PMBOK Quick Implementation Guide:
Standard Introduction, Tips for Successful PMBOK Managed Projects, FAQs, Mapping Responsibilities, Terms and Definitions

Notice of Rights: Copyright © Daniel Lawson. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Notice of Liability: The information in this book is distributed on an “As Is” basis without warranty. While every precaution has been taken in the preparation of the book, neither the author nor the publisher shall have any liability to any person or entity with respect to any loss or damage caused or alleged to be caused directly or indirectly by the instructions contained in this book or by the products described in it. Trademarks: Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this book, and the publisher was aware of a trademark claim, the designations appear as requested by the owner of the trademark. All other product names and services identified throughout this book are used in editorial fashion only and for the benefit of such companies with no intention of infringement of the trademark. No such use, or the use of any trade name, is intended to convey endorsement or other affiliation with this book. ITIL® is a Registered Community Trade Mark of OGC (Office of Government Commerce, London, UK), and is Registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

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..3 8 INITIATING THE PROJECT ............................... 62 8...................3 Hard-Boiled or Soft-Boiled.......................................................................................... 34 PLANNING THE PROJECT ... 37 8....................... 29 FRAMING PROJECT MANAGEMENT ..2 PUTTING A STAKE IN THE GROUND – PROJECT SCOPE .......................... 7 A WORLD WITHOUT PROJECT MANAGEMENT ...Project Management TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 2 3 4 INTRODUCTION .1 Igniting the Project .........4 Scheduling.....................................3.... 64 8.....................2 Creating the Stake ....................3..............5 Fending Off the Claim Jumpers .................................... 46 8...................................2 7....2 Which Came First.....................................3...........................................................................2.................. 23 6.......... 7 1............ 31 MONITORING AND CONTROLLING THE PROJECT .......... 56 8..................2............................................... 47 8............................... 52 8.............................1..................1 WHAT IS PROJECT MANAGEMENT? ...........2.... 26 EXECUTING THE PROJECT .....3 Defining the Boundary Limits ......................................... 50 8.......1 Defining the Activity ........................ 61 8....................................1 Developing the Project Plan ... the Chicken Or the Egg............................................................... 58 8................ 32 CLOSING THE PROJECT ....... 40 8.1 7 7.............................. 42 8........................................ 13 ADDING THE PROJECT MANAGER TO THE MIX .......................1...................2 Executing the Project Plan ................................................................................................3....... 68 8........................................... 53 8.................... 9 INTRODUCING PMBOK........3 CONQUERING TIME ........................................................... 15 5 MANAGING THE CLIMATE OF A PROJECT FOCUSED ORGANIZATION............ 19 6 GROUPING THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT PROCESSES TOGETHER........2..1..........................1 7..................................................... 50 8...2...3 Controlling Change to the Project Plan ..... 71 3 ............................4 Announcing the Claim.........1 THE PROJECT PLAN AS AN INTEGRATION PRODUCT .....................

.....5 Controlling the Schedule ......................................................2 Extreme Sports or Golf?.............................................3..................4 BANKING ON IT .................................... 77 9...... 80 9.................... 98 9............3 Window Shopping ..............................4 Ending the Connection ...4 OPENING UP THE LINES OF COMMUNICATION ......... 93 9................1 Creating a Shopping List..........................3 Quality is Controlled .............1 The More Risk........4...5..........................2..............1 Applying Cost...................... 74 8.................. 100 9.......2 MANAGING THE RIGHT STUFF .........4 Taking the Jump ..........5 Making the Purchase ..1 12.................. 115 COMPARING PROJECT MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORKS.........4............ 117 APPLYING CLOUD COMPUTING TO PROJECT MANAGEMENT 121 12...2 Budgeting the Project .......................................................6..........................2.......................................1 Laying the Infrastructure .......3 Controlling Cost ..............3 Be Prepared ............3.............. 111 9...................Project Management 8..2 Finding the Right People................................ 91 9....6......... 77 9........... 113 10 11 12 CONCLUDING PROJECT MANAGEMENT ......................... 110 9.....6.3 Developing Team .......... 96 9........ 90 9.................... 84 9............................. 111 9. 99 9................................................................ 123 4 .............6 GOING SHOPPING .................................................................................. 103 9.................................................. 112 9.............................. 81 9.........................................1.................... 105 9.............................................................. 84 9................... 80 9................................................................ 87 9.........4..3.....6...............5. 108 9.....................5.............. 121 THE EASE OF LINKING (HYPERLINKS)..........................................4.....2 Quality is Watched .......................... 88 9...3 Cleaning Up Static........... 79 9..2 BENEFITING FROM CLOUD COMPUTING ................ 96 9..............................1......6..........2 Making the Connection ............................2...1..............................5...........................1 Quality is Planned ......................................................... 106 9........................................................... 107 9.. the Better the Experience ....4 Finding the Right Store ..3...................3 WORKING WITH PEOPLE ..................... 94 9...................6 Wrapping It Up ..........1 Working Together..................................................2 Walking the Mall ........................... 74 9 LEANING ON RESOURCES ...6.......5 BASE JUMPING A PROJECT...........

