PMBOK Quick Implementation Guide:
Standard Introduction, Tips for Successful PMBOK Managed Projects, FAQs, Mapping Responsibilities, Terms and Definitions

Notice of Rights: Copyright © Daniel Lawson. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Notice of Liability: The information in this book is distributed on an “As Is” basis without warranty. While every precaution has been taken in the preparation of the book, neither the author nor the publisher shall have any liability to any person or entity with respect to any loss or damage caused or alleged to be caused directly or indirectly by the instructions contained in this book or by the products described in it. Trademarks: Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this book, and the publisher was aware of a trademark claim, the designations appear as requested by the owner of the trademark. All other product names and services identified throughout this book are used in editorial fashion only and for the benefit of such companies with no intention of infringement of the trademark. No such use, or the use of any trade name, is intended to convey endorsement or other affiliation with this book. ITIL® is a Registered Community Trade Mark of OGC (Office of Government Commerce, London, UK), and is Registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

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..................................................................... 61 8.. 68 8.... 52 8........................................2.1 7 7.......2.....2......................................................... 19 6 GROUPING THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT PROCESSES TOGETHER....................5 Fending Off the Claim Jumpers ........... 62 8................................ 29 FRAMING PROJECT MANAGEMENT .....................4 Scheduling..............................2.......2 7...... 71 3 ..........3..................................1 Igniting the Project ................................ 46 8............... 31 MONITORING AND CONTROLLING THE PROJECT .............. 9 INTRODUCING PMBOK....... 42 8................. 23 6.................. 7 A WORLD WITHOUT PROJECT MANAGEMENT ............................................ 34 PLANNING THE PROJECT ........ 56 8................................. 53 8................3 CONQUERING TIME ...................... 50 8.........3.....................1...1 7............. 37 8..................................................................... 7 1...... 64 8.......... 13 ADDING THE PROJECT MANAGER TO THE MIX ..2 PUTTING A STAKE IN THE GROUND – PROJECT SCOPE .....................................................................2 Creating the Stake ... the Chicken Or the Egg..............1 Defining the Activity ........................................................................3 8 INITIATING THE PROJECT ...1.....................3..1 WHAT IS PROJECT MANAGEMENT? ............................2 Executing the Project Plan ......................................................... 15 5 MANAGING THE CLIMATE OF A PROJECT FOCUSED ORGANIZATION........4 Announcing the Claim.................. 50 8......... 32 CLOSING THE PROJECT ..3 Defining the Boundary Limits ......................2 Which Came First......... 58 8.........................................2....................................... 26 EXECUTING THE PROJECT ............................................................3 Hard-Boiled or Soft-Boiled................................ 40 8..1..........1 Developing the Project Plan ...........................Project Management TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 2 3 4 INTRODUCTION ...........1 THE PROJECT PLAN AS AN INTEGRATION PRODUCT ..3...........................................3 Controlling Change to the Project Plan ........ 47 8...........................................................................................

.....2 Extreme Sports or Golf?...1 Laying the Infrastructure ...3 WORKING WITH PEOPLE ............................5 Making the Purchase ....2 BENEFITING FROM CLOUD COMPUTING .6 GOING SHOPPING ................ 108 9....3....... 96 9... 115 COMPARING PROJECT MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORKS..........4 BANKING ON IT ...............6......................................................... 100 9.................................................. 106 9...... 80 9.......................................4 Ending the Connection .....3 Window Shopping ............... 110 9............................4........................2 MANAGING THE RIGHT STUFF ........3.......................6 Wrapping It Up ............ 88 9............... 77 9...2.... 113 10 11 12 CONCLUDING PROJECT MANAGEMENT ............................ 117 APPLYING CLOUD COMPUTING TO PROJECT MANAGEMENT 121 12..3 Developing Team .......... 93 9....3 Be Prepared ......................5 BASE JUMPING A PROJECT..1 Working Together.................4 Taking the Jump .............Project Management 8................................4 Finding the Right Store ...........5...........................................5 Controlling the Schedule .............................6........................................................................................ 111 9................. 81 9..... 98 9...........................................2 Finding the Right People............................................................................. 112 9.............................. 74 8.......................2... 84 9...........2............. 96 9...... 111 9..........................4.................3.4 OPENING UP THE LINES OF COMMUNICATION ................ 121 THE EASE OF LINKING (HYPERLINKS)................ 94 9..2 Walking the Mall ...6....................6............... 105 9...................................3 Quality is Controlled ............................................4................................... 103 9......................................................4.......2 Budgeting the Project .................................. 79 9...................................1 Creating a Shopping List.. 87 9........ 74 9 LEANING ON RESOURCES ....................................................1....................... 90 9.2 Quality is Watched ........................................... 123 4 ................................................. the Better the Experience ............. 80 9.......1........1.................6........2 Making the Connection .............3 Controlling Cost ...................... 99 9....1 The More Risk................................................................6...... 84 9................................................5......5..............1 Quality is Planned ....... 77 9.1 12.......................3................................................... 107 9........ 91 9..........5..........1 Applying Cost......................3 Cleaning Up Static......................

.................7 13 13. 130 TREATING THE PROJECT AS PARTS......... 145 REFERENCES ......................................................................................................................................... 140 A PROJECT AS PEOPLE ...... 126 INTERFACING WITH THE PROJECT (MASHUPS) ...........................................3 14 15 SUBSCRIBING TO SUCCESS (BLOGGING)....... 142 THE PERSPECTIVES OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT ........... 133 TESTING THE LIMITS (PORTABILITY) ....2 13.........................5 12... 147 5 .........4 12... 137 SUMMARIZING PROJECT MANAGEMENT ......................................Project Management 12..........................3 12..........6 12.... 135 A PROJECT AS INFORMATION ........................1 13...................... 138 A PROJECT AS WORKFLOW .. 128 EVERYONE IS A PROJECT MANAGER (OPEN SOURCE) . NOT THE WHOLE (REUSE) ....................................

Project Management 6 .

Project Management 1 Introduction 1. The board has been working for weeks on the company's future goals and the business sectors have been encouraged to find innovative ways to expand the company's business offerings. that is the set of steps necessary to bring a new product or service to the organization. By the end of the meeting.1 What is Project Management? The executive board has just convened and under discussion for today's meeting is a proposal for a new service. the board had a few conditions and he's not sure exactly how to proceed. the board is excited about the new venture and have given their full approval. the beginning 7 . the project had started without him. Whether the young manager realized it. Speaking to his colleagues. The young manager is has been given total control over implementing the proposed service. His friends are just encouraging him to acknowledge the work as a project. In this case. they suggest that the first thing to do is establish a project and start managing it. An enterprising young manager has suggested that given the current technology trends and the company's capabilities that a new service can be added to the business and provide the companies product line over the web. A project is temporary: it has a definitive beginning and a definitive end. Unfortunately.

Both types of work require people to perform. skills. If the discipline is applied properly. Operations typically take over when the project ends. The discipline encompasses knowledge. and controlled. tools. Companies work and that work using falls into one of two categories: operations or projects. the project should meet the requirements behind the service or product while balancing the demands on the project from expectations and needs behind scope. where the operations will continue to monitor the service and make any improvements necessary. Project management organizes the steps required to move from point A to Point B.Project Management was the executive board's approval and the end is the validation that the new service has been properly implemented into the environment. the new service will be implemented into the environment. The difference in the two are that while projects are temporary and unique. time. 8 . operations are ongoing and repetitive. In the example above.. and quality. executed. Project management is a disciplined approach to successfully handling these temporary endeavors. are constrained by resources. cost. and techniques. and are planned.

projects exists in many forms within the walls of a company. Project management focuses on more than the end result. Unfortunately. or even its physical representation. The Standish Group reports that 31. project management is not. though projects are nature course of business. the National Audit Office and the Office of Government and Commerce gave the following reasons for project failures: • Lack of a clear link between the project and the organization's key strategic priorities.1 In 2002.Project Management 2 A World Without Project Management Projects are a natural occurrence to any business that grows and expands its products. many hurdles may have to be overcome. but also the journey getting there. • Lack of effective engagement with stakeholders.1% of all projects will be canceled before they are ever completed and that 52. From as small as adding a new room to the office building to creating a worldwide campaign for the next great product. • Lack of skills and proven approach to project 9 . Along the way.7 of the projects that are completed will cost 189% of the original estimate. knowledge. • Lack of clear senior management and ministerial ownership and leadership.

Lawrence Cooper. The persistence of project failure also exists because of the people managing the 10 . the more time or budget involved. the more opportunity there is to fail. provides a practical realization to project failures: Project timelines beyond 6-12 months generally result in a project going over budget and failure to deliver on the promised benefits – detailed project planning is hard to do beyond 6 months. CEO of ITSM Canada.Project Management • • • management and risk management Evaluation of proposals driven by initial price rather than long-term value for money Too little attention paid to breaking development and implementation into manageable steps Inadequate resources and skills to deliver the total portfolio. The large the project.2 The problem is not isolated to the projects or how companies manage them. • Failed projects usually suffer from a lack of focus and momentum after about the 5-6 month mark • Poorly defined scope (and requirements) and scope creep because of unclear goals objectives • No change control to handle scope changes • Lack of executive commitment and user interest due to the long timelines involved • Failure to communicate and act as a team • The wrong skills or not enough of the right skills.

• There has traditionally not been a single global standard for project management accreditation.” 11 . • Empirical observation suggests that most project The fact remains that without a disciplined approach to managing projects by capable people who can successfully manage projects. money. • Those who are accredited only use a part of the theory and methodology in the workplace. And the operations of a company are very important to maintain. the members of the project team are also involved in maintaining the operations of the business. senior consultant to Contact to Contract. they approach managing projects in the same way as they do approach managing operations. Peter Gammon. Unfortunately.Project Management projects. and the work done on a project is covered on their job description as “additional duties as required. offers the following points about project managers: • A 2003 survey with the Industry body INTELLECT showed that of the companies interviewed. In many respects. only 42% of the project managers were accredited • Of the companies interviewed. a company has the potential to lose time. • Countries have local accreditation bodies (such as Prince2 in the UK). Many companies focus on their operations because it is self-evident that the operations are the daily grind of doing business. 48% use a “home grown” methodology [of project management]. effort. and possibly market value.

two components must be in place: a discipline for managing the project and a person who can properly apply the discipline. 12 .Project Management For a project to be successful.

Project Management 3 Introducing PMBOK In 1969. The approach used by by PMBOK is compatible with ISO 9000 and the Software Engineering Institute's CMMI (Capability Maturity Model Integration). The PMBOK Guide breaks project management into 44 processes that loosely for into five basic process groups and nine areas of knowledge. The PMBOK is comprehensive enough to provide a general guide to managing most project and flexible enough to be adapted to specialized projects like construction or government which encouraged development of standards specific to those industries. The processes found within the PMBOK overlap and 13 . The standard began in 1987 as an attempt to dot and standardize the information and practices of project management that has been generally accepted by the community of project managers. Since then. five volunteers founded the Project Management Institute (PMI) to set standards for project management. One particular standard is the Guide to the Project Management Book of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide). conduct research in improving the way projects are managed. PMI has been recognized by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) as an accredited standards developer. and to provide the growing number of project managers the opportunity to exchange knowledge and educate themselves in the disciplines of project management.

Essentially. even is the timing of the tasks are farther apart. and the resources required to meet the schedule and WBS. the project can be down into the deliverables. At the core of creating deliverables is defining the work that needs to be done to meet the deliverable.Project Management interact throughout the life of a project which is defined in the five process groupings. Deliverables play out the same concept: showing the efforts of the work by the team. the WBS to meet the deliverables. Some of the tasks found in the WBS may have some interdependence with other tasks. one must return with something. The only thing left on the project is managing the execution of the schedule. Projects are focused on creating deliverables: tangible items which show the successful progress of the project. Some share the same resources. 14 . This is accomplished by creating a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS). the schedule for doing the work defined by the WBS. Attached to the WBS is a schedule for the work to be done along with the resources required to complete the work. It’s not enough to simply go to the store.

but individuals who have some management authority and are usually a major stakeholder in the successful outcome of the project. someone has to be assigned the task of doing so. This individual is referred to as the Project Manager. Unfortunately. associate's 15 . In these situations. the numbers of projects that can be found in a company are at times much more than the group of professional project managers available to take them on. companies usually assign a professional project manager to those projects that would have the greatest impact on the company if it succeeds or fails. PMI has two credential programs in project management: a person can be a Project Management Professional (PMP) or a Certified Associate in Project Management (CAPM).Project Management 4 Adding the Project Manager to the Mix For the discipline of project management to be properly applied. Though professional project managers do exist. The certified associate is an entry level certification into project management and is designed for members of the project team. allowing non-professionals to on the lower risk projects. the body of professional project managers serve as mentors to those who are not certified as project managers. many of the people managing projects are not project managers. Individuals have to apply to be a CAPM and prerequisites demand a High School diploma. In some cases.

The second is an individual who has a a bachelor's degree or equivalent. the basic hierarchical structure of a business is a number of employees in various departments being managed by business managers who are responsible for a specific part of the business that may or may not have any understanding of other parts of the business and the impact their departments have on the business as a whole.Project Management degree or higher and either 1500 fours of professional experience on a project management team or 23 hours of formal PMI certified project management training. They are responsible for changes to the business. Project Managers have a unique responsibility inside the organization. in whatever way that change takes. In operational mode. a minimum three years of unique non-overlapping professional project management experience with at least 4500 hours leading and directing project tasks and 35 contact hours of formal PMI certified PMP training. The eligibility beyond the application can take two forms. a minimum five years of unique non-overlapping professional project management experience with at least 7500 hours leading and directing project tasks and 35 contact hours of formal PMI certified PMP training. The first is an individual who has a High School diploma and an associate's degree or equivalent. Certification for PMP also requires an application. The larger the company. Credentials require the passing of an exam based on PMBOK. the more layers of management 16 .

it is very important to carefully consider the makeup of the project team and ensure that right people are assigned to the project. skills. The knowledge. In addition to the core project team.Project Management that occur until the top executive managers who make the decisions that directly impact the business. Projects completed by a team of professionals who come from the operational side of the business are tasks to take guidance and assist the Project Manager to minimize the risk of implementing the project into the business operation. The Project Manager typically works outside the operations of the business when working on a project. there are typically other individuals who will provide their knowledge and skills as resources to the project as part of their own part in the operations. The Project Manager typically takes direction from executive management or at the very least ensures that the project is in line with the guidance of the executive management. 17 . They work mostly with middle manager to obtain the resources necessary to execute the project. and passion of the project team are ultimately just as important as the project manager and applying the discipline of project management. and typically require the workforce to successfully implement the product or service which is the focus of the project. but they have to stay in touch with the operational portion to comprehend how the project will impact the operations or vice versa. In should be noted that the Project Manager alone does not successfully execute a project. Because of this.

Project Management

18

Project Management

5 Managing the Climate of a Project Focused Organization
As already mentioned, a business can be described in terms of projects and operations. The day-to-day activities of the business usually focus on the operational aspects of the business. This is the environment which a project must be successful in. Remember that projects are temporary while operations are not. Projects usually focus on delivering change, while operations focus on maintaining the status quo or at least providing some continuous improvement. Inside this environment, the project may be influenced or impacted greatly by forces outside of the project. Since many of the members of the project team have primary responsibilities within the operations of the company, any problem disrupting those operations will have a negative impact on the project itself. Successful project management begins and ends with agreement by those individuals involved in the project or have the potential to be impacted negatively or positively by the existence or the result of the project. These individuals are called stakeholders are minimally made up of the project manager, the customer who will be using the product or server at project end, the performing organization which will 19

Project Management

do the work, and the sponsor who is the individual or group providing the necessary financial resources for the project. The success of the project relies on the project team identifying the stakeholders of the project and determining any expectations they may have on the project. Managing these expectations is just one of the major ways of ensuring that the project is successful. Unfortunately, managing expectations can be difficult because stakeholders may have different expectations which can be in conflict with the expectations of another stakeholder. Generally, most differences are resolved in favor of the customer. The organization itself can have a tremendous influence on a project. Project-based organizations typically will have systems in place that aid and address different aspects of project management; for instance, the financial systems will be designed to specifically handle the accounting, tracking, and reporting on multiple projects happening at the same time. Organizations not based on projects, such as manufacturing, are not likely to have systems in place to aid project management efforts, therefore placing the burden directly on the shoulders of the project manager. The project manager should be aware of the tools that the organization will provide and how they can be used or not used to aid the project. The culture of the organization can impact the project on many levels. Cultures are known because of their shared beliefs, values, norms, and expectations which are usually 20

Project managers cannot allow themselves to be influenced by the organization. they may also be responsible to lead the project by establishing the direction of the project. They may have to serve several roles on the project. Though they are concerned with producing results expected by stakeholders as a project manager. project managers have to have skills in negotiating others into terms that are agreement to all parties.Project Management represented in their process and procedures or their response to authority. Still there are even forces outside of the organization that may influence the project and its work. aligning people. Project managers have a responsibility for ensuring the lines of communication are open allow the exchange of information to never stop. project managers need to handle a variety of situations and people types at all times. Most importantly. Even managerial styles can come into play. motivating and inspiring the organization. Cultures that thrive inside an aggressive or entrepreneurial organization are more likely to take on projects that are highly innovative and risky. Organizations in the health and government industries are highly regulated 21 . but must be able to understand the mechanics of the organization to be able to influence it instead. An organization that encourages the participation of all their employees may not work well with a project manager who is very rigid and by the book about how things are done in the project. As a result. or other factors. They have to be problem solvers.

Implementing a product or service across multiple nations must be in compliance to the laws and political machinery of the nations involved. any project from those organizations have to follow the standards and regulations that impact their industry. the cultural influences of the world outside of the workplace have an impact on the project inside. more projects have stakeholders from across the globe. 22 . Globalization is a push into doing business across national boundaries. Every major business has some regulatory commitment to maintain and those can influence. The project manager and the team have to handle all the influences impacting the project from beginning to end. Additionally.Project Management entities. As a result.

Processes fall into two categories. several projects will be initiated and executed for the benefit of the product. The processes however are not typically performed one after another but in conjunction with each other. At some stages of the project. The lifecycle of the product is distinguishable from the lifecycle of the project. the project is a group of processes interacting with each other all the time. Therefore. the development of a new release in software may be an entire project that is a small portion of the total life of the product. In essence. During the life a product. the likelihood of processes that focus on the 23 . each set of activities have certain similar characteristics to them. For instance. a project is concerned with bringing a new product or service to the environment.Project Management 6 Grouping the Project Management Processes Together PMBOK treats project management as a set of processes. As processes. some processes are focused on more than others and the focus changes at other stages of the process. outputs. and the tools and techniques required. The purpose of each process within project management is to create a definable and recognizable result. namely they all have inputs. therefore one category of project processes focus on those processes that are most concerned with the specification and creation of the product or service. Ultimately.

