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Heat and mass transfer Chapter 1 - AUB

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Course Description

This course covers the principles of heat and mass transfer. The contents include

conductive and convective heat transfer; radiation heat transfer; process heat

exchangers; diffusion mass transfer; Two-film theory; Gas scrubbers.

Prerequisites

MECH 310 Thermodynamics-1

CHEN 311 Introduction to Fluids Engineering

Lectures

MTWR

11:30-12:40

FS-1 ROOM 206

Prof. Joseph Zeaiter, FS1 403, ext 3548 (Office Hrs: MW 2-3PM)

Textbook

Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer, Incropera, DeWitt, Bergman and

Lavine, 6th / 7th edition, Wiley.

Course Topics

• Conduction

• Convective heat transfer (free and forced)

• Heat & Mass Transfer coefficients correlations for internal and

external flow conditions

• Heat exchanger design and analysis, LMTD, effectiveness and NTU

method

• Radiation heat transfer, radiation intensity, blackbody radiation,

Kirchhoff’s law

• Diffusion mass transfer, Fick’s law

• Diffusion with and without chemical reactions

• Convective mass transfer, two-film theory

• Gas scrubbers

Grading

Homework and Attendance 10%

3 Exams (30% each)

Learning Outcomes

• Evaluate and explain the role of conduction, convection and radiation heat

transfer schemes

• Ability to solve conduction heat transfer problems

• Understand the fundamentals of the relationship between fluid flow,

convection heat transfer and mass transfer

• Calculate heat and mass transfer convection coefficients

• Design heat exchangers using LMTD and NTU-ε methods

• Select materials and design heat exchangers to optimize heat transfer

• Understand the basic concepts of radiation heat transfer to include both

black body radiation and gray body radiation

• Analyze mass transfer in gas-liquid unit operations

• What is heat transfer?

Heat transfer is thermal energy in transit due to a temperature

difference.

Mass transfer is the transport of one or more components of a mixture,

of fluid or solid material, within a phase or over the phase boundary,

due to a concentration difference

Modes of Heat Transfer

Conduction: Heat transfer in a solid or a stationary fluid (gas or

liquid) due to the random motion of atoms, molecules and /or

electrons.

Modes of Heat Transfer

Convection: Heat transfer due to the combined influence of bulk and

random motion for fluid flow over a surface.

Modes of Heat Transfer

Radiation: Energy emitted by matter as electromagnetic waves

(or photons).

variations in a material medium.

require a material medium and occurs most efficiently in a vacuum.

Heat Transfer Rates: Conduction

General (vector) form of Fourier’s Law:

q k T

W/m 2

W/m K °C/m or K/m

Application to one-dimensional, steady conduction across a

plane wall of constant thermal conductivity:

dT T T

qx k k 2 1

dx L

T1 T2

qx k (1.2)

L

Conduction Example:

• Calculate the heat flux across the wall and the heat transfer rate

Ans:

- 2833W/m2, 1700W

Heat Transfer Rates: Convection

Relation of convection to flow over a surface and development

of velocity and thermal boundary layers:

Convection Modes:

Q1-20 (7th)

Convection Example:

A wall has inner and outer surface temperatures of 22 and 10oC

respectively. The interior air temperatures are 26 and 10oC

respectively. The inner and outer convection heat transfer

coefficients are 5 and 20 W/m2.K

Given that the wall is 25cm 50cm , calculate the heat flux and the

heat rate from:

- Interior air to the wall

- Wall to exterior air

Is the wall under steady-state conditions?

Suppose the inner wall temperature remained unchanged, at what

outer wall temperature is steady state reached?

Ans:

-20W/m2, 2.5 W

- 0 W/m2, 0 W

- No

- 11oC

Heat Transfer Rates: Radiation

Heat transfer at a gas/surface interface involves radiation

emission from the surface and may also involve the

absorption of radiation incident from the surroundings

(irradiation from Tsur , G ), as well as convection if Ts T .

Energy outflow due to emission:

E Eb Ts4 (1.5)

E : Emissive power W/m2

: Surface emissivity 0 1

Eb : Emissive power of a blackbody (the perfect emitter)

: Stefan-Boltzmann constant 5.67×10-8 W/m2 K 4

Gabs G

Gabs :Absorbed incident radiation(W/m2 ) Reflected and transmitted

: Surface absorptivity 0 1 rays have no effect on the

G : Irradiation W/m2 thermal energy

G Gsur Tsur

4

Example 1.9 p39

Radiation Example:

irradiation from the lamp. The coating has an emissivity of 0.5

It is also exposed to air at 20oC, and a large surrounding at 30oC.

-Calculate the cure temperature of the plate if the heat transfer coefficient in

the air is 15W/m2K

Ans:

104oC

Radiation Example:

An un-insulated steam pipe passes through a room in which the air and walls are at 25oC.

The outside diameter of the pipe is 70mm, and its surface temperature and emissivity are

200oC and 0.8

- Calculate the surface emissive power and irradiation

- What is the heat loss from the pipe per unit length (q’) if the heat transfer coeff.

is 15W/m2.K

Ans:

-2270 W/m2, 447 W/m2

- 998W/m

Modes of Mass Transfer

Diffusion Mass Transfer : From Fick’s law (mass transfer analog y to Fourier’s law),

J A CDABxA

Binary diffusion coefficient or mass diffusivity (m2/s)

Convection Mass Transfer : Mass transfer from a flowing fluid to the surface of another

substance, or between two substances depends on the properties of the materials involved

and the concentration difference.

N/A = Kc ΔC

Mass transfer coefficient (m/s)

Summary

- Studied chemistry at Washington State University and Clemson University.

- Chemical engineering from the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm.

- Master's degree in chemical engineering from the University of Sydney, finishing with the

highest results in his class.

- He was awarded a Fulbright Scholarship to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1983.

- During his time in Sydney, he earned a living as a bouncer in a nightclub. While preparing for

the move to Boston, he was spotted in the nightclub he worked at in Sydney and was hired by

Grace Jones as a bodyguard, and he moved with her to New York City.

Problems

Problems

Q1-52(7th)

Problems

Q 1-39(6th)

- Find air flow through hair drier fan

- Find total heat loss

Ans: 0.0199kg/sec or 0.0181 m3/s

- 5.97 W

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