......... 135 A PROJECT AS INFORMATION . 142 THE PERSPECTIVES OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT ....................................... 137 SUMMARIZING PROJECT MANAGEMENT ........... 138 A PROJECT AS WORKFLOW .................... 145 REFERENCES .....2 13.................................................1 13............. 133 TESTING THE LIMITS (PORTABILITY) ...3 12........................................................ 130 TREATING THE PROJECT AS PARTS..............6 12......... 126 INTERFACING WITH THE PROJECT (MASHUPS) .......................... 140 A PROJECT AS PEOPLE .....................4 12................ 128 EVERYONE IS A PROJECT MANAGER (OPEN SOURCE) ..Project Management 12...................7 13 13.....................5 12....................... NOT THE WHOLE (REUSE) ...........................................3 14 15 SUBSCRIBING TO SUCCESS (BLOGGING)......................... 147 5 .............

Project Management 6 .

The young manager is has been given total control over implementing the proposed service. Unfortunately. the beginning 7 . Speaking to his colleagues. Whether the young manager realized it. The board has been working for weeks on the company's future goals and the business sectors have been encouraged to find innovative ways to expand the company's business offerings. His friends are just encouraging him to acknowledge the work as a project. In this case. An enterprising young manager has suggested that given the current technology trends and the company's capabilities that a new service can be added to the business and provide the companies product line over the web. that is the set of steps necessary to bring a new product or service to the organization. the board had a few conditions and he's not sure exactly how to proceed. they suggest that the first thing to do is establish a project and start managing it. A project is temporary: it has a definitive beginning and a definitive end. By the end of the meeting.Project Management 1 Introduction 1.1 What is Project Management? The executive board has just convened and under discussion for today's meeting is a proposal for a new service. the project had started without him. the board is excited about the new venture and have given their full approval.

the project should meet the requirements behind the service or product while balancing the demands on the project from expectations and needs behind scope. time. Project management organizes the steps required to move from point A to Point B. Operations typically take over when the project ends. The discipline encompasses knowledge. 8 .. and techniques. executed. If the discipline is applied properly. Companies work and that work using falls into one of two categories: operations or projects. cost. tools. Both types of work require people to perform. skills. The difference in the two are that while projects are temporary and unique.Project Management was the executive board's approval and the end is the validation that the new service has been properly implemented into the environment. the new service will be implemented into the environment. operations are ongoing and repetitive. In the example above. Project management is a disciplined approach to successfully handling these temporary endeavors. and quality. are constrained by resources. and controlled. and are planned. where the operations will continue to monitor the service and make any improvements necessary.

knowledge.7 of the projects that are completed will cost 189% of the original estimate.Project Management 2 A World Without Project Management Projects are a natural occurrence to any business that grows and expands its products.1% of all projects will be canceled before they are ever completed and that 52.1 In 2002. project management is not. From as small as adding a new room to the office building to creating a worldwide campaign for the next great product. though projects are nature course of business. • Lack of skills and proven approach to project 9 . Project management focuses on more than the end result. the National Audit Office and the Office of Government and Commerce gave the following reasons for project failures: • Lack of a clear link between the project and the organization's key strategic priorities. • Lack of effective engagement with stakeholders. • Lack of clear senior management and ministerial ownership and leadership. The Standish Group reports that 31. Along the way. or even its physical representation. projects exists in many forms within the walls of a company. many hurdles may have to be overcome. but also the journey getting there. Unfortunately.