• Plan – part of the project is to devise and maintain a schedule of tasks and resources that are required to fulfill the business need the project is about to address. The PMBOK organizes the project management processes into five process groups. while the other focuses on the product of the project itself when the project ends. the project management processes will cease to continue. The second category of processes are those that are strictly concerned with describing and organizing the work required by the project. The groups are: • Initiate – the processes in this group are used to recognize that a project of phase should begin and gathers the commitment required to get it started. while the product-oriented processes will still be in place. • Executing – after creating a workable plan. The processes in this group are used to identify the plan and resources for that schedule. • Controlling – Handling unexpected hurdles and 24 . The two sets of processes constantly work congruently with each other. The difference is one set is focused on managing the project. the next set of processes provide the methods for coordinating the people and resources to execute the project tasks.Project Management success of the product is high and these product-oriented processes are separate from the project management processes. The groups follow the project life cycle and consist of one or more of the 44 total processes found in the PMBOK.

The results of one process group is the input to the next group. but overlapping activities which happen at varying degrees at every phase of the project. Though everything is planned out early on in the project. Additionally. the last set of processes formalize the acknowledgment that the project is complete and brings it to an orderly end. before a design document can be executed on. Therefore. As such. but also the general flow of each of the phases in the project. the closing processes are utilized in some degree before leaving the planning phase of the project. the process groupings not only define the flow of the entire project life cycle. a change in requirements may require an update to the schedule later on in the project. The advantage to reiterating the processes constantly throughout the project phases ensures that any new information impacting the project is handled appropriately 25 .Project Management • keeping promises are two of the factors involved in ensuring the project is a success. For instance. This grouping of processes aids the project manager in ensuring the project objectives are met by monitoring and measuring the progress of the project. though the processes are iterated. the customer acceptance can serve to obtain commitment for execution phase which is the focus of the initiate processes. Fortunately. the project management processes are not single instance occurrences in the life cycle of a project. Closing – When the deliverables of the project are complete. it must be “closed” out by customer acceptance.

Projects need executive support. while others are business driven. like a middle manager. Despite the varying definition of a project for a company may be. arguments have ensued around the difference between project management and change management. Some companies do not recognize projects that do not have a certified project management professional leading them. Others treat any change to the environment as a project.1 Initiating the Project Within a business there are a variety of ways in which a project can be initiated. so some people insists that true projects can only come from the top levels of the company. Still others will state that projects are results of marketing innovative solutions to both the executives and the workforce.Project Management and returns the focus of the process to meeting business need. which is an IT operational process for controlling changes to the configuration of the IT infrastructure. Organizational changes are usually projects or projects can 26 . where the projects come from can also be confusing. Some projects are technical in nature. 6. Others stand that the most effective projects stem from identifying problems by the workforce. Within IT companies. Some companies insist on having a specific set of criteria established to determine whether a project is a project.

For the most part. the proposal may need to go to the next higher level. To initiate a project. The basic fact is that every consideration already stated is valid and only shows the importance of understanding project management but also the importance of initiating a project appropriately. The commitment should come from the stakeholders. Some projects add to the environment. the stakeholders will provide the necessary resources to successfully complete the project. equipment. people. information. one simply needs a commitment by the organization to begin the next phase of the project. than a project can be initiate at the department level. the resources can be finances. If a department can absorb the cost of the project and provide all the resources. In some cases. 27 . those individuals responsible for the areas of business which are directly impacted by the results of the project. or all of the above. a project may be initiated simply to create a proper and comprehensive proposal for a project at the executive management level.Project Management have an element of all types. while others take away. if more resources are required than the department can provide. However.

Project Management 28 .

only the importance of the work. project planning is of utmost importance. and the usefulness of the information developed inside the planning phase. • Activity Definition – identify the activities required to product each major project deliverable. The amount of planning required is proportionate to the scope of the project. Therefore. something new or different typically translates into risk. the risk associated to the endeavor. Most of the project management processes can be found within the planning process group. • Activity Duration Estimating – creation of estimates 29 . This does not indicate that the bulk of project work is planning the e project. • Activity Sequencing – identify and document the dependencies between activities. manageable components. The core processes have clear dependencies placed on them and have to be performed in the same order on most projects. The processes within the Planning group are further categorized as the core processes and the facilitating processes. In a business context. • Scope Definition – divide the major project deliverables into smaller.Project Management 7 Planning the Project Projects generally involve doing something new in the environment. These processes may be iterated several times during any phase of the project and include: • Scope Planning – develop a written scope statement to be used in future decisions related to the project.

Schedule Development – create a project schedule based on activity sequencing. document. Resources can be people. creating an understanding for who gets 30 . activity duration. Resource Planning – determine what resources and their quantities are required to perform activities. equipment and materials. they are simply performed intermittently as the need arises.Project Management • • • • for the number of work periods required to complete individual activities. • Communications Planning – determine the information and needs for communication of the stakeholders. Some projects are no risk processes so some of the risk management processes would not be used compared to a highly aggressive and risky project. • Organizational Planning – identify. • Staff Acquisition – obtain the appropriate human resources needed for the project. However. responsibility and reporting requirements. Project Plan Development – use the results of the preceding process to create a coherent and consistent document. Cost Estimating – develop an estimate of the resource cost required to complete the project. these processes are not optional. • Quality Planning – identify and satisfy any relevant quality standards. The facilitating processes are used based on the nature of the project. and assign project roles. and resource requirements.

1 Executing the Project The bulk of project work is done under the Execution process group. Risk Identification – determine the risks that will most likely impact the project and document the characteristics of the risks.Project Management • • • • • what information. The facilitating processes include: • Scope Verification – obtain formal acceptance of the project scope. Procurement Planning – determine what to procure and when. 7. This is the time when the project team takes what was detailed out in the planning phase and executed according to design. Risk Response Development – determine the steps for opportunities and responses to threats to the project. and in what manner it will be conveyed. when they will get the information. Risk Quantification – evaluate the individual risks to determine the range of possible project outcomes. Solicitation Planning – document product requirements and identify potential sources. Core and facilitating processes exist within this process group also the process Project Plan Execution being the only core process. • Quality Assurance – evaluate overall project performance regularly to ensure that the project will 31 .

if a finish date for an activity is missed. Information Distribution – ensure that the necessary information is available project stakeholders in a timely manner. Team Development – develop skills of individuals and groups to enhance project performance. or proposals. Solicitation – when appropriate. The best a project manager can do is catching the problem quickly and resolve. no matter how much planning was done. then any later 32 . offers. adjustments are made to the plan. Source Selection – choose from among potential sellers. 7. These variances are entered into the control processes in the nine processes areas. In all likelihood. something will always occur during execution. For instance.Project Management • • • • • meet the relevant quality standards. obtain quotations. bids. The hopes of the project team are that the planning performed before the execution was extensive enough to identify and plan for all the hurdles that may occur. the project's performance should constantly be measured to identify variances from the plan. If the variances are significant.2 Monitoring and Controlling the Project During the execution of the process any number of things could happen. Contract Administration – manage relationships with sellers. Therefore.

The second core process is Overall Change Control. or the resources may be hard coded to the plan meaning that they cannot be changed. 33 . Whenever the project is off track either by being under the estimate or over the estimate. This information typically takes the form of status reporting. the budget. Performance Reporting supports the collection and dissemination of performance information. The need for a change is a possibility based on the extent of the project planning performed. Others create a range for the estimate. Many aspects of the schedule. If a change is required. it can have an impact on every future aspect of the project just like ripple across water. Controlling and Monitoring include Performance Reporting and Overall Change Control. The core processes for the Process group. and resources.Project Management dependence need to be pushed out or other plans put in place to return to the planned schedule. money. the project may need to be adjusted. and cost. creating a worst case and best case estimate for time. The intent is identify if the project is on track and if not. the areas that are measures are project dates. the variance may force a change if it falls outside the estimate range. Ideally. Some project planners may make a single value estimate. In the second estimate style. resource use. and forecasting. progress measurements. how far above or below the planned estimates. The planning should have identified these situations and revisiting the plan should adjust to meet these objectives.

or financial accountants. as well as stakeholders. A project typically starts with a contract. • Cost Control – control changes to the project budget.Project Management Facilitating processes serve to support the core processes. The information is usually supplied to business managers. The information will typically consist of reporting on the work that has been done and the resources that were used.3 Closing the Project Closing out the project involves two processes: Administrative Closure and Contract Close-out. • Schedule Control – control changes to the project schedule. gather. and disseminate information related to the cycle being closed. • Risk Response Control – respond to changes in risk over the life of the project. human resources. 7. The purpose of this process is to generate. • Quality Control – monitor project results for compliance to quality standards that apply and identify methods for resolving noncompliance. Administrative Closure happens at the end of each project phase and the end of the project to formally close out the cycle of work. or a written agreement describing the scope and deliverables of the 34 . They include: • Scope Change Control – control change to project scope.

35 . Contract Close-out encompasses the activities required to validate that the project has met the terms of the written agreement.Project Management project. It allows the project manager to go back to the customer and finalize any outstanding issues or discoveries that may have risen out of the course of the project but not resolved usually because the action would have been outside the scope of the project.

Project Management 36 .

their use is varied based on the situation at hand. The processes included in this area are project plan development. They are: • Project Integration Management handles the coordination of key elements of the project. There are nine areas of knowledge that are applied to the discipline of project management. The core must be used on all projects. Many people would think that executing a project is simply doing the work to create a deliverable and. though that this is part of a project and the bulk of the effort for the project. Facilitating processes exist to support the core processes. the project and the disciplines used to manage the project have been discussed in terms of cycles. Core processes in the project cycle build on each other to transform input into a workable result for the next phase of the project. it is not all of what encompasses successfully completing the project. both for the project phases and the life cycle of the process. each covers a portion of the necessary disciplines required to move a project from beginning to end. The 44 processes utilized to create the cycles are broken down into these nine knowledge areas.Project Management 8 Framing Project Management To this point. Although all the facilitating processes are utilized in a project. 37 . and overall change control. project plan execution.

storage. scope planning. Project Quality Management ensures the project meets the needs that the project intended to fulfill. Contained in the knowledge area are organizational planning. activity sequencing. staff acquisition. Project Cost Management ensures that the project is completed within the approved budget. cost budgeting. scope definition. The knowledge area contains the processes of quality planning. Project Time Management ensures the timely completion of the project. scope verification. Any work that is not required for the success of the project is kept out of the scope. Project Human Resource Management makes effective use of the people involved with the project. cost estimating. and team development. schedule development. quality assurance.Project Management • • • • • • Project Scope Management ensures that the work required to successfully complete the project are included in the project plan. and quality control. and scope change control. collection. Project Communications Management ensures that the generation. activity duration estimating. Contained in this area are resource planning. information 38 . The included processes are initiation. The included processes are communications planning. and cost control. Activity definition. and schedule control are the processes contained within this area. dissemination. and disposition of information is performed in an appropriate and timely manner.

solicitation. and control of the operations. Some projects are definable by the industries that they are utilized. The knowledge required for managing projects are usually specific to the project management discipline. Called application areas. and construction 39 . analyze. financial forecasting. The processes included are procurement planning. Many of the disciplines used in project management are also found in general management including organizational behavior. risk response development. organization. and risk response control. execution. staffing. General management focuses on the planning. Project Procurement Management assists in the acquisition of goods and services from outside the performing organization. however sometimes overlap is found with other management disciplines. source selection. and contract close-out.Project Management • • distribution. the projects found within these areas have common elements significant to related projects but not needed in all projects. contract administration. pharmaceuticals. and administrative closure. solicitation planning. The processes contained in this knowledge area are risk identification. risk quantification. and planning techniques. The applications areas are generally defined as technical elements which are found in software development. and respond to risks to the project. performance reporting. Project Risk Management focuses on those processes that are used to identify.

execution. How or when the processes interact depend on the type of project involved. the management structure of the performing organization. and the constraints and limitations on the project. The intention of any process description is to provide the project manager and team enough knowledge to discern when a process is being initiated. Although the practice and experience of project management have determined the common trends of process interactions. 40 . the application area.1 The Project Plan as an Integration Product The project manager's primary responsibility is to deliver acceptable results to the customer in a timely and affordable manner. and financial services. chemicals. and industry groups such as automotive. management elements found in government contracting and new product development.Project Management engineering projects. and change of the overall project plan. 8. a great deal of coordination of the project elements is required. the processes may overlap or interact in ways that specified in any documentation. Project Integration Management provides the framework for this coordination. The processes that make up this framework assisting in the development. The processes used by project management interact with the processes within an individual knowledge area as well as interact with the processes in other knowledge areas. To accomplish this.

issues are identified that are not within the scope of the project to resolve but once communicated. a resolution is sought through another project or through the operational improvement processes of the business. Many operations have continual improvement mechanisms in place. several other integration activities are also required. resources. The plans need to be integrated together as a whole and then executed. events may occur that impact one or more of the plans and they have to be reevaluated and adjusted. When the individual plans are readjusted. Staying abreast of any operational changes can be valuable information for the success or failure of a project. While integration of the project processes is important. Operations will not halt or be slowed simply because a project exists. deliverables to the project may be found: these are products that are necessary to the 41 . so the construct of the operational state at the beginning of a project may be different than the operational state at the end of project. the overall project plan also needs to be adjusted. Many business operations have deadlines. and budget.Project Management There are many processes found in project management that deal with the specific planning of project components. Awareness of these actions is prudent for coordinating project activities. The project cannot interfere with the fulfillment of those operational objectives. and expectations placed on them. A work of the project must integrate with the ongoing operations of the business. quotas. Additionally. As the project progresses. such as time. Sometimes.

The project plan is a consistent and coherent document that encompasses the outputs of the planning processes to guide both project execution and project control. but the assigned project work is only one task in the project. Quality assessment because of regulatory standards may require the skills of a quality management professional. subject to change throughout the life of the project. an assessment of power consumption may be the product of the electrical engineering department and required by the project. For example. In this case. so the project manager has to coordinate with the quality control department to ensure that the work is done in a timely manner.1. This professional may not become a core team member for the project. The project plan is a living document. The goal of project management is to identify a final project plan as quickly as 42 . namely the electrical engineering department. 8.Project Management project but are outside of the scope of the project either because they are assumed to already exist or because they are performed by members outside of the body of stakeholders.1 Developing the Project Plan The major focus of the integration management processes is the creation and maintenance of the project plan. but the creation of the assessment is outside the boundaries of the project. the project manager needs to integrate the activities of the project to coincide with the development of the assessment of an outside entity.

Or this is the second time this project has been initiated. the development of the project plan can also include historical information. past project information. constraints and assumptions. that is. For instance.Project Management possible and apply change control to the project plan to manage how and when the plan is changed. In addition to the outputs of other planning processes. define key management reviews. document project assumptions. This can impact how and when money is spent on the project. the project has a certain amount of money for a set time but a different amount after a specific date. Every organization has formal and informal policies that may affect the project. The purpose of the project plan is to guide project execution. Many of these policies will come from governing entities outside of the project that have responsibilities related to the operational side of the business. progress and control. Historical information is typically consulted on during other planning processes and involves statistical information. document plan decisions with primary paths and alternate paths if any. and provide the baseline for measurement project effectiveness. facilitate communication with all stakeholders. The more common governing entities are 43 . and other information that may affect how the project proceeds. The first attempt failed and the project manager looks at the conditions of the failed attempt to ensure the same mistakes are not repeated. organizational policies. budget constraints may be time stamped.

and financial controls. real. organize. Many ways for organizing and presenting project plans can be found and many have the same common elements found in them. Contracts provide a number of constraints that must be incorporated into the project and adhered to under all conditions. the delivery date of a resource is uncertain. Assumptions are considered to be true. A budget is a constraint that limits the amount of money spent. execution. and any adopted Project Management Information System (PMIS) by the company. the assumptions may prove to be false. so the project team assumes a specific date for planning purposes. The scope of the project constrains the work done by the project. Assumptions are typically generated within the planning stage and should be noted in all occurrences. There is an element of risk involved with assumptions. For instance. personnel administration. it 44 . Constraints are defined factors that limit the project in some way. The tools and techniques utilized for development of the project plan include any number of methodologies available for project planning. A time table limits the amount of time given to complete the project. PMBOK does not require any particular method be used to develop. As the project progresses. unreal. and outcome.Project Management responsible for quality management. Assumptions and constraints are factors that affect the project planning. or present a project plan be used. or uncertain and the project plan is impacted. the skills and knowledge of the stakeholders. or certain for the project plan.

specifications. i. etc. and designs • Documentation of relevant standards and regulations. including constraints and assumptions and the responses planned for each • Subsidiary management plans. scheduled start dates. specifically around cost and time • Major milestones and target dates • Key or required staff • Key risks. • Open issues and pending decisions Also included could be the following supporting details: • Additional information found during the planning phase but does impact the planned scope of the project • Technical documentation such as requirements. time. scope.Project Management does however identify those elements that have recognized value to the project. Some of the elements promoted for the final draft of a project plan include: • Project charter • Description of the approach or strategy for project management • Scope statement with project deliverables and objectives • Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) • Cost estimates.e. budget. 45 . and responsibility assignments integrated with the WBS • Performance measurements baselines.

and negotiating. communication. and the time and cost limitations in place for the activity.2 Executing the Project Plan The primary process of providing the project deliverables and meeting project objectives will be performed in the project plan execution process. team members may be tasked with activities that will be 46 . a work authorization system may be involved. These skills will definitely be required by the project manager. and as the project progresses.Project Management 8. The guide to project execution is the final project plan and any supporting details. In many situations. As such. organizational policies and/or procedures that need to be followed. the work to be done. The authorization typically includes the required skills and knowledge. To ensure that the proper staffing is in place at any given time of the project.1. such as leadership. general management skills may be required. but may also be necessary for the team members of the project. skill and knowledge related to the product or services is typically the most important requirement for successful execution. This form procedure ensures that the right people are working the project at the right time by fulfilling written authorizations. To properly execute the project plans. The execution of the project plan relies heavily on the team members of the project and any key individuals required to support the product or service that the project is affecting. any corrective action put into place to realign the project.

to communicate any issues and risks that may have been identified. or to declare any dependencies that need to be fulfilled. Depending on the system and the work involved. issue. the expectation of the work results are unfulfilled because of a change of assumptions. Project team members may be asked to update any existing project management information systems that may require project progress information. or misinformation. therefore it is prudent for the project manager to plan for change and establish controls from the very beginning of the project on 47 . the task of updating the system may fall on the project manager to complete. In most projects. constraints.1.Project Management performed away from any of the other team members in parallel to the activities assigned to those team members. change will be present. Either the activities identified by the project plan produced the result intended or they didn't. Many times. 8.3 Controlling Change to the Project Plan Changes to the project plan have to be coordinated and controls to minimize the impact of the change to the entire project. Status review meetings provide an opportunity for the project team to communicate with each other on the progress of their assigned tasks. The execution of the project plan lead to either work results or change requests. The result may require a change to the project which is initiated by the creation of a change request.

