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Volume 25 No.

12 December 2017
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Class 11

CONTENTS
NEET | JEE Essentials 8
Exam Prep 23
Ace Your Way CBSE : Series 6 29
MPP-8 38
Brain Map 42

Class 12
Brain Map 43
NEET | JEE Essentials 44
Exam Prep 60
Ace Your Way CBSE : Series 7 67
MPP-8 75

Competition Edge
Olympiad Problems 79
Physics Musing Problem Set 53 82
JEE Work Outs 84
Physics Musing Solution Set 52 88

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PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17 7


Unit
PROPERTIES OF BULK MATTER
6
=5381>93C?6C?<94C i.e., Stress v Strain
Elasticity Stress = K Strain
The property of the material to recover its original shape Stress
K= where, K = modulus of elasticity
or size on the removal of deforming force is known as Strain
elasticity. Modulus of Elasticity (K) : The ratio of stress
x If a body completely regains its original form after developed to the strain produced in the body is
removal of external force, it is called a perfectly called modulus of elasticity.
elastic body. Stress
x If the body remains deformed and shows no K=
Strain
tendency to recover its original condition on
Its SI unit is N m–2 and dimension is [ML–1T –2]
removal of external forces, is said to be perfectly
plastic. x Stress-strain curve
x Strain : The ratio of change in length, volume or The given graph is a
tensile
shape of body to its original configuration is called simple case of metallic
strain. Strain may be longitudinal, volume or wire which is subjected
shearing. As it is the ratio of two similar quantities, to increasing tension.
it is a pure number and has no unit. O
¾ From O to A, the
x Stress : The restoring force developed per unit area
curve is linear
in the body when subjected to deforming force is
and body can regain its original shape after
Restoring force
called stress, i.e., Stress = = F/A removing stress i.e., Hooke’s Law is obeyed.
–2 area
SI unit is N m ¾ From A to B, stress is not proportional to strain
The dimensional formula for stress is [ML–1 T –2]. but the body still can regain its original shape.
Hooke’s Law and Stress-Strain Curve ¾ Point B, is the yield point (or elastic limit)
x Hooke’s Law : For small deformations the stress on further increasing stress beyond the
developed in the body is directly proportional to point B, the body will have a permanent set
the strain of the body. after removing the stress.

8 PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17


PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17 9
¾ From B to C and further upto D strain changes τ solid r4
rapidly for smaller stress. ∴ = 4
τ hollow r − r 4
2 1
¾ E is the fracture point where the body breaks
on applying further strain.
or
τ hollow r2 4 − r14
= =
( )(
r22 + r12 r22 − r12 )
Elastic Potential Energy τ solid r4 r4
1
x Energy density = × stress × strain
2
τ hollow r22 + r12
τ solid

r2
>1 {' (
r 2 ≅ r22 − r12 )}
1
= × Y × (strain)2. Illustration 1 : A wire suspended vertically from one of
2 its ends is stretched by attaching a weight of 200 N to the
1
x Workdone = × stress × strain × volume lower end. The weight stretches the wire by 1 mm. Then
2
what is the elastic energy stored in the wire ?
(stress)2
x Workdone per unit volume = . Soln.: Elastic potential energy
2Y
1 1 F ΔL
x For elastic constants : inter relations = × stress × strain × volume = × × × (AL)
2 2 A L
Y = Young’s modulus, K = Rigidity modulus
B = Bulk modulus, V = Poisson’s ratio 1 1
= F ΔL = × 200 × 10 −3 = 0.1 J
¾ Y = 2K(1 + V)
2 2
¾ Y = 3B(1 – 2V) 8I4B?CD1D93C*6<E94C1DB5CD
9 3 1 9B η
¾ = + or Y = . Pressure Due to Liquid
Y η B η + 3B
x The thrust exerted by a liquid at rest per unit area
3B − 2η of the substance in contact with the liquid is called
¾ σ=
6B + 2η pressure. If F is the thrust exerted by a liquid on a
x Applications surface of small area 'A, then pressure is given by
¾ Designing a beam for construction of roofs P = lim (F / ΔA)
and bridges. l ΔA→0
b = breadth of slab x The unit of pressure is dyne cm–2 in CGS system
Y = Young’s modulus of slab and N m–2 in SI. A pressure of one N m–2 is also
d = thickness of slab called pascal.
l = length x Pascal’s law : Pressure applied to enclosed liquid
Wl 3 is transmitted equally in all directions, to every
The depression in rectangular beam, δ =
or G v(l)3 4Y bd 3 position of liquid and wall of container.
x Hydrostatic pressure of liquid column :
?To minimize the depression in the beam or
Pressure = Ugh
slab short length slabs are used.
where U = density of liquid, h = height of liquid
For a beam with circular cross-section of
column.
Wl 3 x
radius r depression is, δ = Brahma’s hydraulic press is based upon Pascal’s law
12πr 4Y of liquid pressure.
¾ A hollow shaft is stronger than a solid shaft of x Unit of pressure is pascal. Its symbol is Pa.
same mass, length and material. Bar = 105 Pa, torr = 1 mm of Hg column.
Torque required to produce a unit twist in solid x Density and relative density : Density = mass/volume.
πηr 4 For water, density = 103 kg m–3.
shaft (bar) τ solid =
2L 3
¾ One litre = 1000 cc = 1000 cm = 1000 × (10 m)
–2 3
and torque for hollow shaft, –3 3
= 10 m .

τ hollow =
(
πη r2 4 − r14 ) ¾ Relative density =
Density of substance
Density of water at 4 °C
2L

10 PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17


PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17 11
Weight of substance in air x SI unit = N m–1
= Dimensions [S] = [MT –2]
Loss of weight in water
m + m2 (m1 + m2 )ρ1ρ2 x Factors affecting surface tension
¾ Density of mixture = 1 = ¾ Temperature : Surface tension decreases with
V1 + V2 (m1ρ2 + m2ρ1)
rise in temperature.
2ρ ρ 2 1 1
If m1 = m2 = m, ρ = 1 2 or = + ¾ Impurities : Highly soluble impurities
ρ1 + ρ2 ρ ρ1 ρ2 increases surface tension and sparingly soluble
? Density of mixture of two liquids is harmonic impurities decreases surface tension.
mean of the two densities. x Surface Energy : As the molecules on the surface
If V1 = V2 = V, experiences a net downward force, so to bring a
m + m2 ρ V + ρ2V ρ1 + ρ2 molecule from interior to the free surface of the
ρ= 1 = 1 = . molecule, the amount of work done against the
V1 + V2 V +V 2
internal force gets stored as the extra potential
? Density of mixture of two liquids is arithmetic energy of surface molecule is called surface energy.
mean of two densities. x SI unit = J, Dimensions [WS] = [ML2T –2]
¾ Density of liquid varies with pressure.
x Excess Pressure Inside the Drop and Bubbles
⎡ ΔP ⎤
ρ = ρ0 ⎢1 + , where 'P = change in ¾ Excess pressure inside a liquid drop
⎣ K ⎥⎦ 2S 2S
pressure, ΔP = or, P − P0 =
R R
K = bulk modulus of elasticity of liquid. ¾ Excess pressure inside a soap bubble
¾ Relative density, also known as specific gravity,
4S 4S
has no unit, no dimension. ΔP = or, P − P0 =
R R
x Laws of floatation : Weight of floating body = ¾ Excess pressure inside an air bubble in the
weight of liquid displaced. liquid
¾ Volume of body immersed = volume of liquid 2S
displaced. Excess pressure ΔP =
R
¾ When a solid body is immersed, partly or Capillarity
wholly, in a liquid at rest, it loses a weight The rise and fall of a liquid in a tube of very fine bore is
which is equal to weight of the liquid displaced called capillarity.
by the immersed portion of solid body. x Angle of contact (T) : The angle between tangent
¾ Observed weight = true weight – weight of to the liquid surface at the point of contact and
liquid displaced solid surface inside the liquid is termed as angle
or T = Mg – mg = aUgh – aVgh = ahg(U – V) of contact.
Surface Tension x Rise of liquid in a capillary tube (Ascent formula)
x The property due to Here the angle of contact
which the free surface is acute and surface of water is
Imaginary line
of liquid tends to have concave. There is a pressure
minimum surface difference between two sides
area and behaves like of the top surface.
a stretched membrane
is called surface tension. i.e., (Pi − P0 ) = 2S = 2S = 2S cos θ ...(i)
R a sec θ a
Surface tension is a force per unit length acting in Thus pressure of water inside
the plane of interface between the liquid and the the tube at meniscus is less than
bounding surface. As per the definition, atmospheric pressure.
F Points A and B are at same level so
S = where F = force acting an either side of
L the pressure must be same.
imaginary line on surface P0 + hUg = PA = Pi,
L = length of imaginary line ŸhUg = Pi – P0 ...(ii)

12 PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17


From eqns (i) and (ii) If T < 90° i.e., concave meniscus, h = positive
2S 2S Ÿ rise of liquid.
hρg = cos θ or h = cos θ
a ρga If T > 90° i.e., convex meniscus, h = negative
h = rise of capillary height Ÿ fall of liquid.
x Various properties of different liquids
Substances water and glass water and silver mercury and glass
Angle of contact almost zero/acute angle right angle = 90° obtuse angle = 135°
Meniscus shape concave plane convex
Capillary action liquid rises no effect liquid falls
Sticking to solid sticks/wets does not wet does not wet
Shape of liquid surface almost round spreads on surface flat

Illustration 2 : Two soap bubbles A and B are kept x Critical velocity : The velocity of liquid flow upto
in a closed chamber where the air is maintained at which the flow is streamlined and above which it
pressure 8 N m–2. The radii of bubbles A and B are becomes turbulent is called critical velocity.
2 cm and 4 cm, respectively. Surface tension of the x Reynold’s number : The number which determines
soap-water used to make bubbles is 0.04 N m–1. Find the nature of flow of liquid through a pipe is called
the ratio nB/nA, where nA and nB are the number of Reynold’s number.
moles of air in bubbles A and B, respectively. [Neglect Inertial force per unit area
Reynold’s number =
the effect of gravity.] Viscous force per unit area
vρr
Soln.: The excess of pressure above atmospheric or N R =
η
pressure, due to surface tension in a bubble = .
4S Where v = velocity of liquid, U = density of liquid,
R r = radius of tube,
The surrounding pressure P0 = 8 N m–2. K = coefficient of viscosity of liquid.
4S 4 × 0.04 On the basis of Reynold’s number, we have,
? PA for 1st bubble = P0 + =8+
RA 0.02 0 < NR < 2000 o streamline flow.
PA = 16 N m–2
2000 < NR < 3000 o streamline to turbulent flow.
4S 4 × 0.04
PB for 2nd bubble = P0 + =8+ = 12 N m − 2 3000 < NR o purely turbulent flow.
RB 0.04
PV = nRT Equation of Continuity
4 x If an incompressible
(16) π (0.02)3 = nART v1
3 and non-viscous liquid
⎛4 ⎞ n flowing through a tube v2
(12) ⎝ π (0.04)3 ⎠ = nB RT ; B = 6 of non-uniform cross-
A1 A2
3 nA
section with steady flow, the product of the area of
8I4B?4I>1=93C*6<E94C9>=?D9?> cross-section and the velocity of flow remains
Flow of Fluid same at every point in the tube.
x Streamline flow : The flow in which path taken by A1v1 = A2v2
a fluid particle under a steady flow is a streamline Av = constant.
in direction of the fluid velocity at that point. This equation is known as continuity equation.
x Laminar flow : The liquid is flowing with a steady
Bernoulli’s Theorem
flow and moves in the form of layers of different
velocities and do not mix with each other, is called x It states that for the streamline flow of an ideal
laminar flow. liquid through a tube, the total energy (the sum of
x Turbulent flow : The flow in which velocity is pressure energy, the potential energy and kinetic
greater than its critical velocity and the motion of energy) per unit volume remains constant at every
particles becomes irregular is called turbulent flow. cross-section throughout the tube.

PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17 13


1 dR
P + ρgh + ρv 2 = constant 2R ⋅ = 4(H − h) + 4h(−1) = 4H – 4h – 4h
2 dh
P 1 v2 0 = 4H – 8h Ÿ h = H/2.
or +h+ = another constant
ρg 2 g Range is maximum when liquid flows out from
x If the liquid is flowing through a horizontal tube, a point at mid-height of tank.
then h is constant, then according to Bernoulli’s H ⎛ H⎞
Rmax = 2 ⎜⎝ H − 2 ⎟⎠ = H same as height of
P 1 v2 2
theorem, + = constant
ρg 2 g tank itself.
x Bernoulli’s theorem is based on law of conservation x Venturi-meter : It is a device used to measure the
of energy. speed of an incompressible fluid using a U shaped
Applications of Bernoulli’s Theorem manometer attached to it with one arm at narrow
x Speed of Efflux : v = 2gh where v = velocity of end and other at broader end. Applying Bernoulli’s
efflux. principle A 1
−1/2 A
⎛ 2ρm gh ⎞ ⎡ ⎛ A1 ⎞ ⎤
2 2
¾ Velocity of efflux is the velocity acquired by a
v= ⎜ ⎢ −1⎥ v
⎝ ρ ⎟⎠ ⎢⎣ ⎜⎝ A2 ⎟⎠
freely falling body in falling through a vertical 1 v2
⎥⎦
distance h which is equal to depth of a hole, h
Where U = density of fluid
below free surface of liquid, from which liquid
flows out. Um = density of fluid
in manometer
¾ Horizontal range
When water flows h¢ A1, A2 = area of cross sections
h
B
out of a hole at depth H x Dynamic lift of ball due to Magnus effect
A
h below surface of C When a spinning ball is thrown, it deviates from its
water in a tank filled h¢ usual path in air. Due to difference in velocities of
with water upto a F E D air, a pressure difference arises in lower and upper
height H. faces and the ball lifts upward by a net upward
Water flows out from point A. force called the magnus effect.
It covers a vertical distance = (H – h) before x Lift on aircraft wings – Basic principle of an
striking the ground. Time for this vertical aeroplane.
2(H − h) Viscosity
journey = .
g x It is the property of a fluid (liquid or gas) by
Horizontal velocity of water is velocity of efflux virtue of which an internal resistance comes into
= 2gh . play when the fluid is in motion and opposes the
2(H − h) relative motion of its different layers.
Horizontal range FD = 2 gh ×
g x According to Newton, viscous force (F) of a liquid
Range R = FD = 2 h(H − h) between two layers is given by
Special case dv
F = − ηA
¾ For point B, range = 2 h′(H − h′) = FE dx
where K = coefficient of viscosity of liquid
For point C, range = 2 (H − h′)h′ = FE
A = area of each layer, dv/dx = velocity gradient
Range is same whether the point is at distance Here negative sign shows viscous force is acting in
hc below top or hc above the bottom of a tank. a direction opposite to the flow of a liquid.
¾ Maximum range x Coefficient of viscosity : It is defined as the ratio of
Range R = 2 h(H − h) shearing stress to the strain rate.
dR Shearing stress F / A Fl
For maximum horizontal range, = 0. η= = =
2 dh Strain rate v / l vA
R = 4h(H – h)

14 PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17


x The dimensional formula of K is [ML–1T –1]. Illustration 3 : A large open tank has two holes in the
x The SI unit of K is poiseuille (Pl) or Pa s or N m s.
–2 wall. One is a square hole of side L at a depth y from the
x The CGS unit of K is dyne cm–2 s called poise. top and the other is a circular hole of radius R at a depth
4y from the top. When the tank is completely filled with
1 Pl = 10 poise
water, the quantities of water flowing out per second
x The value of viscosity for ideal fluid is zero. from both holes are the same. Then find the value of R.
x Viscosity is due to transport of momentum.
Soln.: Velocity of efflux v = 2 gh
x Relative viscosity of liquid where h denotes the depth of the hole.
Viscosity of liquid η The quantities of water flowing out per second from
= =
Viscosity of water ηwater both holes are given to be the same.
x Stokes’ law : According to Stokes’ law, if a sphere of ? a1v1 = a2v2 or (L)2 × 2 gy = (πR 2 ) 2 g (4 y)
radius r moves with a velocity v through a fluid of L
or L2 = 2SR2 or R =
viscosity K the viscous drag opposing the motion is 2π
F = 6S Krv
D85B=1<@B?@5BD95C?6=1DD5B
x Terminal velocity : The constant velocity attained Heat and Thermometry
by a sphere of radius r while going down in a fluid
x Heat : Heat is the form of energy that flows
is called the terminal velocity. between a body and its surrounding by virtue of
2 r 2(ρ − σ)g temperature difference between them.
v=
9 η x The SI unit of heat is joule.
where U = density of sphere, V = density of fluid x The practical unit of heat is calorie.
medium, r = radius of sphere, K = coefficient of x 1 calorie is the amount of heat required to raise the
viscocity. temperature of 1 g of water from 14.5 °C to 15.5 °C.
Poiseuille’s Formula x Temperature : Temperature is basically a measure
x The rate of volume of fluid coming out of the tube is of degree of hotness or coldness of a body.
V πPr 4 x Different temperature scales
= where P = pressure difference, l = length
t 8 ηl Name of Symbol Lower Upper Number
of tube, r = radius of cross section of the tube the scale for each fixed fixed of
degree point point divisions
¾ Case I : Series combination of tubes (V1 = V2)
(LFP) (UFP) on the
scale
Celsius °C 0 °C 100 °C 100
V P
= ; Fahrenheit °F 32 °F 212 °F 180
t ⎡ 8ηl1 8ηl2 ⎤ Here, P = P1 + P2
⎢ 4 + 4⎥ Reaumur °R 0 °R 80 °R 80
⎣ πr1 πr2 ⎦
Rankine °Ra 460 Ra 672 Ra 212
P1 and P2 are the pressure difference across the
Kelvin K 273.15 K 373.15 K 100
first and second tube.
x Relationship between different temperature
¾ Case II : Parallel combination of tubes (P1 = P2)
scales
TC − 0 TF − 32 TR − 0 TRa − 460 TK − 273.15
= = = =
100 180 80 212 100
¾ Temperature on one scale can be converted
V ⎡ πr 4 πr 4 ⎤
= P ⎢ 1 + 2 ⎥ , Here V = V1 + V2 into another scale by using the following
t ⎣ 8ηl1 8ηl2 ⎦ identity.

PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17 15


Reading on any scale − lower fixed point (LFP) It is principle of calorimetry which is based on the
Upper fixed point (UFP) − lower fixed point (LFP) law of conservation of energy.
= constant for all scales x Heat capacity : The amount of heat required to
¾ Thermometer is an instrument used to raise the temperature of an object by one degree.
measure temperature of a body. ΔQ
s=
ΔT
Thermal Expansions
x Molar specific heat : The amount of heat required
x Increase in configuration of a solid when its
temperature increases is known as thermal to raise the temperature of one mole of a substance
expansion. There are three kinds of thermal by one degree.
expansions. ΔQ
C=
nΔT
Linear expansion : The Lf = L0[1 + D 'T]
x Latent heat : The heat required to change the phase
increase in length of a ΔL
body due to increase α = L ΔT ; SI unit { °C
–1 or state of a substance is called the Latent heat.
0 During the change of phase temperature remains
in temperature of the
body is called linear ΔL
constant but heat is being supplied to the body.
expansion. L0 ¾ Latent heat of fusion (Lf) : When phase
D = coefficient of linear changes from solid to liquid the heat required
expansion.
for the process is called latent heat of
fusion (Lf).
Superficial expansion : A = A0 (1 + E 'T)
The increase in area of ΔA ¾ Latent heat of vapourisation (Lv) : When the
E= ; phase change from liquid to gas or vapour
the body due to increase A0ΔT A0 'A
in its temperature is SI unit { °C –1 the heat required is called latent heat of
known as superficial vapourisation (Lv)
E = coefficient of
expansion. ¾ Latent heat of sublimation (Ls) : When state
superficial expansion.
changes directly from solid to gaseous state,
Volume expansion : The V = V0 (1 + J 'T) the heat required is called the latent heat of
V
increase in volume of a ΔV V 0 sublimation (Ls).
body due to increase in γ = V ΔT ; For water and ice
0 DV
its temperature is called
SI unit { °C–1 Lf = 333 KJ kg–1 or 79.5 cal g–1 or 6.01 KJ mol–1
volume expansion.
J = coefficient of volume Lv = 2256 KJ kg–1 or 539 cal g–1 or 40.7 KJ mol–1
expansion. x It can be graphically illustrated as shown in figure.
If we keep ice on a burner, as time passes more heat
Relation between D, E α β γ will be transferred to it. So on the x-axis, we have
and J = =
1 2 3 plotted Q (heat transferred) or t(time). On the
y-axis, we have T the temperature.
Calorimetry T
x When two thermodynamic systems at different (°C)
temperatures are mixed the transfer of heat takes Q = m.Lv Q = m.svap'T
Boiling point 100
place from higher temperature body to the lower of water Q = m.swater'T
temperature one. The body at higher temperature Q = m.Lf
Melting point 0
releases heat while body at lower temperature of water
absorbs it, so that Q = m.sice'T

Heat Lost = Heat gained Q (cal)

16 PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17


Heat Transfer

Conduction Convection Radiation

x The process by which heat is x The process of heat x The process of heat transfer
transferred from one point to transfer in which heat is from one point to another point
other point of a substance in the transmitted from one point without heating the intervening
direction of fall of temperature, to another due to actual medium is called radiation.
without any actual motion of x When thermal radiations (Q)
motion of heated particles
particles of the substance.
in liquids and gases. fall on a body, they are partly
x Coefficient of thermal reflected, partly absorbed and
conductivity. x Application of convection :
partly transmitted.
K = coefficient of Formation of trade winds
dQ ⎛ dT ⎞ thermal conductivity Q = Qa + Qr + Qt
= −KA ⎜ ⎟ causes monsoons,
dt ⎝ dx ⎠ A = area of the hotter Qa Qr Qt
face land and sea breezes etc. + + = a +r +t =1
Q Q Q
¾ Units and dimension of K are a = Absorptance, r = Reflectance
J m–1 s–1 K–1 and [MLT–3 K –1]. t = Transmittance

x Thermal resistance ⎛ T − TC ⎞ ⎛ TC − 2 T ⎞
∴ KA ⎜ ⎟⎠ = KA ⎜⎝ ⎟⎠
Temperature difference T1 − T2 x ⎝ 2a a
¾ R= = =
Rate of flow of heat dQ / dt KA
or T − TC = 2 TC − 2T
Greater the K, smaller will be the thermal
or 3T = TC ( 2 + 1) or
TC 3
resistance. = .
kelvin kelvin × sec
T ( 2 + 1)
Unit of R = = x Perfectly Black Body : A perfectly black body is
watt joule
that which absorbs completely the radiations of all
¾ Dimensions of R = [M–1L–2T3K]
wavelengths incident on it.
where K = dimensions of kelvin temperature. ¾ As a perfectly black body neither reflect
Illustration 4 : Three rods of identical cross-sectional nor transmit any radiation, therefore the
area and made from the same metal form the sides of absorptance of a perfectly black body is unity,
an isosceles triangle ABC, right-angled at B. The points i.e., t = 0 and r = 0 Ÿa = 1.
A and B are maintained at temperatures T and ( 2 ) T x Kirchhoff ’s Law : According to this law the ratio
respectively. In the steady state, the temperature of the of emissive power to absorptive power is same for
point C is TC. Assuming that only heat conduction takes all surface at the same temperature and is equal to
place,What is ratio of TC/T ? the emissive power of a perfectly black body at that
Soln.: For heat conduction,
ΔQ
Δt
= KA
ΔT
l ( ) temperature.

Since B is at higher temperature than A, heat flows from


B to A, A to C and then C to B, for steady state. 5H1=3?B>5B
ΔQ ⎛ T − TC ⎞ A(T) Exam Date
= KA ⎜
⎝ 2a ⎟⎠
For AC,
Δt JEE Main (Offline) 8th April, 2018

⎛T − 2 T ⎞ a √2a WB JEE 22nd April, 2018


ΔQ
For CB, = KA ⎜⎝ C ⎟⎠ JEE Advanced 20th May, 2018
Δt a 90°
Equate the two equations for B a C AIIMS 27th May, 2018
steady state. (√2 T) (TC)

PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17 17


Newton’s Law of Cooling
E1 E2 ⎛E⎞
Hence = = ... ⎝ ⎠ dQ
A1 A2 A Perfectly black body x According to this law, − = K (T − T0 ) where
dt
dQ
E = rate of loss of heat of a liquid
But for perfectly black body A = 1, i.e.,
= Eb dt
A
(T – T0) = difference in temperatures of liquid and
¾ If emissive and absorptive powers are
the surrounding.
considered for a particular wavelength O,
K = constant of proportionality
⎛ Eλ ⎞
⎜⎝ A ⎟⎠ = (E λ )black x As Q = msT where m = mass, s = specific heat of
λ liquid
x Stefan’s Law : According to this law the radiant dQ dT dT K
energy emitted per unit area per second by a = ms = −K (T − T0 ) Ÿ − = − (T − T0 )
dt dt dt ms
perfectly black body (i.e., emissive power of black Rate of fall of temperature = dT/dt
body) is directly proportional to the fourth power dT
of its absolute temperature, i.e., E vT 4 ŸE = VT 4 Rate of cooling = ms
dt
dT
where V is a constant called Stefan’s constant Rate of loss of heat = rate of cooling = ms
dt
having dimensions [MT –3K–4] and value
Illustration 5 : Two metallic spheres S1 and S2 are made
5.67 u 10–8 W m–2K–4.
of the same material and have got identical surface area.
¾ For ordinary body : E = eVT 4 The mass of S1 is thrice that of S2. Both spheres are
¾ Radiant energy : If Q is the total energy heated to the same high temperature and placed in the
radiated by the ordinary body then same room having lower temperature but are thermally
Q insulated from each other. Find the ratio of the initial
= eσT 4 ⇒ Q = eAσT 4t
A×t rate of cooling of S1 to that of S2.
¾ If an ordinary body at temperature T is Sol. : According to Stefan’s law 'Q = eVAT 4 't
surrounded by a body at temperature T0, then Also, 'Q = ms 'T ? ms 'T = eVAT 4't
Stefan’s law can be put as E = eAV (T4 – T 40)t ΔT eσAT 4 ΔT ⎛ eσT 4 ⎞ A
or = or = ⎜⎝ ⎟
x Wien’s Displacement Δt ms Δt s ⎠m
Law : According to EO T3 > T2 > T1 1/3
Om < Om < Om 4 3 ⎛ 3m ⎞
πr ρ or r = ⎜
⎝ 4πρ ⎠⎟
this law the product 3 2 1 For a sphere, m =
T3 3
of wavelength 2/3
? Area of sphere, A = 4Sr2 or A = 4S ⎛⎜ 3m ⎟⎞
T2
corresponding to Om
1
T1 ⎝ 4πρ ⎠
maximum intensity
( )
Om Om O ⎛ eσT 4 ⎞ 2/3 2/3
of radiation at a given 3 2 ΔT ⎛ 3 ⎞ m
∴ Rate of cooling = ⎜⎝ ⎟⎠ 4π × ⎜ ⎟
temperature of body Δt s ⎝ 4πρ ⎠ m
(in kelvin) is constant, i.e., OmT = b = constant = (Constant) × m–1/3
where b is Wien’s constant and has value (ΔT / Δt )S1 −1/3
⎛ m1 ⎞ ⎛ 3m ⎞
−1/3
⎛ 1⎞
1/3
2.89 u10–3 mK. ∴ =⎜
(ΔT / Δt )S2 ⎝ m2 ⎟⎠ =⎜
⎝ m ⎟⎠
=⎜
⎝ 3 ⎟⎠
¾ As the temperature of the body increases, the
””
wavelength at which the spectral intensity (EO)
is maximum shifts towards left. Therefore it is 477*3(::?00 ANSWER KEY
also called Wien’s displacement law. 1. (d) 2. (a) 3. (a) 4. (b) 5. (c)
¾ This law is of great importance in astrophysics 6. (b) 7. (a) 8. (b) 9. (a) 10. (c)
as through the analysis of radiations 11. (b) 12. (d) 13. (b) 14. (a) 15. (c)
16. (b) 17. (c) 18. (d) 19. (a) 20. (a, c, d)
coming from a distance star, by finding Om
21. (a, b,c) 22. (a, b, d) 23. (a, b, c)
the temperature of the star T = b/Om is 24. (7) 25. (4) 26. (6) 27. (c) 28. (a)
determined. 29. (b) 30. (c)

