation Parameters

529

H Media Cookbook

539

I Cultivation Tracking Forms

549

J Suggested Projects

557

K Working With Psychoactive Fungi

559

L Psilocin Mushroom Niches

563

M Facilitated Mycology

567

N Online Resources

571

O Salv Age By Jackson Tegu

577

P MycoJokes

587

Q Latin and Greek Derivations

589

Glossary

593

Bibliography

601

Endnotes

611

Image Credits

637

Contributor Biographies

639

Index

641

Bibliography 601 Endnotes 611 Image Credits 637 Contributor Biographies 639 Index 641