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1.

0 Abstract

For air sampling, quartz filter paper was wrapped with aluminum foil and preheated at the
muffle furnace at 500°C for 3 hours. The filter paper was weighed and stored in desiccators
for 24hours. The filter paper was installed in the centre of lower cassette on top plate of HiVol
at been setup at the location near to post guard A UiTM Pualau Pinang. After run for one day,
the filter paper wrap aluminium foil was kept in desiccator for 24hours and final weight was
recorded. The concentration of PM10 was 16.85μg/m3 of air sampled at standard temperature
and pressure conditions which in the safe range of National Ambient Air Quality Standards
1997. The recommendations were ensured the power cord, plugs and socket in safe working
condition. Ensure the proper handling to avoid any particles which may affect the result.
2.0 Introduction

2.1 Introduction to Air sampling

Recently, air pollution had been a major concern which can affect public health. Air
pollution contributes to morbidity and mortality. There are morbidity and mortality which
contributes to air pollution last few years was confirms during the research[1]Traffic is one of
the source of anthropogenic airborne. Traffic-related particulate have been under intensive
scrutiny for two reason which is particulates generated by combustion processes where is
more potent in posing adverse health effects compare to non-combustion processes. Traffic
generated emission were estimated contribute to more than 50% of the total emission of PM
in the urban areas in highly industrialized countries. Air pollutant emission from traffic vehicles
were estimated 82% of the total emission in Malaysia in year 1996 [2].

Nowadays, many of urban area are the source of air pollution where most of it comes
is emission from motor vehicles. The United Nations estimated there are over 600 million
people in urban areas worldwide who were exposed to dangerous level of traffic-generated air
pollution [2].

According to Malaysia Department of Environment (DOE), there are five of major


factors of pollutants which are sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, particulate
matter with 10-micro (PM10) size in diameter and ground-level ozone [3].

The air we breathe is a mixture of gases and small solid and liquid particles. Air pollution
substances can be either liquid or gaseous in nature. Particulate matter (PM) is a collective
term used for very small solid or liquid particles found in atmosphere. Air pollution is physical
or chemical changes brought about by natural processes(pollen) or human activities(diesel
truck) that result in air quality degradation [3] .

According to Mabahwi [4], the human adverse effects from the urban outdoor air
pollution cause more than 2 million premature death each year. People who breathe dirty air
is higher to have a heart attacks, respiratory disease and lung cancer. Air pollution are not only
cause aesthetic problem but also health problem. Hundreds of death are directly cause related
to poor air quality in the cities.

Airborne particulate component of the atmosphere were collected usually by using the
high-volume sampler. A variety of options available for the sampler provides broad versatility
and allows the user to develop information about the size and quantity of airborne particulate
material and, using subsequent chemical analytical techniques, information about the chemical
properties of the particulate matter. Other than that, many of non-technological approaches
have also been implemented in order to reduce emissions through a reduction in traffic volume,
such as the introduction of congestion charge schemes, park-andride systems, and car sharing
initiatives [5].

In this experiment for air sampling the size selected usually PM10 is selected as
sampling system measurement. Ambient Air Quality Standard (AAQS) is used to determine
particulate matter (P10) in air at Malaysia. The National Ambient Air Quality Standards 1997
guidelines states that maximum safe range of the concentration of particulate matter (P10) are
150μg/ m3 for 24 hour and 50μg/ m3 for 1 year[2]. If concentration of P10 exceeded that certain
amount the standard quality, so the air around the location of study is high possibly polluted.
The concentration of particulate matter can be determine by using the following formula in
Figure 3.1 below:

Figure 3.1: Formula of concentration of particulate matter (P10)


3.0 Objective

3.1 Objective for Air Sampling

a) To determine the concentration of particulate matter (PM10) in the ambient air where
are sampling is located near to main road which are heavy traffic road toward to Bukit
Minyak industrial area.
b) To determine the comparison of PM10 concentration between sampling and National
Ambient Air Quality Standards 1997.

4.0 Apparatus

4.1 Apparatus for Air sampling

Quartz filter (20.3 cm x 25.4 cm, Whatman, Ken, UK), aluminium foil, muffle furnace,
desiccator, electronic weighing balance, and HiVol 3000 air sampler.