18 PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17


1. The length of a rubber cord is l1 m when the tension is (a) 55 °C
4 N and l2 m when the tension is 6 N. The length (b) 60 °C
when the tension is 9 N, is (c) 75 °C
(a) (2.5l2 – 1.5l1) m (b) (6l2 – 1.5l1) m (d) 50 °C
(c) (3l1 – 2l2) m (d) (3.5l2 – 2.5l1) m 8. A triangular lamina of area A and height h is
2. The lower end of a glass capillary tube is dipped in immersed in a liquid of density U in a vertical plane
water. Water rises to a height of 8 cm. The tube is with its base on the surface of the liquid. The thrust
then broken at a height of 6 cm. The height of water on the lamina is
column and angle of contact will be 1 1
⎛ 3⎞ ⎛ 3⎞ (a) Aρgh (b) Aρgh
(a) 6 cm, sin −1 ⎜ ⎟ (b) 6 cm, cos −1 ⎜⎝ ⎟⎠ 2 3
⎝ 4⎠ 4 2
1
(c) Aρgh (d) Aρgh
−1 ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ 3
(c) 4 cm, sin ⎜⎝ ⎟⎠ (d) 4 cm, cos −1 ⎜⎝ ⎟⎠ 6
2 2 9. A wire of initial length L and radius r is stretched by a
3. A vessel contains oil (density = 0.8 g cm3) over length l. Another wire of same material but with initial
mercury (density = 13.6 g cm–3). A homogeneous length 2L and radius 2r is stretched by a length 2l.
sphere floats with half of its volume immersed in The ratio of the stored elastic energy per unit volume
mercury and the other half in oil. The density of the in the first and second wire is
material of the sphere in g cm–3 is (a) 1 : 4 (b) 1 : 2 (c) 2 : 1 (d) 1 : 1
(a) 3.3 (b) 6.4 (c) 7.2 (d) 12.8 10. Water is flowing in streamline motion through a
4. Two wires are made of the same material and have horizontal tube. The pressure at a point in the tube
the same volume. However wire 1 has cross-sectional is P where the velocity of flow is v. At another point,
area A and wire 2 has cross-sectional area 3A. If where the pressure is P/2, the velocity of flow is
the length of wire 1 increases by Δx on applying (density of water = U)
force F, how much force is needed to stretch wire 2 P 2 P
(a) v 2 + (b) v −
by the same amount? ρ ρ
(a) F (b) 4F (c) 6F (d) 9F
2P 2P
5. A water barrel stands on a table of height h. If a (c) v2 + (d) v2 −
small hole is punched in the side of the barrel at its ρ ρ
base, it is found that the resultant stream of water 11. Water leaves a faucet with a downward velocity
strikes the ground at a horizontal distance R from of 3.0 m s–1. As the water falls below the faucet, it
the table. What is the depth of water in the barrel? accelerates with acceleration g. The cross-sectional
R2 R2 R2 4 R2 area of the water stream leaving the faucet is
(a) (b) (c) (d)
h 2h 4h h 1.0 cm2. What is the cross-sectional area of the
6. Hot food cools from 94 °C to 86 °C in 2 minutes stream 0.50 m below the faucet?
when the room temperature is 20 °C. How long (a) 0.56 cm2 (b) 0.69 cm2
2
would the food take to cool from 71 °C to 69 °C? (c) 0.29 cm (d) 0.66 cm2
(a) 12 s (b) 25 s (c) 16 s (d) 42 s 12. A thin copper wire of length L increases its length
7. Two identical rods AC and CB made of two different by 1% when heated from temperature T1 to T2. What
metals having thermal conductivities in the ratio is the percentage change in area when a thin copper
2 : 3 are kept in contact with each other at the plate having dimensions 2L × L is heated from T1
end C as shown in the figure. A is at 100 °C and to T2?
B is at 25 °C. Then the junction C is at (a) 0.5% (b) 1% (c) 2% (d) 4%

PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17 19


13. Two rods A and B of different materials are welded 18. A copper ball of mass 100 g is at a temperature T. It
together as shown in is dropped in a copper calorimeter of mass 100 g,
figure. Their thermal A K1
K filled with 170 g of water at room temperature.
conductivities are K1 and T1 T2
Subsequently, the temperature of the system is
K 2. The thermal B
B K
K 2
found to be 75 °C. T is given by (Given : room
conductivity of the d temperature = 30 °C, specific heat of copper
composite rod will be = 0.1 cal g–1 °C–1)
3(K1 + K 2 ) (a) 800 °C (b) 885 °C (c) 1250 °C (d) 825 °C
(a) (b) K1 + K2
2 [JEE Main Offline 2017]
K + K2
(c) 2(K1 + K2) (d) 1 19. An external pressure P is applied on a cube at 0°C
2
[NEET 2017] so that it is equally compressed from all sides. K is
14. A spherical black body with a radius of 12 cm the bulk modulus of the material of the cube and
radiates 450 W power at 500 K. If the radius were D is its coefficient of linear expansion. Suppose
halved and the temperature doubled, the power we want to bring the cube to its original size by
radiated in W would be heating. The temperature should be raised by
(a) 450 (b) 1000 (c) 1800 (d) 225 P P 3α
[NEET 2017] (a) (b) (c) (d) 3PKD
3αK αK PK
15. The bulk modulus of a spherical object is ‘B’. If it  [JEE Main Offline 2017]
is subjected to uniform pressure ‘P’, the fractional
20. Two tubes of radii r1 and r2, and lengths l1 and l2,
decrease in radius is
respectively, are connected in series and a liquid
B 3P P P
(a) (b) (c) (d) flows through each of them in streamline conditions.
3P B 3B B P1 and P2 are pressure differences across the two
[NEET 2017] l
16. A U tube with both ends open to the atmosphere, is tubes. If P2 is 4P1 and l2 is 1 , then the radius r2
4
partially filled with water. Oil, which is immiscible will be equal to
with water, is poured into one side until it stands at a r1
distance of 10 mm above the water level on the other (a) 2r1 (b) 2 (c) 4r1 (d) r1
side. Meanwhile the water rises by 65 mm from its
[JEE Main Online 2017]
original level (see diagram). The density of the oil is
Pa Pa SOLUTIONS
F
A 1. (a) : Let the original unstretched length be l.
E 10 mm
Final water level T l
∴ Y=
Oil 65 mm A Δl
D
Initial water level
4 l 6 l 9 l
65 mm Now Y = = =
B
A (l1 − l ) A (l2 − l ) A (l3 − l )
C
? 4(l3 – l) = 9(l1 – l) or 4l3 + 5l = 9l1 ...(i)
Water
Again, 6(l3 – l) = 9(l2 – l) or 2l3 + l = 3l2 ... (ii)
From equation (i) and (ii)
(a) 425 kg m–3 (b) 800 kg m–3 ? l3 = (2.5l2 – 1.5l1) m
(c) 928 kg m–3 (d) 650 kg m–3
2. (b) : When a capillary tube is broken at a height of
[NEET 2017]
6 cm, the height of water column will be 6 cm.
17. A man grows into a giant such that his linear
2 S cos θ h
dimensions increase by a factor of 9. Assuming As h = or = constant
that his density remains same, the stress in the leg ρrg cos θ
will change by a factor of 8 6 6 cos 0° 3
∴ = or cos θ = =
1 1 cos 0° cos θ 8 4
(a) 9 (b) (c) 81 (d)
3
9 81 or θ = cos −1 ⎛⎜ ⎞⎟
[JEE Main Offline 2017] ⎝4⎠

20 PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17


3. (c) : Upthrust force due to oil and mercury 2 °C
or = K (50 °C ) ...(ii)
V V FB t
FB = ρm g + ρ0 g
2 2 8 °C / 2 min K (70 °C )
Oil Divide (i) by (ii), we get =
' Weight of sphere is 2 °C/ t K (50 °C)
equal to the upthrust or t = 0.7 min = 42 s
force Mercury 7. (a) : Rate of flow of heat (i.e. heat current),
W = FB
KA(T1 − T2 )
V V W = V Vg H=
VVg = ρm g + ρ0 g L
2 2
Let the temperature of junction be T
ρ + ρ0 13.6 + 0.8 14.4
V= m = = = 7.2 g cm–3 K1 A(100 − T ) K 2 A(T − 25)
2 2 2 ∴ =
4. (d) : For the same material, Young’s modulus is the L L
same and it is given that the volume is the same and or K1(100 – T) = K2(T – 25)
the area of cross-section for the wire 1 is A and that of or 3T – 75 = 200 – 2Tor 5T = 275
2 is 3A. 275
V = V1 = V2, V = A × l1 = 3A × l2 or l2 = l1/3 or T= = 55 °C
5
F/A Δl Δl
As Y = ∴ F1 = YA 1 and F2 = Y 3 A 2 x h
Δl / l l1 l2 8. (d) : =
b′ b
Given 'l1 = 'l2 = 'x (for the same extension) x
Δx ⎛ YAΔx ⎞ b
∴ F2 = Y 3 A = 9⎜ = 9F1 = 9F b′ = x
⎝ l1 ⎟⎠ h dx
l1 / 3 h
(' F1 = F2) b bc
dA = b′ dx = x dx
5. (c) : From Toricelli’s theorem h
v = 2 gd ... (i) P = Ugx
where v is horizontal velocity and d is the depth of b b
dF = PdA = ρgx x dx
water in barrel. h
h
Time t to hit the ground is given by ρgb 2 ρgb h3 1
h ∫0
F= x dx = = ρgbh2
1 2h h 3 3
h = gt 2 or t =
2 g 2 ⎛ bh ⎞ 2
= ρgh ⎜ ⎟ = ρgAh
2h 3 ⎝ 2⎠ 3
? R = vt = (2 gd ) = 2 dh (Using (i))
g
9. (d) : By definition,
R2
? R2 = 4dh or d = Young’s modulus, Y =
F /A
=
FL
= 2
FL
4h ΔL /L AΔL πr ΔL
6. (d) : According to Newton’s law of cooling As both the wires are of the same material, therefore
(T1 − T2 ) ⎛ T +T ⎞ their Young moduli are same.
= K ⎜ 1 2 − Ts ⎟ F1L1 FL
t ⎝ 2 ⎠ i.e., Y1 = Y2 or = 22 2
2
where Ts is the surrounding temperature. πr1 ΔL1 πr2 ΔL2
For the Ist case F ⎛ L ⎞ ⎛ r ⎞ ⎛ ΔL ⎞
2
or 1 = ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎜ 1 ⎟ ⎜ 1 ⎟
(94 ° C − 86 °C) ⎛ (94 °C + 86 ° C ) ⎞ F2 ⎝ L1 ⎠ ⎝ r2 ⎠ ⎝ ΔL2 ⎠
= K⎜ − 20 °C ⎟
2 min ⎝ 2 ⎠ Substituting the given values, we get
8 °C 2
F1 ⎛ 2L ⎞ ⎛ r ⎞ ⎛ l ⎞ 1
or = K (70 ° C ) ...(i) = =
2 min F2 ⎜⎝ L ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ 2r ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ 2l ⎟⎠ 4
For the IInd case Elastic energy stored per unit volume in the wire is
(71°C − 69 °C) ⎛ 71 °C + 69 °C ⎞ 1 1 F L
= K⎜ − 20 °C ⎟ u = × stress × strain = × ×
t ⎝ 2 ⎠ 2 2 A ΔL

PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17 21


u1 ⎛ F1 ⎞ ⎛ A2 ⎞ ⎛ L1 ⎞ ⎛ ΔL2 ⎞ 15. (c) : Bulk modulus B is given as
∴ = − PV
u2 ⎜⎝ F2 ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ A1 ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ L2 ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ ΔL1 ⎟⎠ B= ...(i)
ΔV
⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ π(2r )2 ⎞ ⎛ L ⎞ ⎛ 2l ⎞
=⎜ ⎟⎜ =1 The volume of a spherical object of radius r is given as
⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ πr 2 ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ 2L ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ l ⎟⎠
− PB 4 V r
10. (a) : According to Bernoulli’s theorem, V= , 'V = π (3r 2 )Δr ; ? =−
ΔV 3 ΔV 3Δr
1 1 P 1
P + ρv 2 = constant ∴ P + ρv 2 = + ρv ′ 2 Pr
2 2 2 2 Put this value in eqn. (i), we get, B = −
3Δr
P 1 2 1 P 1 Δr p
or + ρv = ρv ′2 or = ρ(v ′2 − v 2 ) Fractional decrease in radius is − =
2 2 2 2 2 r 3B
16. (c) : Pressure at point C, PC = Pa + Uwater ghwater,
P P
or v ′2 = + v 2 or v ′ = v 2 + where hwater = CE = (65 + 65) mm = 130 mm
ρ ρ Pressure at point B, PB = Pa + Uoil ghoil
11. (b) : Let the initial speed = v0 and the initial cross- where hoil = AB = (65 + 65 + 10) mm = 140 mm
sectional area = A0. After the freely falling stream has In liquid, pressure is same at same liquid level,
2
descended a distance h, its speed v1 = v0 + 2 gh . ...(i) PB = PC Ÿ Uoil ghoil = Uwater ghwater
Under steady-flow conditions, the mass fluxes at 130 × 103
Uoil = = 928.57 kg m–3
the at the locations are equal, 140
? U0v0A0 = U1vA1. Since the water is effectively 17. (a) : We know stress is given by
incompressible, U0 = U1 Force mg ρVg ⎛ m⎞
therefore A1 = (v0/v1)A0. Stress = = = ⎜⎝' ρ = ⎟⎠
Area A A V
Put the values in eqn, (i)
L3
2 –1 i.e., Stress ∝ (L is the linear dimension.)
v1 = (3.0) + 2(9.8)(0.50) = 4.34 m s . L2
A1 = (3.0/4.34)(1.0 cm2) = 0.69 cm2. Ÿ Stress v L
12. (c) : Length of the wire at temperature T2 is Since linear dimension increases by a factor of 9,
2 stress also increases by a factor of 9.
⎛ 1 ⎞ 2⎛ 1 ⎞
Lt = L ⎜ 1 + ⎟ ∴ 2 L2
= 2 L ⎜⎝ 1 + ⎟ 18. (b)
⎝ 100 ⎠ t
100 ⎠
19. (a) : Bulk modulus of the gas is given by
Now 2Lt2 = area of the plate at temperature T2 and
P ΔV P … (i)
2L2 = area of the plate at temperature T1. K= or =
2 ⎛ ΔV ⎞ V0 K
⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎞ 102 A ⎜⎝ V ⎟⎠
∴ At = A ⎜ 1 + = A ⎜1 + =
⎝ 100 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 100 ⎟⎠ 100
0
ΔV
Also, V = V0(1 + J'T) ; = γΔT … (ii)
Thus, the area increases by 2%. V0
13. (d) : Equivalent thermal conductivity of the Comparing eqn. (i) and (ii), we get
composite rod in parallel combination will be, P P P
= γΔT ⇒ ΔT = = ( J = 3D)
K1 A1 + K 2 A2 K1 + K 2 K Kγ 3αK
K= =
A1 + A2 2 20. (b) : Rate of flow of liquid through narrow tube,
14. (c) : According to Stefan-Boltzman law, rate of dv πPr 4
energy radiated by a black body is given as =
dt 8 ηl
E = VAT 4 = V4SR2T 4 As both the given tubes are connected in series so
Given E1 = 450 W, T1 = 500 K, R1 = 12 cm rate of flow of liquid is same.
R1
R2 = , T2 = 2T1, E2 = ? πP1r14 πP2r24 ⎛ P ⎞⎛l ⎞
2 ∴ = ⇒ r24 = ⎜ 1 ⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎟ r14
2 4 8 ηl1 8 ηl2 ⎝ P2 ⎠ ⎝ l1 ⎠
E2 ⎛ R ⎞ ⎛T ⎞ 1 Here, P2 = 4P1, l2 = l1/4
= ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎟ = × 16 = 4
E1 ⎝ R1 ⎠ ⎝ T1 ⎠ 4
⎛ r1 ⎞
4
⎛ P ⎞⎛ l ⎞ r1
E2 = E1 × 4 = 450 × 4 = 1800 W So, r24 = ⎜ 1 ⎟ ⎜ 1 ⎟ r14 ; = ⎜ ⎟ ∴ r2 =
⎝ 4 P1 ⎠ ⎝ 4l1 ⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ 2
””
22 PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17
EXAM CLA
XI
SS

PREP 2018
Useful for Medical/Engg. Entrance Exams
CHAPTERWISE MCQs FOR PRACTICE
OSCILLATION 5. What is the spring constant for the
1. A particle executes simple harmonic oscillation combination of springs shown in figure?
with an amplitude a. The period of oscillation is T. (a) k
The minimum time taken by the particle to travel (b) 2k
half of the amplitude from the equilibrium position (c) 4k
is 5k
(d)
(a) T/4 (b) T/8 (c) T/12 (d) T/2 2
2. A particle of mass 200 g is making SHM under the 6. A spring balance has a scale that reads from 0 to
influence of a spring of force constant k = 90 N m–1 60 kg. The length of the scale is 30 cm. A body
and a damping constant b = 40 g s–1. Calculate the suspended from this balance and when displaced
time elapsed for the amplitude to drop to half its and released, oscillates with a period of 0.8 s, what
initial value. (Given ln(1/2) = – 0.693) is the weight of the body when oscillating?
(a) 7 s (b) 9 s (c) 4 s (d) 11 s (a) 350.67 N (b) 540.11 N
3. A mass M is suspended from a light spring. An (c) 311.64 N (d) 300.5 N
additional mass m added displaces the spring 7. Figure depicts a circular motion of the particle P.
further by a distance X. Now the combined mass The radius of the circle, the period of revolution,
will oscillate on the spring with period the initial position and the sense of revolution are
mg ( M + m) X indicated on the figure.
(a) T = 2π (b) T = 2π Obtain the SHM motion
X ( M + m) mg
of the x-projection of the
π mg (M + m) radial vector of the rotating
(c) T = (d) T = 2π particle P.
2 X ( M + m) (mg ) X

4. Two identical springs are ⎛π π⎞ ⎛π π⎞


connected to mass m as (a) R sin ⎜ t + ⎟ (b) R sin ⎜ t − ⎟
⎝2 4⎠ ⎝2 4⎠
shown, of spring constant
k each. If the period of the ⎛π π⎞ ⎛π π⎞
(c) R cos ⎜ t + ⎟ (d) R cos ⎜ t − ⎟
configuration in (i) is 2 s, the ⎝2 4⎠ ⎝2 4⎠
period of the configuration in
8. A uniform spring of normal length l has a force
(ii) is
constant k. It is cut into two pieces of lengths l1 and
1 l2 such that l1 = nl2 where n is an integer. Then the
(a) 2s (b) 1 s (c) s (d) 2 2 s
2 value of k1 (force constant of spring of length l1) is

PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17 23


kn k(n + 1) 15. A disc of radius R = 10 cm oscillates as a physical
(a) (b) pendulum about an axis perpendicular to the
n +1 n
plane of the disc at a distance r from its centre.
k(n − 1) kn
(c) (d) R
n n −1 If r = , the approximate period of oscillation is
4
9. A simple pendulum of length l1 has a time period (Take g = 10 m s–2)
of 4 s and another simple pendulum of length l2 has (a) 0.84 s (b) 0.94 s (c) 1.26 s (d) 1.42 s
a time period 3 s. Then the time period of another WAVES
pendulum of length (l1 – l2) is 16. The apparent frequency observed by a moving
3 observer away from a stationary source is 20% less
(a) 3s (b) 1 s s (d) 7 s
(c) than the actual frequency. If the velocity of sound
4
in air is 330 m s–1, then the velocity of the observer is
10. Let T1 and T2 be the time periods of springs A
(a) 660 m s–1 (b) 330 m s–1
and B when mass M is suspended from one end (c) 66 m s –1
(d) 33 m s–1
of each spring. If both springs are taken in series
17. A vibrating string of certain length l under a tension T
and the same mass M is suspended from the series
resonates with a mode corresponding to the first
combination, the time period is T. Then
overtone (third harmonic) of an air column of
1 1 1
(a) T = T1 + T2 (b) = + length 75 cm inside a tube closed at one end. The
T T1 T2 string also generates 4 beats per second when
1 1 1 excited along with a tuning fork of frequency X.
(c) T 2 = T12 + T22 (d) = + Now when the tension of the string is slightly
2
T T12 T22
increased the number of beats reduces to 2 per
11. A man measures time period of a simple pendulum second. Assuming the velocity of sound in air to be
inside a stationary lift and find it to be T. If the lift 340 m s–1, the frequency X of the tuning fork (in Hz) is
starts accelerating upwards with an acceleration (a) 344 (b) 336 (c) 117.3 (d) 109.3
g/4, then the time period of pendulum will be
18. An organ pipe is closed at one end and open at the
2T 5T 5 2 other. What is the ratio of frequencies of the 3rd and
(a) (b) (c) (d)
5 2 2T 5T 4th fundamental modes of vibration?
3 5 3 9
12. The amplitude of a damped oscillator becomes (a) (b) (c) (d)
rd 4 7 5 11
⎛1⎞ 1
⎜⎝ ⎟⎠ in 2 s. If its amplitude after 6 s is times 19. Two points are located at a distance of 10 m and
3 n 15 m from the source of oscillation. The period of
the original amplitude, the value of n is oscillation is 0.05 s and the velocity of the wave is
(a) 32 (b) 3 3 (c) 23 (d) 33 300 m s–1. What is the phase difference between the
oscillations of two points ?
13. The displacement of a particle is represented by the
(a) S (b) S/6 (c) S/3 (d) 2S/3
equation by y = sin3 Zt. The motion will be
20. A longitudinal wave is represented by
(a) non-periodic
(b) periodic but not simple harmonic ⎛ x⎞
x = x0 sin 2 π ⎜ υt − ⎟ . The maximum particle
⎝ λ⎠

(c) simple harmonic with periodic velocity will be four times the wave velocity if
ω
πx
π (a) λ = 0 (b) O = 2Sx0
(d) simple harmonic with periodic 4
ω πx
14. What fraction of the total energy is kinetic when (c) λ = 0 (d) O = 4Sx0
2
the displacement is one-half of the amplitude? 21. An organ pipe A, with both ends open, has
1 2 3 7 fundamental frequency 300 Hz. The third harmonic
(a) (b) (c) (d)
4 4 4 4 of another organ pipe B, with one end open, has the

24 PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17


same frequency as the second harmonic of pipe A. 29. A wave is represented by the equation :
The lengths of pipe A and B are y = 0.sin (100St – kx).
(a) 57.2 cm and 42.9 cm (b) 57.2 cm and 45.8 cm If wave velocity is 100 m s–1, its wave number is
(c) 42.9 cm and 32.2 cm (d) 42.9 cm and 34.0 cm equal to
(Speed of sound in air = 343 m s–1) (a) 1 m–1 (b) 2 m–1 (c) Sm–1 (d) 2S m–1
22. A travelling wave at a rigid boundary or a closed 30. A transverse wave
end, is reflected with a phase change of I1 and the is travelling along y
C
reflection at an open boundary takes place with a a string from left B D
phase change of I2, then to right. The given
(a) I1 = 0, I2 = 0 (b) I1 = S, I2 = 0 figure represents the A x
E
(c) I1 = 0, I2 = S (d) I1 = S, I2 = S shape of the string
F H
23. A string of mass 3 kg is under tension of 400 N. at a given instant. At
G
The length of the stretched string is 25 cm. If the this instant, among
transverse jerk is stuck at one end of the string how the following, choose
long does the disturbance take to reach the other the wrong statement.
end? (a) Points D, E and F have upwards positive velocity.
(a) 0.043 s (b) 0.055 s (c) 0.034 s (d) 0.065 s (b) Points A, B and H have downwards negative
velocity.
24. The equation of a stationary wave is (c) Point C and G have zero velocity.
⎛ πx ⎞
y = 4 sin ⎜ ⎟ cos (96 St). (d) Points A and E have minimum velocity.
⎝ 15 ⎠
The distance between a node and its next antinode is SOLUTIONS
(a) 7.5 units (b) 1.5 units 1. (c) : In simple harmonic motion, the displacement
(c) 22.5 units (d) 30 units x(t) of a particle from equilibrium position at any
25. Pick out the correct statement in the following with time t is given by x(t) = a sinZt
where a is the amplitude
reference to stationary wave pattern.
a a 1
(a) In a tube closed at one end, all the harmonics At x (t ) = , = a sin ωt or = sin ωt
are present. 2 2 2
(b) In a tube open at one end, only even harmonics ⎛π⎞ π 2π
or sin ⎜ ⎟ = sin ωt or = t
are present. ⎝6⎠ 6 T
(c) The distance between successive nodes is equal 2π
to the wavelength. ('ω = , where T is the time period of oscillation)
T
(d) In a stretched string, the first overtone is the T
same as the second harmonic. or t =
12
26. If two waves of the same frequency and amplitude 2. (a) : The amplitude of the damped oscillator at any
respectively on superposition produce a resultant instant t is given by A(t) = A0e–bt/2m ...(i)
disturbance of the same amplitude the waves differ where A0 is the initial amplitude and b is the damping
in phase by constant.
(a) S (b) zero (c) S/3 (d) 2S/3 At t = T1/2, the amplitude drop to half of its initial
value.
27. Two uniform strings A and B made of steel are From (i), we get
made to vibrate under the same tension. If the first
A0 −bT / 2m 1 −bT / 2m
overtone of A is equal to the second overtone of B = A0e 1/2 , = e 1/2
and if the radius of A is twice that of B, the ratio of 2 2
Taking natural logarithm on both sides, we get
the lengths of the strings is
⎛1⎞ bT ln(1 / 2)
(a) 1 : 2 (b) 1 : 3 (c) 1 : 4 (d) 1 : 6 ln ⎜ ⎟ = − 1/ 2 or T1/ 2 = − ...(ii)
⎝2⎠ 2m b / 2m
28. If the temperature is raised by 1 K from 300 K
the percentage change in the speed of sound in a Substituting values in eqn. (ii) we get
gaseous mixture is (R = 8.31 J mole–1 K–1) ⎛ 0.693 ⎞
T1/2 = ⎜ × 2 × 200 ⎟ s = 7 s
(a) 0.167% (b) 2% (c) 1% (d) 0.334% ⎝ 40 ⎠

PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17 25


3. (b) : Time period of spring block system is given Each l2 spring has spring constant kc.
mass of block 1 1 1
by, T = 2π + + ...(n + 1)times =
spring constant k′ k′ k
mg
Here, mass of block = (M + m); spring constant, k = n +1 1
X = or kc = (n + 1)k
k′ k n 1
At equilibrium, (M + m)g = k(Xo + X) or, mg = kX Now, l1 consists of n such springs of kc, or =
(Initially, Mg = kXo)] k ′ k1
k ′ (n + 1)k
( M + m) ( M + m) X k1 = =
∴ T = 2π = 2π n n
mg mg l1 4g
X 9. (d) : T1 = 4 = 2 π or l1 = 2
g π
4. (b)
l 9g
5. (c) : Since all the forces are T2 = 3 = 2 π 2 or l2 = 2
acting upwards, g 4π
? F = –(2k + k + k)x g ⎛ 9 ⎞ 7g
(l1 − l2 ) = ⎜ 4 − 4 ⎟⎠ = 2
= –4kx π2 ⎝ 4π
Ÿ keq = 4k.
(l1 − l2 ) 7g
6. (c) : The 30 cm length of the scale reads upto T ′ = 2π = 2π = 7s
60 kg. g 4 π2 g
? Maximum force, F = 60 kg wt = 60 u 9.8 N = 588 N M 4 π2 M
and maximum extension, x = 30 – 0 = 30 cm 10. (c) : T1 = 2 π or k1 =
= 30 u 10–2 m
k1 T12
Spring constant of the spring balance is M 4 π2 M
and T2 = 2 π or k 2 =
F 588 N k2 T22
k= = = 1960 N m–1
x 30 × 10−2 m k1k2 4π2 M
Let a body of mass m is suspended from this In series combination, keff = =
k1 + k2 T12 + T22
balance. Then, time period of oscillation,
2 M
or T 2 = 4 π m
m ∴ T = 2π = T12 + T22 or T 2 = T12 + T22
T = 2π keff
k k
11. (a) : In a stationary lift, time period of simple
T 2k (0.8)2 × (1960)
∴ m= = = 31.8 kg l
4 π2 4 × (3.14)2 pendulum is T = 2π ,
g
Weight of the body = mg = (31.8 kg) (9.8 m s–2)
where l is the length of the simple pendulum.
= 311.64 N
π When the lift accelerates upwards with an
7. (c) : At t = 0, OP makes an angle 45° or with acceleration g/4, the effective acceleration on the
4
2πt bob of pendulum is
the x-axis. After time t, it covers an angle of g 5g
T g′ = g + =
in the anticlockwise direction and makes an angle 4 4
2 πt π l l 4⎛l ⎞
of + with the x-axis. ∴ T ′ = 2π = 2π = 2 π ⎜ ⎟ = 2T
T 4 g′ ⎛ 5g ⎞ 5⎝g⎠ 5
The projection of OP on the x-axis at time t is given by. ⎜⎝ 4 ⎟⎠
⎛ 2 πt π ⎞ 12. (d) : Amplitude of a damped oscillator at any
x = R cos ⎜ + ⎟
⎝ T 4⎠ instant t is A = A0e–bt/2m, where A0 is the original
For T = 4 s, x = R cos ⎛⎜
2 πt π ⎞ ⎛ πt π ⎞ amplitude.
+ ⎟ = R cos ⎜ + ⎟ . A
⎝ T 4⎠ ⎝ 2 4⎠ When t = 2 s, A = 0
8. (b) : l1 = nl2 3
A0 −2b / 2m or 1 = e −b /m
The entire length of the spring is (n + 1)l2. ∴ = A0e ...(i)
3 3