Project Management

how and when changes will be made to the project plan. The requirement of change control is rooted in: • The necessity of maintaining performance baselines. Every change should be reflected in the project plan, but only changes in scope will change the performance baselines established. • The possibility of changes to product scope forcing a change to project scope and minimizing the impact of such as change. • Coordinating changes across knowledge areas: a change in schedule may impact cost, risk, quality, and staffing. Overall change control utilizes the project plan as the basis for its work. The process is initiated by performance reports and change requests. Typically, a formal, documented set of procedures for controlling change is already in place for use by the project. If not, the project team may have to develop one. Many change control systems apply a formal review and approve procedure and the opportunity for stakeholders to approve or reject a change request. Most change control systems have the ability to handle emergencies; these are changes that need to be approved and executed but cannot wait for formal review of the change request. Some systems will even allow for “automatic” approvals for certain predefined changes. All changes must be properly and completely documented. Configuration management is used by change control as a documented procedure for applying technical and 48

Project Management

administrative direction and monitoring. The purpose of configuration management form a project perspective is that it identifies and documents the functional and physical characteristics of an item or system, controls the changes to such characteristics, record and report any changes made, and audit the items or systems to verify requirement conformity. It is important to note a change control process may exist within the operational aspect of the business as well as the project management aspect. Sometimes, the process is different for both but they use the same change control system. Sometimes the process utilizes completely different systems that need to talk to each other. Any some instances such as configuration management require that both systems provide the necessary output of changes to the appropriate parties. Change control may utilize performance measurement, the project management information system, and additional planning as tools and techniques for ensure success for controlling change. Change request going through the overall change control process typically result into updates to the project plan, corrective action and/or an exercise called lessons learned which identifies the causes of project variances and the reasons for actions resolving or mitigating the variance.

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Project Management

8.2 Putting a Stake in the Ground – Project Scope
One of the hardest components of a project to maintain is project scope. The scope of the project details all the work required by the project to deliver and only the work required. Unfortunately, influences from business culture, social cultures, issues, risks, and discoveries will be constantly at play. Because many of the project team members will be working within the operational side of the business, they will see or hear of activities, technologies, or decisions that may impact the project. They may pressured to do additional work to incorporate ideas, concepts, activities, or even technologies, or feel that the incorporation is necessary themselves and take it on. The problem is that anything that changes the intended execution of the project plan is a change that most be controlled properly. The result is actively preventing these influences from impacting the project plan or graciously accepting the influences through change control.

8.2.1 Igniting the Project
The scope of the project essentially shields the project from outside influences and change control is the gate where those influences are allowed to enter. As a result, scope protects the integrity of the project and ensures its success within the context of its predefined requirements, deliverables, and constraints. Scope is typically the very 50

However. A customer request. scoring models. the project can be recognized in general terms. Many projects are a result of one of more reasons: the most common are a demand in the market. a technological advance. Though some work may be necessary to define the scope more. or economic models. In initiating a project. a new business need. These proposed improvements are typically the result of intense mathematical models using programming algorithms to promote optimization opportunities for the business. The method using benefit measurement is typically used one the companies has several projects being proposed and have to choose some over others. market share. but on the definable improvements to the current operational environment.Project Management first step in initiating formal acceptance of a project. Those methods usually fall into two categories. public perception and more. Information aiding the selection of the project may be included. benefit contribution. The company may select projects based on benefit analysis. When projects are authorized. In some 51 . Some businesses use a combination of both methods. they are typically associated with a basic scope statement. or a legal requirement. some companies base their decisions not on the comparative benefits of the projects proposed. Many companies have some method for selecting project. generally using comparative approaches. some description of the expected product or service is provided that is mapped to the reasons already mentioned as well as how the product and service apply to fulfilling the strategic plans of the business. such as financial return.

The goal of initiating a project is to have agreement for the project. Several tools and techniques assist in creating the scope statement.2. professional and technical associations. For most projects. a project charter is created that formally recognizes the project's existence and includes the business need that the project is addressing as well as the description of the product or service that will be the primary result of the project.Project Management cases. the components of the scope statement are already present and the document just needs to be written. or industry groups. These experts may be found in other departments. the project charter. The inputs to the planning the scope is the description of the product or service.2 Creating the Stake The key deliverable of project scope planning is a written scope statement. project initiation requires the use of expert judgment from different parties. The first is any product analysis that allows a 52 . Once the project is agreed to. 8. a document that serve as the basis for future project decisions with specific criteria to determine if the project of phase has been completed successfully. A project manager is identified and assigned to the project and basic constraints and assumptions are generated. constraints and assumptions. outside consultants. The initiation process is used not only at the beginning of the project but also the beginning of each project phase.

These alternatives are typically generated through numerous general management approaches including brainstorming and lateral thinking. The scope statement should include directly or by referencing other document the justification for the project. a list of project deliverables were created. Obtaining a benefit/cost analysis provides the estimated outlays and returns of various project alternatives as well as the relative desirability of those alternatives. or more. Some projects have huge deliverables or more than the usual number of deliverables.2. any supporting details related to the scope and its development should remain accessible as well as a plan for managing scope throughout the project. These techniques can include anything from systems engineering analysis to analysis for value or function. both situations requiring that major project deliverables be broken into smaller. a list of all deliverables expected from the project. a brief summary describing the product. In addition to the scope statement. 8. and the objectives of the project. more manageable components of the 53 .Project Management greater understanding of the product or service which the project will deliver. The point is to understand the product or service sufficiently to address the boundaries required to deliver it.3 Defining the Boundary Limits When creating the scope statement.

The process for this activity is called decomposition. Though each project is unique. The first step is to identify the major elements of the project. the constraints and assumptions already obtained on the project. The real work of defining scope is the breaking down of the project deliverables into manageable components.Project Management project. Especially for manufacturing or development industries. However. These usually are the project deliverables and the project 54 . define a better baseline for performance measuring. and to facilitate clear assignments of responsibility. and resources. many projects may have similar enough activities that a template can be used. WBSs are often reused for deliverables that are similar to some extent. The need to define the scope into smaller components is critical to the success of the project. time. To assist in defining the scope are the scope statement. any historical information and the outputs of process in other knowledge areas to identify the possible impact on the project scope definition? At this point. The purpose of this breakdown is to improve the accuracy for estimating cost. the project manager may begin looking at templates for the work breakdown structure or the WBS from a previous project. a template should not be used to take a short cut in developing the scope and project plan of a project. but to be used a guide to ensure that many of the steps required for a particular type of project is included.

They may be further broken down to reflect the different phases of the project. The third step is to identify the elements of the deliverable. and assigned? At the end of the decomposition.Project Management management tasks. Activities not in the WBS are not part of the scope of the project. After creating the deliverable and its elements. If an adequate estimate for time and cost can be applied to the different deliverables at this time. the WBS is sometimes presented in a readable form like a chart or unstructured activity list. These elements should be described in terms of tangible. however. The WBS is not a presentation method. then provide those estimates. Some questions to ask during the verification step are: • Are the lower level elements both necessary and sufficient for completion of the decomposed item? • Is each item clear and complete in its definition? • Can each item be appropriately scheduled. For each element. apply a cost and time estimate to it if possible. the correctness of the decomposition needs to be verified. The WBS serves as a deliverable-oriented grouping of project elements that defines the detailed scope of the project. verifiable results to properly facilitate measuring performance. 55 . a complete work breakdown structure is available. budgeted.

These descriptions are collected into a WBS dictionary. They have provided the cost. They have identified what is supposed to be done through the project and how it will be done. and resource estimates they believe are necessary to complete the project successfully. The format they have used to organize and communicate this information are the scope statement and the WBS. The purpose of the identifier and work packages are to provide a consistent method of identifying items in future communications. 8.2. The entire WBS now becomes a project result for scope verification. Groupings of items at the lowest levels of the WBS are called work packages. time. In later parts of the project. Now is the time to ensure that the other stakeholders agree. each work element should have a description attached to it. 56 .Project Management Each item in the WBS is typically assigned a unique identifier and collectively known as a code of accounts.4 Announcing the Claim To this point the project team has been working to understand the real scope of the project or phase. Along with the identifier. the scope verification process will establish and document the level and extent of completion already made on the project. If the project is terminated prematurely. The scope verification process is the avenue to obtain formal acceptance of the project scope. it is the process used to obtain acceptance that the scope has been fulfilled.

Together. To initiate the scope verification process. Along with the products coming out of the execution phase. The inspection may require any form of measuring.Project Management Sometimes scope verification is confused with quality control since both are concerned with the end result of a project. the product and the supporting documentation will inspected by the stakeholders. but later the result is a product from executing the project plan. or walk-throughs. audits. These descriptions can take the forms of technical documentation. drawings. Acceptance of the work result is the concern of scope verification while the correctness of the work result is the concern of quality control. they are not the same. documents describing the products should be included for review. Initially. and testing the product. product reviews. specifications. the project work must have created a result either fully complete or partially complete. examining. Most stakeholders are looking to determine if the product conforms to the initial requirements presented at the beginning of the project. unplanned inspections may be asked for. plans. In some 57 . etc. and vary from one application area to the next. the result is the scope statement and the WBS. Inspections can happen at any time during the project and though the project manager may have scheduled some inspections within the project plan. However. The term “inspection” is often replaced by calling the activity reviews.

Even the individuals who are part of the project team may come to the project with their own agendas and expectations of what the project must do. the acceptance is conditional especially on product that are partially completed at the end of a phase. these different terms have different meanings with very specific agendas attached to them. several influences may appear that threaten the scope of the project. The purpose of the inspection and the scope verification process in which it occurs is the formal acceptance of the work result. 8. 58 . Changes in strategic direction may change the direction of the project or new partnerships created on the operational side of the business may introduce new stakeholders to the project who have different expectations or agendas. Discovery of a similar project with a slightly different scope from another area of the business may result in the merging of the work of the two projects.2.5 Fending Off the Claim Jumpers As the project proceeds. Changes in priority on the operational side may change the already limited resources and budget available to the project. Sometimes.Project Management application areas. Identifying a needed resource or improvement in the operational side may encourage the operational side to attempt to have the project perform the work instead of utilizing the resources and operational budget.

2. quality. change requests. or a value adding change to the environment such as new technologies are now available which will reduce costs if taken advantage. the project will use whatever system they have in place to control scope changes. Managing the actual change in scope when and if they occur so that they are properly integrated with the other control processes handling time. etc. Change requests can happen in a variety of ways and from any direction. cost. specifically in the area of adding or removing activities. The WBS defines the baseline to the project's scope. The process is concerned with three primary objectives: 1. The system is 59 . Any changes to the WBS whether intentional or not is a potential change to the scope of the project. and the scope management plan. an error or omission to defining the product or the project. Performance reporting on the project or the interim product may identify issues that need to be addressed. To change the scope. Most change requests occur because of an external event like a change in regulations.Project Management These influences are not always negative but they do need to be controlled. Determining when and how scope changes have occurred. Scope change control starts with the WBS. Ensuring the factors that are changing scope are influenced sufficiently to have the changes be beneficial to the project. 3. performance reports. The means for that control is the scope change control process.

Project Management

usually described in the scope management plan and is the set of procedures used to manage scope changes properly. The system defines the paperwork necessary, the tracking systems that need to be used, and the approval levels for authorizing changes to the scope. The scope change control system should be integrated into the overall change control system as well as any systems that are in place to control product scope. If the project is a result of a contract, the scope change control system must comply with any contractual provisions that are relevant. Many times a potential change in scope is the result of an identified variance in performance reporting. Or performance reporting may be able to identify the magnitude of any variance on a proposed change in scope. Either way, the use of performance measurement can be a helpful tool to determine the success and validity of creating a change in scope. At the very least, changes in scope may impact what is being measured or how it is being interpreted. Scope changes may require changes to the WBS or the previous analysis of alternative approaches. The result of changing scope requires the appropriate modifications to the original agreed-upon scope as defined by the WBS with the adjustments to cost, time, quality, or resources that may apply. Scope changes are always fed back through the planning processes and the appropriate technical and planning documents are updated. The stakeholders are notified of scope changes. Any corrective actions required to ensure that project performance stays in 60

Project Management

line with the project plan is taken and the lessons learned identifying the cause of variance in performance and the reasoning behind the corrective action should be documented.

8.3 Conquering Time
One of the defining characteristics of a project is that it is temporary: a project has a definite start date and a definitive end date. Though the exact dates may be negotiable, it is clear that time is a limited resource for the project. To successfully manage a project within that limit, project time management is a knowledge area that is consistently and effectively utilized throughout the life cycle of the project. The PMBOK processes found within the knowledge area of project time management includes activity definition, activity sequencing, activity duration estimating, schedule development, and schedule control. Using these processes, the project team determines that specific activities that are required to produce the desired project deliverables. These activities will typically have some interdependencies attached to them; that is, one activity may require that another activity be finished before it is started. Additionally, the project team will determine the number of work periods required to complete the individual activities. A work period may be represented in hours, days, weeks, or even months but is consistent throughout 61

Project Management

the project. All this information is now compiled into a schedule to be used by the project manager to build the WBS and resultant project plan. The processes found within time management are sometimes so tightly linked that the individual processes are difficult to distinguish when performing, especially on smaller project. They can be performed by a single individual who is probably fulfilling the process requirements for all the processes simultaneously. However, the processes for activity sequencing, activity duration estimating, and schedule development are distinct processes using different tools and techniques for each.

8.3.1 Defining the Activity
The first step in time management is determining what needs to be done. The process activity definition focuses on identifying and documenting the specific activities required producing the deliverables of the project. The work done through this process is very similar to the work done in defining the scope, the change is the perspective used: time. To start defining the activities, the process uses the WBS, the scope statement, historical information relevant to the project, constraints and assumptions. Decomposition is used to subdivide the project elements into smaller more manageable components. When decomposition was used in defining the scope, the goal was to breakdown the 62

The results of activity definition is the activity list and any supporting detail. templates may be available to determine the action steps required especially in situations where a deliverable is similar to another deliverable on another project. During decomposition. The list of activities provide greater detail for completing the work described in the WBS. the WBS defines what needs to be done while the activity list defines how it is done. Especially for large projects. etc. For instance in an IT project for a help desk. These 63 .Project Management project into deliverables or tangible items that could be delivered. creating work orders for new or changes in outlets. The activity list is an extension of the WBS. fulfilling on work orders. In some application areas. In other terms. though those lists are used to clearly define the progress of the work required. the WBS and the activity list are concurrently developed. The activities required to acquire power may include assessing current power capabilities. negotiating with power company. there is a distinction between work and activity. a defined work item may be be acquire power. testing power capabilities. the project team may identify additional deliverables that need to be added to the WBS or clarification or corrections to the descriptions found in the WBS. From a project perspective. In developing the activity lists. communicating the project in terms of activity lists is not seen. Decomposition from the perspective of time management breaks down the deliverables into activities or action steps required to produce the deliverables.

completing the roof cannot be done before the walls are put up. Mandatory requirements are also called hard logic. mandatory. the project team needs to determine the order in which the activities are performed and when they need to be performed to meet project objectives. and external. They will also require a list or understanding of the dependencies on the project. Physical limitations are primary examples of mandatory requirements. Discretionary dependencies are placed on an activity by the project team.3. the constraints and assumptions. Therefore the roof has a dependency on the walls and it is mandatory because it has to happen. the product description. the project team will need the activity list. discretionary. To start the process. 8. This dependency describes a situation where 64 . If the project was to build a house.2 Which Came First. There are three categories of dependencies that the project team will deal with. Mandatory dependencies are inherent in the work being done. The process is either done manually or through the aid of a computer.Project Management updates are often called refinements and occur most often when the project includes new or unproven technology. the Chicken Or the Egg Once the activity list has been generated. The activity sequencing process focuses the effort to identify and document the dependencies between activities.

65 . or soft logic. A construction project requires an environmental hearing on a location before site preparation can begin. These types of dependencies are often referred to as preferred logic. The first method is called precedence diagramming (PDM). The method defines four dependency relationships: • Finish-to-start is the most common logical relationship and describes the relationship where one activity must finish before the next activity is started. Most project management software packages use this method. but the project team desires a specific sequence to be utilized. A software development project is depending on the delivery and setup of hardware. These dependencies are noted in the activity list and used during scheduling. preferential logic. The use of discretionary dependencies should be limited because it will limit the scheduling options later. with arrows to show dependencies. It constructs a project network diagram connecting nodes. External dependencies occur when project activities have some requirement on non-project activities.Project Management a set of activities can be performed in any sequence. There are several methods for determining and presenting activity sequences. The reasoning behind the decision may be a result of determining best practices in an application area or some unusual aspect of the project where the specified sequence becomes more desirable. or activities.

when the school bell rings. This is common when parallel work is being done like modules in a software package. Using the Finish-to-start relationship can also be applied here and is sometimes more desirable when using a project management software package because unexpected results may be produced later on. One of the simplest examples is the school lunch bell. But in the perspective of the classroom. This is a very precise calculation. A basic example of this is driving a car. the next activity cannot even be started. they all must be completed before the package is complete. From the second viewpoint. but since the modules all make up the software package. Before actually driving out of the driveway. the ignition of the car must be started. Without starting the car. There is no dependencies between the modules to require one being done before the other. Start-to-start relationships describe situations where one activity must start before the next activity can start.Project Management • • • Finish-to-finish describes situations where one activity must finish before another activity can finish. Start-to-finish is the rarest logical relationship defined and typically only by professional scheduling engineers. There are few times when this relationship is used. it is the start of the school bell that 66 . class ends. Most people would say that lunch began when the school lunch bell rings. The relationship described calls for an activity to start before the next activity can end.

For activity sequencing. some activities of a project may be similar to the activities performed on a previous project and have become templates. Another method for sequencing activities is the arrow diagramming method (ADM). To handle other logical relationships. the creation of dummy activities may be required. To handle project that handle these situations. subnets. a method is available called conditional diagramming. or fragments. The primary result of the activity sequencing process is the project network diagram. The diagram is accompanied by a summary narrative to describe the sequencing 67 . Similar to the PDM in that it uses arrows connecting codes to describe dependencies. the ADM only uses finish-to-start relationships and as such has become the technique of choice in some application areas. or conditional activities such as updates to the design if inspection discovers an error. Neither PDM nor ADM allow for sequential activities that loop such as software testing.Project Management ends the teaching of the class. Of course. or developing several modules of a software package. these standardized activities are referred to as network templates. or clinical trials at a pharmaceutical company. These subnets are particularly useful for duplicate activities within a project such as building floors in a high rise building. The diagram is a schematic representation of the projects activities and the logical dependencies between them.

