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STRESS LEVEL DIFFERENCES AMONG STUDENT ASSISTANTS AND NON-WORKING

COLLEGE STUDENTS OF SILLIMAN UNIVERSITY

Department of Psychology
Silliman University

Jeff A. Enrera
Garneth G. Katada
Micah M. Peregrino

Submitted to:

Margaret Helen U. Alvarez, Ph.D.


Acknowledgements

To our Savior and Creator, thank you for guiding us spiritually and mentally through this

research. We would like to express our greatest appreciation to Dr. Margaret Helen U. Alvarez

for guiding us throughout the research, constantly reminding us of the importance of the study.

To our adviser, Ma'am Rochelle Marie Remollo for patiently guiding us, offering encouragement

and useful critiques on this research work. I also wish to acknowledge the help provided by the

Office of Student Scholarship and Aid Division for giving us enough details and information

about the student assistants. Special thanks also for the professors Prof. Victor Emmanuel H.

Enario and Assistant Prof. Sonia B. Sygaco for giving us half of their time to conduct our survey

to their class and most importantly to the participants who participated in this research for

without them the data would not be complete. To our families and loved ones who supported us

all through the way. Lastly, to the members of the panel for offering their expertise and critiques.

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Abstract

This study made use of a comparative design and was aimed to know if there was a significant

difference on the stress level between the student assistants and non-working college students of

Silliman University. It involved 59 working student assistants from the Office of the Student

Scholarship and Aid Division of Silliman University and another set of randomly selected 59

non-working students from different colleges enrolled on the 2nd semester of the school year

2017-2018, who were third year college students using the International Stress Management

Association UK – 2013 test questionnaire that are answerable with "yes" or "no". Mean and

standard deviation were used to determine the stress level of both the student assistants and non-

working students. t-test was used to analyze the significant difference of stress level between

student assistants and non-working students. The results showed that there was no significant

difference on the stress levels between the third-year student assistants and non-working college

students.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Abstract .......................................................................................................................................... iii

List of Tables ................................................................................................................................. vi

List of Figures ............................................................................................................................... vii

CHAPTER PAGE
I Background of the Study ....................................................................................................1

Review of the Related Literature ................................................................................................ 2

Statement of the Problem ............................................................................................................. 7

Statement of the Hypothesis ........................................................................................................ 7

Significance of the Study ............................................................................................................. 7

II Variables................................................................................................................................9

Participants .................................................................................................................................... 9

Instruments .................................................................................................................................... 9

Procedure ..................................................................................................................................... 10

Statistical Analysis ..................................................................................................................... 12

Ethical Considerations ............................................................................................................... 12

III Results .................................................................................................................................13


IV Discussion ..........................................................................................................................16

Scope and Limitation ........................................................................................................17

iv
Recommendations ..............................................................................................................18

V Summary ...........................................................................................................................20

Conclusion .........................................................................................................................21

REFERENCES ..............................................................................................................................22

APPENDIX ..................................................................................................................................24

A Research Informed Consent

B International Stress Management Association (ISMA) Stress Questionnaire

C International Stress Management Association (ISMA) Score Interpreter

D Letter of Request for the List of Student Assistant’s

E Letter for Consent for the Professors

F Letter of Consent for Office of Student Scholarship and Aid Division.

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LIST OF TABLES
Table Page
1 Mean Result on the Stress Level of Students ………………………………. 14

2 Results on the Significant Difference of Stress Levels………………………15

vi
LIST OF FIGURES
Table Page

1 The Transactional Model of Stress and Coping by Lazarus and Folkman…...5


2 Conceptual Framework……………………………………………………….6

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CHAPTER I

For young adults, college is the best time of their lives. These critical years can also be

undermined by depression, anxiety, and stress. Students are more likely to experience this kind

of stress during their college years and may test their ability to cope, such as adapting to a new

environment, balancing the heavy workload, making new associates, becoming more

independent, and dealing with various issues concerning the individual.

Volpe (2000) defined stressor as anything that challenges any individual’s adaptability or

stimulates an individual’s body or mentality. Stress can be caused by potential factors such as,

environmental, psychological, biological, and social. It can be negative or positive to an

individual, depending on the strength and persistence of the stress, the individual’s personality,

cognitive appraisal of the stress and social support.