The large the project. The persistence of project failure also exists because of the people managing the 10 . the more opportunity there is to fail. the more time or budget involved.Project Management • • • management and risk management Evaluation of proposals driven by initial price rather than long-term value for money Too little attention paid to breaking development and implementation into manageable steps Inadequate resources and skills to deliver the total portfolio. provides a practical realization to project failures: Project timelines beyond 6-12 months generally result in a project going over budget and failure to deliver on the promised benefits – detailed project planning is hard to do beyond 6 months. CEO of ITSM Canada.2 The problem is not isolated to the projects or how companies manage them. Lawrence Cooper. • Failed projects usually suffer from a lack of focus and momentum after about the 5-6 month mark • Poorly defined scope (and requirements) and scope creep because of unclear goals objectives • No change control to handle scope changes • Lack of executive commitment and user interest due to the long timelines involved • Failure to communicate and act as a team • The wrong skills or not enough of the right skills.

• Empirical observation suggests that most project The fact remains that without a disciplined approach to managing projects by capable people who can successfully manage projects.” 11 . • Those who are accredited only use a part of the theory and methodology in the workplace. and the work done on a project is covered on their job description as “additional duties as required. only 42% of the project managers were accredited • Of the companies interviewed. Many companies focus on their operations because it is self-evident that the operations are the daily grind of doing business. senior consultant to Contact to Contract. And the operations of a company are very important to maintain. money. • Countries have local accreditation bodies (such as Prince2 in the UK). • There has traditionally not been a single global standard for project management accreditation. 48% use a “home grown” methodology [of project management]. Peter Gammon. and possibly market value. they approach managing projects in the same way as they do approach managing operations. a company has the potential to lose time. Unfortunately. offers the following points about project managers: • A 2003 survey with the Industry body INTELLECT showed that of the companies interviewed. In many respects. effort.Project Management projects. the members of the project team are also involved in maintaining the operations of the business.

two components must be in place: a discipline for managing the project and a person who can properly apply the discipline. 12 .Project Management For a project to be successful.

The PMBOK Guide breaks project management into 44 processes that loosely for into five basic process groups and nine areas of knowledge. Since then. The standard began in 1987 as an attempt to dot and standardize the information and practices of project management that has been generally accepted by the community of project managers. and to provide the growing number of project managers the opportunity to exchange knowledge and educate themselves in the disciplines of project management. The approach used by by PMBOK is compatible with ISO 9000 and the Software Engineering Institute's CMMI (Capability Maturity Model Integration). five volunteers founded the Project Management Institute (PMI) to set standards for project management. The processes found within the PMBOK overlap and 13 .Project Management 3 Introducing PMBOK In 1969. PMI has been recognized by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) as an accredited standards developer. One particular standard is the Guide to the Project Management Book of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide). conduct research in improving the way projects are managed. The PMBOK is comprehensive enough to provide a general guide to managing most project and flexible enough to be adapted to specialized projects like construction or government which encouraged development of standards specific to those industries.

Deliverables play out the same concept: showing the efforts of the work by the team. At the core of creating deliverables is defining the work that needs to be done to meet the deliverable. even is the timing of the tasks are farther apart. the WBS to meet the deliverables. This is accomplished by creating a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS). The only thing left on the project is managing the execution of the schedule. the schedule for doing the work defined by the WBS. Some of the tasks found in the WBS may have some interdependence with other tasks.Project Management interact throughout the life of a project which is defined in the five process groupings. Attached to the WBS is a schedule for the work to be done along with the resources required to complete the work. Projects are focused on creating deliverables: tangible items which show the successful progress of the project. Essentially. and the resources required to meet the schedule and WBS. Some share the same resources. 14 . the project can be down into the deliverables. It’s not enough to simply go to the store. one must return with something.

Individuals have to apply to be a CAPM and prerequisites demand a High School diploma. associate's 15 . Though professional project managers do exist. companies usually assign a professional project manager to those projects that would have the greatest impact on the company if it succeeds or fails. In some cases. Unfortunately. PMI has two credential programs in project management: a person can be a Project Management Professional (PMP) or a Certified Associate in Project Management (CAPM). many of the people managing projects are not project managers. The certified associate is an entry level certification into project management and is designed for members of the project team. someone has to be assigned the task of doing so.Project Management 4 Adding the Project Manager to the Mix For the discipline of project management to be properly applied. but individuals who have some management authority and are usually a major stakeholder in the successful outcome of the project. the body of professional project managers serve as mentors to those who are not certified as project managers. In these situations. the numbers of projects that can be found in a company are at times much more than the group of professional project managers available to take them on. This individual is referred to as the Project Manager. allowing non-professionals to on the lower risk projects.