Out of the sequencing work. The project team must not update the WBS directly without first updating the activity list. updates to the original activity list may have been identified which may also require updates to the WBS. the day of the week in which the activity is performed or weekend and holidays may have an impact on how the duration is 68 .3 Hard-Boiled or Soft-Boiled To this point. The estimation is done based in work periods. days. it requires 48 hours to fully dry. The person on the project with the most experience in the nature of the work typically does the estimating. If most of the activities involved take only a few minutes to perform. or months. whether it is hours. while painting may take a day. the project team needs to take into consideration elapsed time. the project team has determined the activities that are required to produce the deliverable and the sequence required of those activities. The work period must be consistent throughout the project. but the decision on duration should be based on the type of work required. The most common work period is the day. 8. In estimating the duration. For example. weeks. That means the total duration for the activity is actually three days. However. The next step is to determine how much time will be required to perform each activity. To do this involves the activity duration estimating process.3. than a shorter duration may be required.Project Management approach and descriptions of any unusual sequences.

Additionally. Historical information should be included from previous projects and commercial duration estimating databases which provide standard recommendations or policies such as how long paint should dry or how long a government agency takes to respond to a request. Generally speaking. created and deliver an estimate. If painting is scheduled for a Friday and no work is done until the following Monday. Also one person working half-time will take twice as long as another person working full-time. To begin estimating the duration of the activities. The capabilities of the resources also will impact the activity duration. Most project management scheduling programs handle these types of problems automatically. 69 . The experience that the individual project team members bring provide historical information to the project. the reality is one business day.Project Management perceived. Whatever. resources requirements and capabilities are necessary because they both can impact the duration of the activity. an activity such as obtain quote may require 15 minutes of effort from the project team to contact a contractor but the duration estimate is four days to allow time for the contractor to schedule a visit. the activity lists is required. though the duration is three calendar days. if an activity can be done in four days by one person. For instance. along with the constraints and assumptions already developed on the project. Given everything being equal except experience. the case. it can be done by two people in two days. specific notes should be included to explain any timing considerations.

This is the reason for having team members assigned to the project who will be executing the project as well. When they create the estimate. Though both estimates may be available. or top-down. As mentioned before. analogous. When the amount of detailed information about the project is limited. Another method for estimating is simulations. A worst case duration is the longest expected time required to complete the work while the best case is the shortest.Project Management someone during the activity required for the last ten years is more likely to perform faster than a person who has done the same work for only one year. The tools and techniques used to estimate duration start with expert judgment. This method uses the actual duration of a previous. The most common form of simulation is the Monte Carlo Analysis. durations are typically 70 . The end of the process produces the estimates of activity duration. Analogous estimating is most successful when the previous activities are similar in actuality and not just in appearance and the individuals preparing the estimates have the expertise required. similar activity as the basis from creating an estimate for the current project. the project manager usually manages to a mean of the two. estimating is performed. This method allows the project team to enter numerous assumptions which are used to calculate multiple durations. This is one of the reasons that some projects include in estimating duration a worst case and best case duration to the project. they are declaring a commitment to the duration.

and key events or milestones which when scheduled cannot be changed without changing expectations. the necessarily inputs are the project network diagram. the activity duration estimates. Lead and lag times are also important to consider. resource requirements. Typically done by the project manager with the aid of the project team. Lead times are often required to allow for preparation before performing an activity. resource pool descriptions especially with shared resources. In addition to the actual estimates. two major categories have an impact on scheduling: imposed dates by the company. Sometimes probability estimates are provided: for instance 15 % probability that an activity will take more than 2 weeks leaving an 85% chance that it will take less. To initiate building the schedule. any assumptions used to create the durations should be included as well as potential updates to the activity list which may have been found. of the contract. the start and end dates for each of the project activities is determined.3.Project Management delivered as a range of possible results: for instance 2 weeks plus/minus 2 days to indicate the activity will be done in no less than 8 days and no more than 12. calendars. Inside the constraints. and leads and lags times. Lag times are generally the time between two activities.4 Scheduling The next step is to schedule the activities using a calendar. the stakeholders. 71 . 8. constraints and assumptions. such as the wait time between ordering and installing equipment.

• Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique (GERT) utilizes probability in both network logic and activity duration estimates to determine the best schedule. The purpose of CPM is to determine which activities have the least flexibility in regards to scheduling. The dates derived from mathematical analysis are not the schedule but rather the time which the activities should be scheduled given resource limitations and other constraints. • Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) uses sequential network logic and a weighted average duration estimate to calculate project duration. • A special case of mathematical analysis is found with duration compression which looks for ways to shorten the project schedule without changing project scope. Fest tracking is another technique which looks at performing tasks in parallel which would normally 72 .Project Management Scheduling is most often done using mathematical analysis which calculates the early and late start and finish dates theoretically for all project activities without considering resource limitations. It includes techniques like crashing which analysis the trade-offs between costs and schedule to identify where to obtain the greatest amount of time compressions for the least amount of cost. Several mathematical analysis techniques exist: • Critical Path Method (CPM) calculates a single deterministic start and finish date based on the sequential network logic and a single duration estimate.

presentations usually find the project schedule shown graphically using project network diagrams with assigned dated. Resource leveling heuristics are applied to the schedule to handle resource constraints. Crashing sometimes results in increased cost while fast tracking can lead to rework and increased risk. bar charts showing the start and end dates (sometimes called Gantt charts).Though it is usually found in tabular form. Simulation can be used to create a recommended schedule like mathematical analysis. Resource leveling often creates project durations that are longer than the preliminary schedule.Project Management be done in sequential order. Any of the methods mentioned typically provides a preliminary schedule without applying any knowledge about resource availability. The project schedule can be represented in summary form as a master schedule or in detail . 73 . The project schedule is considered preliminary until all the resources assignments have been confirmed. milestone charts which focus only on key deliverables. Many of the project management software packages provide the functions to perform mathematical analysis and resource leveling. or constraints. capabilities. The result of the effort is the project schedule with the planned start date and expected finish date of every activity within the project. or time scale network diagrams which are a combination of the project network diagram and bar charts.

The 74 .Project Management Also included with the project schedule are any supporting detail.4 Banking On It The project team has formulated the scope of the project determining what the deliverables will be and the general work requirements of those deliverables. the project team has a work breakdown structure and a project schedule.5 Controlling the Schedule Schedule control is a process very similar to the control scope change process but from a duration estimate perspective. the plan for managing the schedule and any updates to the resource requirements? 8. 8. The same inputs are used and similar outputs are generated. The deliverables were assessed to determine the activities required to product them and estimates were provided to each of the activities for the duration the effort. Because it should be linked into the same overall change control system as scope management. In much the same way that the project is given a limited time frame to complete the work. Out of the work.3. except the use of the schedule change control system. the project also is provided a budget. Project cost management is the knowledge areas consisting of processes utilized to determine and management cost on the project. The same tools and techniques are used. it may have the same system.

forcing the project to understand the information requirements of the stakeholders for reporting purposes. engineering projects that limit the number of design reviews may reduce project costs but increase operational costs. 75 . and cost controls. Cost management for a project is typically balanced with the processes for cost management for the entire business. Project cost management deals with resource planning. This is often referred to as lifecycle costing. In some companies. the costs associated with producing a quality deliverable should be addressed at the beginning of the project. these areas are often viewed as a single process. project cost management. Stakeholders may measure costs in different ways and at different time. cost budgeting. in others. For example. Though quality management is concerned with the correctness of the deliverable. In some projects. many of the mechanisms for predicting and analyzing the financial performance of a product are done outside of the project. cost estimation. however not at the expense of increased cost elsewhere. but each has different tools and techniques used to complete the work.Project Management primary concern of the cost management is the cost resources for completing project activities.

Project Management 76 .

or materials. the project team can develop an approximation of the costs required to complete the project activities. The primary tool used for resource planning is expert judgment which can come from the project team members. For instance. any description of the resources that are potentially available. Planning for resources start with the WBS. Identifying the resources required and the quantity needed is the focus of resource planning. but later on have more detail to only include Java programmers. rental and purchase guidelines. other units in the company. This description is commonly called the resource pool description and it varies from project to project and even throughout the project. equipment. physical resources are necessary whether they are in the form of people.1 Applying Cost Having identified the resource requirements. 9. For projects working under 77 . professional and technical associations and industry groups.1. the pool may consist of software developers for an application project at the beginning a project. the scope statement and policies of the organization referencing staffing. Additionally. The purpose of resource planning is the creation of resource requirements.Project Management 9 Leaning on Resources To complete a project. historical information. consultants.

To begin cost estimation. on the other hand. Finally. than the rates themselves have to be estimated. the activity duration estimates. the resource requirements. 78 . equipment. the project team should have access to the WBS. A chart of accounts is required that describes the coding structure for reporting financial information to the company's ledger. the project cost estimate forced the pricing up too high for the product of service to be sold. If the actual rates are not known. The team can use analogous estimating by looking at the actual costs used in a previous. Pricing. and materials are needed by the project team. Some issues have been opened because project cost estimation was done after contract negotiation and therefore. The project team uses all these resources to begin estimating the cost for each activity. This method of estimation is generally less costly to utilize but also less accurate. the resource rates for personnel. Other times. is a business decision on how much the performing organization will charge for the product of service.Project Management a contract. similar project. Cost estimating produces an assessment of the quantitative result. historical information. how much it will cost the performing organization to provide the product and service. Ultimately. a distinction exists between cost estimation and pricing. the pricing is lower than the estimate. the goal of the project is to deliver a quality product or service in the shortest amount of time and at the lowest cost possible.

Materials.Project Management Another method is parametric modeling which uses project characteristics in a mathematical model to predict costs.1. Cost budgeting establishes a cost baseline for measurement 79 . All resources that will be charged to the project must be estimated and will include.2 Budgeting the Project While estimating costs for the activities may identify the likely expenses for the project. but not limited to. the result eventually will be a cost estimate for the project. The estimate reflects the likely costs of the required resources. 9. Costs should be represented using a consistent expression. The cost and accuracy of parametric models vary but are more reliable when the historical information creating the model are accurate. No matter the method used. However other units may be used like staff hours or staff days but ultimately need to be expressed in units of currency. the parameters used are quantifiable. Bottom-up estimation estimates the individual work items and then summarizes the individual estimates to obtain the project total. normally units of currency. labor. a budget involves distributing a financial pool across the work items. and even special considerations like inflation or cost reserve. supplies. Along with the cost estimate any supporting documentation for understanding the estimate s and a plan for managing costs should be included. and the same model can be used for small projects and large projects.

As far as managing the project. but the product or service that it delivers does not satisfy the needs expected. A cost change control system should be in pace which interacts with the overall change control system.Project Management project performance. Cost estimates. Essentially. Changes in cost may impact scope.2 Managing the Right Stuff Unfortunately. but the intangible aspects were not. The project may have been done on time and according to budget and still fail. Using these series as the basis for describing quality management. the WBS. the team was successful. controlling costs are very similar as a process. which is a time-phased budget used to measure and monitor cost performance on the project. but are not successful. 9. What was missing from project like this was a balanced focus on quality management. and the project schedule are used to create the cost baseline. time and resources.1. project may be started and completed. Project Quality Management from the PMBOK is compatible with ISO 9000 and 10000 series of standards and guidelines. PMBOK quality management is compatible with proprietary approaches like 80 . the tangible aspects of the project were delivered.3 Controlling Cost As with scope and time. 9.

One important concept for project teams is the difference between quality and grade. and others and non-proprietary approaches like Total Quality Management (TQM). Lean Six Sigma. the goal of project quality management is to turn all implied needs into stated needs through project scope management. Grade often speaks to the functional use of a product. and others. processes within phases. Current quality management disciplines complement PMBOK project quality management disciplines. Quality standards can apply to the 81 . Juran.1 Quality is Planned The most important part of project quality management is understanding the relevant quality standards that could impact the project and putting plans into place that will meet those standards. Project quality management addresses both the management of the project and the product.2.Project Management Deming. Failure to meet quality requirements in either area can have serious consequences for the stakeholders. 9.” Putting this definition into the context of a project. Quality is “the totality of characteristics of an entity that bear its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs. Both recognize the opportunity of customer satisfaction through conformance to specification and fitness for use. so a product with low functionality may have a low grade and still be a quality product. and the importance of avoiding mistakes over correcting them. management responsibility. Continuous Improvement. Crosby.

the product description.” The quality policy of the performing organization is automatically adopted for the project. the product and other deliverables. The cost of meeting requirements is the expense spent undertaking the activities of quality management. every aspect of the project and the work done inside of the project. which typically leads to higher productivity. the project team will have to develop one. the reporting. a quality policy that encompasses the intentions and directions of all the organizations will need to be developed. and outputs from other processes. Other inputs to quality planning are the scope statement. Essentially. The benefit of meeting requirements for quality is typically less rework.Project Management project. The first requirement for planning quality is the understanding the quality policy which describes “the overall intentions and directions of as organization with regard to quality. not inspected in. lower costs. and increased satisfaction to the stakeholder. With these inputs the planning can start. If the project is being performed by multiple organizations. A benefit/cost analysis will assist the project is justifying the quality management activities on the project. If the performing organization does not have a formal policy. as formally expressed by top management. One tenet of quality management is that quality is planned in. standard and regulations. the disciplines of project management. 82 .

The goal of quality planning is to identify where the potential risks to quality will acquire and place plans around ensuring the quality of the project and the product. These very specific documents are sometimes referred to as metrics. the project may start with benchmarking. The technique use assists in identifying the variables that have the most impact on the quality of the overall outcome. The prime result of quality planning is the documentation addressing the methods used to control assures and improves quality on the project. comparing the project practices that are being done or planned to be done with the practices of other projects to generate ideas for improvement and provide a standard to measure from. Cause-and-effect diagrams show how various elements can cause an effect.Project Management To measure performance to quality. System or process flowcharts also show how various elements interrelate. An analytical technique called design of experiments are often used to understand different quality issues or potentials for the product. or problem. Included with the plan are operational definitions which document what something is and how it is measured by the quality control process. These diagrams are also referred to as Ishikawa diagrams or fishbone diagrams. Understanding how elements within a project or deliverables relate can provide information on where quality issues may occur. Flowcharting provides a number of ways to create this understanding. Supporting documentation may be included to the plan and 83 .

2 Quality is Watched The quality system created or utilized by the project team will have systematic activities involved to bring confidence to the project and stakeholders that relevant quality standards are being met.Project Management the definitions: one supporting document may be numerous checklists to be used on the project. Improvements to quality from the audits are identified and communicated. The results of the project 84 .2. In many instances. 9. Project Quality Assurance begins with the quality management plan. and results to quality control measurements. or they could be providing governance over ensuring that the project team does the work. Those improvements typically go through the control change process to be implemented. a Quality Assurance Department will be performing the work. These activities will be performed throughout the life of the project. Those inputs are used during quality audits to the project and the products of the project. 9. Those improvements exist to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of the project. The process also identifies ways to eliminate the sources of unsatisfactory results. the operational definitions.2.3 Quality is Controlled Monitoring the specific project results for compliance with relevant quality standards is the function of quality control.

Both product and project results are used with the quality management plan and operational definitions to initiate the quality control process. • Attribute sampling and variable sampling – results conforming absolute adherence versus degree of adherence. such as sampling and probability. Additionally. The project team should have a working understanding of the statistical methods used in quality control. statistical sampling and flowcharting. pareto diagrams.Project Management encompass both product results in the form of deliverables and management results in the form of cost and schedule performance. One of the simplest techniques is inspection over the work result. examining. they should understand the differences of: • Prevention and inspection – keeping errors out of the process versus out of the hands of the customer. • Special causes and random causes – unusual events versus normal process variation. Mathematical analysis can be performed and presented in the form of control charts. Each of these methods have advantages over the other for displaying different types of 85 . the individual or group inspecting the result can identify the characteristics that are most satisfactory and ask pertinent questions on the whole or specific parts of the result. By measuring. and testing the result. The process utilizes a number of tools and techniques to perform the necessary work. • Tolerances and control limits – acceptable result versus controlled result.

acceptance decisions. Using historical data. 86 . Rework is the frequent cause of delays in schedule and going over budget especially when unanticipated. These results are typically used to make adjustments to the process or force additional action to rework an item. Control charts are appropriate for showing results over time and are used to determine if a process such as cost or scheduling are in control. Samplings can be made up of the customer base. Statistical sampling is a method for inspecting a portion of a large population to identify major characteristics of the whole populations. Trend analysis is another mathematical techniques used to provide forecasting information on quality performance. The results of quality control are in the form of quality improvements. Flowcharting is used to identify the causes of problems. Trend analysis can be used to forecast technical performance of the product as well as cost and schedule performance of the project. Pareto diagrams are histograms and used typically to identify the frequency of occurrences. or any large pool of results related to the project or product. a whole of requested changes. and completed checklists. The goal of the project team is to minimize the amount of rework required on a project. the analysis is used to identify where potential problems may occur in the future and allow the opportunity to correct.Project Management information.