Lan (2003) mentioned that some physiological symptoms such as headache were signals

of a mental overload. Other signals included fatigue, depression, anxiety, dissatisfaction with

certain interpersonal relations, change of the current sleeping habit, and a drastic gain/loss of

body weight.

The aim of this research is to know if there is a significant difference on the stress level

between the student assistants and non-working college students of Silliman University. We

believed that stress is the most common problem of students, not only because of the amount of

course work or the expectations to succeed, but also because of their lives not being able to fully

focus on their schoolwork due to extracurricular activities.

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Review of Related Literature

There are two ways that students’ part-time jobs can influence their educational results.

First, it can improve or help develop particular personal characteristics, including responsibility,

work organization and time management, which could in return enhance school achievements.

Second, employment reduces the time available for educational activity and therefore could lead

to lower educational achievements, possibly resulting school withdrawal (Rokicka, 2014). Alli

(2010) stated that the combination of working and studying together is the key to success and is

the pillar on which one’s future and career depends. It was expected that working students more

likely have higher stress levels compared to students who do not work. Schroeder (2004) found

out that there was not a significant relation between the number of hours worked and stress levels

among students. However, this is not to say that working does not have any detrimental effects

on college students.

A study concluded by King and Bannon (2002) suggests a stronger, negative correlation

between the numbers of hours worked and grades. They indicated that students who worked 25

or more hours per week “are more than twice as likely to report that working had a negative

impact” on their grades. According to Furr and Elling (2000), 29% of the students working 30-39

hours per week and 39% of those students working full time indicated that work had a negative

and frequent impact on their academic progress. They also found out that upperclassmen worked

more hours than freshmen, indicating that older students would be more likely to suffer in their

academics.

A research by Watts’ (2002) had an analysis of 19 students at the University of Brighton

found that 4 of 12 working undergraduates said that working did not affect their academics and 5

said that it actually had a positive impact. Stevenson & Harper (2006) pointed out that stress in
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academic institutions can have both positive and negative consequences if not well managed.

Dustmann and Soest (2007) found out that working part time while in full-time education has

only small adverse effects on exam performance for females, and no effects for males. The effect

of part-time work on the decision to stay on at school is also negative, but small, and marginally

significant for males, but not for females.

Academic stress was highly correlated with social and financial stress (Pariat, et al,

2014). Schwartz, et al (2012) discovered that if the number of hours at worked increased, stress

level will have increased as well. A survey conducted by Hudd, et al, (2000) found out that

females and non-athletes are more likely to be “stressed”, and that “stressed” students are less

likely to practice healthy behaviors and are more prone to practice bad habits (e.g., eating junk

food).

Students under greater stress also exhibit lower levels of self-esteem and reduced

perceptions of their health status. Students encounter all kinds of stressors, such as that of

excelling in academics, vague future and problems associated with adapting into the college

environment. The learning abilities and academic outcomes of these students are affected when

they encounter challenges such as social, emotional, physical and family problems (Chew, et al,

2003).

According to Dundes and Marx’s study of over 250 college students, students who

worked 10-19 hours per week were actually more likely to have a higher GPA than students who

work either less than 10 hours per week or more than 20 hours per week. Again, they found that

those students who work 10-19 hours per week are more likely to spend more time studying

versus non-working students and students who work either less than 10 hours or more than 20

hours per week. Most importantly though, 64% of the students who work reported that their
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work increased their stress level and 57% reported that their work reduced the time they would

normally want to spend doing assignments.

Lederman (2009) found that various amounts of on- and off-campus work directly

influenced students' self-reported grades and indirectly affected their levels of engagement in

academic activities. Working more than 20 hours a week has a negative impact on students'

grades, whether the employment is on campus or off, students who work 20 hours or less, on

campus and off, report roughly similar grades as do students who do not work at all.
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Potentially Stressful Event

Primary Appraisal

Perceived No Threat
Threat Perceived

Secondary Appraisal No Stress

Inability to Ability to
Cope Cope

Negative Positive
Stress Stress

Figure 1. The Transactional Model of Stress and Coping by Lazarus and Folkman.

Theoretical Framework

Figure 1 above presents the theoretical framework of this study. The transactional model

of stress and coping (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984) central objective is that a potentially stressful

event will trigger the primary appraisal process in which an individual assesses the degree of

threat in relation to his or her wellbeing.