They are responsible for changes to the business. The first is an individual who has a High School diploma and an associate's degree or equivalent. The second is an individual who has a a bachelor's degree or equivalent. Project Managers have a unique responsibility inside the organization. the basic hierarchical structure of a business is a number of employees in various departments being managed by business managers who are responsible for a specific part of the business that may or may not have any understanding of other parts of the business and the impact their departments have on the business as a whole. Certification for PMP also requires an application. Credentials require the passing of an exam based on PMBOK. a minimum five years of unique non-overlapping professional project management experience with at least 7500 hours leading and directing project tasks and 35 contact hours of formal PMI certified PMP training. In operational mode. The larger the company. in whatever way that change takes. The eligibility beyond the application can take two forms. the more layers of management 16 . a minimum three years of unique non-overlapping professional project management experience with at least 4500 hours leading and directing project tasks and 35 contact hours of formal PMI certified PMP training.Project Management degree or higher and either 1500 fours of professional experience on a project management team or 23 hours of formal PMI certified project management training.

The Project Manager typically takes direction from executive management or at the very least ensures that the project is in line with the guidance of the executive management. In addition to the core project team. and typically require the workforce to successfully implement the product or service which is the focus of the project. and passion of the project team are ultimately just as important as the project manager and applying the discipline of project management.Project Management that occur until the top executive managers who make the decisions that directly impact the business. skills. The knowledge. it is very important to carefully consider the makeup of the project team and ensure that right people are assigned to the project. Projects completed by a team of professionals who come from the operational side of the business are tasks to take guidance and assist the Project Manager to minimize the risk of implementing the project into the business operation. Because of this. there are typically other individuals who will provide their knowledge and skills as resources to the project as part of their own part in the operations. but they have to stay in touch with the operational portion to comprehend how the project will impact the operations or vice versa. In should be noted that the Project Manager alone does not successfully execute a project. They work mostly with middle manager to obtain the resources necessary to execute the project. The Project Manager typically works outside the operations of the business when working on a project. 17 .

Project Management

18

Project Management

5 Managing the Climate of a Project Focused Organization
As already mentioned, a business can be described in terms of projects and operations. The day-to-day activities of the business usually focus on the operational aspects of the business. This is the environment which a project must be successful in. Remember that projects are temporary while operations are not. Projects usually focus on delivering change, while operations focus on maintaining the status quo or at least providing some continuous improvement. Inside this environment, the project may be influenced or impacted greatly by forces outside of the project. Since many of the members of the project team have primary responsibilities within the operations of the company, any problem disrupting those operations will have a negative impact on the project itself. Successful project management begins and ends with agreement by those individuals involved in the project or have the potential to be impacted negatively or positively by the existence or the result of the project. These individuals are called stakeholders are minimally made up of the project manager, the customer who will be using the product or server at project end, the performing organization which will 19

Project Management

do the work, and the sponsor who is the individual or group providing the necessary financial resources for the project. The success of the project relies on the project team identifying the stakeholders of the project and determining any expectations they may have on the project. Managing these expectations is just one of the major ways of ensuring that the project is successful. Unfortunately, managing expectations can be difficult because stakeholders may have different expectations which can be in conflict with the expectations of another stakeholder. Generally, most differences are resolved in favor of the customer. The organization itself can have a tremendous influence on a project. Project-based organizations typically will have systems in place that aid and address different aspects of project management; for instance, the financial systems will be designed to specifically handle the accounting, tracking, and reporting on multiple projects happening at the same time. Organizations not based on projects, such as manufacturing, are not likely to have systems in place to aid project management efforts, therefore placing the burden directly on the shoulders of the project manager. The project manager should be aware of the tools that the organization will provide and how they can be used or not used to aid the project. The culture of the organization can impact the project on many levels. Cultures are known because of their shared beliefs, values, norms, and expectations which are usually 20

They have to be problem solvers. they may also be responsible to lead the project by establishing the direction of the project. Still there are even forces outside of the organization that may influence the project and its work. aligning people. motivating and inspiring the organization. but must be able to understand the mechanics of the organization to be able to influence it instead. Project managers cannot allow themselves to be influenced by the organization. An organization that encourages the participation of all their employees may not work well with a project manager who is very rigid and by the book about how things are done in the project. Organizations in the health and government industries are highly regulated 21 . They may have to serve several roles on the project. or other factors. Project managers have a responsibility for ensuring the lines of communication are open allow the exchange of information to never stop. project managers need to handle a variety of situations and people types at all times. Even managerial styles can come into play. Though they are concerned with producing results expected by stakeholders as a project manager. project managers have to have skills in negotiating others into terms that are agreement to all parties. Most importantly. As a result.Project Management represented in their process and procedures or their response to authority. Cultures that thrive inside an aggressive or entrepreneurial organization are more likely to take on projects that are highly innovative and risky.