87 . schedules. Much has been writing about dealing with people inside the business world. or motivating individuals. including sponsors. regulation compliance. Even subjects like performance appraisals. and team development. and external representatives. so relationships are typically new and in place for a finite period of time. coaching.3 Working with People Despite the work involved with scope. The intention of project human resource management is to effectively use the people assigned to the project. and quality. mentoring. recruitment. customers. All of this material is applicable to project management with caution. budgets. staff acquisition. manage conflict. labor relations. the core of the project involves working with people. Books can be found to handle general management skills of leadership. and negotiation. they can find it. Many of the administration duties of human resources are the direct responsibility of the project team. ongoing relationships in the business community. communication. or group dynamics. retention. Projects are naturally temporary. Many of these books focus on building long-term. individual contributors. and other administration skills have sufficient resources on the shelves. The knowledge area encompasses the processes of organizational planning. If a person is looking for ways to build teams. Or motivational books describing the differences and techniques of delegating. The nature and number of people assigned to the project vary and not always consistent with the size of the project.Project Management 9.

the first being the project interfaces.1 Working Together Project human resources management begins by understanding the relationships between people.3. The project's organizational structure will have a direct impact on the communication requirements on the project and therefore organizational planning is tightly linked with communications planning. The reporting requirements may consist of formal. 9.Project Management though they need to be aware of the requirements to ensure compliance. Organizational planning assists in identifying. Three types are interfaces typically exist on a project: organizational. Understanding these interfaces will assist in understanding the potential reporting structures of 88 . Technical. and assigning project roles. responsibilities and reporting relationships. These reporting relationships may be formal or informal. though changes to the team may occur in the later stages. structured and detailed reports provided with some determined frequency or a notification of an event. A number of items are required for successful organizational planning. documenting. and interpersonal. Organizational interfaces are the reporting relationships among different organizational units. Those assignments may be to individuals or to groups who are either a part of the performing organization or external to it. Most of the work of organizational planning is done in the early stages of the project.

the project utilizes the staffing requirements which include what skills are required and when. or even the expected staff assignments. the preferences of the project management team. guidelines. Many companies have a number of policies. contractual agreements with unions or other employee groups. For organizational planning the constraints may take the form of the organizational structure of the performing organization. stakeholder analysis and constraints. These assignments may vary over time. though most assignments will be made to members of the project team who are actively working the project and should not change during the project. The principle objective of organizational planning is the assignments of roles and responsibilities. templates. a Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) is often used to show the relationship. 89 . Project roles are and responsibilities are closely connected to the project scope definition. and procedures in place to support project human resources. Technical interfaces define the working interfaces between technical disciplines. essentially establishing how the operational side of the business work together. With the project interfaces.Project Management the project as well as stakeholders. as well as the general body of knowledge related to organizational theory. Similar relationships may be duplicated within the project. Interpersonal interfaces focus on the relationships between the individual members working on the project.

so a strong working relationship may already be in place for the majority of the project team. the assignments are typically given to people who have been on projects before. This is partially due to the realistic certainty that the “best” people are not available.3. Particular attention should be made to describe how project team members are to be released when they are no longer required on the project. either human resource for all or individual department heads.Project Management To manage the assignments. Unfortunately. the plan. 9. a constraint may be in place to force the assignment of a single option for a particular spot on the project team. a project manager typically must communicate the staffing requirements to the appropriate managers. Along with the plan may be a graphical display of the reporting structure used on the project. Though in many companies. TO make this choice. or the reporting structure should be included as well. So whoever is assigned to the project must be able to meet project requirements. To acquire the proper staff. In some cases. the project manager and business manager will 90 . a staffing management plan is created. This display is typically in the form of an organizational chart. a choice needs to be made from a pool of staff resources.2 Finding the Right People One of the easiest and hardest activities on a project may be finding the right people to be on the project team. Any supporting detail for determining the assignments.

9. Whatever the method for acquiring staff. the project may have to look at external resources to hire or contract in. Negotiation may be required with the business manager to obtain the right person at the right time. In some instances. Individual development servers the team while team development service the project.Project Management usually look at previous experience.3. personal interests. the right person needs to be recruited. In matrix organizations team development can sometimes be difficult since the individual team members are accountable to a functional manager and a project manager at the same time. The techniques used to acquire staff range from preassignment to negotiating to procurement. effective management of the dual 91 . Many projects will create a directory of the project team. Preassignments are typical of a competitive proposal where specific individuals were promised to be part of the project. If a person cannot be found within the performing organization to fulfill some portion of the project requirements. In these situations. the end result will be project staff assigned to every activities found into the project plan.3 Developing Team The intent behind developing a team is to improve the individual contributions of stakeholders and their ability to work as a team. characteristics and availability.

performance reports. The purpose of team-building in this sense is to improve team performance. Team development begins with the project staff. knowledge. To develop the team. Typically. especially on large or complex projects. and external feedback. however some benefit may be obtained by using it at the end of each phase. Especially for large projects. the project plan. the staff management plan. Even on smaller projects where members tend to do their duties at their desk or on the floor. with little or no potential for the team to be physically located together as a team.Project Management reporting relationship is a critical success factor for the project. the initial step may be to train the individuals or group to enhance the skills. Some projects require team members who are located throughout the global. Working with the group. and capabilities in order to properly fulfill the activity requirements of the project. team-building activities may be used to have the group recognize and utilize the individual strengths of the team members. if such a system exists it is utilized at the end of a project. collocation may be a necessary requirement to have the majority of the team working together. Many companies already have a system in place for the 92 . One development tool that can be sometimes overlooked on projects is a system for rewarding and recognizing individual and group contributions. it can prove beneficial to have the team meet in a conference room periodically to focus on the project.

the most important aspect to a project is the communication structure that it uses. Every person involved in the project must be able to send and receive information in the language of project management. Additionally. Throughout the life of the project. focus on individual and team development also provides awareness to sufficiently provide information for performance appraisals. some companies have adopted separate systems for project management use. 9. stored. and information. Improvements in team behaviors allow the team to focus on the technical activities of the project. and disposed of constantly.Project Management operational portion of the business and are adopted for project management. Therefore. Sometimes.4 Opening up the Lines of Communication In addition to the activities required to manage a project and to produce a product through the project. these systems are inappropriate or difficult to fit into the project management model. disseminated. 93 . The intent of team building is to improve performance on the project. ideas. collected. Improvements in individual skills allow a person to complete activities more effectively. Improvements in both areas help to identify and develop better practices for project management. A project is successful because of the critical links between people. information is being generated.

1 Laying the Infrastructure Communications planning involves identifying and understanding the needs of the stakeholders in the areas of information and communication: who needs what when and how should it be presented. In incorporates all general information and education associated with building effective communication skills used by general business models. but where the contribution will lead to failure of the project. and administrative closure. resources will be provided. the information needs and the method for distributing that information may differ from one project to the next. 94 . The requirements will focus on the type and format of the information requirements with an analysis of the value of that information. and behavioral aspects of the communication practices already found in the performing organization or its customer.Project Management Project communication management incorporates the processes of communication planning. 9. The need for communication is self-evident for project work. resources will be denied. performance reporting.4. The actual implementation of a communication structure on a project may be influenced by the cultural. information distribution. Compiling the individual needs of the stakeholders will provide the basic requirements for communication on the project. technical. The value applied can be used to determine how project resources are used: if the communication contributes to the success of the project.

• A description of the information to be distributed. schedules. • Production schedules for when the different types of communications will be produced. data. The description will include the format used. • A method for updating or refining the communications management plan. technical documentation. Depending on these considerations. 95 . the expected project staffing. the project may adopt an extensively constructed avenue to communicate information or they may simply supply presentation materials to a board meeting. the level of detail and the conventions and definitions used. like status reports. especially in cases where new technologies are used and the stakeholders are not yet “trained” in its use. the availability of the technology.. • Methods for accessing information between scheduled communications.. etc. The result is a comprehensive communication plan which includes: • A collection and filing structure for storing information. • A distribution structure detailing who will get information and how. the content expectations. Some of the considerations for the technology used are the immediacy of the information need.Project Management The technologies or methods available to transfer information is a critical component to project success. and the length of the project.

sharing. The most important component of information distribution is the effective communication skill of the person responsible for managing communications. concise.Project Management 9. 9.4. The process of information distribution handles the dissemination of information on the project. and fulfills the requirements of all parties involved. the next requirement on the project is to ensure the right information is to the right people at the right time. and storage of project records. The primary result of information distribution is the creation.3 Cleaning Up Static The greatest piece of information for the project to have and to share is its performance record. They will also utilize the appropriate system for delivering the information. The first is a passive approach for sharing information that used any variety of mediums.4. The second is an active method of sending information to appropriate parties using several possible methods. This includes following the communication plan as well as handling unexpected requests for information. This skill will ensure that the information being communicated is clear. Two tools may be used for communications: the information retrieval system and the information distribution system. Whether reporting 96 .2 Making the Connection Once the communication plan is in place.

or behind schedule? Are the project costs in line or above or below budget? Are there any issues currently present that need to be resolved at this time? Some of the tools used to define the performance of the project are performance reviews. cost. or predicting future events in status and progress (forecast). and schedule of the project to determine the measure and calculates three key values for each activity in the project. • The budgeted cost of work scheduled (BCWS) identifies the portion of the approved cost estimate planned to be spent during any given period. Performance reporting includes the process activities required to collect and distribute information related to performance on the project. or the estimated cost of performing the activity. Using the project plan as a basis. trend analysis.Project Management where the project is (status). It used the scope. variance analysis. what it has accomplished (progress). or the actual 97 . performance reporting looks at the work results. and earned value analysis. • The actual cost of work performed (ACWP) identifies the total direct and indirect costs attributed to the performed work in any given period. ahead of schedule. Essentially it answers the question of project value to the business. the information has great interests to all persons involved in the project. Are the deliverables fully or partially completed? Is the project on time. Earned value analysis is the most commonly used form of performance measuring.

The three values above are used in combination to identify cost variance (CV). • The budget cost of work performed (BCWP). Some application areas use another measurement to forecast project completion date called schedule performance index (SPI). the process for administrative closure will be called. 9. and cost performance index (CPI).4. The CPI measurement is used to forecast project cost at completion. is a percentage of the total budget equal to the percentage of the work actually completed. improvements or corrective actions may have been identified which need to go through the change control process.4 Ending the Connection At either the end of a project phase or the end of a project. It begins with verifying and documenting project results with the intent to obtain formal acceptance of the project deliverables by the sponsor. The performance reports are delivered using whatever system was described in the communication plan. The purpose of this process is to complete any administrative work that may be required by the project. In addition. client.Project Management cost of performing the activity. So how much money was spent to perform a specific amount of work. or customer. or earned value. The process entails collecting 98 . schedule variance (SV). These measurements explain how far off of budget and schedule the project through CV and SV measurements.

The chief inputs to the administrative closure are the performance measurement and the documentation pertinent to the deliverables or the product of the project. For a project. any issue to this effect is considered a risk to the project and risks can be managed. Other documentation may be available. Project risk management is the PMBOK 99 . these are items that question whether a particular deliverable or activity can be delivered as intended in the time frame or budget allotted to it.Project Management all pertinent project records. the project documents will be indexed and archived. the analysis of project success and effectiveness. 9. At the end. Administrative closure works best when it is done throughout the project to end phases. ensuring that they reflect the final specification of the deliverables. a number of concerns and issues may be introduced that cause doubt on the success of the endeavor. the project team will have formal acceptance of the product of the project or phase. and any lessons learned from the project will be documented and communicated. and making the information available as well as archiving it for future use.5 Base Jumping a Project With any endeavor. or using the resources assigned to it. and is considered poorly done when the entirety of the project close is done at the end of the project. At the end of the administrative closure process.

the key to success is first understand the risk and then to prepare for it.5. External risks are beyond the immediate control and influence of the project team. and risk response control. the Better the Experience Identifying and understanding risk to the project is the goal of risk identification. analyzing and responding to risk. risk management broadens its scope to include those items that can help or 100 . not all the concerns behind the question will become risks. Risks are in the strictest sense only those items that have the possibility to causing harm or loss to the project or the product of the project. With any endeavor that has risk associated with it. but by planning for it. schedule. and resources is questioned. For the most part risk is not eliminated.Project Management knowledge area that concerns itself with identifying.1 The More Risk. 9. Internal risks are those that the project team can impact or control. It is not a one-time process for the project but is done consistently throughout the project whenever the ability of the activity to be performed as intended with the associated cost. The risks identified can be internal or external in relation to the project. the impact of the risk can be avoided or mitigated to prevent severe impact to the project. risk quantification. From a project management perspective. Though any time a performance of the project is questioned. risk response development. Project risk management involves the following processes: risk identification.

Where the opportunity shows up as positively for time and quality. Historical information may serve to identify risks as well as plans to handle the risk. cost and duration estimates. For instance. the project team will has a list of potential risk events. More work is required to justify any changes to the project. If the probability 101 . Because of the project perspective to introduce opportunities as well as threats as risks. the symptoms of risk and the sources of risk. there is a risk to scope and cost. At the end of the process. but with an increase of the budget by 10%. flowcharts. the team may use the description of the product. the people involved with the project should be encouraged to identify as many potential risks as possible to the project. The reasoning behind viewing opportunities as risks is rooted in the possibility portion of the risk definition. Potential risk events are discrete occurrences that may affect the project. staffing plan. Some of the tools used by the project team to identify and document the characteristics of risks are checklists. the outputs of other planning processes specifically the WBS. A project member leaving the team is a potential risk event.Project Management aid the project or product of the project. and procurement management plan. and even interviews with various stakeholders and experts. To aid in discovering risks. an opportunity to utilize new technology that was not introduced when defining the scope may reduce the time required to complete the project by weeks and improve the quality of the product. Project risk is found in both opportunities and threats.

these risk events should be added to the sources of risk.Project Management of occurrence or magnitude of loss is relatively high. Potential risk events identified early in the project may have broader descriptions applied to them. so it is prudent to provide more detail to them later in the project. have a greater magnitude of loss if it ever does happen. Common sources of risk include: • changes in requirements • design errors. Possible risks event are more like to happen. 102 . though a list of common risk events can usually be identified for each application area. Most potential risk events are never application area specific. the expected timing of the event. The source of risk is categories of possible risk events. the alternative outcomes of the event. and misunderstandings • poorly defined or understood roles and responsibilities • poor estimates • insufficient skill in staff Descriptions for the sources of risks should include the probability of occurrence. Descriptions of potential risk events should include estimates for the probability that the risk will occur. The importance is actually how the risk is managed. expected timing. or it is an immediate concern of one or more of the stakeholders that has to be addressed. and frequency of the risk. The distinction between potential and possible can be hazy at times. and the anticipated frequency. omissions. The list of sources should be comprehensive. the range of possible outcomes.

5.g. Some of the factors may include: • Opportunities and threats that interact in unanticipated ways. • Techniques used creating a false impression of precision and reliability. 103 . 9. e. the process should identify triggers. This is risk quantification. Each risk required some form of evaluation to assess whether the risk warrants a response outside of the normal course of a project. These are indirect manifestations of actual risk events. a key member being involved in an accident may cause a strain on the schedule. or risk symptoms.2 Extreme Sports or Golf? Having identified all the risks associated to the project isn't enough to manage that risk. • Opportunities for one stakeholder may prove to be a threat to another. For example. A number of factors may be used to evaluate and ascertain any warranted responses. Someone who is parachuting for the first time will recognize the risk of the chute not opening. • A single risk event having multiple effects on the project.Project Management In addition to the potential risk events and the sources of risk. This is the same risk that an experienced jumper has. new technology saves time but costs more. but the process is no different for the new or the experienced person: both need to ensure that the chute is properly packed.

Project Management One of the key inputs to risk quantification is the tolerance to risk that the stakeholders have. Using those tolerances. Different organizations and different individuals can have different tolerances for risk. simulation. Some companies classify budget overruns and schedule delays differently causing a certain percentage overrun to be high risk for one and low risk for the other. For instance. cost estimates. In addition to this method. Whatever the reason for the tolerance. and the activity duration estimates. the sources of risk. the project team will attempt to evaluate and quantify the risks. the project team may use statistical sums. A company trying to take market share from its competitors may be willing to spend more to introduce a new technology to the product. One method for quantifying a risk is to apply an expected monetary value. a very profitable company will be more willing to spend more money on a project than a company that is breaking even. decision trees and expert judgment to understand and quantify the risk. Both tangibles and intangibles should be represented in the earned monetary value. the potential risk events. There are typically to paths coming out of the risk quantification process: choosing to pursue a particular 104 . This takes into account the probability of the risk event as well as an estimate for the monetary gain or loss of the event. it serves as a filter to the quantification of risk.

and ignore an opportunity or accept a risk.3 Be Prepared Responding to risk fall into three possible actions: avoidance. In these cases. development of the responses to opportunities and threats are created. and acceptance. 105 . When the risk cannot be eliminated or the mitigated. Acceptance can become active such as putting a contingency plan in place. 9. procurement simply changes one risk to another. The purpose of mitigation is to impact the expected monetary value of the risk. most notably by eliminating the cause. the responses may require the procurement of goods or services from outside of the project organization. Not all risk can be eliminated. Often. the next set of actions focus on reducing the risk by reducing the probability of occurrence. or passive like taken on higher costs if the risk occurs. the next action is to accept the risk as is.Project Management opportunity or respond to a particular risk. In some cases. Taking the outputs of the risk quantification process.5. mitigation. but create another risk to the project costs. The risk response development process assists in building the steps for taking on opportunities and responding to threats. Avoidance is the actions takes to eliminate the risk. a technology solution to a risk that requires procuring a specific type of equipment. may mitigate the immediate risk. specifically when the risks are associated with a particular technology.

Contingency planning involves defining what steps will be taken if and when a risk event occurs. Sometimes. risks will require some insurance or bonding as a response.4 Taking the Jump 106 . 9. This is particular response is appropriate when there is a substantial expected monetary value and the probability of occurrence is likely to high and the cost of having the insurance outweighs the cost of not. Contingency plans are organized appropriately to allow for quick access if a covered risk occurs.5. All responses to risk will be documented in the risk management plan as well as additional procedures for handling risks that are identified later in the project. In some cases. such as spending more time in the design phase to decrease the number of changes that happen during development. To prevent or avoid risks. contractual agreements may need to be in place. As a measure to offset the cost of risk to the schedule or budget. alternate strategies may be utilized. The documented risk responses may serve as inputs to other processes in project management. For some risk responses. a financial or time reserve may be created. a reserve is specific to a category of risk with multiple reserves defined to handle more than one category.Project Management Another appropriate response is the creation of contingency plans or strategic alternatives.

and responding to that risk is initiated again. quantifying. workarounds may be employed which are unplanned responses to risk events that immediately reduces the impact of the risk on the project. the actual risk events. 9. In these situations. source selection.6 Going Shopping For some projects. The knowledge area includes the processes of procurement planning. The risk response control processes take the plan. the potential for risk exists and the cycle of identifying. equipment and materials requirements make the need for procurement processes to be in placed to acquire the appropriate goods and services for sources outside of the performing organization. and any additional identification of risks can executes the responses. In some cases. the responses are not as effective as planned or a new risk appears that needs immediate response. contract administration. solicitation planning. 107 . additional risk response development may be required.Project Management Risk response control executes the risk management plan to appropriately respond to risk events during the project. and contract close-out. Even with workarounds in place or when one is not appropriate. solicitation. If changes happen during the project.

Market conditions can influence procurement decisions as they describe what is available.1 Creating a Shopping List Procurement planning identifies the needs of the project which are best fulfilled by the acquisition of products and services from outside of the project organization. To starting planning for the procurement of products and services. If the project or service can be obtained from within the performing organization. the processes will not be utilized. This is a general 108 . If no group exists the project team will need the skill and expertise required to support procurement activities. what to procure. the procedures for interacting with the group will be accessed.Project Management 9. the use of makeor-buy analysis may be utilized. the project team will utilize the scope statement and the product description to understand the needs of the project.6. the processes from solicitation planning to contract close-out will be used for each product or service to be procured outside of the performing organization. To continue the decision making process. Other constraints and assumptions that have been found throughout the project management processes may also impact procurement decisions. how much. and when to procure. from whom. If a formal contracting group exists for procurement activities. The process contains steps for deciding whether to procure. When the decision to procure a product or service is made. and under what terms and conditions. how to procure.