26 PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17


A0 A0 where v is the velocity of sound in air.
When t = 6 s, A = ∴ = A0e −6b / 2m 20 80 4
n n
3 But υ ′ = υ − υ= υ = υ (given)
100 100 5
1 −3b /m = (e–b/m)3 = ⎛ 1 ⎞
or =e ⎜⎝ ⎟⎠ (Using (i)) 4 ⎛ v − v ⎞ 4 1
n 3 ∴ υ = υ⎜ o
or vo = v − v = v
? n = 33 5 ⎝ v ⎟⎠ 5 5
13. (b) : Given equation of motion is Here, v = 330 m s–1
y = sin3 Zt = (3sin Zt – sin 3Zt)/4 1
dy ∴ vo = (330 m s−1 ) = 66 m s−1
⇒ 4 = 3ω cos ωt − 3ω cos 3ωt 5
dt 17. (a) : As the string and
d2 y the tube are in resonance
⇒ 4× = −3ω2 sin ωt + 9ω2 sin 3ωt
dt 2 X 1 = X 2.
d2 y −3ω2 sin ωt + 9ω2 sin 3ωt also |X1 – X| = 4 Hz.
⇒ = When T increases, X1
dt 2 4
2 also increases.
d y
⇒ is not proportional to y. It is given that beat frequency decreases to 2 Hz.
dt 2 Ÿ X – X1 = 4 or X = 4 + X1
Hence, motion is not SHM. As the expression is
As X1 = X2 , X = 4 + X2
involving sine function, it will be periodic.
3v 3 × 340
14. (c) Now υ2 = = = 340 Hz
4l 4 × (3 / 4)
15. (b) : Time period of a physical pendulum is
? X = 344 Hz.
I
T = 2π , where I is the moment of inertia 18. (b) : Let L be length of a closed organ pipe (i.e., a
mgh organ pipe closed at one end and open at the other).
of the pendulum about an axis through the The frequency of 3rd fundamental mode of vibration
pivot, m is the mass of the pendulum and in the closed pipe is
h is the distance from the pivot to the centre of mass.
5v
In this case, a solid disc of R υ3 = , where v is the speed of sound in air.
oscillates as a physical pendulum 4L
r
The frequency of 4th fundamental mode of vibration
about an axis perpendicular to the R
7v
plane of the disc at a distance r in the closed pipe is υ4 =
from its centre. 4L
2 υ 5
mR2 mR2 ⎛ R ⎞ 9mR
2
Their ratio is 3 =
∴ I= + mr 2= + m⎜ ⎟ = υ4 7
2 2 ⎝4⎠ 16
19. (d) : y = A sink(x – vt)
9mR2
1 1
R 9R T = 0.05 s, ∴ υ = = = 20 Hz
and h = r = ∴ T = 2π 16 = 2π T 0.05 s
4 mgR 4g
Velocity, v = 300 m s–1
4
Here, R = 10 cm = 0.1 m −1
v 300 m s
∴ λ= = = 15 m
9 × 0. 1 3 1 υ 20 Hz
∴ T = 2π = 2π × × = 0.94 s
4 × 10 2 10 The point at 10 m from the source has a phase
2π 2π 4π
16. (c) : Let the velocity of the observer be vo. If X is ×x= × 10 = rad
the actual frequency, then the apparent frequency λ 15 3
observed by the moving observer away from the The point at 15 m from the source has phase 2S rad
stationary source is ? The phase difference between the points
⎛ v − vo ⎞ 4 π 2π
υ′ = υ ⎜ = 2π − = rad
⎝ v ⎟⎠ 3 3

PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17 27


20. (c) : The given wave equation is The distance between successive nodes is equal to
⎛ x⎞ half the wavelength.
x = x0 sin 2 π ⎜ υt − ⎟
⎝ λ⎠ Except (d), all the other statements are wrong.
⎛ 2 πx ⎞ 26. (d)
x = x0 sin ⎜ 2 πυt − ⎟
⎝ λ ⎠ 27. (b) : For first overtone (2nd harmonic) n = 2 and
Compare it with the standard wave equation for second overtone (3rd harmonic) n = 3
x = Asin(Zt – kx) 2 T
we get, Z = 2SX; k = 2S/O ∴ υA =
ω 2 πυ lA DA πρ
Wave velocity, v = = = υλ ...(i)
k (2 π / λ) 3 T 3 T
Particle velocity, υB = = (' DA = 2DB)
lB DBπρ l D A πp
dx ⎛ 2 πx ⎞ B
vp = = 2 πυx0 cos ⎜ 2 πυt − ⎟ 2
dt ⎝ λ ⎠ As XA = XB (Given)
Maximum particle velocity, (vp)max = 2SXx0 ...(ii) 2 T 3 T
According to given problem, (vp)max = 4v ∴ =
lADA πρ ⎛D ⎞ πρ
? 2SXx0 = 4XO (Using (i) and (ii)) lB ⎜ A ⎟
⎝ 2 ⎠
2 πυx0 πx0 lA 2 1
λ= = = =
4υ 2 lB 6 3
21. (a) γRT ∴ Δv = 1 ΔT
28. (a) : As v = ,
22. (b) : In case of a travelling wave, the reflection at a M v 2 T
rigid boundary will take place with a phase reversal Δv 1 1
or with a phase difference of S or 180°. On the other 100 × = × × 100 = 0.167%
v 2 300
hand, in case of a travelling wave for a reflection at an
29. (c) : y = 0.1 sin(100St – kx)
open boundary such as the open end of an organ pipe,
ω 100 π
the reflection takes place without any phase change. Z = 100S ∴ k = = = π m−1
v 100
23. (a) : Mass per unit length of the string,
dy ⎛ dy ⎞
m 3 kg 30. (d) : Particle velocity vPa = = −v ⎜ ⎟
μ= = = 12 kg m–1 dt ⎝ dx ⎠
L 25 × 10−2 m or
dy
= − wave velocity × slope of the wave
Speed of the wave on the string is dt
y
T 400 N C
v= = = 5.77 m s–1
μ 12 kg m−1 B D
Time taken by disturbance to reach the other end A
H x
E
−2
L 25 × 10 m F
t= = = 0.043 s
v 5.77 m s−1 G

⎛ πx ⎞
24. (a) : y = 4 sin ⎜ ⎟ cos (96 St) (a) For upward velocity, vPa = positive, so slope
⎝ 15 ⎠
must be negative which is at the points D,
π 2π π E and F.
⇒ k= or = ⇒ λ = 30 units
15 λ 15 (b) For downward velocity, vPa = negative, so slope
Distance between node and neighbouring antinode must be negative which is at the points A,
λ 30 B and H.
is = = 7.5 units.
4 4 (c) For zero velocity, slope must be zero which is at
25. (d) : In a tube open at both ends, all the harmonics C and G.
are present. (d) For maximum magnitude of velocity, |slope|
In a tube open at one end, only odd harmonics are should be maximum, which is at A and E.
present. Hence, option (d) is wrong.
””

28 PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17


Series 6
CHAPTERWISE PRACTICE PAPER
THERMODYNAMICS | KINETIC THEORY
Time Allowed : 3 hours Maximum Marks : 70

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS
(i) All questions are compulsory.
(ii) Q. no. 1 to 5 are very short answer questions and carry 1 mark each.
(iii) Q. no. 6 to 10 are short answer questions and carry 2 marks each.
(iv) Q. no. 11 to 22 are also short answer questions and carry 3 marks each.
(v) Q. no. 23 is a value based question and carries 4 marks.
(vi) Q. no. 24 to 26 are long answer questions and carry 5 marks each.
(vii) Use log tables if necessary, use of calculators is not allowed.

SECTION - A 7. Write at least four fundamental assumptions


1. If an inflated tyre bursts, the air escaping out is regarding the model of a gas on which the kinetic
cooled. Why? theory is based.
8. There are n molecules of a gas in a box. If the
2. What is the nature of P-V diagram for isobaric and
number of molecules is increased to 2n, what will
isochoric processes? be the effect on the pressure and the total energy of
3. The graph shows the the gas?
variation of PV with P of 9. By applying the first law of thermodynamics to
given masses of three gases isobaric process, obtain a relation between two
A, B and C. If the temperature specific heats of a gas.
is kept constant, which of OR
these is ideal graph? State two conditions of a reversible process. What is
4. When a gas filled in a closed vessel is heated the quasi-static process?
through 1°C, its pressure increases by 0.4%. What 10. No real engine can have an efficiency greater than
is the initial temperature of the gas? that of a Carnot engine working between the same
two temperatures. Give reason.
5. Discuss the results when a thermos flask containing
hot tea is vigorously shaken. SECTION - C
11. A metre long narrow bore held horizontally (and
SECTION - B
closed at one end) contains a 76 cm long mercury
6. Show that the pressure exerted by the gas is thread, which traps a 15 cm column of air. What
two-third of the average kinetic energy per unit happens if the tube is held vertically with the open
volume of the gas molecules. end at the bottom?

PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17 29


12. A gaseous mixture contain 16 g of helium and
16 g of oxygen, then calculate the ratio of CP/CV of
the mixture.
13. Two thermally insulated vessels 1 and 2 are
filled with air at temperatures (T1, T2), volumes
(V1, V2) and pressures (P1, P2) respectively. If the
valve joining the two vessels is opened, what will be
the temperature inside the vessel at equilibrium ?
14. Temperatures of the hot and cold reservoirs of a 21. Two glass bulbs of equal volumes are connected by
Carnot engine is raised by equal amounts. How the a narrow tube and are filled with a gas at 0°C and a
efficiency of the Carnot engine affected? pressure of 76 cm of mercury. One of the bulbs is
then placed in melting ice and the other in a water-
15. Derive the P-V relation for a monatomic gas
bath maintained at 62°C. What is the new value of
undergoing an adiabatic process.
the pressure inside the bulbs? The volume of the
16. How much energy in watt hour may be required connecting tube is negligible.
to convert 2 kg of water into ice at 0°C, assuming OR
that the refrigerator is ideal? Given temperature N molecules each of mass m of gas A and 2N
of freezer is –15°C, room temperature is 25°C and molecules each of mass 2m of gas B are contained
initial temperature of water is 25°C, specific heat of in the same vessel which is maintained at a
water = 4.2 × 103 J kg–1 K–1, latent heat of fusion temperature T. If the mean square velocity of the
= 3.36 × 105 J kg–1. molecules of B type is denoted by v2 and the mean
17. At what temperature the root mean square velocity square of the x component of the velocity of A is
is equal to escape velocity from the surface of earth ω2
for hydrogen molecule and for oxygen molecule? denoted by Z2, then what is the value of ?
v2
(Given radius of earth = 6.4 × 106m, g = 9.8 m s–2). 22. Two cylinders A and B of equal capacity are
18. An oxygen cylinder of volume 30 litres has an connected to each other via a stopcock. The
initial gauge pressure of 15 atm and a temperature cylinder A contains a gas at standard temperature
of 27 °C. After some oxygen is withdrawn from the and pressure, while the cylinder B is completely
cylinder, the gauge pressure drops to 11 atm and its evacuated. The entire system is thermally insulated.
temperature drops to 17 °C. Estimate the mass of The stopcock is suddenly opened. Answer the
oxygen taken out of the cylinder (R = 8.31 J mol–1 K–1, following :
molecular mass of O2 = 32 u). (a) What is the final pressure of the gas in A and B?
19. A gaseous mixture enclosed in a vessel consists of (b) What is the change in internal energy of the gas?
(c) What is the change in the temperature of the gas?
⎛ 5⎞
1 g mole of a gas A ⎜ γ = ⎟ and some amount of (d) Do the intermediate states of the system (before
⎝ 3⎠
⎛ 7⎞ setting to the final equilibrium state) lie on its
gas B ⎜ γ = ⎟ at a temperature T. The gases A and B
⎝ 5⎠ P-V-T surface?
do not react with each other and are assumed to be SECTION - D
ideal. Find number of gram moles of the gas B, if J
23. Manvi and her friends were enjoying the birthday
for the gaseous mixture is ⎜⎛ 19 ⎞⎟ . party of one of their friends in her home. They
⎝ 13 ⎠
all were enjoying themselves by playing various
20. The pressure of a gas changes linearly with volume songs and dancing. One of her friends became
from 10 kPa, 200 cm3 to 50 kPa, 50 cm3 as shown in sweaty and was feeling very hot. As there was no air
figure. conditioner, she got an idea. She opened the door
(a) Calculate the work done by the gas. of the refrigerator thinking that this might relieve
(b) What is the effect on the internal energy of the her from heat. On seeing this, Manvi immediately
gas? rushed towards her and made her understand that

30 PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17


opening the door of refrigerator would increases (a) What is the initial pressure of the system?
the temperature of the room. She told her to rest for (b) What is the final pressure of the system?
sometime, if she was feeling very hot. Her friend (c) Using the first law of thermodynamics, write
understood this and closed the door of refrigerator down a relation between Q, Pa, V, Vo and k.
at once. OR
(a) What qualities of Manvi do you appreciate? (a) Derive an expression for work done during
(b) Temperature inside an ideal refrigerator is isothermal process.
275 K. How much heat is delivered to room (b) Three moles of an ideal gas kept at constant
for every one joule of work done on working temperature of 300 K are compressed from a
substance when room temperature is 315 K? volume of 4 L to 1 L. Calculate the work done
(c) A room cannot be cooled by opening the door in the process. Take R as 8.31 J mol–1K–1.
of refrigerator in a closed room. Why?
SOLUTIONS
SECTION - E
1. When the tyre bursts, there is adiabatic expansion
24. Two Carnot engines A and B are operated in series. of air because the pressure of the air inside the tyre
The first engine A receives heat at 800 K and rejects is sufficiently greater than the atmospheric pressure.
to a reservoir at temperature T. The second engine B During the expansion, the air does some work
receives the heat rejected by the first engine and in against the surroundings, therefore, the internal
turn rejects to a heat reservoir at 300 K. Calculate energy decreases and as such the temperature falls.
the temperature T for the following cases : 2. (i) For an isobaric process, the P-V diagram is a
(a) When the outputs of the two engines are equal. straight line parallel to the volume-axis.
(b) When the efficiencies of the two engines are equal. (ii) For an isochroic process, the P-V diagram is a
OR straight line parallel to the pressure-axis.
(a) Define an adiabatic process. Derive an 3. Gas C is ideal because PV is constant for the gas. It
expression for work done during an adiabatic means C obeys Boyle’s law at all pressures.
process for one mole of gas.
4. Consider that initially gas has pressure P at
(b) A cylinder containing one gram molecule of
temperature T. According to question,
the gas was compressed adiabatically until 0.4
its temperature increases from 27°C to 97°C. P′ = P + P, T ′ = T + 1
100
Calculate the work done on the gas [Take J as 1.5.] ⎛ 0.4 ⎞
⎜⎝ P + P⎟
25. Using the law of equipartition of energy, predict the By Gay Lussac’s law, = P 100 ⎠
specific heat of water. How does the specific heat of T T +1
water vary with temperature? Define one calorie. On solving, T = 250 K
OR 5. Work done in vigorously shaking a thermos flask
Using kinetic theory of gases, derive : is converted into internal energy of the tea inside
(a) Boyle’s law (b) Charles’ law it which raises its temperature. Further, along with
(c) Ideal gas equation (d) Avogadro’s law the hot tea, a lot of vapours are also present. Due
(e) Dalton’s law of partial pressure. to an increase in temperature, the pressure of these
26. Consider one mole of perfect gas vapours may further increase and in the extreme
in a cylinder of unit cross section cases, the cork of the bottle may be blown out.
with a piston attached as shown in 6. According to kinetic theory of gases, the pressure P
figure. A spring (spring constant k) exerted by a gas of density U and r.m.s. velocity v is
is attached (unstretched length L) 1
given by P = ρv 2
to the piston and to the bottom of 3
the cylinder. Average kinetic energy of translation per unit
Initially the spring is unstretched and the gas is in volume of the gas is given by,
1 (' m = UV)
equilibrium. A certain amount of heat Q is supplied E = ρv 2
to the gas causing an increase of volume from Vo to V 2

PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17 31


1 2 (ii) There should be no frictional losses.
ρv A process in which the system passes through
P 3 2 2
? = = ;P= E
E 1 2 3 3 a continuous sequence of equilibrium states is
ρv said to be quasi-static, i.e., apparently static.
2
2 10. A Carnot engine is an ideal engine satisfying the
P = × Average kinetic energy per unit volume following conditions :
3
7. The fundamental assumptions are (i) There is no friction between the walls of the
(i) A gas comprises of large number of small cylinder and the piston.
particles called molecules. (ii) The working substance is an ideal gas i.e.,
(ii) The molecules of a gas are in random motion the gas molecules have point sizes and have no
and obey Newton’s law of motion. attractive forces between them.
(iii) The collisions are elastic and of negligible Real engines cannot fulfil these conditions.
duration. Hence no heat engine working between the same
(iv) The volume occupied by the molecules is two temperatures can have efficiency greater than
negligibly a small fraction of the volume that of a Carnot engine.
occupied by the gas. 11. When the tube is held horizontally, the mercury
thread of length 76 cm traps a length of air 15 cm.
1 mnv 2 A length of 9 cm of the tube will be left at the open
8. Since P = , i.e., P v n, therefore, pressure
3 V end, figure (a). The pressure of air enclosed in tube
will be double when number of molecules n will be atmospheric pressure. Let area of cross-
becomes 2n. section of the tube be 1 cm2.
1
As kinetic energy of the gas = mnv 2 , therefore,
2
kinetic energy of the gas also becomes double when
n changes to 2n.
9. In an isobaric process, pressure remains constant.
If an amount of heat dQ is supplied to one mole
of a gas at constant pressure and its temperature ? P1 = 76 cm of mercury and V1 = 15 cm3
increases by dT, then When the tube is held vertically, 15 cm air gets
dQ = CPdT another 9 cm of air filled in the right hand side (in
Here CP is molar specific heat of the gas at constant the horizontal position) and let h cm of mercury
pressure. Therefore, for an isobaric process, the first flows out to balance the atmospheric pressure,
law of thermodynamics becomes figure (b). Then the heights of air column and
CP dT = dU + PdV ...(i) mercury column are (24 + h) cm and (76 – h) cm
From perfect gas equation it follows that respectively.
PdV = RdT and dU = CV dT The pressure of air = 76 – (76 – h) = h cm of mercury
In the eqn. (i), substituting PdV and dU, we have ? V2 = (24 + h) cm3 and P2 = h cm of mercury.
CPdT = CVdT + RdT If we assume that temperature remains constant,
then
C P = CV + R P1V1 = P2V2 or 76 × 15 = h × (24 + h)
OR or h2 + 24h – 1140 = 0
(i) The process should take place very slowly, so −24 ± ( 24)2 + 4 × 1140
that it satisfies the following requirements: or h =
2
x The system should be in thermal equilibrium.
= 23.8 cm or – 47.8 cm
x The system should be in mechanical Since h cannot be negative (because more mercury
equilibrium. cannot flow into the tube), therefore h = 23.8 cm.
x The system should be in chemical Thus, in the vertical position of the tube, 23.8 cm of
equilibrium. mercury flows out.

32 PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17


16 As given the temperature of both the reservoirs
12. Number of moles of helium (nHe ) = =4 is raised by equal amount T, so T1c = T1 + T and
4
16 1 T2c = T2 + T. The final efficiency of the Carnot
Number of moles of oxygen (nO ) = = engine will be
2 32 2
T ′ − T2 ′ (T1 + T ) − (T2 + T ) T1 − T2
As helium is monatomic, so degrees of freedom of η′ = 1 = =
helium f = 3, so T1 ′ (T1 + T ) (T1 + T )
f 3 ...(ii)
CV = R = R
He 2 2 Dividing eqn. (ii) by (i), we have
As oxygen, is diatomic, so degrees of freedom of ⎛ T1 − T2 ⎞
oxygen f = 5, so η′ ⎝ T1 + T ⎟⎠
⎜ T1
f 5 = = <1
CV = R = R η ⎛ T1 − T2 ⎞ T1 + T
O2 2 2 ⎜⎝ T ⎟⎠
1
nHe CV + nO CV
∴ CV =
He 2 O2 As Kc < K i.e., the efficiency of Carnot engine
mixture nHe + nO decreases.
2

3 1 5 15. From first law of thermodynamics, dQ = dU + dW,


4 × R + × R 29 For an adiabatic process, dQ = 0,
= 2 2 2 = R
1 18 ? dU = – dW ...(i)
4+ 3
2 For a monoatomic gas, U = RT and as such
R R 2
γ mixture = 1 + = 1+ = 1.62 3
CV 29 dU = RdT ...(ii)
mixture R 2
18
RT
PV Also dW = PdV = dV ...(iii)
13. Using gas equation, PV = nRT ∴ n= V
RT From eqns. (i), (ii) and (iii),
PV
For first vessel, n1 = 1 1 3 RT
RT1 RdT = − dV
2 V
P2V2
For second vessel, n2 = dT 2 dV 2
RT2 or + = 0 or ln T + ln V = constant
T 3 V 3
P(V1 + V2 )
For the combined vessel, n = 2/3
or TV = constant
But n = n1 + n2 RT
PV
P (V1 + V2 ) P1V1 P2V2 As PV = RT, T =
∴ = + R
⎛ PV ⎞ 2 /3
RT RT1 RT2 Thus, ⎜ = constant or PV5/3 = constant
⎝ R ⎟⎠
V
T T P(V1 + V2 )
or T = 1 2 16. Here, T1 = 25 + 273 = 298 K,
P1V1T2 + P2V2T1 T2 = –15 + 273 = 258 K
Using energy conservation, Specific heat of water, s = 4.2 × 103 J kg–1 K–1
P(V1 + V2) = P1V1 + P2V2 Latent heat of ice, L = 3.36 × 105 J kg–1
T T (P V + P V ) Amount of heat required to be removed from 2 kg
Hence T = 1 2 1 1 2 2 of water at 25°C to change it into ice at 0°C,
P1V1T2 + P2V2T1
Q2 = ms(Ti – Tf) + mL
14. Let the initial temperatures of hot and cold = 2 × 4.2 × 103 (298 – 273) + 2 × 3.36 × 105
reservoirs were T1 and T2. The efficiency of the = 2.1 × 105 + 6.72 × 105 = 8.82 × 105 J
Carnot engine is given by Heat rejected to the surroundings,
T −T T 298
η= 1 2 ...(i) Q1 = 1 × Q2 = × 8.82 × 105 = 10.19 × 105 J
T1 T2 258

PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17 33


Energy supplied to convert water into ice, Therefore, final mass of the oxygen gas in the
W = Q1 – Q2 = (10.19 – 8.82) × 105 = 1.37 × 105 J cylinder is m2 = n2 × molecular weight of O2
= 13.871 × 32 = 443.9 g
1.37 × 105
= ≈ 38 W h [' 1 W h = 3600 J] ? Mass of oxygen gas taken out = m1 – m2
3600
= (585.1 – 443.9) | 141 g
17. Escape velocity, ve = 2 gR CP
19. For an ideal gas, = γ and CP − CV = R
Given, vrms = ve = 2 gR CV
From kinetic interpretation of temperature So, combining above equations we get
1 2 3 R
mvrms = kBT CV =
2 2 γ −1
1 3 2mgR R 3 5
or m(2 gR) = kBT or T = ? (CV )A = = R , (CV )B = R
2 2 3kB 5 2 2
−1
2mH gR 3
For hydrogen, TH = R 13
3kB and (CV )mix = = R
⎛ ⎞ 19 6
2×⎜
2
× 10−3 ⎟ × 9.8 × 6.4 × 106 −1
⎝ 6.02 × 1023 ⎠ 13
=
3 × 1.38 × 10−23 Now, from conservation of energy
Umix = UA + UB or 'Umix = 'UA + 'UB
= 1.01 × 104 K
(nA + nB) (CV)mix 'T = nA(CV)A'T + nB(CV)B'T
2mO gR
For oxygen, TO =
3kB n (C ) + nB (CV )B
or (CV )mix = A V A
⎛ 32 ⎞ n A + nB
2×⎜ × 10−3 ⎟ × 9.8 × 6.4 × 106
⎝ 6.02 × 1023 ⎠ 3 5
1 × R + nB × R
= 13
−23 R= 2 2
3 × 1.38 × 10
4 6 1 + nB
= 16.1 × 10 K
or 13 + 13nB = 9 + 15nB or nB = 2 g mol
18. Here, initially in the oxygen cylinder
Volume V1 = 30 litres = 30 × 10–3 m3 20. (a) From figure, 'W = area of the shaded portion
Pressure P1 = 15 atm = 15 × 1.013 × 105 Pa 1
= (50 + 10)(200 − 50) = 4500 kPa cm3 = 4.5 J
Temperature T1 = 27 + 273 = 300 K 2
If the cylinder contains n1 moles of the oxygen gas (' 1 kPa cm3 = 10–3 J)
then P1V1 = n1RT1, (b) As gas is compressed its pressure increases but
P1V1 15 × 1.013 × 10 5 × 30 × 10 −3 volume decreases. Consequently temperature of gas
n1 = = = 18.285 is also increased. Hence internal energy of the gas
RT1 8.31 × 300
Initial mass of oxygen in the cylinder increases.
m1 = n1 × molecular weight of O2 21. According to the gas equation, PV = nRT, since the
= 18.285 × 32 = 585.1 g mass of a system remains constant, the sum of the
Finally in the oxygen cylinder, let n2 moles of terms PV/T for different parts of the system remains
oxygen be left unchanged.
Final volume, V2 = 30 × 10–3 m3 Let V be the volume of the each bulb. Initially for
Final pressure, P2 = 11 atm = 11 × 1.013 × 105 Pa the two bulbs, we have
Final temperature, T2 = 17 + 273 = 290 K P1V1 P2V2 76 V 76 V 2 × 76 × V
Now, P2V2 = n2RT2 + = + = ...(i)
T1 T2 273 273 273
P2V2 (11 × 1.013 × 10 5 ) × ( 30 × 10 −3 ) When one bulb is placed at melting ice and another
n2 = = = 13.871
RT2 8.31 × 290 maintained at 62°C we have

34 PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17


24. For engine, A, T1 = 800 K, T2 = T
P1′V1′P ′V ′ PV PV
+ 2 2 = + ...(ii) T T
T1′ T2′ 273 355 Efficiency, ηA = 1 − 2 = 1 −
T1 800
From (i) and (ii), we get Work output, WA = Q1 – Q2 = KA × Q1
2 × 76 × V PV PV ⎛ Q2 ⎞
= +
273 273 335 ⎜⎝' ηA = 1 − Q ⎟⎠
1
2 × 76 273 × 335 ⎛ T ⎞
or P = × = 83.75 cm of Hg . or WA = ⎜1 −
⎝ 800 ⎟⎠ 1
Q
273 608
OR For engine B, T1c = T, T2c = 300 K
The mean square velocity of the gas molecules, T ′ 300
Efficiency, ηB = 1 − 2 = 1 −
v2 = 3kT/m T1 ′ T
For gas A : vA2 = 3kT/m and Work output, WB = Q1c – Q2c = KB × Q1c
For gas B : vB2 = 3kT/(2 m) = v2 ...(i) ⎛ 300 ⎞
The molecule A has equal probability of motion in or WB = ⎜⎝1 − ⎟Q ′
T ⎠ 1
all directions, therefore
Since, the engine B absorbs the heat rejected by the
vx2 = vy2 = vz2 = Z2 (given)
engine A, so
? vA2 = vx2 + vy2 + vz2 = 3vx2 = 3Z2 ⎛ 300 ⎞
Q1c = Q2 ∴ WB = ⎜1 − ⎟Q
⎝ T ⎠ 2
v 2 1 ⎛ 3kT ⎞ kT (a) When outputs of the two engines are equal.
or ω2 = A = ⎜ ⎟= ...(ii)
3 3⎝ m ⎠ m WA = WB
ω2 ⎛ T ⎞ ⎛ 300 ⎞
kT / m 2 or ⎜1 − Q = 1−
Dividing (ii) by (i), we get : 2
= = ⎝ 800 ⎟⎠ 1 ⎜⎝ ⎟Q
T ⎠ 2
v 3kT / 2m 3
⎛ T ⎞ ⎛ 300 ⎞ Q2 ⎛ 300 ⎞ T
22. (a) When the stopcock is suddenly opened, the or ⎜1 − = 1− = ⎜1 −
⎝ 800 ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ ⎟
T ⎠ Q1 ⎝

T ⎠ 800
volume available for the gas at 1 atm pressure
will become two times. Therefore, pressure will On solving, we get T = 550 K
decrease to one-half, i.e., 0.5 atm. (b) When the efficiency are equal, KA = KB
(b) There will be no change in the internal energy ⎛ T ⎞ 300
or ⎜1 − = 1− or T 2 = 24 × 104
of the gas as no work is done on/by the gas. ⎝ 800 ⎟⎠ T
(c) Also, there will be no change in temperature of
? T = 489.9 K
the gas as gas does no work in expansion.
(d) No, because the process called free expansion OR
is rapid and cannot be controlled. The (a) When no exchange of heat energy is possible
intermediate states are non-equilibrium states between system and surroundings, the process
and do not satisfy the gas equation. In due is known as adiabatic.
course, the gas returns to an equilibrium state. Workdone in adiabatic process : Consider
23. (a) Manvi is sensible girl and she has scientific 1 mole of gas contained in a perfectly non-
knowledge. frictionless non-conducting cylinder fitted
(b) T2 = 275 K, T1 = 315 K, W = 1 J with a piston (non conducting).
Q T2 275 Let P = pressure of gas, V = volume of gas and
β= 2 = = = 6. 9 T = temperature of gas
W T1 − T2 315 − 275
Compress the gas adiabatically by moving the
Q2 = 6.9 W = 6.9 J ; Q1 = Q2 + W = 6.9 + 1 = 7.9 J piston inwards through a distance dx.
(c) When a refrigerator is working in a closed room
Force acting on piston = P × A
with its door opened, it will reject heat from
inside to the air in the room. So, temperature of Work done, dW = Force × distance = PA dx = PdV
room increases gradually. where dV is the change in volume of the gas.

PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17 35


During the adiabatic expansion, total work One calorie is defined as the amount of heat
done by the gas, required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water
V2 from 14.5°C to 15.5°C. 1 calorie = 4.186 J
W= ∫ P dV
V1

Adiabatic change is represented by PV J = K,


where K is a constant.
K
∴ P=

V2
K K OR
Hence, W = ∫ V γ dV = (V21− γ − V11− γ )
1− γ 2
V1 From kinetic theory of gases, PV = NK
3
1 where K is the average kinetic energy of translation
= (P2V2γV21− γ − P1V1γV11− γ )
1− γ per gas molecule.
(' P1V1J = P2V2J = K) (a) Boyle’s law : At constant temperature, K is
1 R constant and for a given mass of the gas, N is
= (RT2 − RT1 ) = (T − T ) constant.
1− γ 1 − γ 2 1
Thus, PV = constant for given mass of gas at
This is the work done during adiabatic process.
constant temperature, which is the Boyle’s law.
(b) Given : Ti = 27°C = 27 + 273 = 300 K
(b) Charles’ law : For a given mass of gas, N is
Tf = 97°C = 97 + 273 = 370 K, J = 1.5
constant
Work done in adiabatic compression is given by 3
Since K = kBT , K ∝ T and as such PV v T.
R 8.31 2
W= (Tf – Ti) = (370 – 300) = –1163 J
1− γ 1 − 1.5 If P is constant, V v T, which is the Charles’ law.
25. We may treat water like a solid. By the law of (c) Ideal gas equation : As
2 3
equipartition of energy, the average vibrational PV = N K and K = kBT ,
energy per atom is 3 kBT. Now a water molecule has 3 2
three atoms : two hydrogen and one oxygen. 2 ⎛3 ⎞
PV = N ⎜ kBT ⎟ or PV = NkBT
? Average vibrational energy per water molecule 3 ⎝2 ⎠
= 3 × 3kBT = 9 kBT which is the ideal gas equation
The total vibrational or the internal energy of one (d) Avogadro’s law : Consider two gases 1 and 2.
mole of water molecules, We can write
2 2
U = NA × 9kBT = 9RT [' R = kBNA] P1V1 = N1 K 1 , P2V2 = N 2 K 2
Neglecting 'V, like for a solid, we get 3 3
 'Q = 'U + P'V = 'U If their pressure, volumes and temperatures are
ΔQ ΔU the same, then P1 = P2 , V1 = V2 , K1 = K 2
∴ CV = = = 9R Clearly, N1 = N2. Thus, equal volumes of all
ΔT ΔT
ideal gases existing under the same conditions
This predicted value is found to be in good
of temperature and pressure contain equal
agreement with the observed value. The specific
heat of water is nearly 75 J mol–1 K–1 | 9R. number of molecules which is Avogadro’s law.
Variation of specific heat of water with temperature : (e) Dalton’s law of partial pressures : The kinetic
Figure shows the variation of specific heat of water theory of gases attributes the gas pressure to the
with temperature in the temperature range 0°C bombardment on the walls of the containing
to 100°C. Water shows peculiar behaviour, its vessel by molecules. In a mixture of ideal gases,
specific heat first decreases and then increases with we might therefore expect the total pressure (P)
temperature. For this reason, we have to specify the to be the sum of the partial pressures (P1, P2, ...)
unit temperature interval for defining calorie. due to each gas, i.e.,

36 PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17


2 N1 2 N2 ⎡ V PV ⎤
P = P1 + P2 + ... = K1 + K 2 + ... ∴ ΔU = CV ⎢(Pa + k(V − V0 )) − a 0 ⎥
3 V1 3 V2 ⎣ R R ⎦
...(iii)
In equilibrium, the average kinetic energy of the
molecules of different gases will be equal, i.e., From (i), (ii) and (iii)
3 1
K 1 = K 2 = ... = K = kBT Q= [(P + k(V − V0 ))V − PaV0 ]
2 (γ − 1) a
2 ⎛3 ⎞ 1 ⎛ C 1 ⎞
Thus, P = (n1 + n2 + ...) ⎜ kBT ⎟ + Pa (V − V0 ) + kx 2 ⎜' V =
3 ⎝2 ⎠ 2 ⎝ R (γ − 1) ⎟⎠
= (n1 + n2 + ...) kBT, 1
= [(P + k(V − V0 ))V − PaV0 ] + Pa (V − V0 )
N1 N (γ − 1) a
where n1 = , n2 = 2 ,.... 1
V1 V2 + k(V − V0 )2 (' x = V − V0 )
2
It represents Dalton’s law of partial pressures which OR
states that the resultant pressure exerted by a (a) According to the first law of thermodynamics,
mixture of gases or vapours which do not interact dQ = dU + dW ...(i)
in any way is equal to the sum of their individual In an isothermal expansion, temperature
(i.e., partial) pressures. remains constant. As such there is no change in
26. Given, cross-sectional area of the piston A = 1 m2 the internal energy of the gas, i.e., dU = 0.
Heat supplied = Q, atmospheric pressure = Pa From eqn. (i), dQ = dW
Initial volume = V0, final volume = V Thus, in this case, the entire heat is converted
(a) Since system is in equilibrium so, initial into work.
pressure of the system, Pi = Pa. As dW = PdV
(b) When the gas expands from V0 to V after and for one mole of a gas i.e., n = 1,
heat Q is supplied. RT RT
PV = RT, P = , dW = dV
Change in volume of the gas = V – V0 V V
(V − V0 ) If the volume of the gas increases from V1 to V2,
Extension in the spring, x = = V − V0
A then total work done during expansion,
V2
(' A = 1 m2) RT V
Force applied by the spring on the piston
W= ∫ V
dV = RT [lnV ]V2
1
V1
F = kx = k(V – V0)
So, pressure exerted by the extended spring on or W = RT(ln V2 – lnV1)
the piston of unit cross-section ⎛V ⎞ ⎛V ⎞
or W = RT ln 2 = 2.303 RT log 2
F k ⎜⎝ V ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ V ⎟⎠
P= = (V − V0 ) = k(V − V0 ) 1 1
A A
For n moles of a gas,
Hence the final pressure of the system,
Pf = Pa + P = Pa + k(V – V0). ⎛V ⎞ ⎛V ⎞
W = nRT ln ⎜ 2 ⎟ = 2.303 nRT log 2
⎝ V1 ⎠ ⎜⎝ V ⎟⎠
(c) Using the first law of thermodynamics, 1
Q = 'Q = 'U + 'W ...(i) (b) n = 3, T = 300 K, Vi = 4 L, Vf = 1 L,
Here, 'U = CV(T – T0)
1 R = 8.31 J mol–1 K–1, W = ?
ΔW = Pa (V − V0 ) + kx 2 ...(ii)
2 Work done in isothermal process is given by
PaV0 Vf
Also, T0 = W = nRT ln
R Vi
1
P f V [Pa + k(V − V0 )]V = 3 × 8.31 × 300 ln = –1.037 × 104 J
T= = 4
R R ””

PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17 37


MPP-8 Class XI

T his specially designed column enables students to self analyse their


extent of understanding of specified chapters. Give yourself four
marks for correct answer and deduct one mark for wrong answer.
Self check table given at the end will help you to check your readiness.

Mechanical Properties of Solids and Fluids


Total Marks : 120 Time Taken : 60 min

NEET / AIIMS 2S 2S
Only One Option Correct Type (a) P0 − (b) P0 +
r r
1. If pressure at half the depth of a lake is equal to 2/3 4S 4S
(c) P0 − (d) P0 +
pressure at the bottom of the lake then what is the r r
depth of the lake? 6. A cube floats in water with 1/3rd part is outside the
(Given : 1 atm = 105 Pa, g = 10 m s–2 and density of surface of water and it floats in another liquid with
water = 103 kg m–3) 3/4th part is outside the liquid then the density of
(a) 10 m (b) 20 m (c) 60 m (d) 30 m liquid is
2. The upper end of a wire of radius 4 mm and length (a) 8/3 (b) 2/3 (c) 4/3 (d) 5/3
100 cm is clamped and its other end is twisted 7. A closed vessel is half filled with water. There is a
through an angle of 30°. The angle of shear is hole near the top of the vessel and air is pumped out
(a) 12° (b) 1.2° (c) 0.12° (d) 0.012° from this hole.
(i) The water level will rise up in the vessel.
3. Two capillaries of length L and 2 L and of radii R
(ii) The pressure at the surface of the water will
and 2 R are connected in series. The rate of the flow decrease.
of fluid through single capillary tube of length L, (iii) The force by the water on the bottom of the
radius R is Q. The net rate of flow of fluid through vessel will decrease.
the two capillaries in series is (iv) The density of the liquid will decrease.
(a) (5/6) Q (b) (6/7) Q (c) (7/8) Q (d) (8/9) Q Which of the following statements are correct?
4. A block of aluminium of mass 1 kg and volume (a) (i), (ii) only (b) (i), (iii) only
3.6 × 10–4 m3 is suspended from a string and then (c) (ii), (iii) only (d) (i), (iv) only
completely immersed in a container of water. The 8. A vertical capillary is brought in contact with the
decrease in tension in the string after immersion is water surface (surface tension = T). The radius of
(Given : g = 10 m s–2 and density of water = 103 kg m–3) the capillary is r and the contact angle T = 0°. The
(a) 9.8 N (b) 6.2 N (c) 3.6 N (d) 1.0 N increase in potential energy of the water (density = U)
5. Two very wide parallel glass plates are held is
vertically at a small separation r, and dipped in (a) independent of U (b) independent of r
(c) independent of T (d) zero
water of surface tension S. Some water climbs up in
the gap between the plates. If P0 is the atmospheric 9. The normal density of gold is U and its bulk modulus
pressure, then the pressure of water just below the is K. The increase in density of a piece of gold when
water surface in the region between two plates is a pressure P is applied uniformly from all sides is

38 PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17


Kρ Pρ Kρ Pρ Reason : As the oil is poured in the situation of
(a) (b) (c) (d) assertion, pressure inside the water will increase
2P 2K K −P K −P
everywhere resulting in an increase in upward force
10. A cylindrical drum, open at the top, contains
on the object.
30 litres of water. It drains out through a small
opening at the bottom. 10 litres of water comes out JEE MAIN / JEE ADVANCED
in time t1, the next 10 litres in a further time t2 and Only One Option Correct Type
the last 10 litres in a further time t3. Then, 16. There is a small hole in the bottom of a fixed
(a) t1 = t2 = t3 (b) t1 > t2 >t3 container containing a liquid up to height h. The
(c) t1 < t2 < t3 (d) t2 > t1 = t3 top of the liquid as well as the hole at the bottom
11. A uniform rod of length L has a mass per unit length are exposed to atmosphere. As the liquid comes out
O and area of cross-section A. The elongation in the of the hole, the top surface of the liquid (Area of the
rod is l due to its own weight if it is suspended from hole is a and that of the top surface is A)
the ceiling of a room. The Young’s modulus of the (a) accelerates with acceleration = g
rod is a
(b) accelerates with acceleration = g
2λgL λgl 2 λgL2 2λgL2 A
(a) (b) (c) (d) a
Al AL 2 Al Al (c) retards with retardation = g
A
12. A liquid of density U comes out with a velocity v
ga2
from a horizontal tube of area of cross-section A. (d) retards with retardation = 2
The reaction force exerted by the liquid on the tube A
is F. Choose the incorrect option. 17. A ball is thrown vertically upwards at time t = 0.
(a) F v v (b) F v v2 (c) F v A (d) F v U Air resistance is not negligible and the acceleration
Assertion & Reason Type of free fall is g. The ball reaches a maximum height
at time t = T and the descends, reaching terminal
'LUHFWLRQV  In the following questions, a statement of
speed. Which graph best shows the variation with
assertion is followed by a statement of reason. Mark the
correct choice as : time t of the acceleration a of the ball?
a a
(a) If both assertion and reason are true and reason is the
correct explanation of assertion. +g +g
(b) If both assertion and reason are true but reason is not the (a) O
T
t (b) O T
t
correct explanation of assertion. –g
(c) If assertion is true but reason is false. a a
(d) If both assertion and reason are false.
+g
13. Assertion : The shape of an automobile is so +g
designed that its front resembles the stream line (c) O t (d) O T
t
T
pattern of the fluid through which it moves.
Reason : The resistance offered by the fluid in case 18. A thin metallic rod of length 0.5 m and radius 0.01 m
of streamline flow is maximum. is rotated with an angular velocity 400 rad s–1 in
14. Assertion : Viscosity of a liquid is the property of a horizontal plane about a vertical axis passing
the liquid by virtue of which it opposes the relative through one of its ends. If the density of the material
motion amongst its different layers. of the rod is 104 kg m–3 and Y = 2 × 1011 N m–2, the
Reason : The viscosity of liquid increases with elongation in the rod is
increase in temperature. (a) 1/6 mm (b) 1/3 mm (c) 1/2 mm (d) 1 mm
15. Assertion : Consider an object that floats in water 19. A liquid is flowing through horizontal pipes as
but sinks in oil. When the object floats in water half shown in figure. Lengths of different pipes has the
of it is submerged. If we slowly pour oil on top of ratio
water till it completely covers the object, the object L L
LAB = LGH = CD = EF
moves up. 2 2

PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17 39


C D section. The cross-sectional areas at point C is A and
at E is A/2. Find the correct options.
A H p
B G

E F h
Radii of different pipes has the ratio
R
RAB = RCD = RGH = EF A B C D E
2
Pressure at A is 2 P0 and pressure at D is P0. The (a) The velocity of liquid at C will be
volume flow rate through the pipe AB is Q. Then 1/2
⎡ ( p + ρgh) ⎤
ratio of the volume flow rate through the pipes CD ⎢ 4ρ ⎥ .
⎣ ⎦
and EF is
(a) 1/17 (b) 1/16 (c) 16/17 (d) 17/16 (b) The velocity of liquid at C will be
1/2
More than One Options Correct Type ⎡ 2( p + ρgh) ⎤
⎢ ρ ⎥ .
20. Two solid spheres A and B of equal volumes but of ⎣ ⎦
A
different densities UA and UB are (c) The discharge rate is given by ( p + ρgh)1/2 .

connected by a string. They are
A
fully immersed in a fluid of density (d) The discharge rate is given by ( p + ρgh)1/2 .
UF. They get arranged into an 2 ρ
equilibrium state as shown in the 23. A block of density 2000 kg m–3 and mass 10 kg is
figure with a tension in the string. suspended by a spring of force constant 100 N m–1.
The arrangement is possible only if The other end of the spring is attached to a fixed
(a) UA < UF (b) UB > UF support. The block is completely submerged in
(c) UA > UF (d) UA + UB = 2UF a liquid of density 1000 kg m–3. If the block is in
equilibrium position,
21. A rod of length l and
(a) the elongation of the spring is 1 cm
negligible mass is A B
(b) the magnitude of buoyant force acting on the
suspended at its two
Steel O Al block is 50 N
ends by two wires of steel
(c) the spring potential energy is 12.5 J
(wire A) and aluminium (d) magnitude of spring force on the block is
m
(wire B) of equal lengths greater than the weight of the block.
(see figure).
The cross-sectional areas of wires A and B are Integer Answer Type
1.0 mm2 and 2.0 mm2, respectively. A block of mass 24. Water is in streamline flow along a horizontal pipe
m is suspended from any point O on the rod. with non uniform cross-section. At a point in the pipe
(YAl = 70 × 109 N m–2 and Ysteel = 200 × 109 N m–2) where the area of cross-section is 10 cm2, the velocity
(a) If point O is close to wire A then both the wires of water is 1 m s–1 and the pressure is 2000 Pa. The
have equal stresses. pressure at another point where the cross-sectional
(b) If point O is close to B then both the wires have area is 5 cm2 is 5 × 10x. Find x.
equal stress.
(c) If point O is at the middle of the wires then 25. Two solid spheres of same metal but of mass M and
both the wires have equal stress. 8M fall simultaneously on a viscous liquid and their
(d) If point O is close to wire A then both the wires terminal velocities are v and nv, then value of n is
have equal strain. 26. A wire of initial length L and radius r is stretched
22. As shown in the figure a liquid of density U is standing by a length l. Another wire of same material but
in a sealed container to a height h. The container with initial length 2L and radius 2r is stretched by a
contains compressed air at a gauge pressure of p. length 2l. The ratio of the stored elastic energy per
The horizontal outlet pipe has non-uniform cross- unit volume in the first and second wire is

40 PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17


Comprehension Type Column I Column II
The figure shows an atomizer. Swift air flow is (A) Lift is accelerating (P) d = 1.2 m
maintained by compressing the bulb A. The high vertically up.
velocity of air flow reduces pressure at the positions of (B) Lift is accelerating (Q) d > 1.2 m
vertical tube. Due to pressure difference liquid rises in vertically down with an
acceleration less than the
the vertical tube and is sprayed out by high velocity air.
gravitational acceleration.
If the gauge pressure in the bulb is P and v is the speed
of the air in BC, take density of air V and that of liquid U. (C) Lift is moving vertically (R) d < 1.2 m
up with constant speed.
B C (D) Lift is falling freely. (S) No water
A leaks out
h of the jar
A B C D
(a) Q R Q S
Liquid
(density = U) (b) Q R P S
(c) P P P S
27. If atmospheric pressure is Pa, find the approximate (d) Q R P P
pressure in BC. 30. Column II is related to physical quantity and
1 1 physical law given in column I. Match the following
(a) Pa + P + σv 2 (b) Pa + P − σv 2 columns and select the correct option from the
2 2
1 2 1 2 given codes.
(c) P − σv (d) P + σv
2 2 Column I Column II
28. What is the velocity of liquid in BC ? (A) Stoke’s law (P) Radius

{ } { }
(P − ρgh)
1/2
(P + ρgh)
1/2 (B) Terminal velocity (Q) Density of material
(a) (b) of the body
σ/2 σ

{ } { }
1/2 1/2 (C) Excess pressure (R) Coefficient of
(P + ρgh) (P − ρgh)
(c) (d) inside mercury drop viscosity
σ/2 σ
(D) Viscous force on (S) Surface tension
Matrix Match Type a plate moving
29. A person in a lift is holding a water jar, which has a horizontally on a
small hole at the lower end of its side. When the lift liquid surface
is at rest, the water jet coming out of the hole hits (T) Velocity gradient
the floor of the lift at a distance d of 1.2 m from the A B C D
person. In the following, state of the lift’s motion is (a) P, R P, Q, R P, S R, T
given in column I and the distance where the water jet (b) P, Q, R R, T P, R P, S
hits the floor of the lift is given in column II. Match the (c) P, S P, R R, T P, Q, R, S
statements from column I with those in column II and (d) R P, R P P, S
select the correct answer using the given code.
Keys are published in this issue. Search now! -

Check your score! If your score is


> 90% EXCELLENT WORK ! You are well prepared to take the challenge of final exam.

No. of questions attempted …… 90-75% GOOD WORK ! You can score good in the final exam.
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PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17 41


Unit
MODERN PHYSICS
6
4E1<>1DEB5?6=1DD5B1>4B1491D9?> function depends on the properties of the metal
and the nature of its surface.
Electron Emission
Photoelectric Effect
x The phenomenon of emission of electrons from the
x It is the phenomenon of emission of electrons from
surface of a metal.
the surface of metal, when light radiations of suitable
x The electron emission can be obtained from the frequency fall on them.
following physical processes : x The emitted electrons are known as photoelectrons
¾ Thermionic emission : It is the phenomenon and the current so produced is known as photoelectric
of emission of electrons from the metal surface current.
when heated suitably. x Einstein’s photoelectric equation : If a light of
¾ Photoelectric emission : It is the phenomenon frequency X is incident on a photosensitive material
of emission of electrons from the surface having work function (I ), then maximum kinetic
of metal when light radiations of suitable energy of the emitted electron is given as
frequency fall on it. K = hX – I
¾ Field emission or cold cathode emission : It is x For X > X
the phenomenon of emission of electrons from or K = eV = hX – I = hX – hX
the surface of a metal under the application of a (' X0 = Threshold frequency)
strong electric field. ⎛1 1 ⎞
or eV0 = hc ⎜ − ⎟.
¾ Secondary emission : It is the phenomenon of ⎝ λ λ0 ⎠
emission of electrons from the surface of metal in where (V = the stopping potential)
large number when fast moving electrons (called O = threshold wavelength
primary electrons) strike the metal surface. O = incident wavelength
x Work function : The minimum energy needed by x Einstein’s photoelectric equation is in accordance
an electron to come out from a metal surface is with the law of conservation of energy.
known as work function of the metal. It is denoted x The photoelectric equation explains all the features
by I0 and measured in electron volt (eV). The work of the photoelectric effect.

44 PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17


x Experimental study of photoelectric effect

Observation Graph Inferences


Variation of photoelectric current x For a given metal and frequency
with intensity of incident light of incident radiation, the

Photoelectric current
keeping accelerating potential number of photoelectrons
and frequency constant emitted per second is directly
proportional to the intensity of
the incident light.

Intensity of light

Variation of photoelectric Photoelectric x For a particular frequency


current with collector plate current I3 > I2 > I1 of incident radiation, the
potential for different intensities minimum negative potential V0
and same frequency of incident I3 given to the plate for which the
light. I2 photocurrent stops or become
I1
zero is called the cut-off or
Stopping
potential
stopping potential.
–V0 O 1 2
Retarding Collector plate Kmax = eV0 = mvmax
2
potential potential
x For a given frequency of incident
light, the stopping potential is
independent of the intensity.
Variation of photoelectric current x The value of saturation current
with collector plate potential for is independent of incident
different frequencies and same frequency.
intensity of incident light. x The stopping potential is more
negative for higher frequencies
of incident radiation.
x The energy of the emitted
electrons depends on the
Collector plate frequency of incident light.
potential

Variation of stopping potential V0 x For a given photosensitive


with frequency X of incident material, stopping potential
radiation for a given photosensitive increases linearly with
material. frequency of incident radiation.
x For a given metal, there exists a
certain minimum frequency of
B
the incident radiation below
which no emission of photo-
electrons takes place even if the
intensity is large. This frequency
is known as threshold frequency.

PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17 45


Illustration 1 : The photoelectric threshold wavelength λp 2mα qαV
h
for a metal is 10,000 Å. When light of wavelength ? = ×
5461 Å is incident on it, the retarding potential in λα 2m p q pV h
Millikan’s experiment is 1.02 V. Calculate the value of
Planck’s constant. mα qα (4m p )(2q p )
= = =2 2
Soln.: If V0 is the stopping potential, then Einstein’s mpq p mpq p
photoelectric equation can be written as
1 2 Davisson and Germer Experiment
mvmax = eV0 = h(υ − υ0 )
2 x In 1927, Davisson and Germer designed an
⎡c c ⎤ ⎡λ − λ ⎤ experiment to verify the wave nature of electron
or eV0 = h ⎢ − ⎥ = hc ⎢ 0 ⎥
⎣ λ λ 0⎦ ⎣ λ0 λ ⎦ as shown.
eλ 0 λ V0 x A beam of electron emitted by electron gun is made
h= to fall on nickel crystal cut along cubical axis at a
(λ 0 − λ ) c
particular angle.
1.6 × 10 −19 × 10000 × 10 −10 × 5461 × 10 −10 × 1.02
= H.T.B. Incident
(10000 − 5461) × 10 −10 × 3 × 108 – +
electron beam
Ni crystal
= 6.545 × 10–34 J s
T
Wave Nature of Matter I
Anode
x The waves associated with the moving material Filament
T
particles are called matter waves or de Broglie waves. L.T.B.
Vaccum Diffracted
x de Broglie Wavelength : The wavelength associated chamber electron beam
with moving particle is called de Broglie wavelength To galvanometer
h h Movable collector
and it is given by λ = =
p mv
x The diffracted beam of electrons is received by the
x de Broglie wavelength is independent of the charge movable detector for different angles I about the
and nature of the material particle.
point of incidence.
x In terms of kinetic energy K, de Broglie wavelength
x The measured intensity of scattered electron beam
h
is given by λ = . was maximum at an angle I = 50q(or T = 65q) for
2mK an accelerating voltage of 54 V.
x If a particle of charge q is accelerated through a x If the de Broglie waves exist for electrons then
potential difference V, its de Broglie wavelength is these should be diffracted as X-rays. Using the
h Bragg’s formula 2d sin T = nO, we can determine
given by λ = .
2mqV the wavelength of these waves.
1/2
h ⎛ 150 ⎞ For d = 0.91Å and T = 65°. This gives for n = 1, O
¾ For an electron, λ = =
2meeV ⎝ V ⎠ = 2 × 0.91 × 10–10 sin 65° = 1.65Å.
1.227 de Broglie wavelength associated with accelerating
nm 12.27 12.27
V electron is λ e = = Å = 1.67 Å. Thus the
Ilustration 2 : An D-particle and a proton are accelerated V 54
de Broglie hypothesis is verified.
from rest by a potential difference of 100 V. After this,
their de Broglie wavelengths are OD and Op respectively. 1D?=
λp
Find the ratio . Thomson’s Model of Atom
λα x An atom consists of a sphere of the radius of the
h
Soln.: de Broglie wavelength, λ = order of 10–10 m.
2mqV
h h x The negatively charged particles, called electrons,
λp = and λ α = are embedded in the positively charged sphere of
2m p q pV 2mα qαV the atom.