22 . the cultural influences of the world outside of the workplace have an impact on the project inside. more projects have stakeholders from across the globe. Additionally. As a result. Every major business has some regulatory commitment to maintain and those can influence. Globalization is a push into doing business across national boundaries. any project from those organizations have to follow the standards and regulations that impact their industry.Project Management entities. Implementing a product or service across multiple nations must be in compliance to the laws and political machinery of the nations involved. The project manager and the team have to handle all the influences impacting the project from beginning to end.

For instance. and the tools and techniques required. The processes however are not typically performed one after another but in conjunction with each other.Project Management 6 Grouping the Project Management Processes Together PMBOK treats project management as a set of processes. The lifecycle of the product is distinguishable from the lifecycle of the project. The purpose of each process within project management is to create a definable and recognizable result. some processes are focused on more than others and the focus changes at other stages of the process. Therefore. namely they all have inputs. In essence. each set of activities have certain similar characteristics to them. the project is a group of processes interacting with each other all the time. the development of a new release in software may be an entire project that is a small portion of the total life of the product. Processes fall into two categories. outputs. several projects will be initiated and executed for the benefit of the product. As processes. During the life a product. Ultimately. therefore one category of project processes focus on those processes that are most concerned with the specification and creation of the product or service. a project is concerned with bringing a new product or service to the environment. the likelihood of processes that focus on the 23 . At some stages of the project.

the next set of processes provide the methods for coordinating the people and resources to execute the project tasks. • Controlling – Handling unexpected hurdles and 24 . The second category of processes are those that are strictly concerned with describing and organizing the work required by the project. • Executing – after creating a workable plan. The difference is one set is focused on managing the project.Project Management success of the product is high and these product-oriented processes are separate from the project management processes. The two sets of processes constantly work congruently with each other. while the other focuses on the product of the project itself when the project ends. The PMBOK organizes the project management processes into five process groups. while the product-oriented processes will still be in place. the project management processes will cease to continue. The groups are: • Initiate – the processes in this group are used to recognize that a project of phase should begin and gathers the commitment required to get it started. • Plan – part of the project is to devise and maintain a schedule of tasks and resources that are required to fulfill the business need the project is about to address. The groups follow the project life cycle and consist of one or more of the 44 total processes found in the PMBOK. The processes in this group are used to identify the plan and resources for that schedule.

before a design document can be executed on. Fortunately. For instance. Additionally. it must be “closed” out by customer acceptance. This grouping of processes aids the project manager in ensuring the project objectives are met by monitoring and measuring the progress of the project. but overlapping activities which happen at varying degrees at every phase of the project. the process groupings not only define the flow of the entire project life cycle. Closing – When the deliverables of the project are complete. Therefore. As such. the customer acceptance can serve to obtain commitment for execution phase which is the focus of the initiate processes. though the processes are iterated. the project management processes are not single instance occurrences in the life cycle of a project. The results of one process group is the input to the next group. but also the general flow of each of the phases in the project. a change in requirements may require an update to the schedule later on in the project. Though everything is planned out early on in the project.Project Management • keeping promises are two of the factors involved in ensuring the project is a success. the closing processes are utilized in some degree before leaving the planning phase of the project. the last set of processes formalize the acknowledgment that the project is complete and brings it to an orderly end. The advantage to reiterating the processes constantly throughout the project phases ensures that any new information impacting the project is handled appropriately 25 .

while others are business driven. where the projects come from can also be confusing.Project Management and returns the focus of the process to meeting business need. Some projects are technical in nature. arguments have ensued around the difference between project management and change management. Others stand that the most effective projects stem from identifying problems by the workforce. Organizational changes are usually projects or projects can 26 . like a middle manager. so some people insists that true projects can only come from the top levels of the company. Despite the varying definition of a project for a company may be. Others treat any change to the environment as a project. which is an IT operational process for controlling changes to the configuration of the IT infrastructure. Projects need executive support. Within IT companies. Some companies do not recognize projects that do not have a certified project management professional leading them. Still others will state that projects are results of marketing innovative solutions to both the executives and the workforce. 6. Some companies insist on having a specific set of criteria established to determine whether a project is a project.1 Initiating the Project Within a business there are a variety of ways in which a project can be initiated.