Primary appraisal has three categories; The Irrelevant events, Negative Events, and

Benign Events. When event is considered irrelevant, the individual ignores that event. If an event
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Student Assistants

Stress Level

Non-Working Students

Figure 2. Conceptual Framework

is benign or positive to the individual there will be no stress. When an event is perceived as

threatening or challenge to the individual, the secondary appraisal process starts to activate and

provides a global assessment of the individual’s coping resources and ability to manage the

threat or challenge. When the individual has the ability to cope up with the event there will be a

positive stress effect. If the individual has the inability to cope up or has inadequate coping

resources there will be a negative stress effect on that individual.

Conceptual Framework

Figure 2 above presents the conceptual framework of the study. The conceptual

framework consists of Student Assistants, Non-Working Students, and Stress Level. The student

assistants and the non-working students were the two main variables and their different

corresponding stress levels as the third variable.


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Statement of the Problem

This study aims to determine the stress level of both student assistants/non-working

college students and addresses the following questions:

1. What is the stress level of the student assistants of Silliman University?

2. What is the stress level of non-working students of Silliman University?

3. Is there a significant difference on the stress level between student assistants and non-

working college students?

Statement of the Hypothesis

This study aims to prove that there is a significant difference on the stress level between

student assistants and the non-working college students.

Significance of the Study

College students whether they are working or non-working may use the information of

this study for them to be aware of their potential stress levels and how it affects an individual's

performance, this study may also motivate them to manage their time well and prioritize their

prominent concerns. This study could add up to our understanding by identifying the levels of

stress and how this can affect the lives of students and how they handle future difficulties.

The participants involved; both the student assistants and the non-working students

would benefit about the information of this study since the results on their stress levels will be

shared to them formally and strictly confidential by the researchers at the end of the study. They

can approach the guidance counselor of their respective departments for counseling on dealing

with this matter.


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Disseminating this research also serves as awareness for the parents since this addresses

the possible factors that generate stress among their children who will be entering college or are

already in college hoping that they would be considerate on their expectations for their child.

Student Assistant and Aid Division will also benefit on this research and will help them

be aware of the effects of early employment and stress that their student assistants are currently

handling. The department can create an intervention or programs that can address the student

assistant’s needs and issues regarding stress.

This study will also benefit on the three fields of social and developmental psychology.

People who are stressed tend to get moody affecting the people around them, through this

research, the information about stress and its effects will help other people to understand the

social behaviors others had due to stress and may be considerate enough to understand what

others are going through. In developmental psychology, since the participants of this research are

young adults, the results will show the amount of stress these young adults encounter in college.

Lastly, this study will greatly benefit other researchers who will be researching on this

field; the overall information of this study may serve as a reference and the methods together

with the theories can be their guide.


CHAPTER II

Variables

This study made use of a comparative design with the student assistants and the non-

working students being the two main variables and their different corresponding stress levels as

the third variable.

Participants

This research involved 59 working student assistants from the Office of the Student

Scholarship and Aid Division of Silliman University and another set of 59 non-working students

from different colleges enrolled on the semester. Students who are third-year were chosen to be

the participants for this study because the researchers believed that this year level is stressful and

wanted to see if there will be a significant difference on their stress levels. The researchers

gathered the non-working students by choosing a minor subject that is required to third year

students. The student assistants were acquired from the Head of the Student Scholarship and Aid

Division of Silliman University, out of the 108 student assistants that were enrolled this semester

only 59 of them participated.

Instruments

The test instrument used on this study was the International Stress Management

Association UK – 2013 (See Appendix B). It had 25 questions each asking about a person's

experiences on how they handle the issues addressed. The test gave a complete diagnosis of a

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person's stress level. The questions were only answerable by yes or no. A "yes" answer score was

equivalent to 1 point and a "no" had 0 points. If the score was 4 points or less, the participant was

less likely to suffer from stress-related illness. 5 to 13 points, he or she were more likely to

experience stress related ill health either mental, physical or both. He or she would benefit from

stress management/counseling or advice to help in the identified areas. Lastly, 14 points or more

indicated that he or she were more prone to stress and showed many traits or characteristics that

are unhealthy behaviors.

Procedure

The research involved 118 individuals. The participants consisted of 59 student assistants

and another 59 non-working students in which both groups were third-year students from

different colleges and studying at Silliman University.