The costs are classified as direct and indirect costs: direct costs are those incurred for the direct benefit of the project and indirect costs. Procurement can include purchase. or overhead. lease. How well the product is defined will reduce the risk associated with the purchase. The statement of work (SOW) provides sufficient detail of the 109 . renting. If the procurement of a product or service involves a fixed total price for a well-defined product. For instance. or donation. contractual agreements are required. Cost reimbursable contracts involve payments to the total price. are the costs of doing business. and unit price contracts. Some projects may be utilized to procure items for the growth of operations that is clearly outside of the intentional scope of the project. however recent increases in its use may force a business decision to procure the equipment.Project Management management technique used to determine if the building of a particular product will be more cost effective than actually procuring the product. Unit price contracts provided for payments based on a preset price per unit of service or product. the contract is considered fixed price. cost reimbursable. The total value of the contract is based on the quantities obtained. In some instances. the rental of a large piece of equipment for construction projects may be the typical procedure for the e performing organization. The result of procurement planning is the procurement management plan and the statements of work. Most contracts fall into one of three categories: fixed price.

bid documents. • Invitation for Negotiation are similar to RFPs • Contractor Initial Response is to identify interested sellers. the need for evaluation criteria from which to determine the right proposal is required. • Request for Proposal (RFP) asks for an explanation of the services provided with the pricing.Project Management item to be procured for the prospective sellers to determine their capabilities for providing the item. 110 . • Request for Quotation (RFQ) are similar to IFBs. overall cost. management approach. technical capability. Along with the procurement documents.2 Walking the Mall When the procurement needs of the project have been determined and the statements of work created. and financial capability.6. the next step is to prepare to find potential providers. Some criteria may include an understanding of need. This typically involves using standard forms to create contracts. 9. and descriptions. Different procurement documents exist and may be used: • Invitation for Bid (IFB) requests sellers to provide a price for the procurement item. Evaluations can be objective or subjective and are typically a part of the procurement documents.

If these lists are not available. To solicit prospective sellers. They may also directly invite perspective sellers. common understanding the procurement before the creation of any proposals. In some instances. the project team will need to create one and in doing so perform some research to obtain the credibility of potential sellers. a limit is applied to the number of proposals which are accepted.6. bidder conferences may be called. and choosing the right seller. applying the evaluation criteria. The more technical the 111 . In some cases. The intention of all solicitation activities is to increase the number of proposals to the procurement item. 9. Price may be a determinant for most items off-the-shelf. but the lowest price may not be sufficient if the item cannot be delivered on time. the project team may advertise their need. Some organizations have lists on prospective sellers that may be used.3 Window Shopping The project team typically will provide some time for proposals to be made by sellers. The process is not always easy. Many proposals have to be balanced between technical approach and price. The time allotted should be defined by the project plan. These are meetings designed to ensure that prospective sellers have a clear.4 Finding the Right Store Source selection provides the methods for receive proposals.Project Management 9.6.

this work is performing by a central department. However. The contracts will be used to ensure that the procurement items are delivered within cost and per the pricing negotiated. the more costly the item. In determining the appropriate seller.Project Management approach. contracts are managed or why. most purchases require some form of contract negotiation. the equipment.6. Contract administration is used in conjunction with other project management processes to cover some of the 112 . and materials in place to successfully execute the project.5 Making the Purchase Contracts sign for the procurement items and now the project team has assurances in place to have the services. For some companies. For large projects. the project team must understand the legal nature of the contractual relationships in place to be acutely aware of the legal implications of the actions taken when administration the contract. multiple sources may be necessary. 9. Making sure that the seller meets the contractual requirements detailed in these documents is the work of contract administration. For critical products. a screening system may be in place to identify the most potential of the proposals while a weighting system attempts to quantify the proposals. the key purpose for contract administration is the management of interfaces between multiple suppliers. In the end.

the supplier may also have a contract close-out procedure that they need to follow. In many cases. Quality control assists in inspecting and verifying the adequacy of the product and services from the contractor. 113 . Nay changes involving the contract are handled through the change control process. Project execution authorizes any work required by outside contractors at the appropriate time in the project. The difference is that this process focuses on the completion of the contract and may consist of specific procedures that handle the legalities that exist. To manage payment schedules requires financial management.6. and technical performance. Working with the supplier in this matter will speed up the effort. To monitor contractor cost. 9. Throughout the process. The intent of the process is obtaining formal acceptance of completion.6 Wrapping It Up Contract close-out is a similar process to administrative closure as it involves product verification and administrative close-out.Project Management requirements of effectively executing a project with contracts. and payment requests are the output expected of the process. the performance reporting process is utilized. contract changes. correspondence. schedule.

Project Management 114 .

The use of templates and historical information will serve to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of the project in numerous processes. 115 . it is advisable to create an infrastructure to assist in managing and collaborating on project as well as to create historical documentation.Project Management 10 Concluding Project Management Project management from the perspective of PMBOK is an extensive and comprehensive set of processes that cover most situations and concerns experienced on a project. slight differences may be found during the execution of the project management disciplines. For specific application areas. Certification of individuals serving as project managers and even those expected to be on project teams is equally desirable. For organizations which expect to handle projects in the long term.

Project Management 116 .

A number of other frameworks are available and some are gaining popularity in the business world: of not is the United Kingdom recognized PRINCE2 (Projects IN Controlled Environments). The eight processes are supported by 45 sub-processes. PRINCE2 creates a framework based on the life cycle of a project.” Six focus on the life cycle while two.” are used throughout the project. There are eight major processes in the framework from “Starting up a Project” to “Closing a Project.. This is comparable to PMBOK's five process areas and 44 processes.Project Management 11 Comparing Project Management Frameworks PMBOK is not the only project management framework though it is an internationally recognized standard. This is a definite departure from the comprehensive PMBOK. PRINCE2 is an open method for projects that are driven by business case rather than customer requirement driven. The method recognizes that project management processes can be found at the project level and the stage (phase) level. “Directing a Project” and “Managing stage Boundaries. Another difference is PRINCE2's focus as implementation methodology rather than the whole project methodology.. The framework does not claim to be complete and focuses on key risk areas only. The actual correlation between the two frameworks is below: 117 .

PMBOK focuses on the foundations of project management. The similarities are: PMBOK Knowledge Areas PRINCE2 Components Integration Management Combined Processes and Components Change Control Scope Management Time Management Cost Management Quality Management 118 Plans Business Case Quality . separating the discipline into nine knowledge areas. PRINCE2 has eight components making up the framework.” There is no notable difference from the “products” of PMBOK.Project Management PMBOK Initiating PRINCE2 Starting Up Directing Managing Stage Boundaries Initiating Planning Managing Stage Boundaries Managing Product Delivery Directing Controlling a Stage Directing Managing Stage Boundaries Planning Executing Controlling Closing PRINCE2 is document heavy with descriptions to 33 standard management “products.

rather than a collection of stakeholders. Ownership and accountability is with the project team and project boards (owners). procurement management is missing. PMBOK can 119 . PRINCE2 has a methodology structure that is easier to implement. benefits are achieved through the use of both. It fits into ISO 9000 Quality Management System and is consistent with SEIs Capability Maturity Model Level 5. PRINCE2 has its strengths. The organization of the project is highly defined with roles and responsibilities clearly laid out.Project Management Configuration Management Risk Management Communication Management Human Resource Management Procurement Management Risk Controls Organization Not covered Two obvious differences are present with PRINCE2. Though differences exist between PMBOK and PRINCE2. That implementation should be done inside the knowledge of PMBOK. It uses Configuration Management as a way to manage assets. Additionally. The process structure is integrated and clear in its flow. even using a certified PMP. Using the key components and techniques from PRINCE2. The assets include the products of the project as well as products (deliverables) from the project.

120 .Project Management be used to add depth to the implementation and for additional techniques. The result is a project management program that addresses the practices of a global community of project managers.

Some of the ideas explored here have solutions found within the cloud environment. a solution can be available at any time in any location on the planet by any person.Project Management 12 Applying Cloud Computing to Project Management 12. Cloud computing solutions exploit a number of distinct technologies. adaptability. With a virtual volume. Especially in terms of web applications. the storage capacity can be increased. especially in Independent Software Environments (IDEs) used for software development. the cloud solution adjusts accordingly. • Virtualization is a technique used to create an abstract rendering of a physical component. partitioned without partitioning the physical drive. The previous pages attempted to show the benefits of project management applied to cloud computing. As use of the application increases or decreases. and reliability to the environment.1 Benefiting from Cloud Computing The benefits of cloud computing fall into quicker implementations and lower costs while providing greater scalability. or merging the volume with other 121 . storage volumes can be virtualized. For instance. The following pages will explore the benefits of cloud computing to project management.

Web 2. however. Often referred to as a technology. and particular notes.0 is a perspective change for how to use the web. the concept is also applicable to any number of solutions where user knowledge is utilized extensively to generate the product that the user is concurrently using. reliability. risks.0 provides a number of options that make web applications just as rich as desktop applications. and resources. Seven benefits are available to project management when adapting cloud computing capabilities: • The ability to interlink distinct components together as a complete whole. The idea ultimately encourages development in production. linking activity with cost. Open source is a concept supporting total collaboration between developer and user. feedback. Many project management solutions already do this to some extent. For instance. with cloud computing the options can be expanded to include historical information. Virtualization allows for increased scalability. Often attributed to application development.Project Management • • storage devices to create a single large volume. 122 . quality. the use of subscription services allow distribution of information to have greater potential and customizable by the stakeholders themselves. and portability to occur. • To support communication specifically with stakeholders requiring performance reports. time. Web 2.

the possibility of an interface that allows each aspect to deliver is highly probable with web applications. With cloud computing. one will see a series of documents in place. basically organized through the URL 123 . Improving the experience of individuals on a project will encourage communication. participation by all parties is possible. A main drive of web applications and cloud computing is improved. by anyone with only a browser and a connection to the Internet. expanded.Project Management • • • • • Many aspects of project management can be present at any given time and with an application. and reused without impact the whole. One of the risks to project management is ensuring that all the right players are involved in the project to ensure that everything that needs to be done on the project has been planned. removed. The capabilities of the web allow portability. nothing is lost between multiple users. a web application can be accessed anywhere. Second. The core tenet of cloud computing is the ability to focus on components as parts of the whole allowing an individual component to be added. 12.2 The Ease of Linking (Hyperlinks) Looking at the construction of the web. and morale. richer user experience. at anytime. productivity. First of all. with the business logic of the application on an Internet server.

Hyperlinks can be used to transform basic pieces of data into rich volumes of information by creating relationships. and with some programming scripts to provide some interest.Project Management hierarchy. building relationships can be expanded to incorporate multiple databases. Most project management solutions handle the basic 124 . information can be made available to the user. the one construct that makes the web the web has always been the ability to hyperlink. each with some level of importance to the users. the person's personal profile and the job description for the position can be connected. By hovering over the link. such as a person's name and their job position. Using the web and hyperlinks. This connection can be presented as links in a single page or the full or partial renderings of the sources can be presented. multiple hyperlinks can be generated on a single page based on relevancy for the users to peruse. In the back end of an application a database is usually found that holds data and created relationships with that basic data. Though all of these components make up an effective website and web application. There are several perspectives that are prevalent in project management. But the perspectives all rely on the need to understand the relationships with different pieces of data. By clinking on a hyperlink. Through searches. Hyperlinks are connections from an original page to a source document. So in addition to a name and a job position. a user can be moved from one page to another with just one click.

options. a replacement contractor can be found quickly if the original supplier is unable to do the job. a construction company can identify and compare the differences between buildings using the same design. By having the activity show all related information pertaining to it. In situations where similar project are performed. historical information. Using the designs as the starting point. Even connections with existing and past projects can be made. schedule. risks.Project Management relationships. The opportunities available are to assist in understanding requirements. For instance by referencing contractors familiar with the design. connections can be made very easily. Some solutions even provide notes for referencing. quality requirements. and unplanned threats to a particular project. and the like can be linked to a single activity. Why make these connections? Each constructed building can have its unique attributes: location. like building a house with similar designs. and resources. features. The greatest aspect of this solution is that the information can exist in multiple databases and separated locations. any document or parts of a document can be referenced allowing risks and risk responses. cost. such as the relationship between activity. Contractual terms. all participants on the project can better understand and manage the work expected. What is linked and to what extent the linkages are made is left only to the imagination of the performing organization. 125 . even contractors can be different. However with hyper linking. procurement proposals and supplier information.

the list includes all the activities of the project. the one that were completed the previous day.3 Subscribing to Success (Blogging) Imagine compiling information into the next status report. Coming into work early. responses to the report start to show up in the next day. Used by a number of columnists.Project Management 12. Since a blog is basically a web page. the format of the report can include anything that a typical web page can include. a blog is a mechanism used to post information. The identity of interested parties was provided by the people themselves when they “subscribed” to the blog. Without any extra effort. on the web. Blogs utilize a subscription web service to ensure that people who want to be informed are. the computer is turned on and waiting for you is a list of all the project activities that are currently being performed. As a project team member. Within minutes. all the responses are compiled for the project team meeting to review and answer. As a project manager. and the ones that are late are highlighted. the list includes only those which are assigned to them or have a dependency 126 . Imagine again that the project is going along nicely. with logic to identify who is interested in the information for a notice to be sent. categorizing it and posting it out to the web. professional and amateur. a notification of the report is sent to every stakeholder interested in the project. The situation just provided is just one of the ways blogs can assist in project management.

The use of RSS in blogging solutions has provided a new platform for gaining information within business. Hyperlinks provided a way to show one way relationships between two items. dependencies within a project can use permalinks to make two way associations possible. they are notified. use “trackbacks” to other links to the page by other others. 127 . thus creating a two-way link. The technology is not attached to the webpage though. but to the link between the user and the web page. link to individual comments on a page. both dependent upon as well as depended for. The mechanism used to compile this information from a project plan is the same used by blogs. users can link to other user’s websites. For project management. Really Simple Syndication (RSS) allow a person to subscribe to a web page so that when it changes. RSS has allowed two way associations to be made. With the permalink feature. In project management. permalinks can provided a variety of associations between items. Aside from blogging. the RSS technology has made another significant contribution: permalinks. At the heart of the blogging feature is the RSS technology. it’s a simple way of keeping stakeholders informed of what is going on with the project.Project Management on. or permanent links. so that the project team can identify the activities and their dependencies. or respond to those other links. A RSS feed allows these links to exist. For instance.

And they are not alone. the information that any person is looking at is typically located in several locations. For the project manager. the source needs to be retrieved and scanned to find the information. the project team members and the stakeholders are looking at similar information. Unfortunately. In order to get the information. the concerns to be watchful of include: • Is the scope of the project intact? What are the current issues impacting scope? • Are we on schedule? What's late? What is about to start? What is about to finish? What issues are impacting the schedule? • Are we in budget? Where are we about to go over? What threats are present impacting project costs? • Who is supposed to be performing activities on the project today? Are all the equipment and materials required available? What issues do we have against resources? • What is the next milestone? How close are we? • When the next meeting? What information needs to be communicated? • What risks are important to monitor today? This is just a sampling of what the project manager is looking at for the day. or the week. Though the focus of the information may be different. the number of items to be monitored and controlled is considerable.4 Interfacing with the Project (Mashups) During project management.Project Management 12. 128 .

the source becomes a component in the list of components available for the user. the information from these multiple sources can be retrieved. but once the information is readable and the criteria is set for how it is read it is ready. 129 . At that point. compiled. The developer can also create relationships between multiple sets of data. like a catalog. one specifically designed by them to meet their information concerns. for instance. To allow mashups to work. the user can determine what information needs to be displayed at any given time.” They are web applications designed to allow the user to customize their web interface to allow multiple sources of information to be presented at the same time. but is combined to show in the user's interface of the project. Each user could have a different interface to the project. Each piece of data is found in different sources.Project Management Using a project management engine as a web application. and presented to the user in a single interface. Some translation may be required to build relationships and associations. With the ability to customize the interface. the application developer simply needs to link the source of the information to the application. mapping the project plans to the risk responses to change requests. The technique used to make this possible is commonly referred to as a “mashups.

And even with project managers. Extreme adversity towards changing behaviors will result in the tool not being used at all. the more likely source of failed projects is forced behavior changes.Project Management 12. Modest adversity often leads to not using it to its fullest capabilities or incorrectly. This characteristic always becomes a problem. communication. Many projects claim to fail because of lack of teamwork. When an individual or group is forced to behave contrary to their nature or experience. concerns with project failure will not come up.5 Everyone is a Project Manager (Open Source) One of the constraints of the tools used for project management is that they are built for use by project managers. Unfortunately. one characteristic starts coming into play: the behaviors of the individual start to change to accommodate the tool. the same characteristic can be found inside a project. Though nothing is wrong in this. it does alienate other people who are not familiar with project management needs and concerns. But when the behaviors of 130 . If the resistance is coming from one or two individuals on a project because they are new to project management. these people are simply involved to provide resources to the project. they are being asked to use these tools. resistance starts to appear. though a risk may be present. Though these reasons are valid. In some cases. and understanding. Though the initial focus is on a project management tool.

it means making the project plan a truly living project. The organization of the project plan is completed by the project manager and reviewed with the project team during a meeting when the plan is distributed. An easy solution to this problem is readily available: encouraged participation in every aspect of the project and the project management tool. How is this done? Starting with the project. And when the plan is complete. dependencies. feedback is provided on specific entries detailing requirements. In many project management situations. but everyone has a say in its construction. what if the project plan is located in a central location that everyone updates. And the trend of open sources has shown that the work is done in far less time than the 131 . This is the traditional method of project planning. the individual contributions to the project plan are made and compiled by the project manager. during. The organization of the plan may be directed by the project manager. Eventually. or questions. Collaboration is controlled and input to the plan before. risks. the probability of failure increases. the collaboration continues with change controls in place. As people update.Project Management the entire team are being asked to change. The philosophy behind this solution is “open sourcing” the project or tool. However. The critical components of the plan are quickly identified and agreed upon by the team. the project plan will be complete and have a richer quality to them than typically available through traditional means. and after is often filtered.