5.0 Procedures

5.1 Air Sampling Preparation

5.1.1 Filter Preparation Procedures

The quartz filter (20.3 cm x 25.4 cm, Whatman, Kent, UK) was inspected to avoid any defect
as example, holes which may affect the reading later. The inspected was done by checking for
any defect by using light table. The filter was wrapped with aluminium foil for pre-heated for
three hours at 500 °C in muffle furnace. Before the filter being weight by using electronic weigh
balance, the filter was conditioned in desiccator for 24 hours.

5.1.2 Air Sampling Procedures

The HiVol 3000 air sampler was located near the post guard A of UiTM Pulau Pinang with
unrestricted area and it is 20m away from building, threes and walls. The sampler located
under the clear sky angle above 120° and the conditioned filter been installed in sampler. The
filter cassette were removed and the sampler inlet was raised to install the filter. The cassette
were separated into upper and lower part and the filter were install in the centre of the lower
cassette. The cassette was resembled and the loaded cassette was install on the top of HiVol
3000 between the locating brackets.
The filter sample was covered with aluminium foil and keep it in the close container
after the duration of the sampling had end. The filter sample was conditioned in the desiccator
for 24 hours before been weighed with the electronic balance.

6.0 Results

6.1 Results for Air Sampling

Flow rate of Air = 67.76 m3/h


Temperature of Air = 33.35⁰C
Sampling Time = 24 hours

Table 6.1: Air Sampling Data

Mass of filter (g)


Volume of Air Concentration of
Initial Final Change (STP m3) PM10 (μg/ m3)

11.8962 11.9408 0.0446 1626.24 16.85

7.0 Discussions

For air sampling, High Volume Air Sampler (HiVol) 3000 equipment was used to
measure PM10 near to main road which are heavy traffic road toward to Bukit Minyak industrial
area. The result were obtained as in table 6.1 and the result is of PM10 concentration in the air
sample was 16.85μg/ m3 at standard temperature and pressure condition. From the result it
shows the air around UITM Pulau Pinang are is in the safe range for public health as it complied
with National Ambient Air Quality Standards 1997. This may to uncontinuosly heavy traffic rate
where it is only happen in the morning and evening which people are going and back from their
workplace at the location is one of the factor to low air particulate (P10) emission in air around
the sampling location. There is also none of industrial activity within approximately 1km of the
sampling location is one another factor which may affects the concentration of particulate
matter (P10).

8.0 Conclusion

In conclusion, the concentration of PM10 at standard temperature and pressure


condition in air sample at post guard A, UITM Pulau Pinang are is in a safe and acceptance
range condition as it complied to National Ambient Air Quality Standards 1997.

9.0 Recommendations

The recommendations of this study are:

1. Ensure the power cord: plugs and socket are in safe working condition [6].

2. Ensure a proper handling(using hand glove) of the filter sample when do the installation
into the HiVol 3000 to avoid any particle which may affect the result sample.

3. Avoid operate HiVol 3000 surrounded flammable liquid or vapors. This can bring
safety hazard [6]

4. Repeat the experiment twice to obtained more accurate result.

10.0 References
[1] N. Künzli, R. Kaiser, S. Medina, M. Studnicka, O. Chanel, et al., Public-health impact of
outdoor and traffic-related air pollution: A European assessment, Lancet. 356 (2000)
795–801.
[2] X. Han, L.P. Naeher, A review of traffic-related air pollution exposure assessment
studies in the developing world, Environ. Int. 32 (2006) 106–120.
[3] M. Alias, Z. Hamzah, L.S. Kenn, PM10 and Total Suspended Particulates (TSP)
Measurements in Various Power Stations, Malaysian J. Anal. Sci. 11 (2007) 255–261.
http://www.ukm.my/mjas/v11_n1/38_172A4.pdf.
[4] N.A. Mabahwi, O.L.H. Leh, D. Omar, Urban Air Quality and Human Health Effects in
Selangor, Malaysia, Procedia - Soc. Behav. Sci. 170 (2015) 282–291.
[5] A. Thorpe, R.M. Harrison, Sources and properties of non-exhaust particulate matter
from road traffic: A review, Sci. Total Environ. 400 (2008) 270–282.
Appendix

Sample Calculations for Air Sampling

67.79 m3
Volume of Air  24 h   1626.24 m3
h

(Final weight of filter - Initial weight of filter)


TSP or PM10 
Volume of Air
103 mg
(11.9408 - 11.8962)g 
1g 103 g
 
1626.94 m 3 1mg
27.41mg 103 g
[ ]
1626.94 m 3 1mg
g
 16.85
m3