A request letter asking for the list of student assistants names and year level (See

Appendix C) was sent to the Head of Office of the Student Scholarship and Aid Division of

Silliman University. After obtaining the list of student assistants from all year levels, the

researchers filtered out the third-year students and were able to come up with 59 participants. A

letter to conduct the data gathering (See Appendix E) was given to the Office of the Student

Scholarship and Aid Division, asking the office to gather the third-year student assistants on a

designated place and time to conduct the study. However, the head of the SSAD responded that it

is impossible to gather all of the third-year students in one place because of their different

schedules; instead they gave the researchers a list of contact information of each third-year

student assistants. The population of the third-year student assistants had increased from 59

students in first semester to 108 students in the second semester. The researchers went to each of
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the student assistant’s respective office; however, most of the student assistants were not

available at their respective posts. Thus, the researchers created an online survey form with the

same questions from the ISMA Stress Questionnaire (See Appendix B) with a consent form

attached at the first page of the survey (See Appendix A) asking them to participate. Each of the

participants was contacted through their email, mobile number, and social media accounts. The

gathering of data lasted for two weeks until the online survey has accumulated a total of 59

student assistants.

The size of non-working students was based on the number of student assistants in order

to balance the sample sizes. The participants for the non-working students were chosen through

different classes and sections that consist of third-year college students. Letters of permission to

conduct the data gathering (See Appendix D) were given to the professors of the chosen class

ahead of time. Once permission was granted, the researchers briefed the class about the study

and asked them if they were working or not. After identifying the non-working students, they

were given an informed consent (See Appendix A) asking them to participate on the study. Once

signed, the questionnaires were distributed to the participants and lasted a maximum of 30

minutes to answer. In general, the gathering of data for the non-working students lasted for a

week.

The data gathering for the non- working students was conducted in a classroom and the

participants can withdraw during the test if ever they feel uncomfortable. As for the student

assistants, the researchers conducted the survey using soft copies of the consent forms and test

questionnaires. The identity of the participants and the results of the tests will remain

confidential and only the researchers have access to the collected data. The raw scores were then

treated statistically for both the student assistants and non-working college students.
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The questionnaires were collected and analyzed by the researchers using the International

Stress Management Association (ISMA) score interpreter (See Appendix B (cont.). After the tests

were analyzed for both working and non-working students, was then treated statistically. The

raw scores were stored on one of the researchers’ locked cabinet for safety measures until the

duration of the research. Once the research has ended, all the data will be disposed.

Statistical Analysis

Mean and standard deviation were used to determine the stress level of the student

assistants. Mean and standard deviation were used to determine the stress level of the non-

working college students. The statistical tool, t-test was used to determine the significant

difference of stress level between student assistants and non-working students.

Ethical Considerations

Participating on the said study was voluntary and focused on the well-being of the

participants; if ever the participant felt uncomfortable he or she had the choice to withdraw. The

exam did not start until all of the consent forms were signed and checked by the researchers. All

the participants' opinion was respected and any offensive, discriminatory or unacceptable

language were not used all throughout the research. Any information about the participants were

kept strictly confidential. The conducted tests were held at a vacant room with only the

researchers and the participants were allowed. Most of all, the exam was performed without any

type of misleading information and bias.


CHAPTER III

Results

The results of the study and analysis of the data gathered has shown the different levels of

stress among both student assistants and non-working students.

Data was acquired from 118 respondents, 59 of which are student assistants (i.e. Arts &

Sciences, Engineering, Business Administration, Education, Nursing, Agriculture, Mass

Communication and Computer Science) and 59 non-working students (Arts & Sciences and

Education) from different colleges in the university.

Using the International Stress Management Association (ISMA) questionnaire the results

yielded the different stress levels of the students ranging from Less Likely, More Likely and

Most Prone. Students who scored 4 points or less are Less likely to experience stress, those who

scored 5 to 13 points are More likely to experience stress related ill health either mental, physical

or both. Stress management/counseling or advice is helpful for addressing the problems that are

currently at hand. Lastly, to those students whose results where 14 points or more are Most

prone to stress showing a great many traits or characteristics that are creating unhealthy

behaviors. This means they are more likely to experience stress and stress-related illnesses;

diabetes, irritable bowel, migraine, back and neck pain, high blood pressure, heart disease/stroke,

mental health (depression, anxiety & stress).