The core of the tool or the project does not change. the performing party notifies the project manager and the two may attempt to find a resolution. some of which were never fully used by the users. By allowing users to input their needs into the project management tool. Traditionally. the risks involved are minimized to the greatest extent. Some people may claim that the old adage “too many cooks in the kitchen.. but the group looking at the problem is still restricted.” but the truth is. Other team members may get involved at the request of the performing party or the project manager. the problem will be resolved faster with a better. The underlining theme behind open sourcing is collaboration at any time for anything..Project Management traditional method because the collaborative component has improved. when a problem arises during the performance of an activity. The theme continues during project execution. In the cloud. everyone has the opportunity to be involved. the application is developed as it’s being used as and at a far less investment than traditionally required. In a collaborative environment. just the behavior changes to match that of the project management team. eventually a tool is available for use by all users. not just project managers. In most cases. Such changes to behavior characteristics within an application required extensive budgets to build and maintain customized applications. The same method can be applied to the project management tool. more creative solution and in project management. in 132 .

Variables set in the components could be changed by the user to allow for further focus on the information retrieved. most prestigious kitchens of the world. This 133 .6 Treating the Project as Parts. at far less cost. It provides the development of a particular product to be completed much quicker. Especially for organizations that perform projects of a similar nature repeatedly. PMBOK even encourages the use of historical information and templates to create the necessary documentation on a project. there are always more than one cook. so some care has to be made to ensure that adoption of historical information is not made blindly. users can identify the parts of the project that they want to be regularly informed. not the Whole (Reuse) With mashups. But every project is unique. or a prototype. The constructs of these components had to be designed and developed. and fewer risks. or application. but the user only wants one or two that suits their needs. different components could be used to create a user interface. such as building a house. The concept of reusing predefined components is prevalent in web design and cloud computing. the concept of reusing project plans is an attractive notion. With blogs and other RSS feeds. 12. but once done could be used by anyone. The number of feeds available may reach the hundreds.Project Management the largest.

requirements. In minutes. a project can be split into components. By having multiple components available. By using links. How does cloud computing support this endeavor. Changes to the component for a specific project can be noted and used as historical data for the next project without changing the core component. the technique is now more scalable. flexible. By breaking projects down into reusable components. and risks defined. Separating a project into its core deliverables. and also the processes of project management. the majority of a project can be created with all the relationships and pertinent information intact. Referring to the relationships is not restricted to the relationships between information. The concept is the same. Thinking of the project as a product. The different 134 . dependencies. using the project as the basis for the application. entire components can be added to a project plan with the click of a mouse. a project team can identify the components that are required for the project and add it. quicker product to market than recreation from scratch. and reliable than traditional methods. the ability to reuse components provides a cheaper. At this time.Project Management does not mean that reuse capabilities cannot be encouraged. These interactions will exist internally to the components as well as the external interactions identified. cloud computing solutions allow business applications to be built in a matter of minutes using components already available. Each component will have its basic relationships.

they could make an update to the project plan on the spot. 12. especially in manufacturing and construction. a user can access a project from any location in the world. So the performing party waits to the end of the day to update the project plan and any related materials. Many tasks. require not being readily accessible to the project plan to update the situation. or project monitoring systems. and executing a project. the performing party is executing on the project several tasks defined by the project at any given times. or risk response system. However if the performing party had a hand held device able to connect to the Internet like a phone. monitoring. portability is automatically provided. like a change control system. Using the web as the basis for building. This is particularly valid when the software used to update the project plan is sitting on the computer at the office. the business logic can stay where it exists. 135 . or performance reporting. Using a browser and a connection to the Internet. In web applications.7 Testing the Limits (Portability) Portability is a great advantage to any endeavor. at any time. workflow. and indicators to be used actively by the project team and stakeholders. Normally these systems are not interrelated. however the presentation layer can show information.Project Management components can include the various tools used by project management. In many situations.

so a company may have several full time project members with a couple of dozen part time members. In cloud computing solutions. So inactive members would not prove to be an additional cost to license for the company. Traditionally. everyone typically has access to a browser allowing them to update the plan as members of the project team. More importantly are the benefits that appear by using a web-based project management. With a cloud solution. the usage is typically monitored and charged. However. 136 . everyone had one full license despite the usage.Project Management The concept of portability is a simple one. the usage of the members can be added up and charged. Many project management programs are very expensive and providing a license to every member of a project management team may not be a cost effective solution. This potentially reduces the administrative work performed by the project manager while also significantly reducing the cost of licensing of the tools. Many project managers have filled the gap by taking status updates from member s and updating the plan themselves.

The supplies and contractors are looking for what needs to be done and when. and the resources of the project. Just looking at executive management for instance. Stakeholders tend to look at the impact o f the project on the operations of the company. Executive management is often interested solely in the success or failure of the project and how the project impacts the strategy of the company. The first sets of perspectives are those by the participants of the project. Each role on the project has a different perspective. Project team members focused on the deliverables and what they need to do make it happen. the schedule. They tend to focus on details related scope and risk with a broad overview of other areas. the CEO may be interested in overall success of the project while the CFO focuses their interest on the financial success and the CIO is focused on the success of the schedule. In the same way that roles can provide different perspectives found on a project. Especially on 137 . many perspectives can be taken. the individual assignments of a person can also control perspective. but their focus tends to stay within the boundaries of control and communication. or interest in the project.Project Management 13 The Perspectives of Project Management When looking at project management. Their focus is on status on the budget. The project manager has concerns in every area.

The work breakdown structure. Historical data is used to assist decision making along with analysis of other sets of information. Meeting the needs of all these perspectives will be a difficult undertaking and highly discouraged. Acknowledging the different perspectives is imperative to successful negotiating the way a project will work. The scope of the project is typically a compilation of inputs from several sources to define. With all this data come the constraints. However. generation. a single individual may be immediately concerned with a single aspect of the project based on their participation. there are three general perspectives that may be useful in identifying or building a project management tool: • Project management as information • Project management as workflow • Project management as people 13. activities.Project Management large projects. expand. or constrict accordingly. organization. cost and schedule estimates are all used to build a proper project plan. Making an attempt to understand the requirements from these perspectives provide useful information for determining the methods used to run a project. 138 .1 A Project as Information Creating a project requires the collection. and distribution of a tremendous amount of information.

Project Management assumptions. How the two tools are connected typically requires a change in one of the tools. while the change control system is using a unique identifier. 139 . the system simple goes to the location of the information and pulls it for view. the connection is made outside of the two tools and displaying the information from both in a single page. In a web solution. When a person retrieves the information. From a web application perspective. as the system makes a note of where it is located. the information does not need to be physically moved to be in the filing system. an entire filing system can be created to retrieve information. a web form could be filled out by a user and several databases could be updated using the information provided. it does not matter where or how the information is stored or managed. T The key is through vitalizing the organization of the information. regulatory requirements that can be applied to individual items on the project plan. Many of the tools used to house the data may not only be in separate locations but be under separate rules for identifying and organization. one of the greatest feats for a project is organization that information in such a way that any particular piece of information is readily found and available. A project generates a lot of information. risks. One financial tool may focus on account codes as the basis for querying. Because of its digital nature. Through virtualization. In addition.

resource management. Specifically. Risk management and project execution are working simultaneously. The effort handling the risk has just gone through three processes. and close which describes the phases and the work done inside the phases. some control and monitoring needs to be in effect until the overall change is approved. The high level flow of work is initiate. plan. a workaround may be performed.Project Management 13. Particularly during the execute and control phases. The risk needs to be evaluated and quantified. Each of these areas will undertake their processes to determine the impact and change the project appropriately. control. quality management. execute. for instance risk management. a response is created. At this point. cost management. and the like. The example used above shows the flow of work through nearly half of the 44 processes of PMBOK the actual time it took to execute all these processes could be a couple of 140 . After the risk is quantified. the impact of the risk and its response now has been routed through the appropriate aspects of the project: scope management. any number of processes may be initiated. At the same time. As the risk response goes through these knowledge areas. Once approved. an activity identifies a potential risk during its execution. requiring the use of the change control processes. the change is executed and the project continues.2 A Project as Workflow A project is a series of processes that are used and reused. The response itself has forced a change to the project. time management.

The project manager with the information available identifies the risk. Execute one activity which initiates the next. an activity will initiate two or more additional activities. schedule. The change request is now sent back to the performing a party or another party based on the nature of the response to have the change executed. the project manager sends the risk response to the appropriate stakeholders to obtain feedback on impact to cost. Once the stakeholders finish their evaluation. Sometimes 141 . resources. Project management is simply a series of workflows to handle different situations. the change control system is updated with approvals. The execution of the project even has a workflow element rendered by the dependencies of the project activities. The example above showed the flow through the processes. and the like. they may notify all the stakeholders of the problem. and creates a response. At the same time. Sometimes. Another workflow perspective is the flow of work through roles. For each process as a set of roles and responsibilities. Sometimes multiple activities need to be completed before a particular activity is initiate.Project Management days a maybe just a few minutes depending on the problem and its impact. Same situation: a risk is found by an executing party. Each activity may have a different performing party required to execute. quantifies. communicated to the project manager and a workaround initiated by the executing party. When the work is done. or send the information to an “expert” to do that work. which initiates the next until all the activities are completed.

In the end. and processes available for identifying what to do and how to do it.3 A Project as People Despite all the plans. notifications. 13. the experience becomes a richer. and control workflows present on the project. Web-based solutions allow people to tap into the project. having a handling on managing the work through multiple workflows is essential. The same solutions allow for the project to tap into the people. Web-based project management is one way to identify. manage. Tapping into people is essential for the success of a project. each other. the initiation of work can provide the necessary updates. techniques. and themselves. more exciting adventure for 142 . the work is still executed by people. and supporting documentation required by project management. Through connecting multiple systems together as well as predefining interested parties.Project Management the performing party may be an individual or a group of individuals. the results are still dependent on people. Controlling and monitoring the work through the project is one of the primary responsibilities of the project manager and in many cases. record generations. A project is a myriad of possible workflows. reports. Though there are a number of tools. and triggers to move the work as well as track it.

Project Management collaboration and excellence. reliability. the use of a web solution for project management allows for greater productivity. Whatever the methods. and greater gains because of the potential growth of the project team and associated stakeholder. 143 .

Project Management 144 .

to planning the costs. procurement. resources. The processes are viewed in two ways: as process areas or knowledge areas. project scope. The processes are iterative requiring their use several times during the project. to controlling that the plan is executed properly and handling any disruptions. Five processes areas acknowledge the life cycle flow of projects from the initial creation of the project. They are also integrated with relationships found across the entire spectrum. The nine knowledge areas focus on the disciplines of project management: project integration. PMBOK makes the complex issues of project management easier.Project Management 14 Summarizing Management Project Project management based on PMBOK is a disciplined approach to manage project: temporary endeavors focused on producing a new and unique product of service. project closure. risk. to executing the plan. and project management of cost. expanding and changing those solutions provides greater control over the business 145 . The PMBOK identifies 44 processes essential to project management success. the use of project management it creating. time. to finally closing the project due to completion or failure. schedules. staff. and quality. and risks of the project. communications. For cloud computing solutions.

PMBOK works well with agile methods. the same solutions can serve to benefit project management. project management is compatible with other standard that may already be in place for any solution providers. 146 .Project Management concerns of using these solutions. For application development. While project management can aid web-based solutions. PMBOK works well with ITIL. better communication. For IT infrastructures. Luckily. The different technologies and features allow better organization of information. and greater understanding of the project at any given time.

Lawrence.pdf Johnson.pragmatic-solutions.Project Management 15 References Cooper. Kenneth A.pdf Gammon. 1996: PMI. Ronald J. http://images. What is the PMBOK and What Can It Do For Me? Osmose Utilities Services.globalknowledge. William R.gisdevelopment. Implementing ITIL using the PMBOK Guide in Four Repeatable Steps.com/attachments/2006WhitePaper-PMBOK. http://www. A Guide to the Project Management Body or Knowledge. http://www. 2006: Contact to ContRact.pdf McVearry.promsg. Dr.unipi. Pragmatic! Solutions.pdf Duncan.net/proceedings/gita/2005/pape rs/43. PMBOK – Making it Work. http://www.gr/akad_tmhm/biom_dioik_tech/files/pmbo k.bcs. Matt. http://www.com/wwwimages/whitepaper pdf/WP_Cooper_PM_ITIL. Peter.org/histevents/pdfs/psg0503%20-%20PMBOK. Fostering a Good Project Environment through Your Project's Culture and Communications – Its 147 . 2006: Global Knowledge. PMBOK Approach Insights for Software Development Projects.pdf Wojcik.

http://www.pdf Koch. Lawrence.org/documents/meetings/presenta tions/AgileManifesto-PMBOK. Sonja.ittoolbox. Are Agile Methods Compatible with the PMBOK? January 6. 2004: Pittsburgh Project Management Institute.org/presentations/Your%20Project's%20Cultur e%20and%20CommunicationsIts%20Critical%20Components%20for%20Success_r2.org/files/presentations/presentation2008 08Chantilly.pdf Cooper.com/GT120505. Will Agile Development Change The Way We Manage Software Projects? 2003: Projectway. ITIL V3 and the PMBOK – Distinct but Complementary.assistpoint.globalknowledge.pdf Udo.Project Management Critical Components for Success.com/paper_agilevspmbok. http://hosteddocs. CSC. Complimentary Relationship Between ITIL and PMBOK. http://www. LLC. 2008: Global Knowledge. Linda.pmiwdc. Alan S.pdf Blend Approach of IT Service Management and PMBOK for Application Support Project. http://images.pittsburghpmi. Nathalie and Koppensteiner. http://pmiwic.pdf Budiman. http://www.pdf 148 .com/wwwimages/whitepaper pdf/WP_Cooper_ITILV3PMBOK_Q21.

com/Resources/documents/AgileProject Management. pdf Wideman. 2002: AEW Services.org/wiki/Project_Management_Institute Wikipedia. http://en. Jay M.pmiwestchester.maxwideman. Agile Project Management.wikipedia.ccpace.com/papers/comparing/comparing. Project Management Institute (PMI).com/resources/articles/agileProces s.objectmentor. Max. R. Comparing PRINCE2 with PMBoK.org/downloads/Prince2PMBOK.pdf ccpace. How PRINCE2 Can Complement PMBOK and Your PMP. http://www. http://www. http://en. http://www. Project Management Professional. pdf Wikipedia. 2004: PMI/Westchester Chapter.Project Management Agile Processes.wikipedia.pdf Siegeluab.org/wiki/Project_Management_Professio nal 149 . January 8. http://www.

102. 71 activity sequencing 30. 65. 121. 78 assets 119 assignments 88-90. 133 board 7 browser 123. 69-71. 71. 54. 11. 132-4 application areas 39-40. 97 ANSI (American National Standards Institute) 13 application 16. 108 authorizations 46 B bar charts 73 blogging 4. 67. 126-7 blogs 126-7. 129. 61. 85 trend 86. 123-4. 61-2. 38. 21. 82 earned value 97 mathematical 72-3. 67 ADM (arrow diagramming method) 67 agendas 58 Agile Project Management 149 agreement 19. 137 assumptions 43-5. disciplined 8. 52. 44-5. 115 Applying Cost 4. 128. 133. 74. 135. 52 American National Standards Institute (ANSI) 13 analysis benefit/cost 53. 33. 61-2. 105. 41. 64. 87. 78. 137 budget cost 98 building 67. 104 activity list 63-5. 135-6 budget 10. 68-9. 68-70 activity duration estimates 70-2. 138 150 . 63. 109. 79-80. 105 activities next 65-6 non-project 65 activity definition 38. 57. 47. 58. 145 arrow diagramming method (ADM) 67 assessment 42. 132. 34-5. 94. 62. 86-7. 38. 101. 63 activity duration 30. 106. 125. 97-9.Project Management INDEX* A acceptance 56-8. 77 approach. 38.

34. 51. 141 changes. 90-1 business operations 17. 135. 27. 135 business managers 16. 73. 140 change control system 48-9. 129. 93. 145 collaboration 131-2 commitment 24-5. 131. 123 power 63 CAPM (Certified Associate in Project Management) 15 Certified Associate in Project Management (CAPM) 15 certified PMP training 16 certified project management training 16 change control 10. 60. 29. 26-7. 19. 48-50. 98. 112. 39. 9. 122. 24.Project Management business 7. 98-9. scheduled 95 communication plan 96. 133-4 Computing to Project Management 121 concept 14. potential 59-60 chute 103 class 66-7 Closing a Project 117 closure. 43. effective 94. 123. 96 companies 2. 49-52. 113 cloud computing 4. administrative 34. 7. 37. 133-4. 34. 110. 70 common work period 68 communication. 98. 26. 136. 141 change requests 47-9. 109 business logic 123. 41. 118. 77. 131 change control process 49. 50. 89-90. 80. 41 business work 89 business world 87. 84. 74. 109 [2] business decision 78. 59. 117 C calendars 71 capabilities 69. 94. 58. 71. 11. 15-16. 139. 923. 136 151 . 52-4. 44. 19. 145 compliance 22. 97. 43. 133 benefits of 121 cloud computing solutions 134. 75. 136-7 companies work 8 Comparing Project 117 completion 55-6. 98 communication skills. 62. 95-6. 113. 33. 16-17. 22. 81. 123-4. 88 components 12. 121. 9-11. 129. 104. 75. 92. 113.

33. 121 lowest 78 managing 79 measure 75 operational 75 cost baseline 79-80 cost budgeting 38. 138 resource 73 construction 13. 113. 123. 69. 109 contributions 91. 80 Cooper 147-8 coordination 37. 38. 47-9 Controlling Cost 4. 107. 78.Project Management Concluding Project 115 connections 4. 40 core processes 29. 55-6. 131. 123-5. 94. 139 constraints 40. 91. 98 correctness 55. 137 contractual agreements 89. 135. 57. 72. 112 Contract Close-out 34-5 contractors 69. 89-90. 60-1. 97. 75. 26. 98. 85-6. 127. 27. 43-5. 71-3. 130. 106. 45. 71. 60. 44. 79 increased 73. 59-60. 39. 136. 34. 31. 37 core project team 17 corrective actions 46. 50. 109 likely 79 lower 82. 107-10. 109-10. 49. 64. 105-6. 108. 131 control changes 34 control charts 85-6 control product scope 60 control workflows 142 Controlling 3. 75 cost 8-9. 118. 75 indirect 97. 112-13 contract administration 39. 135 contingency plans 105-6 contract 11. 39. 54. 142 controlling change 3. 101. 79 cost change control system 80 152 . 32-3. 33-4. 47. 74. 52. 145 [10] associated 100 budgeted 97 direct 109 estimated 97 estimating 54. 96. 125. 62. 77-80.