For the most part. one simply needs a commitment by the organization to begin the next phase of the project. The commitment should come from the stakeholders. If a department can absorb the cost of the project and provide all the resources. To initiate a project. while others take away. if more resources are required than the department can provide. However. The basic fact is that every consideration already stated is valid and only shows the importance of understanding project management but also the importance of initiating a project appropriately. the resources can be finances. equipment. a project may be initiated simply to create a proper and comprehensive proposal for a project at the executive management level. or all of the above. In some cases. than a project can be initiate at the department level. Some projects add to the environment. the proposal may need to go to the next higher level. those individuals responsible for the areas of business which are directly impacted by the results of the project. 27 .Project Management have an element of all types. information. the stakeholders will provide the necessary resources to successfully complete the project. people.

Project Management 28 .

• Activity Definition – identify the activities required to product each major project deliverable. project planning is of utmost importance. The amount of planning required is proportionate to the scope of the project. The core processes have clear dependencies placed on them and have to be performed in the same order on most projects.Project Management 7 Planning the Project Projects generally involve doing something new in the environment. manageable components. These processes may be iterated several times during any phase of the project and include: • Scope Planning – develop a written scope statement to be used in future decisions related to the project. This does not indicate that the bulk of project work is planning the e project. • Activity Sequencing – identify and document the dependencies between activities. • Scope Definition – divide the major project deliverables into smaller. • Activity Duration Estimating – creation of estimates 29 . the risk associated to the endeavor. only the importance of the work. Therefore. In a business context. Most of the project management processes can be found within the planning process group. and the usefulness of the information developed inside the planning phase. something new or different typically translates into risk. The processes within the Planning group are further categorized as the core processes and the facilitating processes.

• Staff Acquisition – obtain the appropriate human resources needed for the project. and resource requirements. activity duration. document.Project Management • • • • for the number of work periods required to complete individual activities. Some projects are no risk processes so some of the risk management processes would not be used compared to a highly aggressive and risky project. responsibility and reporting requirements. • Communications Planning – determine the information and needs for communication of the stakeholders. Schedule Development – create a project schedule based on activity sequencing. these processes are not optional. and assign project roles. Resource Planning – determine what resources and their quantities are required to perform activities. Project Plan Development – use the results of the preceding process to create a coherent and consistent document. • Organizational Planning – identify. • Quality Planning – identify and satisfy any relevant quality standards. Cost Estimating – develop an estimate of the resource cost required to complete the project. The facilitating processes are used based on the nature of the project. equipment and materials. creating an understanding for who gets 30 . they are simply performed intermittently as the need arises. However. Resources can be people.

Solicitation Planning – document product requirements and identify potential sources. Procurement Planning – determine what to procure and when. The facilitating processes include: • Scope Verification – obtain formal acceptance of the project scope. Risk Response Development – determine the steps for opportunities and responses to threats to the project. Risk Identification – determine the risks that will most likely impact the project and document the characteristics of the risks. and in what manner it will be conveyed. when they will get the information. Core and facilitating processes exist within this process group also the process Project Plan Execution being the only core process. Risk Quantification – evaluate the individual risks to determine the range of possible project outcomes. • Quality Assurance – evaluate overall project performance regularly to ensure that the project will 31 . This is the time when the project team takes what was detailed out in the planning phase and executed according to design.Project Management • • • • • what information.1 Executing the Project The bulk of project work is done under the Execution process group. 7.

In all likelihood. or proposals. For instance.Project Management • • • • • meet the relevant quality standards. bids. The best a project manager can do is catching the problem quickly and resolve. Source Selection – choose from among potential sellers. The hopes of the project team are that the planning performed before the execution was extensive enough to identify and plan for all the hurdles that may occur. Contract Administration – manage relationships with sellers. offers. no matter how much planning was done.2 Monitoring and Controlling the Project During the execution of the process any number of things could happen. Therefore. If the variances are significant. the project's performance should constantly be measured to identify variances from the plan. if a finish date for an activity is missed. 7. something will always occur during execution. Team Development – develop skills of individuals and groups to enhance project performance. then any later 32 . Solicitation – when appropriate. obtain quotations. adjustments are made to the plan. Information Distribution – ensure that the necessary information is available project stakeholders in a timely manner. These variances are entered into the control processes in the nine processes areas.