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Table 1.
Mean Result on the Stress Level of Students

Classification of Students Mean Std. Deviation Interpretation

Student Assistants 13.22 3.280 More Likely

Non-working Students 14.47 4.523 Most Prone

Table 1 shows the mean result on the stress level of students. The student assistants (x=

13.22, SD = 3.280), showed that they are More Likely prone to stress. The non-working students

(x = 14.47, SD = 4.523) on the other hand, showed that they are Most Prone to stress.

Table 2 shows the results on the significant difference of stress level, it consists of the

variables, their mean, standard deviation, t-test score, and the interpretation. It shows that the

non-working college students are most prone to stress with a mean difference of -1.25 compared

to student assistants who had a mean score of 13.22.

However, further analysis using t-test showed that there was no significant difference on

the stress level between the student assistants and the non-working college students of Silliman

University which leads to the inconsistency of the results with the study’s hypothesis. This

means that both student assistants and non-working college students may experience stress

related illnesses and may show characteristics creating unhealthy behaviors.


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Table 2.
Results on the Difference of Stress Levels (n=18)

Variables N Mean SD t df Sig. Interpretation

Student 59 13.22 3.280


Assistants -1.724 105.79 .088 Not Significant

Non-Working 59 14.47 4.523


College
Students

Total 118
CHAPTER IV

Discussion

College students whether they are working or non-working are prone to stress at

some point of their lives and will later experience some negative and positive consequences that

parallels to the decisions they have made. The results showed that there was no significant

difference between the two groups.

Table 1 showed that student assistants and non-working college students may show

characteristics creating unhealthy behaviors. The average results of the two groups showed that

the students are Most prone to stress. However, the results revealed that non-working students

(14.47) have a higher chance to develop stress related illnesses compared to working students

(13.22). According to Chew, et al (2003), students encounter different kinds of stressors, some

of them are related to academics, social, emotional, physical or family problems. 78% non-

working students answered “yes” in the ISMA stress questionnaire number 17, “I experience

mood swings, difficulty making decisions, concentration and memory is impaired.” and 66% on

question number 22, “Increase in muscular aches and pains especially in the neck, head, lower

back, shoulders.” The results yielded that non-working students are experiencing stress affecting

their bodies together with their mental state.

The gathered data illustrated some factor that might have an influence on the stress levels

on student assistants.

Table 2 shows results on the significant difference on the stress level of students. The

non-working students have higher standard deviation scores compared to the student assistants

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which yielded to a result where there is no significant difference of stress levels between the two

groups.

One of the factors that could have affected the results is that the participants on the non-

working students are mostly interns this semester which would result to have high levels of stress

from balancing their internship duties and schoolwork. In addition, the number of units during

this semester is at its peak and most of the third-year non-working students were working on

their thesis. According to Stevenson & Harper (2006), stress in academic institutions can have

both positive and negative consequences if not well managed. This means that if a student was

not able to manage his/her time properly, negative consequences will follow and the individual

may have tendency to develop stress related illnesses

Not being able to organized or set their priorities right are also common causes of stress.

Poor eating habits could also affect their concentration not only on their studies but also on their

decision making. College students are either too busy with their social groups or studying for

exams that many of them do not have enough time to eat a proper meal. Competition together

with the deadlines of schoolwork is also a contributing factor especially since the third-year non-

working students have a lot of units this semester. More units mean more subjects which will

result to a lot of work deadlines. As for the student assistants who had lower stress levels

compared to the non-working students, it could be that their number of absences in a week has

given them more vacant time to relax than the non-working students.

Scope and Limitations

During the data gathering there were some limitations that the researchers have

encountered. A list of their names together with their necessary information (e.g. workplace) was
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provided by the SSAD office. The researchers had a hard time gathering the student assistants in

one group so it was best to approach them at their respective office. Although enough details

were given, the researchers still had a hard time approaching the student assistants due to their

consecutive absences according to their department heads. At the time when the researchers

personally approached them only 32% of the total working students were available. This

challenge was addressed by giving out soft copies of the consent forms and the test instruments

securing their responses.

Gathering the non-working students were rather easily done compared to the student

assistants through the help of college professors and were only gathered in one classroom to

another.

Recommendations

Student assistants and non-working students both encounter difficulties and challenges

that affect their performances in the workplace, in school, and in their respective homes.