Project Management cost cost cost cost cost controls 38. 25. 73 time scale network 73 differences 8. 137 departments 16. 117-19. 27. 115. 67. 118 153 . 126-7. 47. 42. 50. 29. 110. 68. 40. 24. 97. 125 Directing a Project 117 direction 17. 107 D databases. 87. 85 deliverables 14. 21. 122. 118 designations 2 development 23. 97. 20. 95. 64-7. 63. 81. 74. 58-9 disciplines 8. 39. 71. 75 estimates 79-80. 37. units of 79 customize 129 CV (cost variance) 98 cycles 34. 141 discretionary 64-5 descriptions 51-2. 52. 101-2. 119. 12. 56-7. 134. 37. 82-3. 47. operational 83-5 degree 16. 34. 133 diagrams 67. 106. 83 pareto 85-6 project network 65. 112 electrical engineering 42 dependencies 29. 131. 96. 105-6. 78 limitations 46 management 75. 42-4. 53. 99. 111 Critical Path Method (CPM) 72 Cultures 20-1 currency. 77. 85. 67. 26. 41. 53-5. 62-3. 104 estimation 75. 113. 77. 25. 85. 140 Project 38 cost performance index (CPI) 98 cost reserve 79 cost resources 75 cost variance (CV) 98 CPI (cost performance index) 98 CPM (Critical Path Method) 72 crashing 72-3 creation 23. 62-3 definitions. forecast project completion 98 decomposition 54-5. multiple 124-5 date.

32. 46-7. 94-5. 85-6 forecast project cost 98 forecasting information 86 formal acceptance 31. 26-7. 103 finish 65-6. 130. 102. 19. 102. 134-5 entities 2. 74 E effectiveness. 37. 104 evaluation criteria 110-11 events 41. 85. 39-40. 123. 140-1 execution 14. 17. 44. 62. 128 flow 25. 78-9. 142 unique non-overlapping professional project management extent 33. 15. 82. 42-3.Project Management disciplines of project management 13. 86. 64. 58. 107. 113 aid project management 20 endeavor 29. 115. 112. 41. 77-8. 72. 115. 83. 59. 68-9. 73-4. 42. 33. 105. 55. contact hours of 16 format 56. 119. 44. 54. 24. 20. measurement project 43 effort 11. 98-9 formal PMI. 29-30. 74. 107. 97. 99-100.org/wiki/Project 149 equipment 27. 121 en. 122. 78. 128 estimates 9. 100. 112. 88. 105. 56. 25. 145 document project assumptions 43 duration 68-71. 107 72 16 154 . 69-71. 104 execute 17. 37. 81. 30. 140-1 flowcharting 83. 59. 125 External risks 100 F factors 21. 58 experience 4. 140-1 expectations 8. 39. 117-18 Framing Project 37 FRAMING PROJECT MANAGEMENT 3 G GERT (Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique) Global Knowledge 147-8 goal 7. 56. 109. 14. 46. 29. 47. 40. 23.wikipedia. 69. 52. 126 framework 40. 81 environment 8. 91. 100 Good Project Environment 147 goods 39.

119-20 improvements 8. 94. 69. 61. 29-34. 96. 122. 34. 87-8. 108. 46. 77-9. 125. 54. 62. 93-7. 32. 38. 43. 115. 142 grouping 3. 83-4. 13. 142 information 2. 88. 138-9. 27. 45. 89-90 hyperlinks 4. 32. 127 I identifier 56 IFBs (Invitation for Bid) 110 impacting project costs 128 implementation 10. 130. 54. 123-4. 23-5. 21. 51. 87. 85. 133 hours 16. 20. 104. 123. 92. 1249. 25 guidance 17 guide 13. 42. 132. 19. 23. 122 155 . 115. 101. 70. 98 individuals 15. 130. 147 guide project execution 43 H High School 15-16 historical information 43. 17. 25. 5. 58. 68 human resources 30. 58.Project Management grade 81 Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique (GERT) 72 group 15. 27. 93. 133-5. 141 [7] accessing 95 compiling 126 disseminate 34 distribute 97 financial 78 performance 33 pertinent 134 post 126 project progress 47 retrieve 139 right 96 sending 96 sharing 96 statistical 43 storing 95 supplier 125 transfer 95 information aiding 51 information distribution 94. 41. 91-2.

40 intentions 2. 99-100. 87. 13. 101-2. 100. 46. 131. 61. 40. 102 management 9. 74. 55-6. 39-40. 111. 119. 102. 104 M magnitude 60. 129. 134 list 53. 121. Project 37 Integration Product 3. 67. 81. 37. 117 lifecycle 23 limited resources 58. 118. 88. 149 configuration 48-9. 128. 87. 110-12. 63. 61 links 93. 49. 92. professional project 15 156 . 112. 129 location 65. 135. 54. 145. 127-8. 126. 115. 111 interact 40. 145 L Lawrence 147-8 liability 2 license 136 life cycle 25. 107. 48. 123. 139 logical relationships 66-7 loss 2. 112. 85 insurance 106 Integration Management. 63-4. 86. 103 interfaces 88-9. 37. 127. 37. 119 executive 17. 17. 135 Invitation for Bid (IFBs) 110 items 14. 147 knowledge areas 37-40. 137 Project Communications 38 management cost 74 manager. 82. 148 J job position 124 K knowledge 8-9. 61. 16. 39. 73. 139 defined work 63 ITIL 146. 124. 89. 125. 140. 44.Project Management information distribution system 96 information retrieval system 96 inspection 57-8. 129 Internet 123. young 7 managers.

134. 139 parties 21. expected 104-6 money 11. 94. 115. 39. 97. 52. 16. 82. 89. 133 meeting 7. 134 minutes 68-9. 15. 19-22. 132. 49. 91. 43. 77. 7. 92. 111. 19. 128-9. 104 monitor contractor cost 113 monitor cost performance 80 monitor project results 34 Most project management scheduling programs 69 Most project management software packages 65 Most project management solutions 124 N network logic 72 sequential 72 O operational state 41 operations 8. 59-61. 17. 91. 141-2 executing 141 performing 132. 19. 39-40. 138-9 [1] performing 19. 93. 125 organizational planning 30. 96. 27. 141 misinformation 47 mitigation 105 model 79 modules 66-7 monetary value. 127-8. 126. 43-4. 137 organization 3. 12. 38. 96-7. 109. 67 performance 39. 138 meeting project objectives 46 members 11. 41. 100. 157 . 87-9 P pages.Project Management Managing Stage Boundaries 118 mashups 4. 136 time project 136 methods. 131. 124. 15. 131. single 124. 80. 33. 135. 88-9. 103. 126. 104. 107-9. 82. traditional 131-2. 133. 128. 113. 123. 78. 54. 11. 42. 68-70. 121. 111. 93-4. 141-2 payments 109 pdf 147-9 PDM 65. 135 permalinks 127 person 2. 39. 119. 98. 87.

86. 131 problem 10. 46 portability 5. 31. 118-19. 101-2. 149 PMIS (Project Management Information System) 44. 101 PMBOK 3. 107-9 product 2. 140. 115. 110. 19. 81. 32-3. 108. 29. 139 right 91 perspectives 62-3. 52. 45 planning processes 42-3. 41.Project Management 137. 133-4 [5] expected 51 158 . 145 planning phase 25. 137-8 workflow 141 Perspectives of Project Management 137 PERSPECTIVES of PROJECT MANAGEMENT 5 PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique) 72 phases 25. 99. 69. 17. 16. 115. 23-4. 31. 108-9. 92. 108-11. 74-5. 104-6. 15. 141 process group 24-5. 49 PMP (Project Management Professional) 15-16. 7-9. 85. 46. 145 procurement documents 110 procurement items 110-12 procurement management 119 Project 39 procurement planning 39. 149 policies. 105. 149 probability 71-2. 124. 55-6. 117. 99101. 147. 47. 82. organizational 43. 41-2. 77. 112-13. 32. 122-3. 49. 29. 135-6 potential risk events 101-4 power 63 preassignment 91 price 110-11 fixed 109 pricing 78. 37. 133. 140 project of 24. 100. 39. 60. 58. 145-9 PMBOK Approach Insights for Software Development Projects 147 PMBOK Guide 13. 51-3. 27. 99. 80. 117-19. 33 processes. 118. 13. 37 procure 31. 50. 52 Pittsburgh Project Management Institute 148 planning 3. 22-4. 44. 112 PRINCE2 117-19. 80-6. facilitating 29-31. 108-9 procurement 91. 29. 147 PMBOK Guide breaks project management 13 PMBOK quality management 80 PMI (Project Management Institute) 13. 66. 83. 57-9. 130-2.

123. 75 failed 10. 109 engineering 40. 130 large 63. 143 Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) 72 project application 77 breaking 134 complex 92 construction 65. 65. 141 completing 75 project alternatives 53 Project-based organizations 20 project boards 119 project budget 34 project charter 52 project closure 145 project components 41 project constrains 44 project control 42 project cost estimate 78 project cost estimation 78 project cost management 74-5 project costs 75. 105 project cycle 37 project decisions 52 159 . 126. 138 living 131 lower risk 15 managing 11. 15. 71-2. 112. 39 multiple 20 quality management disciplines complement PMBOK 81 selecting 51 specialized 13 support 89 way 13 project activities 41. 77. 92. 79.Project Management interim 59 quicker 134 unique 145 well-defined 109 product names 2 product-oriented processes 24 product scope 48 product verification 113 productivity 82. 97.

Project Management

project deliverables 29, 45-6, 53-4, 61, 98 project details 50 project documents 99 project durations 72-3 project elements 40, 55, 62 project execution 42, 46, 113, 132, 140 project failures 9-10, 130 project information 43 project initiation 52 project integration 145 Project Integration Management 40 project interfaces 88-9 project level 117 project life cycle 24-5 project management 3-23, 25-33, 35-57, 59-67, 69-71, 73-80, 825, 87-93, 95-100, 102-4, 106, 108-9, 114-24, 126-8, 130-8, 140-7 [1] benefit 146 certified 26 understanding 27 web-based 136, 142 138 project management accreditation 11 Project Management Agile Processes 149 project management aid 101 project management application areas 58 project management approach 68, 112 project management assumptions 139 Project Management Body 147 Project Management Book of Knowledge 13 project management collaboration 143 Project Management Copyright 2 Project Management Critical Components for Success 148 project management days 141 Project Management Deming 81 project management distribution 39 project management engine 129 Project Management Facilitating processes 34 PROJECT MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORKS 4, 117 project management information 86 Project Management Information System (PMIS) 44, 47, 49 Project Management Information System, adopted 44 project management information systems 47, 49 Project Management Institute, see PMI

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Project Management

project management interact 40 project management item 110 project management model 93 project management opportunity 105 project management perspective 100 project management processes 3, 24-5, 29, 108, 112, 117 Project Management Professional (PMP) 15-16, 149 project management programs 120, 136 Project Management Project communication management 94 project management relationships 125 project management requirements 113 Project Management Risk response control executes 107 Project Management Scheduling 72 project management situations 131 project management software packages 66, 73 project management solutions 122 project management success 24, 145 Project Management TABLE of CONTENTS 3 project management team 16, 89, 132, 136 project management tool 130-2, 138 Project Management Using 129 Project Management.pdf 149 project managers 3-4, 11, 13, 15-17, 19-22, 25, 32, 40, 42-3, 467, 70-1, 90-1, 128, 130-2, 136-7, 141-2 [8] project member 101 project methodology 117 project monitoring systems 135 project objectives 25, 64 project organization 105, 108 project outcomes 31 project performance 31-2, 60 project perspective 49, 63, 101 project phases 25, 34, 37, 52, 98 project plan 3, 38, 40-50, 54, 57, 61-2, 91-2, 97, 111, 127, 129, 131, 134-5, 138-9 final 42, 46 project plan development 37 project plan execution 37 project plan execution process 46 project planners 33 project planning 10, 29, 33, 44, 131 project practices 83 project processes 41 project processes focus 23

161

Project Management

Project Quality Assurance 84 project quality management 80-1 project requirements 90-1 project resources 94 project results 56, 84-5, 98 project risk 101 project risk management 99-100 project roles 30, 89 assigning 88 project schedule 30, 34, 72-4, 80 project scope 3, 31, 34, 48, 50, 56, 145 changing 72 project scope definition 54, 89 project scope management 38, 81 project scope planning 52 project staff 91-2 project staffing, expected 95 project stakeholders 32 project success 95, 99 project tasks 16, 24 project team 17, 19-20, 31-2, 47-8, 61, 63-5, 68-71, 74, 77-8, 812, 84-7, 89-91, 99-101, 104, 111-12, 134-6 [11] project team meeting 126 project team members 47, 50, 69, 77, 90, 126, 128, 137 project team uses 78 project time management 61 project timelines 10 project value 97 project variances 49 project work 57, 94 assigned 42 bulk of 29, 31 projects activities 67 projects claim 130 Project's Culture and Communications 147 project's existence 52 project's performance 32 projects stem, effective 26 Projectway 148 publisher 2 Q quality 4, 8, 48, 59-60, 75, 81-4, 87, 101, 118, 122, 131, 145 quality control 38, 57, 84-6, 113

162

formal 48 rework 73. 141 Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) 89 reusing project plans 133 review. 106-7 risk identification 39. 107 risk management 100. 77 resource pool descriptions 71. 31. 143 Request for Proposal (RFP) 110 Request for Quotation (RFQ) 110 resistance 130 resource cost 30 resource estimates 56 resource leveling 73 resource limitations 72 resource management human 87. 129. 103. 82-3 quality policy 82 quality standards. 140 Project 38 quality management activities 82 quality management plan 84-5 Quality Management System 119 quality planning 38. relevant 30. 54. 119 Project Human 38 resource planning 38. 81. 45. 88-9. 24. 99-100 [9] responses 21. 75. 65-6. 84 R RAM (Responsibility Assignment Matrix) 89 Really Simple Syndication. 41. 80. 105-7. 145 reporting 88. 77-8 resources 4. 124-5. 74. 77 resource requirements 30. 32. 87-90. 102. 44. 92 reliability 103. 58.Project Management quality control process 83. 8. 100. 30. see RSS relationships 32. 119. 126. 94. 119. 82. 134. 43. 86 RFP (Request for Proposal) 110 RFQ (Request for Quotation) 110 risk events 102-4. 140 Project 39 risk management plan 106-7 163 . 60. 54. 140-1 responsibilities 21. 17. 121-2. 77-80. 27. 44. 85 quality management 42. 118. 14. 33-4. 71. 30. 75. 82.

128. 44. 109. 95. 133 RSS technology 127 S sampling. 59 scope change control system 60 scope changes 59-60 scope management 74. 29. 34-5. 41-2. 58-60. 14. 101. 62. 97-8. 80. 44-5. 10. 74. 74 schedule development 38. 31. 103. 139-41. 106. 100-1. 125. 17. 140 scope management plan 59-60 Scope Management Time Management Cost Management 118 scope planning 38 164 .Project Management risk quantification 39. 47-8. 145 [3] covered 106 handling 106 high 104 increased 73 low 104 potential 83. statistical 85-6 schedule 3. 137 [4] preliminary 73 schedule change control system 74 schedule control 38. 140 required staff Key 45 sources of 101-4 understanding 100 risks event 102 roof 64 RSS (Really Simple Syndication) 127. 38. 122-3. 86 scope 8. 65. 87. 61. 69. 100. 50-6. 39. 71-4. 33. 48. 61-2 schedule estimates 138 schedule performance 85-6 schedule performance index (SPI) 98 schedule variance (SV) 98 scheduling 3. 129. 137-8 [2] changing 59-60 project's 59 scope change control 38. 100. 62. 71-2. 103 risks 4. 86-7. 99-107. 24-5. 125. 130-4. 140-1 risk symptoms 101. 48. 29. 50. 103-4 risk quantification process 104-5 risk responses 106. 34.

96. 46. 125. 32. 22. 107. 108 scope verification 38. 42. 128. 73. 145 new 7-8 product of 78 simulation 70. 90. 98. 95 organizational 88-9 subnets 67 Successful project management 19 Summarizing Project 145 supplier 113. 24. 82-3. 125 SV (schedule variance) 98 systems 20. 108 Software Development Projects 65 software package 66-7 Software Projects 148 solicitation planning 39. 11213. 107-8 solutions 121-2. 48. 55. 45. 96. 47. 82. 46. 128-9. 7-8. 34. 62. 80. 19-22. 74. 22. 17. 80. 78. 101. 92-3. open 131-2 SPI (schedule performance index) 98 staff 90-1. 89. 145-7 web-based 142. 107-10. 27. 83. 17. 30. 124. 71. 146 sources 84. 131. 101-4. 15. 56-7 scope verification process 56-8 sellers 2. 139 T tap 142 tasks 14-15. 62. 59-60. 102. 42-4. 135 team 14. 39. 56-7. 68 Service Management and PMBOK for Application Support Project 148 services 2. project management Scope 45 structure 88. 131 165 .Project Management scope statement 29. 77. 64. 110-12 prospective 110-11 sequence 65. 17. 80-1 start 7. 47-9. 56-8. 87-8. 129 sourcing. 66. 92-3. 122. 40. 17. 53. 102. 32. 145 stakeholders 9. 135. 104 skills 8-10. 51-3. 78. 130 Starting up a Project 117 statement. 52-4. 138 multiple 112. 91-3. 81-2. 44. 142. 141 [8] standards 13. 21. 945. 126-8. 42. 75. 105. 22-3. 73.

146 new 59. 95. 77-8. 91-2. 63. 44. 20-1. 135 web page 126-7 Wikipedia 149 work 7-8. 142 trademarks 2 U unit price contracts 109 updates 25. 132 teamwork 130 technologies 50. 96-7. 70. 54. 74-5. 126. 60. 50-1. 103. 85. 97-8. 54-7. 68. 105. 60-1 W walls 9. 124. 64 WBS (Work Breakdown Structure) 14. 139 [1] Total Quality Management (TQM) 81 TQM (Total Quality Management) 81 track 33. 135 web applications 121-4. 68-70. 131. 64. 122. 135-6. 135-6. 87. 133 network 67 tepaper pdf/WP 147-8 theme 132 threats 31. 95. 49. 49. 138 166 . 109-10. 74. 49. 70. 46-8. 80. 62-3. 67-8. 74-5. 132-3. 130-2. 127. 37-8. 62. 112-13. 67. 45. 101. 138 web 7. 74. 105. 122-4. 103-4 templates 54. 127. 62-3. 101. 140 Project 38 tolerances 104 tools 8. 139 uses project characteristics 79 V variances 32-3. 89. 20. 135. 23. 129. 140-2 [15] work authorization system 46 work breakdown structure 14. 52. 115. 34. 129. 128 time management 62. 84-5. 14. 74.Project Management team development 38. 24. 101. 142 usage 136 users 122. 101. 59-60. 92-3 matrix organizations 91 team development service 91 team members 46-7. 47.

26 workplace 11. 138.Project Management complete 55 objectives 45 Work Breakdown Structure. 135. 140-2 multiple 142 workforce 17. see WBS work element 56 work packages 56 workarounds 107. 140-1 workflow element 141 workflows 5. 22 167 .

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