46 PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17


x In an atom, total positive charge is equal to total nh nh
i.e., L = or, mvr =
negative charge. 2π 2π
x This model fails to explain: ¾ The emission of radiation takes place when an
¾ the emission of spectral lines from the atoms. electron makes a transition from a higher to a
¾ the large angle of scattering of D-particles by lower orbit. The frequency of the radiation is
thin metal foils. Ei − E f
given by υ =
Rutherford’s Model of Atom h
where Ei and Ef are the energies of the electron
x The entire positive charge of the atom and most of
in the higher and lower orbits respectively.
the mass is concentrated in a small region called
nucleus and electrons revolve around it in circular x Bohr’s formulae for an electron orbit
orbits. The most of an atom is empty space. Radius of nth orbit
4 πε0n2h2
x The atom as whole is electrically neutral, the total rn =
negative charge of the electrons is equal to the 4 π2mZe 2
positive charge on the nucleus. Velocity of electron in
1 2πZe 2
x Rutherford inferred his model of atom from alpha the nth orbit vn =
4 πε0 nh
particle scattering experiment and estimated the
size of nucleus using the classical approach as The kinetic energy of 2
⎛ 1 ⎞ 2π2me 4 Z 2
the electron in the nth K n =
follows: ⎜⎝ 4 πε ⎟⎠
orbit 0 n2 h2
¾ Number of D-particles per unit area reach on
the screen at scattering angle of T, 13.6 Z 2
= eV
1 n2
N(θ) ∝ 4
sin (θ / 2) The potential energy of 2
⎛ 1 ⎞ 4 π2 me 4 Z 2
Ze 2 cot(θ / 2) electron in nth orbit Un = − ⎜
¾ Impact parameter, b =
4 πε0 K ⎝ 4 πε ⎟⎠ 2 2
0 nh
2
¾ The distance of closest approach of a particle is −27.2 Z
= eV
2
2 Ze n2
given by d = ,
4 π ε0 K Total energy of electron 2
⎛ 1 ⎞ 2π2me 4 Z 2
where K = kinetic energy of D-particles in nth orbit En = − ⎜
Z = atomic number of target atom. ⎝ 4 πε0 ⎟⎠ n2h2
¾ This distance d is the sum of the radii of the
13.6 Z2
target nucleus and the D-particle. =− eV
n2
x Drawbacks of Rutherford’s atomic model :
According to electromagnetic theory, an accelerated Frequency of revolution 2
⎛ 1 ⎞ 4 π2 Z 2e 4 m
charge particle always radiates energy. Electrons of electron in nth orbit υn = ⎜
loses its energy and its radius of orbit decreases ⎝ 4 πε0 ⎟⎠ n3h3
continuously and finally it would spiral into the Wavelength of radiation 1
nucleus. But in practical atoms do not collapse. 2⎡ 1 1⎤
in the transition from λ = RZ ⎢ 2 − 2 ⎥ , where
⎣⎢ n1 n2 ⎦⎥
Bohr’s Model of Atom n2 o n
R is Rydberg’s constant
x Bohr’s postulates :
¾ An electron can revolve around the nucleus Illustration 3 : An energy of 24.6 eV is required to
only in certain allowed circular orbits of definite remove one of the electrons from a neutral helium
energy and in these orbits it does not radiate. atom. What is the energy in (eV) required to remove
These orbits are known as stationary orbits. both the electrons from a neutral helium atom?
¾ Angular momentum of an electron in a Soln.: When one of the electrons is removed from a
stationary orbit is an integral multiple of h/2S. neutral helium atom, energy is given by

PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17 51


13.6 Z 2 13.6
En = − eV per atom ? E1 = −
2
× (2)2 = − 54.4 eV
n 2 (1)
For helium ion, Z = 2, when doubly ionised. ? Energy required to remove it = 54.4 eV
For first orbit, n = 1 ? Total energy required = 54.4 + 24.6 = 79 eV.
x Spectral series of Hydrogen Atom :

X-Rays
Continuous X-Rays Characteristic X-Rays
As an electron passes close to the positive nucleus of Few of the fast moving electrons having high velocity
atom of the target, the electron is deflected from it’s path penetrate the surface O n=5
as shown in figure. This atoms of the target N n=4
MD ME
results in deceleration of the – X-rays material and knock M n=3
electron. The loss in energy e photon out the tightly LD LE LJ M-series
+ n=2
of the electron during bound electrons even L KD KE KJ L-series
deceleration is emitted in from the inner most K n=1
the form of X-rays. K-series
shells of the atom.
Minimum Now when the electron is knocked out, a vacancy is
wavelength : When created at that place. To fill this vacancy, electrons
Intensity

the electron looses from higher shell jumps in vacancy. This transition of
whole of it’s energy
electron lead to emission of radiation in the form of
in a single collision 30 kV X-rays of very small but KD
with the atom, an 20 kV
Intensity

10 kV definite wavelength which


X-ray photon of KE
L
Wavelength depends upon the target LJ LE D
maximum energy
hXmax is emitted. Intensity-wavelength graph material. K-series

Minimum wavelength = cut off wavelength of X-ray L-series


hc 12375 Omin Wavelength
Omin = = Å
eV V (in volt) Intensity-wavelength graph

52 PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17


Moseley’s Law >E3<59
x According to Moseley’s observations, frequency of Composition and Properties of Nuclei
X-rays spectrum is given by x The nucleus of an atom contains protons and
neutrons which are collectively known as nucleons.
υ = a ( Z − b) ; where a and b are constants.
The number of protons in a nucleus is called its
x a and b does not depend on the nature of target. atomic number and is denoted by Z. The total
x Different values of b are follows: number of protons and neutrons in a nucleus is
b=1 for K-series called its mass number and is denoted by A.
b = 7.4 for L-series Number of protons in a nucleus = Z
Number of nucleons in a nucleus = A
b = 19.2 for M-series
Number of neutrons in a nucleus = N = A – Z.
kE x Nuclide : It is a specific nucleus of an atom which
X kD is characterised by its atomic number Z and mass
number A. It is represented by ZXA where X is the
chemical symbol of the element.
x Nuclear radius : Nuclear radius, R = R A1/3
where R is a constant and A is the mass number.
Z ¾ Nuclear radius is measured in fermi.
1 fm = 10–15ȹ–
x Wave length of characteristic spectrum mass of nucleus 3m
x Nuclear density : ρ = 
1 ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ volume of nucleus 4 πR03
= R(Z − b)2 ⎜ 2 − 2 ⎟
λ ⎜n ⎟ ¾ Nuclear density is independent of A and is
⎝ 1 n2 ⎠ order of the 1017 kg m–3.
x Energy of X-ray radiations
x Isotopes : Isotopes of an element are the atoms of
hc ⎛ 1 1⎞ the element which have the same atomic number
ΔE = hυ = = Rhc(Z − b)2 ⎜ 2 − 2 ⎟
λ ⎝ n1 n2 ⎠ but different mass numbers. e.g. H1, H2, H3, are
the three isotopes of hydrogen.
x For transition n2 = 2 to n1 = 1 (KD line), x Isobars : Isobars are the atoms of different elements
3Rc which have the same mass number but different
We have a = = 2.47 × 1015 Hz atomic numbers. e.g. Na22 and Ne22.
4
x Isotones : Isotones are the nuclides which contain
Illustration 4 : KD wavelength emitted by an atom
the same number of neutrons e.g. Cl37 and K39.
of atomic number Z = 11 is O. Determine the atomic
number for an atom that emits KD radiation with Nuclear Binding Energy
x Mass Defect : The difference in mass of a nucleus
wavelength 4O.
and its constituent nucleons is called the mass
Soln.: According to Moseley’s law, defect of that nucleus.
c Mass defect, 'M = Zmp + (A – Z)mn – M,
X = a2(Z – b)2, where X = frequency =
λ where M is the mass of a given nucleus.
c x Binding energy :
For KD line, b = 1 ? = a2 (Z − 1)2
λ ¾ The energy equivalent of the mass defect of a
c
For one atom, = a (Z1 − 1)2
2
nucleus is called its binding energy.
λ1
Eb = 'Mc2 = [Zmp + (A – Z)mn – M]c2
c
For other atom, = a2 (Z 2 − 1)2 If masses are expressed in atomic mass units,
λ2 'Eb = [Zmp + (A – Z)mn – M] × 931.5 MeV
λ1 a2 (Z 2 − 1)2 λ (Z 2 − 1)2 (Z 2 − 1)2 Eb
or = or = = ¾ Binding energy per nucleon, ΔEb n = .
λ2 a2 (Z1 − 1)2 4λ (11 − 1)2 100 A
It is the average energy needed to separate a
or (Z2 – 1)2 = 25 or Z2 – 1 = 5 or Z2 = 6. nucleus into its individual nucleons.

PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17 53


Radioactivity N N N N
→ 0 ⎯⎯⎯ → 20 ⎯⎯⎯ → 30 .... ⎯⎯⎯ → n0
t1/ 2 t1/ 2 t1/ 2 t1/ 2
N 0 ⎯⎯⎯
x Radioactivity was discovered in 1896 by Antoine 2 2 2 2
Henri Becquerel.
x The number of undecayed nuclei present after n
x Radioactivity is the spontaneous disintegration of n
nuclei of some nuclides (called radionuclides) with mean life is N = (0.37)n N0 = ⎛⎜ ⎞⎟ N0.
⎝e⎠
the emission of alpha particles or beta particles,
x Probability of nucleus for survival in time t,
some accompanied by a gamma ray emission.
N N e− λt
x Law of radioactive decay : P (survival) = = = e− λt
N N
dN
= −λN ( t ) or N ( t ) = N 0 e − λt x Probability of a nucleus to disintegrate in time t,
dt
where O is the decay constant or disintegration P (disintegration) = 1 – P (survival) = 1 – e–Ot
constant, N(t) is the number of nuclei left undecayed Illustration 5 : A radioactive material decays by
at the time t, N0 is the number of radioactive nuclei simultaneous emission of two particles with respective
at t = 0. half-lives 1620 and 810 year. In how many years
one-fourth of the material remains?
x Half-life of a radioactive substance is given by
N
T1 / 2 =
ln 2 0.693
= Soln.: Since = e −λt
λ λ N0
x Mean life or average life of a radioactive substance ? There is a simultaneous emission of two particles.
is given by N N0
∴ = e −( λ1 + λ2 )t or = e −( λ1 + λ2 )t
1 T1/ 2 N0 4 N0
τ= = = 1.44 T1/ 2
λ 0.693
4 = e(O1 + O2)t
x Activity : The number of disintegrations occurring
or ln 4 = (λ1 + λ 2 )t ln e
in a radioactive substance per second and it is given
0.693 0.693
by R = –dN/dt. Now λ1 = and λ2 =
1620 810
¾ The SI unit of activity is becquerel.
⎡ 1 1 ⎤
1 becquerel = 1 Bq = 1 decay/second. ∴ 1.386 = 0.693 ⎢ +
⎣1620 810 ⎥⎦
t

x Activity law : R(t) = R e–Ot


1.386 × 1620
where R = ON is the decay rate at t = 0 and or t = or t = 1080 years
0.693 × 3
R = NO.
x Fraction of nuclei left undecayed after n half live is

( ) = ( 21 )
n t /T
N
N0
=
1
2
1/ 2
(' t = nT 2) WEST BENGAL at
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O
two different process T Ph: 033-22414947, 24792343; Mob: 9830360012

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x Number of nuclei present after n half lifes


N0
= .
(2)n

54 PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17


x Properties of D, E and J-rays

Features -particles -particles -rays


Identity Helium nucleus or doubly Fast moving electron Photons
ionised helium atom (2He4) (E+ or E–) (electromagnetic waves)
Charge + 2e – e or e Zero
Mass 4 mp (mp = mass of proton me (me = mass of electron Masselss
= 1.67 × 10–27 kg) = 9.1 × 10–31 kg)
Speed | 107 m s–1 1% to 99% of speed of light Speed of light
Range of kinetic 4 MeV to 9 MeV All possible values between Between a minimum
energy a minimum certain value to value to 2.23 MeV
1.2 MeV
Penetration power 1 100 10,000
(J > E > D) (Stopped by a paper) (100 times of D) (100 times of E upto
30 cm of iron (or Pb)
sheet)
Ionisation power 10,000 100 1
(D > E > J)
Effect of electric or Deflected Deflected Not deflected
magnetic field
Energy spectrum Line and discrete Continuous Line and discrete
Mutual interaction Produces heat Produces heat Produces photo-electric
with matter effect, Compton effect,
pair production
D-decay A E–-decay
Equation of decay
ZX
A
o Z–2Y A–4 + 2He4 ZX Z+1Y
A
+ –1e0 + υ (ZXA)* J-decay ZX
A
+J
A E+-decay
ZX Z–1Y
A
+ 1e + X
0

Nuclear reactions then in the reaction : p + 73 Li → 2 24 He , what will be the


x The process by which the identity of a nucleus is energy of proton?
changed when it is bombarded by an energetic
Soln.: Binding energy of 73 Li = 7 × 5.60 = 39.2 Me V
particle is called nuclear reaction.
Binding energy of 42He = 4 × 7.06 = 28.24 MeV
X + a ⎯⎯→ Y + b + Q ? Energy of proton = Energy of [2(42He) – 37Li]
(Parent nucleus) (Incident particle) (Product nucleus) (daughter nucleus) (Energy)
= 2 × 28.24 – 39.2
x Nuclear fission : A heavy nucleus breaks into two = 17.28 MeV.
light nuclei of comparable masses. Binding energy
per nucleon is greater for two lighter fragments
than it is for the original nucleus. TRIPURA at
x Nuclear fusion : Two light nuclei combine to form • Books Corner - Agartala Ph: 1381-2301945, 2301945; Mob: 9856358594
a heavier nucleus. Binding energy per nucleon • Babai Books - Agartala Mob: 9774424611
• Puthi Ghar - Agartala Mob: 9436126357
is greater in the final nucleus than it is in the two
original nuclei.
Illustration 6 : If the binding energy per nucleon of 37Li
and 42He nuclei are 5.60 MeV and 7.06 MeV respectively,

PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17 55


1. The potential energy of particle of mass m varies as 7. A triply ionized beryllium (Be3+) has the same
orbital radius as the ground state of hydrogen. Then
⎧ E for 0 ≤ x ≤ 1
U ( x) = ⎨ 0 the quantum state n of Be3+ is
⎩0 for x > 1 (a) n = 1 (b) n = 2
The de-Broglie wavelength of the particle in the (c) n = 3 (d) n = 4
range 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 is O1 and that in the range x > 1 is O2. 8. A sample of radioactive material has mass m, decay
If the total energy of the particle is 2E0, find O1/O2. constant O, molecular weight M. The activity of the
2
sample after time t will be (Avogadro constant = NA)
1
(a) 2 (b) 3 (c) (d) ⎛ mN A ⎞ −λt ⎛ mN A λ ⎞ − λt
2 3
(a) ⎜
⎝ M ⎟⎠
(b) ⎜
⎝ M ⎟⎠
e e
2. The binding energy per nucleon for deuteron
(1H2) and helium (2He4) are 1.1 MeV and ⎛ mN A ⎞ − λt m
7.0 MeV respectively. The energy released when ⎝ M λ ⎟⎠
(c) ⎜ e (d) (1 − e − λt )
λ
two deuterons fuse to form a helium nucleus is 9. An electron is in an excited state in a hydrogen like
(a) 36.2 MeV (b) 23.6 MeV atom. It has a total energy of –3.4 eV. The kinetic
(c) 47.2 MeV (d) 11.8 MeV energy of the electron is E and its de-Broglie
3. A particular hydrogen-like ion emits radiation of wavelength is O. Then
frequency 2.467 × 1015 Hz when it makes transition (a) E = 6.8 eV, O = 6.6 × 10–10 m
from n = 2 to n = 1. What will be the frequency of (b) E = 3.4 eV, O = 6.6 × 10–10 m
the radiation emitted in a transition from n = 3 to (c) E = 3.4 eV, O = 6.6 × 10–11 m
n = 1? (d) E = 6.8 eV, O = 6.6 × 10–11 m
(a) 1.42 × 1012 Hz (b) 2.92 × 1015 Hz 10. The count rate from 100 cm3 of a radioactive liquid
12
(c) 3.64 × 10 Hz (d) 3.64 × 1015 Hz is c. Some of this liquid is now discarded. The count
4. Light of wavelength O strikes a photo-sensitive rate of the remaining liquid is found to be c/10 after
surface and electrons are ejected with kinetic three half-lives. The volume of the remaining liquid
energy E. If the kinetic energy is to be increased to in cm3, is
2E, the wavelength must be changed to Oc where (a) 20 (b) 40 (c) 60 (d) 80
λ 11. The energy released by the fission of one uranium
(a) Oc = (b) Oc = 2O
2 atom is 200 MeV. The number of fissions per second
λ required to produce 3.2 W of power is
(c) < Oc < O (d) Oc > O
2 (Take 1 eV = 1.6 × 10–19 J)
5. A nucleus at rest splits into two nuclear parts having (a) 107 (b) 1010 (c) 1015 (d) 1011
radii in the ratio 1 : 2. Their velocities are in the 12. The KD X-rays arising from a cobalt (Z = 27) target
ratio of have a wavelength of 179 pm. The wavelength of KD
(a) 8 : 1 (b) 6 : 1 (c) 4 : 1 (d) 2 : 1 X-rays arising from a nickel (Z = 28) target is
6. All electrons ejected from a surface by incident (a) > 179 pm (b) < 179 pm
light of wavelength 200 nm can be stopped before (c) = 179 pm (d) None of these
travelling 1 m in the direction of uniform electric 13. The de-Broglie wavelength of a neutron in thermal
field of 4 N C–1. The work function of the surface is equilibrium with heavy water at a temperature
(a) 4 eV (b) 6.2 eV (c) 2 eV (d) 2.2 eV T(K) and mass m, is

56 PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17


h 2h sometime t, the ratio of the number of B to that of
(a) (b) A is 0.3. Then t is given by
3mkT 3mkT log(1.3)
T log 2
(c)
2h
(d) h (a) t = (b) t = T
2 log(1.3) log 2
mkT mkT
[NEET 2017] T
(c) t = T log(1.3) (d) t =
14. The ratio of wavelengths of the last line of Balmer log(1.3)
series and the last line of Lyman series is [JEE Main Offline 2017]
(a) 1 (b) 4 (c) 0.5 (d) 2 18. The maximum velocity of the photoelectrons
[NEET 2017] emitted from the surface is v when light of
15. An electron beam is accelerated by a potential frequency n falls on a metal surface. If the incident
difference V to hit a metallic target to produce frequency is increased to 3n, the maximum velocity
X-rays. It produces continuous as well as of the ejected photoelectrons will be
characteristic X-rays. If Omin is the smallest possible (a) more than 3v (b) less than 3v
wavelength of X-ray in the spectrum, the variation (c) v (d) equal to 3v
of logOmin with logV is correctly represented in [JEE Main Online 2017]
19. A Laser light of wavelength 660 nm is used to weld
(a) Retina detachment. If a Laser pulse of width 60 ms
and power 0.5 kW is used, the approximate number
of photons in the pulse are
[Take Planck’s constant h = 6.62 × 10–34 J s]
(b) (a) 1019 (b) 1022 (c) 1018 (d) 1020
[JEE Main Online 2017]
20. According to Bohr’s theory, the time averaged
(c) magnetic field at the centre (i.e., nucleus) of a
hydrogen atom due to the motion of electrons in the
nth orbit is proportional to (n = principal quantum
(d) number)
(a) n–2 (b) n–3 (c) n–4 (d) n–5
[JEE Main Online 2017]
[JEE Main Offline 2017]
SOLUTIONS
16. Some energy levels of a molecule are shown in the 1. (a) : de-Broglie wavelength of a particle of mass m is
λ
figure. The ratio of the wavelengths r = 1 is given λ=
h
by λ2 2mK
where K is the kinetic energy of the particle.
For 0 ≤ x ≤ 1, U(x) = E0
As, total energy = Kinetic energy + Potential energy
? 2E0 = K1 + E0 (∵ Total energy = 2E0 (Given))
or K1 = E0
h h
? λ1 = = …(i)
2mK1 2mE0
4 2
(a) r = (b) r = For x > 1, U(x) = 0 ? K2 = 2E0
3 3 h h
3 1 ? λ2 = = …(ii)
(c) r = (d) r = 2mK 2 2m(2 E0 )
4 3
[JEE Main Offline 2017] Divide (i) by (ii), we get
λ1 h 2m(2 E0 )
17. A radioactive nucleus A with a half-life T, decays = × = 2
into a nucleus B. At t = 0, there is no nucleus B. At λ2 2mE0 h

PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17 57


2. (b) : The given reaction is 21H2 o 2He4 + Q 1 2 1
The energy released in the reaction is mvmax = hX – I0 or I0 = hX – mv2max
2 2
Q = BE of 2He4 – 2(BE of 1H2) ? I0 = 6.2 – 4 = 2.2 eV
= (4 × 7.0 MeV) – 2(2 × 1.1 MeV) = 23.6 MeV
7. (b) : Radius of nth orbit in hydrogen like atoms is
3. (b) : The frequency of radiation emitted is given by
a n2
c ⎛ 1 1⎞ rn = 0
X= =K − Z
λ ⎜ 2 2⎟
⎝ n1 n2 ⎠ where a0 is the Bohr’s radius
⎛1 1⎞ For hydrogen atom, Z = 1
Thus, 2.467 × 1015 Hz = K ⎜ − ⎟ ? r1 = a0 (∵ n = 1 for ground state)
⎝ 12 22 ⎠
For Be3+, Z = 4
4
or, K = × 2.467 × 1015 Hz. a n2
3 ∴ rn = 0
The frequency of the radiation emitted in the 4
transition n = 3 to n = 1 is According to given problem,
⎡1 1⎤ 8 8 4 r1 = r n
Xc = K ⎢ − ⎥ = K = × × 2.467 × 1015 Hz n2a0
2 2
⎣1 3 ⎦ 9 9 3 a0 = Ÿ n=2
= 2.92 × 1015 Hz. 4
8. (b) : Activity = number of disintegrations per unit
4. (c) : Kinetic energy of photoelectrons is, time
hc hc dN
E= – I0 and 2E = – I0 ? = O . N,
λ λ′ dt
λ ′ E + φ0 ⎛ 1 + φ0 / E ⎞ where N = the total number of nuclei.
Ÿ = Ÿ Oc = O ⎜
λ 2 E + φ0 ⎝ 2 + φ0 / E ⎟⎠ Also, N = number of moles × NA = ⎛⎜ m ⎞⎟ NA.
⎛ 1 + φ0 / E ⎞ 1 λ ⎝ M⎠
Since ⎜ ⎟ > ? Oc > Activity after time t = initial activity × e–Ot.
⎝ 2 + φ0 / E ⎠ 2 2
⎛ λN A m ⎞ − λt
= ON × e–Ot = ⎜
⎝ M ⎟⎠
5. (a) : Let A1 and A2 be the mass numbers of the two e
nuclear parts. Their radii are given by 9. (b) : The potential energy = – 2 × kinetic energy = – 2E.
R1 = R0 (A1)1/3 and R2 = R0 (A2)1/3 ? Total energy = – 2E + E = – E = – 3.4 eV
Dividing, we get or E = 3.4 eV.
1/3 3 3 Let p = momentum and m = mass of the electron.
R1 ⎛ A1 ⎞ A1 ⎛ R1 ⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ 1
= or =⎜ ⎟ =⎜ ⎟ = p2
R2 ⎜⎝ A2 ⎟⎠ A2 ⎝ R2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ 8 ∴ E= or p = 2mE .
m1 1 2m
Hence, the ratio of their masses is = h h
m2 8 de-Broglie wavelength, λ = =
p 2mE
From the principle of conservation of momentum On substituting the values, we get
The magnitude of p1 = magnitude of p2
6.63 × 10 −34
or m1v1 = m2v2, λ=
v1 m2 8 2 × 9.1 × 10 −31 × 3.4 × 1.6 × 10 −19
? = =
v2 m1 1 = 6.6 × 10–10 m
6. (d) : The electron ejected with maximum speed c
10. (d) : Initial count rate (CR) for 1 cm3 of liquid =
vmax are stopped by electric field E = 4 N C–1 after 100
3 1 c
travelling a distance d = 1 m After 3 half-lives, CR for 1 cm of liquid = ×
1 2 8 100
? mv = eEd = 4 eV Let the volume of the remaining liquid = V cm3.
2 max
1240 c c c
The energy of incident photon = = 6.2 eV ? CR of this liquid = V × ; =V ×
200 800 10 800
From equation of photoelectric effect or V = 80.

58 PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17


11. (d) : Energy released per fission is hc hc
E = 200 MeV = 200 × 106 × 1.6 × 10–19 J λ2 = = ...(ii)
⎛ 4 ⎞ ⎛E⎞
= 3.2 × 10–11 J −E − ⎜ − E ⎟ ⎜ ⎟
⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎝3⎠
Power, P = 3.2 W
Dividing eqn. (i) by eqn. (ii), we get
P
Number of fissions per second = λ1 1
E =
3. 2 W λ2 3
= = 1011 17. (b) : Let NA and NB be the number of molecules of
−11
3.2 × 10 J A and B after time t.
1
12. (b) : OKD v N
(Z − 1)2 Also, after time t, B = 0.3
2 2 NA
λ ⎛ Z − 1⎞ ⎛ 27 − 1⎞
Ÿ Ni = ⎜ Co ⎟ = ⎜⎝ ⎟⎠ Also, let N0 be the total number of nucleus initially.
λ Co ⎝ Z Ni − 1 ⎠ 28 − 1 After time t, NA + NB = N0
2 2 N
⎛ 26 ⎞ ⎛ 26 ⎞ NA + 0.3NA = N0 ? N A = 0
Ÿ ONi = ⎜ ⎟ × OCo = ⎜ ⎟ × 179 1. 3
⎝ 27 ⎠ ⎝ 27 ⎠
Also, rate of disintegration of A
= 165.9 pm < 179 pm. NA = N0 e–Ot
13. (a) : Kinetic energy of a neutron in thermal N0 1
equilibrium with heavy water at a temperature T is ⇒ = N 0e − λt ; = e − λt or ln(1.3) = λt
1. 3 1 . 3
given as K = 3 kT ...(i) ln(1.3) T ln(1.3) T log(1.3)
2 or t = ∴ t= =
λ ln(2) log 2
Also momentum (p) is, p = 2mK 1
From eqn. (i) 18. (a) : E1 = mv2 = hn – I
2
3 If incident frequency is increased to 3n
p= 2m . kT = 3mkT
2 1
E2 = mvc2 = 3hn – I = 3(hn – I) + 2I
Required de-Broglie wavelength is given as 2
h h 1
O= = = 3 × mv2 + 2I
p 3mkT 2
vc2 = 3v2 + 4I/m; vc > v 3
14. (b) : The wavelength of last line of Balmer series
19. (d) : Here, O = 660 nm = 660 × 10–9 m
1 ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ R
= R⎜ 2 − 2 ⎟ = t = 60 ms = 60 × 10–3 s; P = 0.5 kW = 500 W
λB ⎝ 2 ∞ ⎠ 4 h = 6.62 × 10–34 J s, n = ?
The wavelength of last line of Lyman series E nhc P λt
As, P = = ; ∴ n=
1 ⎛1 1 ⎞ t λt hc
= R⎜ 2 − 2 ⎟ = R
λL ⎝ 1 ∞ ⎠ 500 × 660 × 10 −9 × 60 × 10 −3
n=
?
λB
=
4
=4 6.62 × 10 −34 × 3 × 108
λL 1 ? n | 1020
15. (a) : Minimum possible wavelength of X-rays is μ I
hc ⎛ hc ⎞ 20. (d) : Magnetic field at the centre, Bn = 0
λ min = ; log(λ min ) = log ⎜ ⎟ − log V 2rn
eV ⎝ e⎠
For a hydrogen atom, radius of nth orbit is given by
This is the equation of a straight line with negative
slope and positive intercept on the y-axis (logOmin). ⎛ n2 ⎞ ⎛ h ⎞ 2 4πε0
rn = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ? rn v n2
16. (d) : We know, ⎝ ⎠
m ⎝ 2 π ⎠ e 2

hc 1 e e ev
λ= i.e. λ ∝ I= = = n
E energy difference T 2πrn / vn 2πrn
hc hc Also, vn v n–1 ? I v n–3
Now, λ1 = = ...(i) Hence, Bn v n–5
−E − (−2E) E VV

PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17 59


EXAM ss
cla i
xi

PREP 2018
CHAPTERWISE MCQS FOR PRACTICE
WAVE OPTICS If the distance of the screen from the slits is
doubled, the distance between the slits is halved
1. Light from sodium lamp is made to pass through
and the wavelength of light is changed from
two polaroids placed one after the other in the path
6.4 × 10–7 m to 4.0 × 10–7 m, then the new distance
of light. Taking the intensity of the incident light as
between the fringes will be
100%, the intensity of the outcoming light that can
(a) 0.10 mm (b) 0.15 mm
be varied in the range
(c) 0.20 mm (d) 0.25 mm
(a) 0% to 100% (b) 0% to 50%
(c) 0% to 25% (d) 0% to 75% 6. In a Fraunhofer diffraction experiment at a
single slit using a light of wavelength 400 nm,
2. In a double slit experiment, the angular width of a
the first minimum is formed at an angle of 30°.
fringe is found to be 0.2° on a screen placed 1 m away.
The direction T of the first secondary maximum is
The wavelength of light used is 600 nm. The angular
given by
width of the fringe if entire experimental apparatus
(a) sin–1 (1/4) (b) tan–1 (2/3)
⎛ 4⎞ –1
(d) sin–1 (3/4)
is immersed in water is ⎜ Take μ water = ⎟ (c) sin (2/3)
⎝ 3⎠
7. The two slits are 1 mm apart from each other and
(a) 0.15° (b) 1° (c) 2° (d) 0.3° illuminated with a light of wavelength 5 × 10–7 m. If
3. In a single slit diffraction experiment, the slit width the distance of the screen is 1 m from the slits, then
is 2.5 O, where O is the wavelength of light used. the distance between third dark fringe and fifth
Then on either side of the central maximum there are bright fringe is
(a) 4 minima, 2 secondary maxima (a) 1.5 mm (b) 0.75 mm
(b) 2 minima, 2 secondary maxima (c) 1.25 mm (d) 0.625 mm
(c) 2 minima, 4 secondary maxima 8. A double-slit apparatus is immersed in liquid of
(d) 2 minima, 1 secondary maxima. refractive index Pm. It has slit separation d and
4. A beam of natural light falls on a system of 5 distance between plane of slits and screen D as
polaroids, which are arranged in succession such D >> d. The slits are illuminated by a parallel beam
that the pass axis of each polaroid is turned through of monochromatic light of wavelength O0. The
60° with respect to the preceding one. The fraction smallest thickness of a sheet of refractive index
of the incident light intensity that passes through Pp to bring adjacent minima on the axis is
the system is λ0 (μ p − μm )λ 0
1 1 1
(a) (b)
1 2(μ p − μm ) 2
(a) (b) (c) (d)
64 32 256 512
λ0
5. In Young’s double-slit experiment, the distance (c) (d) (Pp – Pm)O0
between the centres of adjacent fringes is 0.10 mm. (μ p − μm )