Non-working students especially on their third years are one of the most stressed students

in college. At this year level they will experience a lot of new challenges not just academically

but also emotionally or physically. Students on some courses start their internship and research

writing during this year level. Research writing is very taxing especially if the student is writing

for the first time. It is recommended that they read other journal article references for better

understanding on how it is done. Choosing a partner wisely is also essential since no one wants

to carry the burden for the whole group. As for those who are having their internship duties this

semester, it is best to organize their assignments, set a time and date when to finish them in order

of which is the closest deadline to avoid overlapping workloads. In times of stress one might
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want to bottle up the feelings inside, whether we like it or not is certainly helpful to let those

feelings out. Talk, laugh, cry, and express anger when need to. Talking with friends, family, a

counselor, or a member of the clergy about feelings is a healthy way to relieve stress. In some

cases one may feel that he or she is too busy to do something they enjoyed. But making time to

have a hobby they enjoy can help them relax. Lastly, focusing on the present helps a lot.

Constant worrying about problems would do no good, try to do something about those problems

and do not be discouraged about the slow progress the important thing is there has been an action

done.

The Office of Student Scholarship and Aid Division of Silliman University provide

financial assistance given to qualified students to help supplement their financial requirements in

the university. According to the general requirements, policies and guidelines, a scholarship is a

privilege and not a right. It carries with it a certain responsibility. Students are allowed to assist

in various university offices and units upon issuance of work grant permit. Wages from these

work assignments are applies to their school accounts. They are eligible to work a maximum of 4

hours a day or depending on their vacant hours and shall maintain a QPA of 2.0.

It is recommended that the Office of Student Scholarship and Aid Division should revisit

the guidelines and policies covering student assistants and their commitment to honor the

contract they sign when they render service to the university. They should reinforce programs

such as work ethics, time management, and stress management to equip them in establishing

their own work life balance. Follow ups by the supervisor heads regarding the absences of the

students during workdays and should also look into the reasons for tardiness and inability to

show consistency in duties.


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It is important that the parents of both the student assistants and non-working students to

be more aware and vigilant about their children’s well-being. They should be more involved in

their children’s activities and school performance. It would probably help if their presence be

sought in strengthening their role as the main support system of the students.

Guidance counselors as educators that provides help all students in areas of academic

achievement, personal, social development and ensures students to become productive and well-

adjusted must consider and discuss in creating programs concerning the stress levels and the

well-being of the students. There should be proper consultations done to ensure the effectiveness

of the student assistants in the workplace.

It is recommended that the student assistant officers could organize activities to help the

students in addressing their needs, exercise their skills when they are in a group, this allows the

students to be acquainted with other members from other colleges to build new connections and

friendship.

As for the students in general, time management is one of the most important factors that

reduces workloads. At best, try avoiding procrastination and start working on tasks at hand rather

than postponing it for tomorrow. Try to be more active in participating to programs or activities

that are actually helpful in honing student’s abilities, stop being apathetic, start being responsible

for at the end of the day all these programs would be useless if they are not willing to participate

themselves.

It is also recommended to the future researchers who have interest on this field, having a

dependable questionnaire that addresses the variables they need and may serve as a reference and

the methods would help on getting detailed results.


CHAPTER V

Summary

People experience a lot of changes and adjusting in their lives during college. It is where

a person’s principles in life shall be tested. Goals that were set years before have changed with a

much clearer motive and strategies to achieve it. Challenges along the way may occur which

some people especially students might be encouraged to make decisions that would put pressure

on them. Young adults, specifically the students, experience stress and have different ways to

cope with it.

This research used a comparative design and was conceptualized in order to determine if

there was a significant difference between the stress levels of student assistants and non-working

college students. The participants were 59 student assistants from the Student Scholarship and

Aid Division and another set of 59 non-working college students from the college of arts and

sciences and education. The variables used on this study were; student assistants, non-working

college students, and their stress levels. The researchers hypothesized that there is a significant

difference on the stress level between the two groups. In order to prove the hypothesis, they

conducted a survey using ISMA (See Appendix B), a test instrument that gives a diagnosis on a

person’s stress level, this questionnaire is answerable by “yes” and “no” only. After the data has

been gathered, it was then treated statistically using mean and standard deviation. The study

found out that the student assistants were more likely to be stressed, whereas, non-working

college students are most prone to stress. However, further statistical treatment using t-test

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revealed that there was no significant difference on the stress level between the student assistants

and non-working college students of Silliman University.

Conclusion

It is clear that students regardless whether they are working or not are susceptible to

stress. In this study, it was determined that there was no significant difference on the stress levels

between the student assistants and non-working college students of Silliman University. Results

have showed that non-working college students are most likely prone to stress and have the

tendency to develop stress related illnesses. There are several factors that have affected the

results such as the students time management and how they organize their work.
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24

Appendix A

Research Informed Consent Form

University Graduate Programs


SILLIMAN UNIVERSITY
Dumaguete City

RESEARCH INFORMED CONSENT FORM

Title
This study is titled STRESS LEVEL DIFFERENCES OF STUDENT ASSISTANTS AND NON-
WORKING COLLEGE STUDENTS OF SILLIMAN UNIVERSITY in partial fulfillment of the
requirements for the degree BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN PSYCHOLOGY.

Researcher
This study is to be conducted by JEFF A. ENRERA, MICAH M. PEREGRINO, GARNETH G.
KATADA who is pursuing the degree in PSYCHOLOGY at the COLLEGE OF ARTS AND
SCIENCES, Silliman University, with ROCHELLE MARIE REMOLLO as the adviser. The
researcher can be contacted through this mobile number 09156082114 or email address
swordbet234@gmail.com.

Purposes of the Research


This study aims to find out the following: IS THERE A SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE ON THE
STRESS LEVEL BETWEEN THE STUDENT ASSISTANTS AND NON-WORKING
COLLEGE STUDENTS?

Description of the Research


This study is quantitative and the data will be gathered through the results of the test
questionnaire until February.

Potential Benefits
This study will benefit students and will help them be aware of the effects of early employment
and stress that the individual will handle.

Confidentiality
In the conducted of the study, full confidentiality will be assured. No information that discloses
your identity will be released or published without your specific consent to the disclosure and
only imperatively necessary. The materials that contained the raw information derived from you
will be destroyed after data processing within a given period.

Publication
25

The results of this study may be published in any form for public and scholarly consumption or
used in classroom instruction to enrich learning and generate more knowledge for future
research.

Participation
Your participation in this study must be voluntary and you have the right to withdraw if you feel
uncomfortable in the process of gathering information from you.
________________________________________________________________________________

Informed Consent
Given the information above, I confirm that the potential harms, benefits, and alternatives have been
explained to me. I have read and understood this consent form, and I understand that I am free to
withdraw from my involvement in the study any time I deem it to be necessary or to seek clarifications
for any unclear steps in the research process. My signature indicates my willingness to participate in the
study.

_____________________________________________ ___________________
Printed Name and Signature of the Research Participant Date
26

Appendix B

International Stress Management Association (ISMA) Stress Questionnaire

Name (optional): ______________________ Sex: ________

Age: ________ Course & Year: _________

E-Mail: ____________________

Instructions: Answer all the questions but just tick one box that applies to you, either yes or no.
Answer yes, even if only part of a question applies to you. Take your time, but please be
completely honest with your answers:
Yes No
1 I frequently bring work home at night
2 Not enough hours in the day to do all the things that I must do
3 I deny or ignore problems in the hope that they will go away
4 I do the jobs myself to ensure they are done early
5 I underestimate how long it takes to do things
6 I feel that there are too many deadlines in my work / life that are difficult to meet
7 My self-confidence/ self-esteem is lower that I would like it to be
8 I frequently have guilty feelings if I relax and do nothing
9 I find myself thinking about problems even when I am supposed to be relaxing

10 I feel fatigued or tired even when I wake after an adequate sleep


11 I often nod or finish other people’s sentences for them when they speak slowly
12 I have a tendency to eat, talk, walk, and drive quickly
13 My appetite has changed, have either a desire to binge or have a loss of
appetite/may skip meals
14 I feel irritated or angry if the car or traffic in front seems to be going too slowly/
I become very frustrated at having to wait in a queue
27

15 If something or someone really annoys me I will bottle up my feelings


16 When I play sport or games, I really try to win whoever I play
17 I experience mood swings, difficulty making decisions, concentration and
memory is impaired
18 I find fault and criticize others rather than praising, even if it is deserved
19 I seem to be listening even though I am preoccupied with my own thoughts
20 My sex drive is lower, can experience changes to menstrual cycle
21 I find myself grinding my teeth
22 Increase in muscular aches and pains especially in the neck, head, lower back,
shoulders
23 I am unable to perform tasks as well as I used to, my judgment is clouded or not
as good as it was
24 I find I have a greater dependency on alcohol, caffeine, nicotine or drugs
25 I find that I don’t have time for many time for many interests/ hobbies outside or
work
TOTAL
28

Appendix B (cont.)