60 PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17


9. In a Young’s double slit experiment, the source is DUAL NATURE OF RADIATION AND MATTER
red light of wavelength 7 × 10–7 m. When a thin 16. A light of wavelength 600 nm is incident on a
glass plate of refractive index 1.5 at this wavelength metal surface. When light of wavelength 400 nm
is put in the path of one of the interfering beams, the is incident, the maximum kinetic energy of the
central bright fringe shifts to the position previously
emitted photoelectrons is doubled. The work
occupied by 5th bright fringe. The thickness of the
function of the metal is
plate is
(a) 1.03 eV (b) 2.11 eV
(a) 4 Pm (b) 5 Pm (c) 6 Pm (d) 7 Pm
(c) 4.14 eV (d) 2.43 eV
10. Two coherent light sources S1 and S2 with separation
2O are placed on the x-axis symmetrically about 17. A source S1 is producing 1015 photons per second of
the origin. They emit light of wavelength O. The wavelength 5000 Å. Another source S2 is producing
numbers of maxima on a circle of large radius, lying 1.02 × 1015 photons per second of wavelength 5100 Å.
in the x-y plane with centre at origin is Then, (power of S2)/ (power of S1) is equal to
(a) 4 (b) 6 (c) 8 (d) 12 (a) 1.00 (b) 1.02 (c) 1.04 (d) 0.98
11. In Young’s double slit experiment, when sodium 18. The de Broglie wavelength of an electron moving
light of wavelength 5893 Å is used, then 62 fringes with a velocity c/2 (c = velocity of light in vacuum)
are seen in the field of view. Instead of sodium light, is equal to the wavelength of a photon. The ratio of
if violet light of wavelength 4358 Å is used, then the the kinetic energies of electron and photon is
number of fringes than will be seen in the field of (a) 1 : 4 (b) 1 : 2 (c) 1 : 1 (d) 2 : 1
view will be 19. The additional energy that should be given to an
(a) 54 (b) 64 (c) 74 (d) 84
electron to reduce its de-Broglie wavelength from
12. What is the minimum thickness of a thin film 1 nm to 0.5 nm is
required for constructive interference in the (a) 2 times the initial kinetic energy
reflected light from it, if the refractive index of (b) 3 times the initial kinetic energy
the film = 1.5, wavelength of the light incident on the (c) 0.5 times the initial kinetic energy
film = 600 nm? (d) 4 times the initial kinetic energy
(a) 100 nm (b) 300 nm (c) 50 nm (d) 200 nm
20. The ratio of the de Broglie wavelengths of an
13. Two beams of light of intensity I1 and I2 interfere to electron of energy 10 eV to that of person of mass
give an interference pattern. If the ratio of maximum
66 kg travelling at a speed of 100 km h–1 is of the
intensity to that of minimum intensity is 25/9, then
order of
I1/I2 is
(a) 1034 (b) 1027
(a) 5/3 (b) 4 (c) 81/625 (d) 16 17
(c) 10 (d) 10–10
14. Interference was observed in interference
chamber when air was present, now the chamber 21. A monochromatic light beam of wavelength
is evacuated and if the same light is used, a careful 6000 Å and intensity 10 mW cm–2 fall on a surface.
observer will see The number of photons striking the surface per
(a) no interference second per cm2 are
(b) interference with bright bands (a) 3 × 1016 (b) 2 × 1016
16
(c) interference with dark bands (c) 4 × 10 (d) 5 × 1016
(d) interference in which width of the fringe will 22. When a certain metal surface is illuminated
be slightly increased with light of frequency X, the stopping potential
15. In Young’s double slit experiment, the central bright for photoelectric current is V0. When the same
fringe can be identified υ
(a) by using white light instead of monochromatic surface is illuminated by light of frequency , the
V 2
light stopping potential is 0 . The threshold frequency
(b) as it is narrower than other bright fringes 4
for photoelectric emission is
(c) as it is wider than other bright fringes
(d) as it has a greater intensity than the other bright υ υ 2υ 4υ
(a) (b) (c) (d)
fringes 6 3 3 3

PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17 61


23. Figure shows the variation Photo 28. A particle moves in a closed orbit around the
current origin, due to a force which is directed towards the
of photocurrent with c b
anode potential for a a origin. The de Broglie wavelength of the particle
photo-sensitive surface for varies cyclically between two values O1 and O2 with
three different radiations. O1 > O2. Which of the following statements is true?
Let Ia, Ib, and Ic be the Anode potential (a) The particle could be moving in a circular orbit
intensities and Xa, Xb and Xc be the frequencies for with origin as centre.
the curves a, b and c respectively. (b) The particle could be moving in an elliptical
(a) Xa = Xb and Ia z Ib (b) Xa = Xc and Ia = Ic orbit with origin as its focus.
(c) Xa = Xb and Ia = Ib (d) Xb = Xc and Ib z Ic (c) When the de Broglie wavelength is O 1, the
particle is nearer the origin than when its value
24. In a photoelectric experiment, electrons are ejected is O2.
from metals X and Y by light of frequency X. The (d) Both (a) and (c)
potential difference V are required to stop the
electrons is measured for various frequencies. If Y 29. A metal surface is illuminated by light of two
has a greater work function than X, which graph different wavelengths 248 nm and 310 nm.
illustrates the expected results? The maximum speeds of the photoelectrons
corresponding to these wavelengths are u1 and
V X V X u2, respectively. If the ratio u1 : u2 = 2 : 1 and
Y Y hc = 1240 eV nm, the work function of the metal
(a) (b)
is nearly
(0, 0) X (0, 0) X (a) 3.7 eV (b) 3.2 eV (c) 2.8 eV (d) 2.5 eV
V Y V Y 30. Red, blue, green and violet colour lights are one by
X X one made incident on a photocathode. It is observed
(c) (d) that only one colour light produces photoelectrons.
(0, 0) X (0, 0) X That light is
(a) red (b) blue (c) green (d) violet
25. When a metallic surface is illuminated by a
monochromatic light of wavelength O, then the SOLUTIONS
potential difference required to stop the ejection 1. (b) : Let I0 be the intensity of incident light. As the
of electrons is 3V0. When the same surface is light coming from sodium lamp is unpolarised,
illuminated by the light of wavelength 2O, then the so the intensity of light emerging from the first
potential difference required to stop the ejection of polaroid is
electrons is V0. Then for photoelectric effect, the I
I1 = 0
threshold wavelength for the metal surface will be 2
(a) 6O (b) 4O/3 (c) 4O (d) 8O If T is the angle between two polaroids, then
the intensity of light emerging from the second
26. If the maximum kinetic energy of emitted photo polaroid is
electrons from a metal surface of work function I
2.5 eV, is 1.7 eV. If wavelength of incident radiation I2 = I1 cos2 θ = 0 cos2 θ
2
is halved, then stopping potential will be
(a) 2.5 V (b) 6.7 V But I0 = 100% (given)
(c) 5 V (d) 1.1 V ? I2 = 50% cos2T
Since T varies from 90° to 0°, so the intensity of the
27. The ratio of de Broglie wavelength of D-particle
out coming light can be varied from 0% to 50% .
to that of a proton being subjected to the same
magnetic field so that the radii of their paths are 2. (a) : Since a fringe of width E is formed on the
equal to each other assuming the field induction screen at distance D from the slits, so the angular
G fringe width
vector B is perpendicular to the velocity vectors of
β Dλ / d λ ⎡ Dλ ⎤
the D-particle and the proton is θ= = =
D D d ⎢⎣' β = d ⎥⎦
(a) 1 : 1 (b) 1 : 4 (c) 1 : 2 (d) 2 : 1

62 PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17


λ 5. (d) : Distance between the centres of adjacent
⇒ d= fringes = Fringe width
θ
If the wavelength in water be Oc and the angular Fringe width, β =
λD
...(i)
fringe width be Tc, then d
λ′ λ λ′ where O is the wavelength of light used, D is the
d= or =
θ′ θ θ′ distance of the screen from the slits, d is the distance
λ′ λ/μ ⎡ λ⎤ between the slits.
or θ′ = . θ = .θ ⎢' λ′ = ⎥
λ λ ⎣ μ⎦ λ ′D ′
0. 2 ° ? β′ = ...(ii)
? Tc = = 0.15° d′
4/3
Divide (ii) by (i), we get
3. (d) : Given, width of the slit, a = 2.5O
β′ ⎛ λ ′ ⎞ ⎛ D ′ ⎞ ⎛ d ⎞
For minima, a sinT = nO = ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟
nλ nλ n β ⎝ λ ⎠⎝ D ⎠⎝d′⎠
sin θ = = Ÿ sin θ = Substituting the given values, we get
a 2.5λ 2.5
Since maximum value of sinT is 1. β ′ ⎛ 4.0 × 10 −7 ⎞ ⎛ 2 D ⎞ ⎛ d ⎞
= ⎜ ⎟
? n = 1, 2 β ⎝⎜ 6.4 × 10 −7 ⎟⎠ ⎝ D ⎠ ⎜⎝ (d / 2) ⎠⎟
Thus only 2 minima can be obtained on the either
β′
side of central maximum. = 2.5 orEc = 2.5E = 2.5 u0.10 mm = 0.25 mm
For secondary maxima, β
λ (2n + 1) λ 2n + 1 6. (d) :
a sin θ = (2n + 1) Ÿ sin θ = =
2 2a 2 × 2.5
2n + 1 (2n + 1) λ
sin θ = sin θ =
5 2a
Since maximum value of sinT is 1.
For the (1st) secondary minima, a sin T = 1O.
? n = 1, thus only 1 secondary maximum can be
i.e., O/a = sin T = sin 30° = 1/2
obtained on the either side of central maximum.
? For first secondary maxima
4. (d) : Let I0 be the intensity of incident light. 2(1) + 1 1 3
Then the intensity of light from the 1st polaroid is sin T = ⋅ =
2 2 4
I
I1 = 0 ⎛ 3 ⎞
2 ∴ θ = sin −1 ⎜ ⎟
⎝4⎠
Intensity of light from the 2nd polaroid is
I ⎛ 1 ⎞2 I 7. (c) : Given O= 5 × 10–7 m, D = 1 m, d = 1 mm
I2 = I1cos2 60° = 0 ⎜ ⎟ = 0 nD λ
2 ⎝2⎠ 8 Distance of nth bright fringe from the centre =
rd d
Intensity of light from the 3 polaroid is where n = 1, 2, 3, .....
I ⎛ 1 ⎞2 I Dλ
I 3 = I 2 cos 2 60° = 0 ⎜ ⎟ = 0 So the distance of 5th bright fringe =
8 ⎝2⎠ 32 d
th
Intensity of light from the 4 polaroid is Distance of nth dark fringe from the centre
I ⎛ 1 ⎞2 I
I 4 = I 3 cos 2 60° = 0 ⎜ ⎟ = 0 ⎛ 1 ⎞ Dλ
= ⎜n − ⎟ , where n = 1, 2, 3, 4
32 ⎝ 2 ⎠ 128 ⎝ 2⎠ d
Intensity of light from 5th polaroid is
⎛ 1 ⎞ Dλ 5 Dλ
I ⎛ 1 ⎞2 3rd dark fringe = ⎜ 3 − ⎟ =
I 5 = I 4 cos 2 60° = 0 ⎜ ⎟ = 0
I ⎝ 2⎠ d 2 d

128 2 ⎠ 512
⎛ 5 ⎞ Dλ 5 Dλ
Therefore, the fraction of the incident light that Distance between them = ⎜⎝ 5 − ⎟⎠ =
passes through the system is 2 d 2 d
I5 1 5 ×1 × 5 × 10 −7
= = = 12.5 × 10 −4 m = 1.25 mm
I 0 512 2 1 × 10 −3

PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17 63


8. (a) : For Young’s double slit experiment, the position 1
of minima is cos T = Ÿ T = 60°, 300°
2
⎛ 1 ⎞ Dλ 1
y = ⎜n + ⎟ cos T = − Ÿ T = 120°, 240°
⎝ 2⎠ d 2
Adjacent minima is the 1st minima or n = 0 cos T = + 1 Ÿ T = 0°
⎛ 1 ⎞ Dλ Dλ cos T = – 1 Ÿ T = 180°.
Ÿ y1 = ⎜ 0 + ⎟ = The number of maxima on the circle is 8.
⎝ ⎠
2 d 2d
λ0 Ÿ (c) is correct.
When immersed in liquid, O = 11. (d) : Here, O1 = 5893 Å, n1 = 62 fringes
μm
⎛ Dλ 0 ⎞ O2 = 4358 Å
Ÿ y1 = ⎜
⎝ 2μmd ⎟⎠ ∵ n1
Dλ1
= n2
Dλ 2
or n1O1 = n2O2
Now fringe shift due to introduction of sheet on the d d
nλ 62 × 5893
path of one of the beams is E. Ÿ n2 = 1 1 = | 84
D λ2 4358
E = (μ −1)t 12. (a) : The condition for constructive interference in
d
The requirement is, minima must come on the axis. a thin film of thickness t and refractive index P in
the reflected system, for normal incidence is
D ⎛ μp ⎞ Dλ 0
Ÿ E = y1 or ⎜ − 1⎟ t = ⎛ 1⎞
d ⎝ μm ⎠ 2μ m d 2 μt = ⎜ n + ⎟ λ
⎝ 2⎠
λ0
Ÿ t= where n = 0, 1, 2, 3, ……
2(μ p − μm ) For minimum thickness, n = 0
−9
D λ λ 600 × 10
9. (d) : Fringe shift, E = (μ −1)t ∴ 2 μt = ; t= = = 100 nm
d 2 4μ 4 × 1. 5
5Dλ
The position of 5th bright fringe = 2
d I 25 ⎛a +a ⎞ 25
13. (d) : max = or ⎜ 1 2 ⎟ =
Since central bright fringe shifts to the 5th maxima I min 9 ⎝ a1 − a2 ⎠ 9
position, where a1 and a2 denotes amplitudes.
D 5Dλ a1 + a2 5
(μ −1)t = = or 5a1 – 5a2 = 3a1 + 3a2
d d a1 − a2 3
⎛ 5λ ⎞ 5 × 7 × 10 −7 m ⎛ a1 ⎞
2
or t = ⎜ ⎟ = = 7 Pm Ÿ 2a1 = 8a2 or
a1
= 4 or ⎜ ⎟ = 16
⎝ μ − 1⎠ (1.5 − 1) a 2 ⎝a ⎠ 2

10. (c) : S1P = 2 2


r + λ + 2r λ cos θ P ? I1/I2 = 16 (∵ Intensity v (amplitude)2)
r 14. (d) : The refractive index of air is slightly more
S2P = r 2 + λ 2 − 2r λ cos θ S1 S2 than 1. When chamber is evacuated, refractive index
2l
S1P2 – S2P2 = 4rO cos T decreases and hence the wavelength increases and
4r λ cos θ fringe width also increases.
Ÿ S1P – S2P =
(S1P + S2 P ) 15. (a) : When white light is used, central fringe will
Since r >> O be white with red edges, and on either side of it,
4r λ cos θ we shall get few coloured bands and then uniform
S1P | S2P | r Ÿ S1P – S2P = = 2O cos T illumination.
2r
For P to have a maxima, 2O cos T = nO 16. (a) : Here, O = 600 nm, Oc = 400 nm, Kcmax = 2 Kmax
n According to Einstein’s photoelectric equation
Ÿ cos T =
2 hc
K max = − φ0 … (i)
The values of n satisfying the above equation are, λ
n = 0, r 1, r 2. hc
and 2K max = − φ0 … (ii)
When cos T = 0 Ÿ T = 90°, 270° λ′

64 PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17


Dividing (ii) by (i) we get 19. (b) : de Broglie wavelength of an electron having
⎛ hc ⎞ kinetic energy K is
⎜⎝ λ′ ⎟⎠ − φ0 2hc hc h
2= or − 2φ 0 = − φ 0 λ= where me is the mass of an electron
⎛ hc ⎞ λ λ′ 2me K
⎜⎝ λ ⎟⎠ − φ0
h2 h2 , 1
λ2 = or K = K∝
⎛2 1 ⎞ 2me K 2me λ 2 λ2
or hc ⎜ − ⎟ = φ0 (Take hc = 1240 eV nm)
⎝ λ λ′ ⎠ 2 ⎛ 2
K′ ⎛ λ ⎞ 1 nm ⎞
⎛ 2 1 ⎞ ∴ =⎜ ⎟ =⎜ ⎟ =4
? φ0 = 1240 eV nm ⎜ − ⎟ = 1.03 eV K ⎝ λ′ ⎠ ⎝ 0.5 nm ⎠
⎝ 600 nm 400 nm ⎠
Kc = 4K
17. (a) : For a source S1, wavelength, O1 = 5000 Å Additional energy given = Kc – K = 4K – K = 3K
Number of photons emitted per second, N1 = 1015
20. (b) : For an electron, mass me = 9.11 × 10–31 kg,
hc Kinetic energy, K = 10 eV = 10 × 1.6 × 10–19 J
Energy of each photon, E1 =
λ1 h
de Broglie wavelength, λ e = ...(i)
N1hc 2me K
Power of source S1, P1 = E1N1 =
λ1 For the person, mass m = 66 kg,
For a source S2,wavelength, O2 = 5100 Å 5
Speed, v = 100 km h–1 = 100 × m s −1
Number of photons emitted per second, 18
N2 = 1.02 × 1015 h
de Broglie wavelength, λ = ...(ii)
hc mv
Energy of each photon, E2 = Divide (i) by (ii), we get
λ2 λe h mv mv
N 2 hc = × =
Power of source S2, P2 = N2E2 = λ 2me K h 2me K
λ2 5
N 2hc 66 × 100 ×
= 18
Power of S2 P2 λ N λ = 1.07 × 1027
? = = 2 = 2 1 2 × 9.11 × 10−31 × 10 × 1.6 × 10−19
Power of S1 P1 N1hc N1 λ 2
21. (a) : Here, intensity I = 10 mW cm–2
λ1
Wavelength O = 6000 Å
(1.02 × 1015 ) × (5000 × 10−10 ) 51 Energy of photon,
= −10
= =1
hc (6.63 × 10−34 J s) × (3 × 108 m s −1 )
15
(10 ) × (5100 × 10 ) 51
E= =
18. (a) : de Broglie wavelength of an electron, λ (6000 × 10−10 m)
h h 2h Number of photons striking the surface per second
λe = = = ...(i)
pe ⎛ c ⎞ me c per m2 is
me ⎜ ⎟ (10 × 10) × (6000 × 10−10 )
⎝ 2⎠ N= =
I
= 3 × 1020
Kinetic energy of an electron, E (6.63 × 10−34 ) × (3 × 108 )
1 ⎛ c⎞ 1
2 ? Number of protons striking the surface per
K e = me ⎜ ⎟ = me c 2 second per cm2 is 3 × 1016.
2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ 8
hc 22. (b) : According to Einstein’s photoelectric equation
Kinetic energy of a photon, K ph = Kmax = hX – I0
λ ph
where X is the frequency of incident light and I0 is
hc hc m c2
∴ K ph = = = e (' λ e = λ ph ) the work function of the metal.
λe 2h 2 As Kmax = eV0 where V0 is the stopping potential
me c Therefore, eV0 = hX – I0 ...(i)
Ke 1 2 1 υ
∴ = m c2 × = and e
V0
= h − φ0
K ph 8 e me c 2 4 4 2
...(ii)

PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17 65


From (i) and (ii), we get h
27. (c) : ∵ de-Broglie wavelength, λ =
hυ φ 0 hυ φ hυ hυ
− = − φ 0 or φ 0 − 0 = − p
4 4 2 4 2 4 λα pp q p 1 λ 1
3 hυ h υ ∴ = = = ∴ α = [∵ p = mv = qBr]
φ0 = or φ 0 = λ p pα qα 2 λp 2
4 4 3 φ hυ 1 υ
? Threshold frequency, υ0 = 0 = × = 28. (b) : The de Broglie wavelength of the particle
h 3 h 3 can be varying cyclically v2
23. (a) : Intensity effects the saturation current. between two values O1 and
Frequency effects the stopping potential. O2, if particle is moving A B
⎛ φ ⎞ ⎛ eV ⎞ in an elliptical orbit with O
 X = ⎜ 0⎟ +⎜ 0⎟
⎝ h⎠ ⎝ h ⎠ origin as its one focus.
Refer figure. v1
As stopping potential of a and b is same, Xa = Xb. As
their saturation currents are different. Let v1, v2 be the speed of particle at A and B
Ia z Ib. respectively and origin is at focus O. If O1, O2 are
the de Broglie wavelengths associated with particle
24. (a) : eV0 = hX – I0 while moving at A and B respectively.
⎛ h⎞ ⎛φ ⎞
V0 = ⎜ ⎟ υ − ⎜ 0 ⎟ h h λ1 v2
⎝ e⎠ ⎝ e⎠ Then, λ1 = and λ2 = ∴ =
V0 vs X graph is a straight line with constant
mv1 mv2 λ2 v1
h Since O1 > O2 ? v2 > v1
slope = From figure we note that origin O is close to B
e
than A.
Ÿ X and Y will be parallel.
29. (a) : For O = 248 nm, v = u1
⎛φ ⎞
When V0 = 0, X0 = ⎜ 0 ⎟ . 1 hc
⎝ h⎠ ? K1 = mu12 = −φ
2 248
As I0Y > I0X Ÿ X0Y > X0x. For O = 310 nm, v = u2
It means the X intercept of Y graph will be larger
than the X-intercept of X graph. 1 hc
? K 2 = mu22 = −φ
2 310
25. (c) : Using Einstein photoelectric equation
hX = I0 + Kmax hc
u12 248 − φ
2
⎛ 2⎞ 5−φ
hc ⇒ = ⇒ ⎜ ⎟ =
= I0 + e(3V0) ...(i) u22 hc ⎝ 1⎠ 4−φ
λ −φ
hc 310
Also, = I0 + eV0 ...(ii)
2λ or I = 3.67 eV | 3.7 eV
On solving eqn. (i) and (ii), we get, 30. (d) : The energy of incident light is E = hX
⎛ 3 ⎞ hc hc As Xviolet > Xblue > Xgreen > Xred
⎜⎝ 2 − 1⎟⎠ λ = 3I0 – I0 or I0 = 4λ ? Eviolet > Eblue > Egreen > Ered
Since the incident energy is maximum for
hc
But I0 = , where O0 is the threshold wavelength, violet colour, therefore violet light produces
λ0
photoelectrons.
hence O0 = 4O.
””
26. (b) : Energy of incident photons,
477*3(::?0 ANSWER KEY
hX = I0 + Kmax = 2.5 + 1.7 = 4.2 eV
λ 1. (b) 2. (c) 3. (d) 4. (c) 5. (a)
∵ XO = c and υ′ = c ⇒ υ′ = 2 υ 6. (a) 7. (c) 8. (b) 9. (d) 10. (c)
2
According to Einstein’s photoelectric equation, 11. (c) 12. (a) 13. (c) 14. (c) 15. (a)
16. (d) 17. (c) 18. (b) 19. (b) 20. (a,b,d)
eV0 = hXc – I0 = h(2X) – I0 = 2 × 4.2 – 1.7
21. (b,d) 22. (a,d) 23. (b,c) 24. (2) 25. (4)
V0 = 6.7 V 26. (1) 27. (b) 28. (c) 29. (c) 30. (a)

66 PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17


Series 7
CHAPTERWISE PRACTICE PAPER
SEMICONDUCTOR ELECTRONICS : MATERIALS, DEVICES AND SIMPLE CIRCUITS | COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS

Time Allowed : 3 hours Maximum Marks : 70

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS
(i) All questions are compulsory.
(ii) Q. no. 1 to 5 are very short answer questions and carry 1 mark each.
(iii) Q. no. 6 to 10 are short answer questions and carry 2 marks each.
(iv) Q. no. 11 to 22 are also short answer questions and carry 3 marks each.
(v) Q. no. 23 is a value based question and carries 4 marks.
(vi) Q. no. 24 to 26 are long answer questions and carry 5 marks each.
(vii) Use log tables if necessary, use of calculators is not allowed.

SECTION - A OR
1. Why are elemental dopants for Silicon or In a transistor, emitter-base junction is forward
Germanium usually chosen from group XIII or biased while the base-collector junction is reverse
group XV? biased. Why?
2. How does the effective power radiated by an antenna 8. Identify the gates P and Q and write the truth table
vary with wavelength? for the logic gate formed due to combination of P
3. Can the potential barrier across a p-n junction be and Q, as shown in the following figure.
measured by simply connecting a voltmeter across
the junction?
4. What is the importance of modulation index in an
9. What do the acronyms LASER and LED stand for?
AM wave?
Name the factor which determines (i) frequency,
5. Under what condition a transistor works as an open and (ii) intensity of light emitted by LED.
switch?
10. An AC input of 50 Hz frequency is fed to a
SECTION - B (i) half-wave rectifier, and
(ii) full-wave rectifier. What is the frequency of
6. What is difference between electron current and
rectified dc output, and why?
hole current?
7. Calculate the emitter current and collector SECTION - C
current for a CE transistor circuit, if base current 11. What is space wave propagation? If the sum of the
IB = 20 PA and dc current gain of transistor heights of transmitting and receiving antenna in
Edc = 100. line of sight of communication is fixed at h, show

PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17 67


that the range is maximum when the two antenna 18. The input resistance of a silicon transistor is 665 :.
h Its base current is changed by 15 PA which results in
have a height each.
2 change in collector current by 2 mA. This transistor
12. The number of silicon atoms per m3 is 5 × 1028. This is used as common emitter amplifier with a load
is doped simultaneously with 5 × 1022 atoms per m3 resistance of 5 k: Calculate
of arsenic and 5 × 1020 per m3 atoms of indium. (i) current gain (Eac)
Calculate the number of electrons and holes. Given (ii) change in emitter current ('IE) and
that ni = 1.5 × 1016 m–3. Is the material n-type or (iii) voltage gain (AV) of the amplifier.
p-type? 19. Write the truth table for the circuit shown. Show
13. A change of 8.0 mA in the emitter current brings that it represents a XOR gate.
a change of 7.9 mA in the collector current. How
much change in the base current is required to have
the same change 7.9 mA in the collector current ?
Find the value of D and E.
14. In a Zener regulated power supply, a Zener diode
with VZ = 6.0 V is used for regulation. The load 20. A 2 V battery may be connected D1 10 Ω
current is to be 4.0 mA and the unregulated input is across the points A and B as
D2 20 Ω
10.0 V. What should be the value of series resistor RS? shown in figure. Assume that the
OR resistance of each diode is zero
in forward bias and infinity in A B
With the help of a suitable diagram, explain the
reverse bias. Find the current supplied by the battery
formation of depletion region in a p-n junction.
if the positive terminal of the battery is connected to
How does its width change when the junction is
(i) the point A (ii) the point B.
(i) forward biased, and (ii) reverse biased?
21. Explain briefly the following terms used in
15. Write any two distinguishing features between
communication system:
conductors, semiconductors and insulators on the
(i) Transducer (ii) Repeater
basis of energy band diagrams.
(iii) Amplification
16. Draw a schematic diagram showing the (i) ground
22. Two signals A and B shown in the given figure are
wave (ii)sky wave and (iii) space wave propagation
used as two inputs of (i) AND gate, (ii) NOR gate
modes for electromagnetic waves.
and (iii) NAND gate. Obtain the output in each of
Write the frequency range for each of the following:
the three cases.
(i) Standard AM broadcast
(ii) Television
(iii) Satellite communication
17. In the given figures, which of the diodes are forward
biased, and which are reverse biased and why?

(i) (ii)

SECTION - D
23. Teena went out for shopping with her mother.
(iii) (iv)
During purchase of vegetables, she noticed that
the vendor used a digital weighing machine. On
another shop, she noticed that the vendor was using
(v) an ordinary weighing machine. She remembered
having studied about logic gates where, digital
codes are used.

68 PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17


(i) What do you mean by logic gate? Mention the 3. No, the voltmeter should have a very high resistance
basic universal gates. as compared to the resistance of p-n junction, which
(ii) Draw symbols for OR, AND and NOT gates. is not possible in this case.
(iii) What is the value, in your opinion, that Teena
4. The modulation index in an AM wave determines
created by the given incident?
the strength and quality of the transmitted signal.
SECTION - E In fact, in an AM modulated wave, the information
24. Draw a block diagram of a simple amplitude signal is carried by the side bands only and their
modulation. Explain briefly how amplitude amplitude depends on modulation index.
modulation is achieved. 5. A transistor works as an open switch in the cut-off
OR state, i.e., when both the emitter and collector are
Mention three different modes of propagation used reverse biased.
in communication system. Explain with the help of 6. When an electric field is applied across a
a diagram how long distance communication can be
semiconductor, its free electrons drift in the
achieved by ionospheric reflection of radio waves.
conduction band in the opposite direction of the
25. Draw a circuit diagram to study the characteristics field. The motion of these electrons constitutes
of an n-p-n transistor in common emitter an electron current. At the same time, the bound
configuration. Sketch typical (i) input characteristics,
electrons in the valence band drift from one vacancy
(ii) output characteristics for such a configuration.
to the next in the opposite direction of the field.
Explain how the current gain of the transistor can
This motion of the bound electrons is equivalent
be calculated from output characteristics.
to the motion of the holes in the direction of the
OR
applied field. The motion of the holes constitutes a
Give a circuit diagram of a common base amplifier hole current.
using an n-p-n transistor. Define common base
current amplification (D) and common emitter 7. As per question, IB = 20 PA and Edc = 100
current amplification (E). Deduce a relation ? Collector current, IC = Edc . IB = 100 × 20 PA
between D and E. = 2000 PA = 2.0 mA
26. (i) With the help of circuit diagrams, distinguish and emitter current, IE = IC + IB = 2000 PA + 20 PA
between forward biasing and reverse biasing of = 2020 PA = 2.02 mA
a p-n junction diode. OR
(ii) Draw V – I characteristics of a p-n junction Emitter-base junction is forward biased so that
diode in (a) forward bias, (b) reverse bias. majority charge carriers (say, electrons, for a n-p-n
OR transistor) from heavily doped emitter may easily
Explain, with the help of a circuit diagram the cross over to the junction to the base side. These
working of a p-n junction diode as a rectifier. electrons are minority charge carriers in base
region. The base-collector junction is reverse-biased
SOLUTIONS
so that these charge carriers may further cross over
1. Size of the dopant atom should be compatible in the to collector region. Because for drift of minority
pure semiconductor and contribute a charge carrier carriers, a reverse bias is needed.
by forming covalent bond with Si or Ge atoms.
Elemental dopants from group XIII and group XV
Solution Senders of Physics Musing
fulfil this condition.
SET-51
2. The effective power radiation by an antenna of
the given length is inversely proportional to the 1. Ankit Pandey, Delhi
square of the wavelength of the carrier wave. 2. Shurabhit Gupta, Bilaspur (Chhattisgarh)
1 3. Meenakshi Iyer, Chennai (T.N.)
Mathematically, P ∝ .
λ2

PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17 69


8. The gate P is an OR gate and gate Q is an AND gate. d(dm )
The truth table for the logic gate is given in the For maximum range, =0
dh T
following table :
2R ⎛ 1 1 ⎞
A B C=A+B Y = A.C or ⎜ − ⎟=0
2 ⎜⎝ hT h − h T ⎟⎠
0 0 0 0
1 1 1 1
0 1 1 0 or − = 0 or =
hT h − hT hT h−hT
1 0 1 1
h h h
1 1 1 1 or h – hT = hT or h T = Ÿ hR = h – hT = h − =
2 2 2
9. LASER stands for light amplification by stimulated 12. We know that for each atom doped of arsenic one
emission of radiation; LED stands for light emitting free electron is received. Similarly for each atom
diode. doped of indium a vacancy is created.
(i) The frequency of light emitted by an LED So, the number of free electrons introduced by
depends on the band gap of the semiconductor pentavalent impurity added, ne = NAs = 5 × 1022 m–3
used in LED. The number of holes introduced by trivalent
(ii) The intensity of light depends on the doping impurity added, nh = NIn = 5 × 1020 m–3
level of the semiconductor used. We know the relation
ne nh = ni2 ...(i)
10. (i) The frequency of rectified output of a half-wave Now the number of net electrons available
rectifier is exactly the same (i.e., 50 Hz) as that of nec = ne – nh = 5 × 1022 – 5 × 1020
ac input. It is because in rectified output, we get = 4.95 × 1022 ...(ii)
output only once (for half period) in 1 cycle of Now using equation (i), net holes,
ac input. 16 2
n 2 (1.5 × 10 )
(ii) The frequency of rectified output of a full-wave n′h = i = = 4.5 × 109 m −3
n′e 4.95 × 1022
rectifier is doubled (i.e., 100 Hz) as that of ac
So, nec >> nch, the material is of n-type.
input. It is because during one cycle of ac, the
rectified output rises from zero to its maximum 13. We have,
level and falls back to zero two times (once in IE = IB + IC or 'IE = 'IB + 'IC
each half cycle). From the question, when 'IE = 8.0 mA, 'IC = 7.9 mA.
Thus,
11. In space wave propagation, the radio wave travels
'IB = 8.0 mA – 7.9 mA = 0.1 mA.
in straight line from transmitting antenna to the
So a change of 0.1 mA in the base current is required
receiving antenna.
to have a change of 7.9 mA in the collector current.
Television broadcast, microwave links and
ΔI 7.9 mA
satellite communication are some examples of α= C = ≈ 0.99
communication systems that use space wave ΔI E 8.0 mA
method of propagation. ΔIC 7.9 mA
Distance between the transmitting and receiving β= = = 79
ΔI B 0.1 mA
antenna in line of sight communication is given by
14. The value of RS should be such that the current
dm = 2RhT + 2RhR …(i) through the Zener diode is much larger than the
Given that hT + hR = h or hR = h – hT load current. This is to have good load regulation.
Using it in equation (i), we get Choose Zener current as five times the load current,
i.e., IZ = 20 mA. The total current through RS is,
dm = 2RhT + 2R(h − hT )
therefore, 24 mA.
Differentiating it w.r.t. hT, we get The voltage drop across RS is 10.0 – 6.0 = 4.0 V
d(dm ) 1 1 4. 0 V
= 2R × − 2R × Hence, RS = = 167 :
dh T 2 hT 2 h−hT (24 × 10−3 )A

70 PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17


The nearest value of carbon resistor is 150 :. So,
a series resistor of 150 : is appropriate. Note that
slight variation in the value of the resistance does
not matter, what is important is that the current IZ
should be sufficiently larger than IL.

OR Two distinguishing features :


(i) In conductors, the valence band and conduction
band tend to overlap (or nearly overlap) while in
insulators they are separated by a large energy
gap and in semiconductors they are separated
by a small energy gap.
(ii) The conduction band of a conductor has a large
number of electrons available for electrical
conduction. However, the conduction band
of insulators is almost empty while that of
When p-n junction is formed, then at the junction, the semiconductor has only a (very) small
free electrons from n-type diffuse over to p-type, number of such electrons available for electrical
and hole from p-type over to n-type. Due to this conduction.
a layer of positive charge is built on n-side and a
layer of negative charge is built on p-side of the p-n
junction. This layer sufficiently grows up within
a very short time of the junction being formed,
preventing any further movement of charge carriers
(electrons and holes) across the p-n junction.
This space - charge region, developed on either
side of the junction is known as depletion region
as the electrons and holes taking part in the initial
movement across the junction deplete this region of
its free charges.
Width of depletion region layer
(i) decreases when the junction is forward biased
and
(ii) increases when it is reverse biased.
15.

PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17 71


16. The diagram given is showing various propagation The inputs A and B are fed to OR gate so that its
modes for electromagnetic waves. output is
Yc = A + B
Also, the inputs A and B are fed to NAND gate so
that its output is
Ys = AB
Then Yc and Ys are fed to AND gate so that the
output is
Y = Yc.Ys = (A + B).(AB)
The logic table for the given circuit is
Frequency ranges : OR gate NAND gate AND gate
(i) Standard AM broadcast : 540-1600 kHz
Inputs Output Inputs Output Inputs Output
(ii) Television :
Very high frequencies 54-72 MHz A B Yc = A + B A B Ys = AB Yc Ys Y = Yc.Ys
TV 76-88 MHz 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0
Ultra high frequencies 174-216 MHz 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1
TV 420-890 MHz
1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1
(iii) Satellite communication :
1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0
5.925-6.425 GHz (Uplink)
3.7-4.2 GHz (Downlink) Hence the truth table for the given circuit is
17. (i) Reverse biased as p is at a lower potential (zero) Inputs Output
than n (+5 V).
A B Y
(ii) Forward biased as p is at a higher potential (+10 V)
than n (+5 V) 0 0 0
(iii) Reverse biased as p is at a lower potential (–10 V) 0 1 1
than n (zero). 1 0 1
(iv) Forward biased as p is at a higher potential (–5 V)
than n (–12 V). 1 1 0
(v) Forward biased as p is at a higher potential (zero) which is the truth table of XOR gate.
than n (–10 V).
20. (i) When the positive terminal of the battery is
18. Rin = 665 :, 'IB = 15 × 10–6 A, 'IC = 2 × 10–3 A connected to the point A, the diode D1 is forward
RL = 5 × 103 : biased and D2 is reverse-biased. The resistance of
ΔI 2 × 10−3
(i) Current gain, βac = C = = 133.33 the diode D1 is zero, and it can be replaced by a
ΔI B 15 × 10−6 resistanceless wire. Similarly, the resistance of the
(ii) Change in emitter current, diode D2 is infinity, and it can be
'IE = 'IB + 'IC = (15 × 10–6) + (2 × 10–3) replaced by a broken wire. The
= 2.015 × 10–3 A = 2.015 mA
equivalent circuit is shown in
R 5 × 103
(iii) Voltage gain, AV = βac ⋅ L = 133. 33 × figure. The current supplied by
Rin 665 the battery is 2 V/10 : = 0.2 A.
= 1002.5
(ii) When the positive terminal of the battery is
19. The given circuit contains an OR, a NAND and an connected to the point B, the
AND gate, as shown. diode D2 is forward biased and D1
is reverse biased. The equivalent
circuit is shown in figure. The
current through the battery is
2 V/20 : = 0.1 A.

72 PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17


PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17 73
21. (i) Transducer : Any device that convert one 23. (i) A gate is a digital circuit that follows certain
form of energy into another can be termed as a logical relationship between the input and output
transducer. In electronic communication systems, voltages. Therefore, they are generally known as
we usually come across devices that have either logic gate.
their inputs or outputs in the electrical form. An NAND and NOR gates are universal gates.
electrical transducer is a device that converts some (ii) OR gate
physical variable (pressure, displacement, force,
temperature, etc.) into corresponding variations in AND gate
the electrical signal at its output.
(ii) Repeater: A repeater is a combination of a NOT gate
receiver and a transmitter. A repeater picks up
the signal from the transmitter, amplifies and (iii) Concentration and observation in the class
retransmits it to the receiver, sometimes with a room, retaining capacity, co-relating of what was
change in carrier frequency. Repeaters are used taught with the real life incident.
to extend the range of communication system. A 24. Refer to point 10.2 (6), page no. 638 (MTG Excel in
communication satellite is essentially a repeater Physics).
station in space. OR
Refer to point 10.3 (1, 2, 3), page no. 641 (MTG
Excel in Physics).
25. Refer to point 9.4 (7), page no. 594 (MTG Excel in
Physics).
OR
Refer to point 9.4 (4, 6), page no. 593 (MTG Excel
in Physics).
26. Refer to point 9.3 (4, 5), page no. 588 (MTG Excel in
(iii) Amplification: It is the process of increasing
Physics).
the amplitude of a signal using an electronic circuit
OR
called the amplifier. Amplification is necessary
Refer to point 9.3 (6), page no. 588 (MTG Excel in
to compensate for the attenuation of the signal in
Physics).
communication systems. The energy needed for ””
additional signal strength is obtained from a dc
power source. Amplification is done at a place
between the source and destination wherever JAMMU & KASHMIR at
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74 PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17


MPP-8 Class XII

T his specially designed column enables students to self analyse their


extent of understanding of specified chapters. Give yourself four
marks for correct answer and deduct one mark for wrong answer.
Self check table given at the end will help you to check your
readiness.

Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation


Total Marks : 120 Time Taken : 60 min
NEET / AIIMS 3. If the de-Broglie wavelength of an electron is 1 Å,
Only One Option Correct Type what is its kinetic energy?
(a) 151 eV (b) 241 eV
1. The stopping potential for photoelectrons from
(c) 96 eV (d) 184 eV
a metal surface is V1 when monochromatic light
of frequency X1 is incident on it. The stopping 4. The work functions of four materials M1, M2,
potential becomes V2 when monochromatic light M3 and M4 are 1.9 eV, 2.5 eV, 3.6 eV and 4.2 eV,
of another frequency is incident on the same metal respectively. Which of these material is (are) useful
surface. If h be the Planck’s constant and e be the in a photocell to detect visible light?
charge of an electron, then the frequency of light in (a) M1 only (b) M1 and M2
the second case is (c) M3 only (d) All
e e 5. Maximum velocity of the photoelectron emitted by
(a) υ1 − (V2 + V1) (b) υ1 + (V2 + V1) a metal is 1.8 u106 m s–1. Take the value of specific
h h
e e charge of the electron is 1.8 u1011 C kg–1. Then the
(c) υ1 − (V2 − V1) (d) υ1 + (V2 − V1) stopping potential in volt is
h h
(a) 1 (b) 3 (c) 9 (d) 6
2. Which of the following facts about the photo-
6. When monochromatic radiation of intensity I falls
electric effect can be understood without invoking
on a metal surface, the number of photoelectrons
the quantum concept of light propagation?
and their maximum kinetic energy are N and T
(a) The rate of photoelectrons emission, when
respectively. If the intensity of radiation is 2I, the
they are emitted, increases with the intensity
number of emitted electrons and their maximum
of light used.
kinetic energy are respectively
(b) There is a threshold frequency, below which (a) N and 2T (b) 2N and T
no photoelectrons are emitted, no matter how (c) 2N and 2T (d) N and T
long the light is thrown on the metallic surface.
7. For photoelectric emission from certain metal the
(c) Once the frequency of light is more than
cutoff frequency is X. If radiation of frequency
the threshold frequency, photoelectrons are
2X impinges on the metal plate, the maximum
emitted almost instantaneously, no matter how possible velocity of the emitted electron will be (m
weak the light intensity is. is the electron mass)
(d) For each frequency of light, exceeding the
threshold frequency, there is a maximum 2hυ hυ hυ hυ
(a) (b) 2 (c) (d)
kinetic energy of the emitted electrons. m m (2m) m

PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17 75


8. An electron of mass me and a proton of mass mp (c) If assertion is true but reason is false.
are moving with the same speed. The ratio of their (d) If both assertion and reason are false.
λe 13. Assertion : Stopping potential depends upon the
de-Broglie’s wavelengths is
λp frequency of incident light but is independent of
1 the intensity of the light.
(a) 1 (b) 1836 (c) (d) 918 Reason : The maximum kinetic energy of the
1836
9. The de-Broglie wavelength of a neutron at 27 °C is photoelectrons is directly proportional to the
O. What will be its wavelength at 927 °C? stopping potential.
(a) O/2 (b) O/3 (c) O/4 (d) O/9 14. Assertion : Though light of a single frequency
10. The log-log graph between the energy E of an (monochromatic light) is incident on a metal, the
electron and its de-Broglie wavelength O will be energies of emitted photoelectrons are different.
Reason : The energy of electrons just after they
absorb photons incident on the metal surface may
be lost in collision with other atoms in the metal
(a) (b) before the electron is ejected out of the metal.
15. Assertion : The de-Broglie wavelength of a
molecule (in a sample of ideal gas) varies inversely
as the square root of absolute temperature.
Reason : The de-Broglie wavelength depends on
(c) (d) the kinetic energy of a body only.
JEE MAIN / JEE ADVANCED
Only One Option Correct Type
16. When radiation of wavelength O is incident on a
11. An AIR station is broadcasting the waves of metallic surface, the stopping potential is 4.8 V. If
wavelength 300 m. If the radiating power of the the same surface is illuminated with radiation of
transmitter is 10 kW, then the number of photons double the wavelength, then the stopping potential
radiated per second is becomes 1.6 V. Then the threshold wavelength for
(a) 1.5 × 1029 (b) 1.5 × 1031 the surface is
33
(c) 1.5 × 10 (d) 1.5 × 1035 (a) 2O   (b) 4O
12. A point source of light is used in an experiment on (c) 6O   (d) 8O
photoelectric effect. Which I I 17. Light of wavelength 2475 Å o
of the following curves best is incident on Barium. …B
II e
represents the variation III Photoelectrons emitted describe
of photo current (I) IV a circle of radius 100 cm by a Barium
with distance (s) of the s magnetic field of flux density
source from the emitter? 1
× 10–5 T. Work function of the Barium is
(a) I (b) II (c) III (d) IV 17
Assertion & Reason Type e
(Given = 1.7 × 1011 C kg–1)
m
Directions : In the following questions, a statement of
(a) 1.8 eV (b) 2.1 eV
assertion is followed by a statement of reason. Mark the
(c) 4.5 eV (d) 3.3 eV
correct choice as :
(a) If both assertion and reason are true and 18. In a photoemissive cell with executing wavelength
reason is the correct explanation of assertion. O, the fastest electron has speed v. If the exciting
(b) If both assertion and reason are true but reason wavelength is changed to 3O/4, the speed of the
is not the correct explanation of assertion. fastest emitted electron will be

76 PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17


(a) v(3/4)1/2 (b) v(4/3)1/2 (a) number of photons striking the surface per
(c) less than v(4/3)1/2
(d) greater than v(4/3)1/2 unit time as W OS/4 Shca2
19. In the following arrangement y = 1.0 mm, (b) the maximum energy of the emitted photo-
d = 0.24 mm and D = 1.2 m. The work function electrons as (1/O) (hc – OI)
of the material of the emitter is 2.2 eV. The (c) the stopping potential needed to stop the most
stopping potential V needed to stop the photo energetic emitted photoelectrons as (e/O)(hc – OI)
current will be (d) photo-emission only if O lies in the range
0 ≤ O ≤ (hc/I)
23. When a metal is irradiated by a light of O = 4000 Å,
all the photoelectrons emitted are bent in a circle
of radius 50 cm by a magnetic field of flux density
5.26 × 10–6 T acting perpendicular to plane of
emission of photoelectrons. Then,
(a) the kinetic energy of fastest photoelectron is
0.6 eV
(b) work function of the metal is 2.5 eV
(a) 0.9 V (b) 0.5 V (c) the maximum velocity of photoelectric effect is
(c) 0.4 V (d) 0.1 V 0.46 × 106 m s–1
(d) the stopping potential for photoelectric effect
More than One Options Correct Type
is 0.8 V
20. Which of the following are correct according to
Integer Answer Type
wave theory of light regarding photoelectric effect?
(a) Amplitude of vibration of an electron is directly 24. A 100 W light bulb is placed at the centre of a
proportional to the maximum amplitude of spherical chamber of radius 20 cm. Assume that
incident wave. 60% of the energy supplied to the bulb is converted
(b) Average kinetic energy of photoelectrons is into light and that the surface of the chamber is
directly proportional to the square of their perfectly absorbing. The pressure exerted by the
vibrational amplitude. light on the surface on the surface of the chamber
(c) Average kinetic energy of photoelectrons is is 4.0 × 10–x Pa. Find x.
proportional to the intensity of incident light. 25. A light beam of wavelength 400 nm is incident on a
(d) Stopping potential for the most energetic metal plate of work function 2.2 eV. Assuming that
photoelectrons is proportional to the intensity 10% of the extra energy is lost to the metal in each
of incident light. collision, find the maximum number of collisions
21. When photons of energy 4.25 eV strike the surface the electron can suffer before it becomes unable to
of a metal A, the ejected photoelectrons have a come out of the metal.
maximum kinetic energy EA eV and de-Broglie 26. In an experiment on photoelectric effect, light of
wavelength OA. The maximum kinetic energy of
wavelength 400 nm is incident on a cesium plate at
photoelectrons liberated from another metal B by
the rate of 5.0 W. The potential of the collector plate
photons of energy 4.70 eV is EB = (EA – 1.50) eV. If
is made sufficiently positive with respect to the
the de-Broglie wavelength of the photoelectrons is
emitter so that the current reaches its saturation
OB = 2OA, then
value. Assuming that on the average one out of
(a) the work function of A is 2.25 eV
every 106 photons is able to eject a photoelectron, the
(b) the work function of B is 4.20 eV
photocurrent in the circuit is 1.6 × 10–x A. Find x.
(c) EA = 2.0 eV
(d) EB = 2.75 eV Comprehension Type
22. When a point light source of power W emitting A bound electron can absorb a photon (as it does in case
monochromatic light of wavelength O is kept at a of photoelectric effect) but a free electron cannot absorb
distance a from a photo-sensitive surface of work a photon. According to quantum theory of light, photons
function I and area S, we will have behave like particles except for their lack of rest mass.

PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17 77


We treat electrons and photons both as particles (if Column-I Column-II
both are billiard balls). Let an X-ray photon strikes an (A) If X is increased (P) Stopping
electron. keeping I and potential
I constant increases
(B) If I is increased keeping (Q) Saturation
X and I constant photocurrent
increases
(C) If the distance between (R) Maximum
anode and cathode KE of the
is increased photoelectrons
The calculations of momentum and energy show that increases
in such collisions, a photon loses a ceratin amount of
(D) If Iis decreased keeping (S) Stopping
energy and an electron gains that part of energy. This
X and I constant potential
is called Compton effect. If O is wavelength of incident
remains the
photon and Ocis wavelength of scattered photon, then
Compton shows that, same
A B C D
h
λ′ − λ = (1 − cos φ) (a) P, Q P, S S P, R
mc
(b) P, R Q, S S P, R
where h = Planck’s constant,
(c) Q, R Q, S P, R P, R
m = mass of electron,
(d) R S P, R Q
c = speed of light in vacuum,
I = angle between directions of incident and scattered 30. If OD, OP, OD, OT are the de-Broglie wavelengths
photon. The Compton effect is the chief means by which of D-particle, proton, deutron and tritium
the X-rays lose energy, when pass through matter. respectively when they are accelerated by 100 V,
400 V, 200 V and 600 V, respectively. Match the
27. X-rays of wavelength 10 pm are scattered after
entries of Column I with the entries in Column II
colliding with an electron. Maximum wavelength
and choose the correct option.
present in scattered X-rays spectrum will be
(a) 10 pm (b) 10.7 pm Column-I Column-II
(c) 14.9 pm (d) 5.1 pm (A) OD/OP (P) Less than 2
28. Maximum kinetic energy of recoiling electron is (B) OD/OD (Q) Less than 3
(a) 40.8 keV (b) 40.8 MeV (C) OD/OT (R) Greater than 2
(c) 40.8 eV (d) 40.8 J (D) OP/OT (S) Less than 3
Matrix Match Type A B C D
29. With respect to photoelectric experiment, match the (a) P, Q P, S Q, S R
entries of Column I with the entries of Column II (b) Q, S P, Q, S Q, R S
and choose the correct option. (c) P, Q, S P, Q, S Q, S R, S
Here, X = frequency of incident light, I = intensity (d) P, Q, S P, Q Q, R R, S
of light, I = work function of a metal ””
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> 90% EXCELLENT WORK ! You are well prepared to take the challenge of final exam.

No. of questions attempted …… 90-75% GOOD WORK ! You can score good in the final exam.
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Marks scored in percentage …… < 60% NOT SATISFACTORY! Revise thoroughly and strengthen your concepts.

78 PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17


OLYMPIAD
PROBLEMS
1. Two fixed equal positive
charges, each of magnitude
4. A body is projected vertically upwards from the
R
5 × 10–5 C are located at points bottom of a crater of moon of depth where R
100
A and B separated by a distance is the radius of moon with a velocity equal to the
of 6 m. An equal and opposite escape velocity on the surface of moon. Calculate
charge (– q) moves towards them maximum height attained by the body from the
along the line COD, the perpendicular bisector of surface of the moon.
R R
the line AB. The moving charge, when it reaches the (a) 99 R (b) 50 R (c) (d)
point C at a distance of 4 m from O, has a kinetic 2 36
energy of 4 J. Calculate the distance of the farthest 5. 12 cells each having the same emf are connected in
point D from point O at which the negative charge series and are kept in a closed box. Some of the cells
are wrongly connected. This battery is connected in
will reach before returning towards C.
series with an ammeter and two cells identical with
(a) 68 m (b) 72 m (c) 9 m (d) 5 m the others. The current is 3 A when the cells and
2. In a Searle’s experiment, the diameter of the battery aid each other and is 2 A when the cells and
wire as measured by a screw gauge of least count battery oppose each other. How many cells in the
0.001 cm is 0.050 cm. The length, measured by a battery are wrongly connected?
scale of least count 0.1 cm, is 110.0 cm. When (a) 1 (b) 3 (c) 11 (d) 4
a weight of 50 N is suspended from the wire, 6. Two bodies A and B are
the extension is measured to be 0.125 cm by a connected by a light rigid
micrometer of least count 0.001 cm. Find the bar 10 m long move in two
maximum error in the measurement of Young’s frictionless guides as shown
modulus of the material of the wire from these data. in figure. If B starts from rest
(a) 1.09 × 1010 N m–2 (b) 2.24 × 1011 N m–2 when it is vertically below A.
(c) 4.89 × 109 N m–2 (d) 3.24 × 1010 N m–2 The velocity (in m s–1) of B when x = 6 m. As s u m e
3. Two parallel vertical metallic rails mA = mB = 200 kg and mC = 100 kg is
AB and CD are separated by 1 m. (a) 4.8 m s–1 (b) 1.6 m s–1
–1
They are connected at the two-ends (c) 6.9 m s (d) 3.2 m s–1
by resistances R1 and R2 as shown in 7. The arrangement shown
figure. A horizontal metallic bar L of in figure consists of two
mass 0.2 kg slides without friction, identical uniform solid
vertically down the rails under the cylinders, each of mass m,
action of gravity. There is a uniform on which two light threads
horizontal magnetic field of 0.6 T perpendicular to are wound symmetrically.
the plane of the rails. It is observed that when the Find the tension in each thread during the motion.
terminal velocity is attained, the powers dissipated in The friction in the axle of the upper cylinder is
R1 and R2 are 0.76 W and 1.2 W respectively. Find the assumed to be absent.
approximate value of terminal velocity of the bar L. mg mg
(a) mg (b) (c) (d) 2mg
(a) 10 m s–1(b) 3 m s–1 (c) 8 m s–1 (d) 1 m s–1 2 10

PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17 79


SOLUTIONS Since there are two forces acting on the bar, i.e.,
1. (b) : Two fixed equal positive charges each of force of gravity and magnetic force, in the opposite
magnitude = 5 × 10–5 C directions. The bar will attain terminal velocity
Separation between charges = 6 m when
An equal and opposite mg 0.2 × 9.8
mg = BIL or, I = = = 3.267 A
charge moves towards them. BL 0. 6 × 1
When moving charge is at If terminal velocity attained be vt, then at steady
4 m from O then kinetic state the emf induced in the bar = BLvt and
energy = 4 J (BLvt ) 2
From the diagram, Power dissipated in R1 is = = 0.76 W and
AO = OB = 3 m, OC = 4 m, AC = BC = 5 m. R1
Let AD = BD = r. (BLvt ) 2
Using law of conservation of energy, power dissipated in R2 is = = 1.2 W
R2
Total energy at C = Total energy at D
Since at D, charged particle changes its direction. ⎛1 1 ⎞
? vD = 0 or kinetic energy at D = 0 Adding (BLvt)2 ⎜ + ⎟ = 0.76 + 1.2 = 1.96
⎝ R1 R2 ⎠
⎛ 9 × 109 × 5 × 10−5 × 5 × 10−5 ⎞ 1 1.96 1.96
∴ ⎜ −2 × ⎟+4 or R2I2 × = 1.96 or R = 2 = = 0.184 :
⎝ 5 ⎠ R I (3.267)2
⎛ 9 × 109 × 5 × 10−5 × 5 × 10−5 ⎞ Again (BLvt)2 = 1.96 R = 1.96 × 0.184 ƿ 0.36
= ⎜ −2 × ⎟ 0. 6 0. 6
⎝ r ⎠ or, BLvt = 0.6 ? vt = = = 1 m s–1
or r = 9 m BL 0.6 × 1
4. (a) : BC is the crater of moon. B denotes bottom of
OD = (AD)2 − (OA)2 = 92 − 32 = 72 m.
crater.
R
2. (a) : Since, Young’s modulus Depth of crater, d =
100
FL FL 4FL
Y= = = ....(i) Radius of moon = R
Al ⎛ πd ⎞ πd 2l
2
Speed of particle at B = vB
⎜ 4 ⎟l
⎝ ⎠ Escape velocity on
4 × 50 × 1.1 surface of moon,
∴Y =
3.14 × (5.0 × 10−4 )2 × (1.25 × 10−3) 2GM
∴ ve =
11 –2 R
= 2.24 × 10 N m
Maximum possible fractional error, where M is mass of the moon.
ΔY ΔL Δl 2 Δd At highest point vA = 0
= + + GM
Y L l d VA = Potential at A = −
0.1 0.001 2 × 0.001 (R + h)
= + +
110 0.125 0.05 −GM
VB = Potential at B =
= 0.0009 + 0.008 + 0.04 = 0.0489 (R − d)
or 'Y = (0.0489) × Y = (0.0489) × (2.24 × 1011) N m–2. −GM −GM
= 1.09 × 1010 N m–2 = = (1.01)
⎛ R ⎞ R
3. (d) : If v be the instantaneous velocity of the ⎜⎝ R − ⎟
100 ⎠
bar L, then, magnitude of the emf induced in
Using conservation of mechanical energy
dφ d dx
the bar, ε = = (BLx) = BL = BLv 1 2 GMm GMm × 1.01
dt dt dt mv B = − +
where x is the distance through which the bar slides. 2 (R + h) R
The equivalent resistance of the resistors is given by GM ⎡ 1 1.01⎤
= GM ⎢− + [∵ vB = ve]
RR
R= 1 2 R ⎣ R+h R ⎥⎦
R1 + R2
BLv 1 1 1.01
? current through the bar, I = or = − +
R R R+h R