International Stress Management Association (ISMA) Score Interpreter

Your score:

Most of us can manage varying amounts of pressure without feeling stressed. However too much
or excessive pressure, often created by our own thinking patterns and life experiences, can
overstretch our ability to cope and then stress is experienced.

4 points or less: You are least likely to suffer from stress-related illness.

5 - 13 points: You are more likely to experience stress related ill health either mental, physical
or both. You would benefit from stress management / counseling or advice to help in the
identified areas.

14 points or more: You are the most prone to stress showing a great many traits or
characteristics that are creating unhealthy behaviors. This means that you are also more likely to
experience stress & stress-related illness e.g. diabetes, irritable bowel, migraine, back and neck
pain, high blood pressure, heart disease/strokes, mental ill health (depression, anxiety & stress).
It is important to seek professional help or stress management counseling. Consult your medical
practitioner.
29

Appendix C

Letter of Request for the List of Student Assistants

Rodora T. Sagun
Head
Office of the Student Scholarship and Aid Division
Silliman University
Dumaguete City

Dear Ma’am,

Greetings!

We are fourth year students of the Psychology Department, currently enrolled in


Psychology 41 (Research in Psychology I) with a study titled, “Stress Level Differences of
Student Assistants and Non-Working College Students of Silliman University.” We would
like to request for a list of names of student assistants. We assure you that the information shall
be strictly confidential throughout the entire duration of the study. The information of this study
will serve as awareness to the student assistants whether or not they are prone to stress. We are
thankful for your time and consideration in attending to this request. If you have any questions,
please contact us through this number 0915-608-2114 or email us at swordbet234@gmail.com.

God Bless.

Sincerely,

The Researchers:

___________
Jeff A. Enrera

________________
Micah M. Peregrino

_______________
Garneth G. Katada

Noted by:

___________________
Rochelle Marie Remollo
Research Adviser
30

Appendix D

Letter of Consent for the Professors

Dear Ma’am/Sir,

Greetings!

We are fourth year students of the Psychology Department, currently enrolled in


Psychology 41 (Research in Psychology I) with a study titled, “Stress Level Differences of
Student Assistants and Non-Working College Students of Silliman University.” We would
like to request for your students in this section to participate on the said study for a maximum of
30 minutes. The information of this study will serve as awareness for the non-working student
whether or not they are prone to stress. We are thankful for your time and consideration in
attending to this request. If you have any questions, please contact us through this number 0915-
608-2114 or email us at swordbet234@gmail.com.

God Bless.

Sincerely,

The Researchers:

___________
Jeff A. Enrera

________________
Micah M. Peregrino

_______________
Garneth G. Katada

Noted by:

___________________
Rochelle Marie Remollo
Research Adviser
31

Appendix E

Letter of Consent for Office of Student Scholarship and Aid Division


Rodora T. Sagun
Head
Office of the Student Scholarship and Aid Division
Silliman University
Dumaguete City

Dear Ma’am,

Greetings!

We are fourth year students of the Psychology Department, currently enrolled in


Psychology 41 (Research in Psychology I) with a study titled, “Stress Level Differences of
Student Assistants and Non-Working College Students of Silliman University.” We humbly
like to request for you to gather your third-year student assistants to participate on the said study
for a maximum of 30 minutes. We assure you that the information shall be strictly confidential
throughout the entire duration of the study. The information of this study will serve as awareness
to the student assistants whether or not they are prone to stress. We are thankful for your time
and consideration in attending to this request. If you have any questions, please contact us
through this number 0915-608-2114 or email us at swordbet234@gmail.com.

God Bless.

Sincerely,

The Researchers:

___________
Jeff A. Enrera

________________
Micah M. Peregrino

_______________
Garneth G. Katada

Noted by:

___________________
Rochelle Marie Remollo
Research Adviser