80 PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17


1 0.01 1 Loss of potential energy of C (= mgh)= 100 × 9.8 × 6
or = = Total loss of potential energy
R+h R 100R
= (200 × 9.8 × 2) + (100 × 9.8 × 6) = 9800 J
or 100R = R + h or h = 99R ∵ Kinetic energy gained = Loss of potential energy
5. (a) : Total number of cells connected in series = 12 2 2
Current in circuit when cell and battery aid each 1 ⎛ dy ⎞ 1 ⎛ dx ⎞
⇒ × 200 ⎜ ⎟ + × 200 ⎜
other = 3 A 2 ⎝ dt ⎠ 2 ⎝ dt ⎟⎠
Current in circuit when cell and battery oppose 2
1 ⎛ dx ⎞
each other = 2 A. + × 100 ⎜ = 9800
To find the number of cells wrongly connected in 2 ⎝ dt ⎟⎠
the circuit. 2
⎛ dx ⎞
2
⎛ dy ⎞
Let x cells are connected correctly and y cells be or 100 ⎜ ⎟ + 150 ⎜ = 9800
connected wrongly. ⎝ dt ⎠ ⎝ dt ⎠⎟
According to problem (x + y) = 12 ...(i) 2 2
⎛ x dx ⎞ ⎛ dx⎞
The net emf of the battery = (x – y) H, where His the 100 ⎜ − ⎟ + 150 ⎜ ⎟⎠ = 9800
⎝ y dt ⎠ ⎝ dt
emf of one cell. [Using eqn. (ii)]
Let R be the total resistance of the circuit, which On substituting values, we get
remains constant.
3300 2 98 × 16
When the battery and the cells aid one another, the ∴ vB = 9800 ∴ vB = = 6.9 m s −1
net emf = (x – y)H + 2H 16 33
When the two oppose each other, ? velocity of B at the required moment = 6.9 m s–1
the net emf = (x – y)H – 2H 7. (c) : Mass of each cylinder = m
net emf Let r be the radius of each solid cylinder.
Current I =
total resistance For the upper cylinder, the torque,
(x − y)ε + 2ε W = ID ...(i)
? In the first case, 3 = and in the
R where I is moment of
(x − y)ε − 2ε inertia and D is angular
second case, 2 =
R acceleration of upper
3 x − y +2 cylinder about its
Dividing, we get = stationary axis of rotation.
2 x − y −2
If T be the tension in
? 3x – 3y – 6 = 2x – 2y + 4 ? x – y = 10 ...(ii)
the string, then from
Solving (i) and (ii), we get x = 11 and y = 1 equation (i),
Hence only one cell is wrongly connected. 4T
mr 2
6. (c) : At the instant, when 2Tr = α or α = mr ...(ii)
the bar is shown in the 2
figure, For the rotation of the lower cylinder from the
equation,
x2 + y2 = l2 W = I Dc
dx dy mr 2 4T
∴ 2x + 2y = 0 ...(i) 2Tr = .α′ or α′ = =α
dt dt 2 mr
dx dy dy x dx Now for the translational motion of lower cylinder
∴ x +y =0 ⇒ =− ...(ii)
dt dt dt y dt from the equation, F = ma
dx dy mg – 2T = ma ...(iii)
where = velocity of A and = velocity of B As there is no slipping of threads on the cylinders
dt dt ? a = Dcr + Dr = 2Dr
y = l 2 − x 2 = (10)2 − (6)2 = 8 m Now, from equations (ii) and (iii),
4T
m( g − a) m( g − 2αr) m( g − 2 .r)
Applying the law of conservation of energy, loss of mr
potential energy of A, if it is going down when the T= = or T =
2 2 2
rod is vertical to the position as shown in the figure mg
= mAg [10 – 8] = 2 × 200 × 9.8, C moves down 6 m 2T = mg – 8T Ÿ T =
since B moves 6 m along x-axis 10 ””

PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17 81


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53
SINGLE OPTION CORRECT TYPE (a) (10S sinSt) cm s–1 (b) (10S cosSt) cm s–1
1. Two long straight cylindrical conductors with (c) (20S sinSt) cm s–1 (d) (20S cosSt) cm s–1
resistivities U1 and U2 respectively are joined MULTIPLE OPTIONS CORRECT TYPE
together as shown in figure. If current I flows
through the conductors, the magnitude of the total 4. A metal sphere of radius a is surrounded by a
free charge at the interface of the two conductors is concentric metal sphere of inner radius b, where
b  > a. The space between the spheres is filled with
I I
r1 r2 a material whose electrical conductivity V varies
with the electric field strength E as V = kE where k
(ρ1 − ρ2 )I ε0 is a constant. A potential difference V is maintained
(a) zero (b)
2 between spheres. Choose the correct statements.
(c) ε0 I ρ1 − ρ2 (d) ε0 I ρ1 + ρ2 (a) Current is 4Sr2kE2, where (a < r < b).
2. In the given black box (b) Current is 2Sr2kE2, where (a < r < b).
unknown emf sources and (c) Potential difference between spheres is
Black box I R
unknown resistances are I ⎛b⎞
connected by an unknown V= ln ⎜ ⎟ where I is total current.
4πk ⎝ a ⎠
method such that
(i) when terminals of 10 : resistance are connected (d) Potential difference between spheres is
to box then 1 A current flows through it and I ⎛b⎞
V= ln ⎜ ⎟ where I is total current.
(ii) when terminals of 18 : resistance are connected 2πk ⎝ a⎠
then 0.6 A
  current flows through it then for what
5. Consider a simple
value of resistance does 0.1 A current flow?
circuit shown in figure. R¢
(a) 118 : (b) 98 : (c) 18 : (d) 58 :
stands for a variable A B
3. In the given circuit, AB is a potentiometer wire R
resistance Rc. Rc can vary
of length 40 cm and resistance per unit length
from R0 to infinity. r is I
50 :m–1. As shown in the figure, the free end of
internal resistance of the V r
an ideal voltmeter is touching the potentiometer
wire. What should be the velocity of the jockey as battery (r << R << R0).
a function of time so that reading in the voltmeter Choose the correct statements.
varies with time as (2sinSt)? (a) Potential drop across AB is nearly constant as
10 W 10 W Rc is varied.
(b) Current through Rc is nearly a constant as Rc
V is varied.
A B
(c) Current I depends upon Rc
J
V
4V (d) I > , always.
r+R
By Akhil Tewari, Author Foundation of Physics for JEE Main & Advanced, Professor, IITians PACE, Mumbai.

82 PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17


INTEGER ANSWER TYPE field intensity E = 2 × 106 N C–1, the dipole oscillates
6. The electric potential varies in space according to about z-axis. The frequency of small oscillations is
n × 1011 Hz. Write the value of n.
the relation V = 3x + 4y. A particle of mass 10 kg
and charge +1 PC starts from rest from point (2, 3.2) 9. The coil of a calorimeter C has a
under the influence of this field. Find the velocity resistance R1 = 60 :. The coil R1 is
(in  mm  s–1) of the particle when it crosses the x-axis. connected to the circuit as shown
in figure. If rise in temperature (°C)
Assume V and (x, y) are in S.I. units.
of 240 g of water poured into the
7. In the circuit shown, find the current through 5 : calorimeter is 5x when it is heated for
resistance. 7 min during which a current flows
through the coil and the ammeter
shows 3A? The resistance R2 = 30 :.
Then find the value of x. [Disregard the resistances
of the battery and the ammeter, and the heat losses
and heat capacity of the calorimeter and the resistor
and take specific heat of water = 4200 J kg–1°C–1]
8. A free water molecule of dipole moment 10. In shown circuit, there are two identical ideal
p = S2 × 10–30 C m lies in xy-plane in gravity free cells of emf H and r = 9 :, find the value of R (in
:) so that the power dissipated in resistance R is
space. The moment of inertia of the molecule
maximum.
about its centroidal axis perpendicular to the
e e
plane containing the molecules, that is, z-axis
r r r
is 2  ×  10– 48  kg m2. If the molecule is kept in a R
uniform electric field parallel to x-y plane having ””

PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17 83


1. A toy yo-yo of total mass 5. Twelve capacitors, each
M = 0.24 kg consists of two having a capacitance C, are
disks of radius R = 2.8 cm connected to form a cube as
shown. Find the equivalent
connected by a thin shaft of
capacitance between the
radius R0 = 0.25 cm. A string diagonally opposite corners
of length L = 1.2 m is wrapped such as A and B.
around the shaft. If the
6. A particle A having a charge of 5.0 × 10–7 C is fixed
yo-yo is thrown downward in a vertical wall. A second particle B of mass 100 g
with an initial velocity of and having equal charge is suspended by a silk
A yo-yo falls as the
v0 = 1.4 m s–1, what is its string unwinds from thread of length 30 cm from the wall. The point of
rotational velocity when it the axle. suspension is 30 cm above the particle A. Find the
reaches the end of the string? angle of the thread with the vertical when it stays in
equilibrium.
2. A gun of mass M1 fires a bullet of mass M2 with a
7. In an Atwood’s machine one block has a mass of
horizontal speed v0. The gun is fitted with a concave
512 g and the other a mass of 463 g. The pulley, which
mirror of focal length f facing towards the receding is mounted in horizontal frictionless bearings, has
bullet. Find the speed of separations of the bullet a radius of 4.90 cm. When released from rest, the
and the image just after the gun was fired. heavier block is observed to fall 76.5 cm in 5.11 s.
Calculate the rotational inertia of the pulley.
3. A moving hydrogen atom makes a head on
collision with a stationary hydrogen atom. Before 8. An electrical circuit is shown in the figure. Calculate
collision both atoms are in ground state and after the potential difference across the resistor of
400 :, as will be measured by the voltmeter V of
collision they move together. What is the minimum
resistance 400 :.
value of the kinetic energy of the moving hydrogen
atom, such that one of the atoms reaches one of the
excitation state.
4. A rod has a uniform positive charge density O on
the top half of the rod and a uniform charge density
–Oon the bottom half of the rod. Find the net force
on the point charge q0 placed at a distance y on axis
perpendicular to the rod and passing through the 9. A non-conducting ring of mass m and radius
centre. R has charge Q uniformly distributed over its

84 PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17


circumference. The ring is placed on a rough 1
horizontal surface such that the plane of the ring I = I0 + Z0zt + D t2 ...(iii)
2 z
is parallel to the surface. A vertical magnetic field
The angle through which the yo-yo rotates as the
B = B0t2 is switched on. After 2 s from switching on
the magnetic field, the ring is just about to rotate string unwinds is I – I0 = L/R0 = 480 rad, and the
about vertical axis through its center. initial angular velocity is
(a) Find friction coefficient P between the ring Z0z = v0/R0 = (1.4 m s–1)/(0.0025 m) = 560 rad s–1.
and the surface. Substituting these in eqn. (iii) we get,
(b) If magnetic field is switched off after 4 s, then (30.75)t2 + (560)t – 480 = 0.
find the angular velocity of the ring just after Solving this quadratic equation, we find
switching off the magnetic field. t | 0.82 s or –19 s. Neglecting negative value of
time, we have
10. A glass vessel of volume 100 cm3 is filled with Zz = Z0z + Dzt
mercury and is heated from 25 °C to 75 °C. What
volume of mercury will overflow? Coefficient of = 560 rad s–1 + (61.5 rad s–2)(0.82 s)
linear expansion of glass = 1.8 × 10–6 °C–1 and | 610 rad s–1.
coefficient of volume expansion of mercury is 2. Let v1 be the speed of gun (or
1.8 × 10–4 °C–1. mirror) just after the firing of
SOLUTIONS bullet. From conservation of
linear momentum,
1. The free-body diagram for the
Mv
yo-yo is shown. The net force M2v0 = M1v1 Ÿ v1 = 2 0 ...(i)
acting is M1
∑ Fy = Mg – T Assuming y as image distance and x as object
distance from pole of mirror.
Ÿ Mg – T = May ... (i)
dy
(taking the downward direction Now, = rate at which distance between mirror
to the positive), dt
The net torque acting about the and bullet is increasing = v1 + v0 ...(ii)
center of mass is ∑Wz = TR0 The force diagram dy ⎛ 2⎞
y dx
Since = −⎜ 2 ⎟ .
Ÿ TR0 = IDz ... (ii) dt ⎝ x ⎠ dt
(taking counterclockwise torque to be positive). y 2
We consider the string to be of negligible thickness Here, 2 = m2 = 1
and assume that it does not slip as it is unwinding. x
(as at the time of firing bullet is at pole).
? The point where the string contacts the shaft
dy dx
is instantaneously at rest. Hence, ay = DzR0 and ? = = v1 + v0 ...(iii)
Solving eqns. (i) and (ii) dt dt
g ⎛ Hence speed of separation between bullet and
1 ⎞
αz = image will be
R0 ⎜⎝ 1 + I / MR02 ⎟⎠
⎛ dx ⎞ ⎛ dy ⎞ ⎛ dx ⎞
vr = ⎜ ⎟ − ⎜ ⎟ = 2 ⎜ ⎟ = 2(v1 + v0 ) [Using (iii)]
Let us assume that the thin shaft makes a negligible ⎝ dt ⎠ ⎝ dt ⎠ ⎝ dt ⎠
contribution to I as the mass and radius of the shaft
⎛ M ⎞
are both small compared to the disks Ÿ vr = 2 ⎜1 + 2 ⎟ v0
1 2
⎝ M1 ⎠
Then the rotational inertia is I = MR
2 3. Let K be the kinetic energy of the moving hydrogen
g
? αz = atom and Kc the kinetic energy of combined mass
R0 + R2 / 2R0 after collision.
980
= 2
= 61.5 rad s −2.
0.25 + (2.8) /(2 × 0.25)
Using Zz = Z0z + Dzt, if we know the time t for the
yo-yo to unwind. This time can be found from
equation

PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17 85


From conservation of linear momentum,
2Km = 2K ′(2m) or K = 2Kc ...(i)
From conservation of energy, K = Kc + 'E ...(ii)
K
Solving eqns. (i) and (ii), we get ΔE =
2
Now, minimum value of 'E for hydrogen atom is
10.2 eV.
K We have,
or 'E ≥ 10.2 eV ? ≥ 10.2 eV or K ≥ 20.4 eV
2 VA – VB = (VA – VE) + (VE – VF) + (VF – VB)
Therefore, the minimum kinetic energy of moving Q/3 Q/6 Q/3 5 Q Q 6
= + + = or Ceq = = C.
hydrogen is 20.4 eV. C C C 6C VA − VB 5
4. The force on the charge particle due to element dz 6. The situation is shown O
marked in the figure, along the length of rod is in figure. Suppose the T3
0
point of suspension is cm T X
z 90° T/2 F
O and let T be angle 30 cm 90° – T/2
between the thread B
dz dq

T
and the vertical. Forces A

°–
+O r Xc mg

90
z q0 on the particle B are
T
L dFy
y (i) weight mg downward
L dF
x dFx (ii) tension T along the thread and
–O (iii) electric force of repulsion F along AB.
For equilibrium, these forces should add to zero.
1 q0 λdz z Let XcBX be the line perpendicular to OB. Take the
dFx = dF sin θ = . components of the forces along BX.
4πε0 ( y 2 + z 2 ) y2 + z2
θ θ θ
We will need to take into consideration that O F cos = mg cos(90° − θ) = 2mg sin cos
2 2 2
changes sign for the two halves of the rod. Then θ F
or, sin = ...(i)
q0 λ ⎛ 0 − zdz L /2 + zdz ⎞ 2 2mg
Fx = ⎜ ∫− L / 2 2 +∫
0 ( y + z 2 )3/2 ⎟
,
Now, F = (9 × 109 N m2 C–2) × (5.0 × 10–7 C)2 ×
1
4 πε0 ⎝ 2
(y + z ) 3 / 2 2

θ AB2
L/2 and AB = 2(OA) sin .
q0 λ L /2 zdz qλ −1 2
=
2πε0 ∫0 ( y 2 + z 2 )3/2
, = 0
2πε0 y2 + z2 9 × 109 × 25 × 10−14 6.25 × 10−3
Thus, F = = N ...(ii)
0
θ θ
4 × (30 × 10−2)2 × sin2 sin2
q0 λ ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ 2 2
= ⎜ − ⎟ From (i) and (ii),
2πε0 ⎜⎝ y y 2 + (L / 2)2 ⎟⎠
θ 6.25 × 10−3
sin3 = = 0.0032
The component of force perpendicular to the rod 2 2 × 100 × 10−3 kg × 9 ⋅ 8
dFy cancels due to bottom half. θ
Hence the net force on q0 is or sin = 0 ⋅15 ⇒ θ = 2 sin −1(0.15)
2
q0 λ ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ 7. Given, the heavier block (512 g) is observed to
Fq = −
0 2πε0 ⎜ y ⎟ 2 fall from rest 76.5 cm in 5.11 s; Using kinematic
⎜ ⎛ L⎞
⎜⎝ y 2 + ⎜ ⎟ ⎟⎟ 1
equation, y = voyt + a yt 2 , we get
⎝ 2⎠ ⎠ 2
5. By symmetry, the capacitors a, g and d have charges 2y 2 (0 . 765 m)
ay = 2 = 2
= 0.059 m s −2
Q/3, Q/6 and Q/3 respectively as shown. t (5.11 s)

86 PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17


For the heavier block, m1 = 0.512 kg, ⎛ 1⎞
∴ Voltmeter reading = I 2Q = (200) ⎜
⎝ 30 ⎟⎠
m1g – T1 = m1ay ...(i) = (20/3) V
R
For the lighter block, m2 = 0.463 kg, ay = 6.67 V
ay T2
T2 – m2g = m2ay ...(ii) T1 9. (a) From Faraday’s law, the magnitude of electric
m2 R dB
Since T1 > T2; the net force on the
m2 field is given by E = ⇒ E = B0Rt
pulley creates a torque which results m 2g 2 dt
(' B = B0 t2)
in the pulley rotating towards the m 1g This field is tangential to the ring. Torque on the
heavier mass. ring, WF = QER = B0QR2t
? (T1 – T2) R = IDz = Iay /R ...(iii) The ring starts rotating when torque due to electric
where R = 0.049 m is the radius of the pulley force is greater than the torque due to maximum
Adding eqn. (i) and (ii) friction (fmax = Pmg). WF ≥ Wfric (max)
m1g – T1 + T2 – m2g = m1ay + m2ay
T1 – T2 = (g – ay)m1 – (g + ay)m2
Substitute (T1 – T2) in eqn. (iii)
((g – ay)m1 – (g + ay)m2)R = Iay/R
⎡⎛ g ⎞ ⎛ g ⎞ ⎤
⎢ ⎜ − 1⎟ m1 − ⎜ + 1⎟ m2 ⎥ R2 = I
⎢⎣ ⎝ a y ⎠ ⎝ a y ⎠ ⎥⎦
Putting the values of all the quantities,
⎡ ⎛ 9.81 ⎞ ⎛ 9.81 ⎞ ⎤
I = ⎢⎜ − 1⎟ (0.512) − ⎜ + 1⎟ (0.463)⎥ (00.049)2 For just starting the rotation,
⎣ ⎝ 0 . 059 ⎠ ⎝ 0 . 059 ⎠ ⎦ B0QRt = Pmg
I = 7.17 × (0.049)2 = 0.017 kg m2. B QRt
Hence, μ = 0
mg
8. The given circuit is a balanced Wheatstone bridge. 2B QR
Given, t = 2 s Ÿ μ = 0
A voltmeter of 400 : is placed across a resistance of mg
400 :. The two are in parallel. (b) Net torque W = WF – Wf max = B0QR2t – PmgR
400 × 400 2 B QR
? combined resistance = = 200 : τ = B0QR2t − 0 mgR =W = B0QR2(t – 2)
400 + 400 mg
The simplified circuits ⎛ dω ⎞
or ID = B0QR2(t – 2) or mR2 ⎜ = B0QR2(t − 2)
is shown in the ⎝ dt ⎟⎠
figure. Wheatstone ω BQ 4 2B Q
? ∫ dω = 0 ∫ (t − 2)dt ⇒ ω = 0
bridge is balanced as 0 m 2 m
P/Q = R/S. 10. The volume of mercury at 25°C is V0 = 100 cm3.
? No current flows The coefficient of volume expansion of mercury
through BD. JL = 1.8 × 10–4 °C–1.
Hence, resistance The coefficient of volume expansion of glass
of BD becomes JS = 3 × 1.8 × 10–6 °C–1 = 5.4 × 10 –6 °C–1.
ineffective in the balanced bridge. Thus, the volume of mercury at 75°C,
The voltmeter reads the potential difference across VLT = V0 (1 + JL 'T)
and the volume of the vessel at 75°C,
resistance Q.
VST = V0 (1 + JS 'T).
As P and R are equal, I1 = I2
The volume of mercury overflown,
10 1 V = VLT – VST= V0 (JL – JS)'T
∴ I1 = I 2 = = A
100 + 200 30 = (100 cm3) (1.8 × 10 –4 – 5.4 × 10–6) °C–1 × (50 °C)
= 0.87 cm3
? Potential difference across Q is= I2Q ””

PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17 87


a
On solving these question, T
–2 A f T′
a = 2 m s , T = 48 N and B f′
Tc = 12 N T T′
SOLUTION SET-52 To check slipping between a C D a

1. (a,c) : The current velocity, v v y or v = ky, A and B, we have to find 1 kg


6 kg
where k is a constant. y friction force (f) in this
d case. If it is less than limiting static friction, then
(0, d)
At y = , v = v0 ⎛ d⎞
there will be no slipping between A and B.
2 ⎜⎝ 0, ⎟⎠ v
For block A, T – f = 6 × 2
2v0 2 P⋅(x, y)
Ÿ k= x As T = 48 N, f = 36 N and fsmax = 42 N. Hence
d (0, 0)
blocks A and B will move together with acceleration
2v
Current velocity at a point P, v = 0 y 2 m s–2.
d
dv 2v0 u 4. (a,b,c,d) : Taking origin at O
? Acceleration of river flow, a = =
dt d coordinates of point P
till middle of river
⎛l ⎞
Time taken by boat to reach the middle of river, x = ⎜ − r ⎟ cos θ P(x, y)
d ⎝2 ⎠ r
T= θ A
y = r sin T O l
2u cos θ
Ÿ Horizontal drift at the middle of the river x2 y2 2
2
+ = 1
aT 2 v0d ⎛l ⎞ r2
s= = − r
⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠
2 4u v d l
By symmetry, total drift = 2s = 0 When r = equation reduces to
2u 4
v u
Also x = 0 t 2 , y = ut l2
d x 2 + y 2 = , which is an equation of circle.
ud 16
? y2 = x 6Fx = 0 ? COM moves vertically down
v0
d2 x d2 y 3g
The path of the boat will be parabolic as seen by a= 2
+ 2
at θ = 0; a =
observer on river bank. dt dt 4
2. (a,b,c) : Acceleration will be zero when dθ 3g
kxc ω = ; ω max =
kxc = mg dt l
1
? 300 × xc = 1 × 10 Ÿ x ′ = m m
5. (a,c) : Let us consider that bead reaches point A
30 with speed v. According to question, bead have
For maximum compression x, enough speed to just reach B, hence the range of
1 mg
mg (0.4 + x ) − kx 2 = 0 trajectory from A to B is 2R sin D.
2 2v 2 sin α cos α Rg
(By using conservation of energy) ? 2R sin D = ⇒ v2 =
? 10(0.4 + x) – 150x2 = 0 or x = 0.2 m g cos α
For maximum acceleration, Using conservation of energy at point O and A,
kx – mg = ma 1 2 1 2
mv = mv + mg (R + R cos α)
300(0.2) − 10 × 1 2 0 2
a= = 50 m s −2
1 1 2 1 Rg
mv0 = m + mgR(1 + cos α)
3. (a,d) : Suppose blocks A and B move together. 2 2 cos α
Friction between blocks and surface,
⎛ 1 ⎞
f c = (9 × 10 × 0.2) N = 18 N ? v0 = gR ⎜ 2 + 2 cos α + ⎟
⎝ cos α ⎠
Applying Newton's second law on C, A + B and
D respectively For the motion along the wire, the normal reaction on
60 – T = 6a, the bead is radially inward i.e., towards the centre. But
T – 18 – Tc = 9a, for the motion along A to B, there is a possibility of
Tc – 10 = 1a change in direction of normal reaction at A and B.

88 PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17


6. (a,b,d) : Initial momentum of the ball, When the spring is stretched by x, the volumes of

pi = 10 kg m s −1 i the left and right compartment are

Final momentum of the ball, p f = −10 kg m s i
−1 (l/2 – x) (l/2 + x)
⎛l ⎞
V1 = A ⎜ − x ⎟ and
Impulse imparted to the wall |'p| = 20 kg m s–1 ⎝2 ⎠
P1 a
Work done is zero as point of contact does not ⎛l ⎞. P2
V2 = A ⎜ + x ⎟
move due to impulse of the force. ⎝2 ⎠
As the ball rebounds will same speed hence the Volume of each compartment at equilibrium,
kinetic energy of the ball remains unchanged. V = A(l/2)
7. (4) : Let us consider that the A Since process is adiabatic, P0V γ = P1V1γ = P2V2γ
μS
force of gravity of whole γ γ −γ
body is acting at G, such that C S Lθ O ⎛V⎞ ⎛ l ⎞ ⎛ 2x ⎞
⇒ P1 = P0 ⎜ ⎟ = P0 ⎜ = P 1 −
⎝ l − 2 x ⎟⎠ 0⎜
l ⎟⎠
θ
OG = 4a/3S, where a is the G θ R
⎝ V1 ⎠ ⎝
B
radius and O is the centre of E θ ⎛ 2 γx ⎞
the semicircle. Resolving the D P1 = P0 ⎜ 1 + (' x << 1)
l ⎟⎠
μR
forces horizontally and
W ⎝
vertically we get ⎛ 2 γx ⎞
Similarly P2 = P0 ⎜ 1 −
S = PR ...(i) and R + PS = W ..(ii) ⎝ l ⎟⎠
Solving eqns. (i) and (ii) we get Force on piston, (P1 − P2 )A + kx = ma
S = PW/(1 + P2) ...(iii) 4 P0 γxA 4
Also taking moments about O, we get + kx = 4 ; x = ? n=4
l 4 P γA
μS.OC + μR.OD = W .OG sin θ k+ 0
l
4a ⎡ 4a ⎤ 10. (4) : Let the angle of
or μS.a + μR.a = W sin θ ⎢' OG = ⎥ y
3π ⎣ 3π ⎦ projection of the particle be T. 30 m s–1

μ 2W μW 4W sin θ The path of the particle has


or + = [using (i) and (ii)] through the point where
P(40, 10)
2
(1 + μ ) (1 + μ )2 3π θ 10 m
x = 40 m, y = 10 m. Initial O 40 m
x

3π ⎛ μ + μ ⎞
2 ⎡ 3π ⎛ μ + μ 2 ⎞ ⎤ v e l o c i t y, v 0 = 3 0 m s – 1
or sin θ = ⎜ ⎟ or θ = sin −1 ⎢ ⎜ ⎟⎥
4 ⎝ 1 + μ2 ⎠ ⎢⎣ 4 ⎝ 1 + μ 2 ⎠ ⎥⎦ Using the equation of the path of the projectile,
? n=4 x2 g
y = x tan θ − 2 (1 + tan2 θ)
8. (7) : When C is fixed, F − 2T = 2ma1 ...(i) 2v0
3T = 4ma2 ...(ii) For point P : 10 = 40 tan θ − (80 / 9)(1 + tan2 θ)
2Ta1 = 3Ta2 ...(iii) ⇒ 8 tan2 θ − 36 tan θ + 17 = 0 ...(i)
Solving eqns. (i), (ii) This is a quadratic equation in tanT with two positive
and (iii), gives roots. Therefore there are two values of T less than
a2 = 3F / 17m 90°, giving two possible angles of projection.
When all the blocks are free to move, assume ac1, Now we can calculate tan(D + E) which is equal
ac2 and ac3 are the accelerations of blocks A, B and tan α + tan β
C respectively. to ,
F − 2T = 2ma1′ 1 − tan α tan β
...(iv)
3T = 4 ma2′ where tanD and tanE are the roots of eqn. (i).
...(v)
36 9
T = ma3′ ...(vi) Hence tan α + tan β = = (sum of roots)
8 2
−2Ta1′ + 3Ta2′ + a3′T = 0 ...(vii) 17
Solving eqns. (iv), (v), (vi) and (vii) and tan α tan β = (product of roots)
8
a2 3F / 17m 21 3 × 7 9/2
Therefore tan (α + β ) =
3F
gives, a2′ = . ∴ = = = = −4
21m a2′ 3F / 21m 17 17 1 − (17 / 8)
9. (4) : Let cross-sectional area of container be A. ⇒ tan[−(α + β)] = − tan(α + β) = −(−4) = 4
? Al = V0 VV

PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17 89


90 PHYSICS FOR YOU | DECEMBER ‘17
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