33 . In the second estimate style. The second core process is Overall Change Control. how far above or below the planned estimates. Others create a range for the estimate. If a change is required. and forecasting. the project may need to be adjusted. the areas that are measures are project dates. and cost.Project Management dependence need to be pushed out or other plans put in place to return to the planned schedule. money. The planning should have identified these situations and revisiting the plan should adjust to meet these objectives. Many aspects of the schedule. and resources. Whenever the project is off track either by being under the estimate or over the estimate. the variance may force a change if it falls outside the estimate range. it can have an impact on every future aspect of the project just like ripple across water. The need for a change is a possibility based on the extent of the project planning performed. Ideally. The core processes for the Process group. creating a worst case and best case estimate for time. resource use. or the resources may be hard coded to the plan meaning that they cannot be changed. The intent is identify if the project is on track and if not. the budget. Some project planners may make a single value estimate. progress measurements. Performance Reporting supports the collection and dissemination of performance information. This information typically takes the form of status reporting. Controlling and Monitoring include Performance Reporting and Overall Change Control.

• Risk Response Control – respond to changes in risk over the life of the project. Administrative Closure happens at the end of each project phase and the end of the project to formally close out the cycle of work.3 Closing the Project Closing out the project involves two processes: Administrative Closure and Contract Close-out. • Cost Control – control changes to the project budget. • Schedule Control – control changes to the project schedule. or financial accountants. The purpose of this process is to generate. The information will typically consist of reporting on the work that has been done and the resources that were used. human resources. They include: • Scope Change Control – control change to project scope. gather. • Quality Control – monitor project results for compliance to quality standards that apply and identify methods for resolving noncompliance.Project Management Facilitating processes serve to support the core processes. The information is usually supplied to business managers. A project typically starts with a contract. 7. as well as stakeholders. and disseminate information related to the cycle being closed. or a written agreement describing the scope and deliverables of the 34 .

Contract Close-out encompasses the activities required to validate that the project has met the terms of the written agreement. It allows the project manager to go back to the customer and finalize any outstanding issues or discoveries that may have risen out of the course of the project but not resolved usually because the action would have been outside the scope of the project.Project Management project. 35 .

Project Management 36 .

though that this is part of a project and the bulk of the effort for the project. 37 . and overall change control. Many people would think that executing a project is simply doing the work to create a deliverable and. Although all the facilitating processes are utilized in a project. The 44 processes utilized to create the cycles are broken down into these nine knowledge areas. There are nine areas of knowledge that are applied to the discipline of project management. the project and the disciplines used to manage the project have been discussed in terms of cycles. The processes included in this area are project plan development. it is not all of what encompasses successfully completing the project. Facilitating processes exist to support the core processes. project plan execution. They are: • Project Integration Management handles the coordination of key elements of the project. The core must be used on all projects. their use is varied based on the situation at hand. each covers a portion of the necessary disciplines required to move a project from beginning to end. both for the project phases and the life cycle of the process.Project Management 8 Framing Project Management To this point. Core processes in the project cycle build on each other to transform input into a workable result for the next phase of the project.

collection. cost estimating. Project Time Management ensures the timely completion of the project. Project Quality Management ensures the project meets the needs that the project intended to fulfill. Project Human Resource Management makes effective use of the people involved with the project. cost budgeting. staff acquisition. scope planning. Activity definition.Project Management • • • • • • Project Scope Management ensures that the work required to successfully complete the project are included in the project plan. and schedule control are the processes contained within this area. scope definition. quality assurance. storage. and team development. The knowledge area contains the processes of quality planning. Project Cost Management ensures that the project is completed within the approved budget. Contained in the knowledge area are organizational planning. Any work that is not required for the success of the project is kept out of the scope. Contained in this area are resource planning. and quality control. The included processes are communications planning. The included processes are initiation. and disposition of information is performed in an appropriate and timely manner. activity duration estimating. information 38 . activity sequencing. and cost control. and scope change control. scope verification. dissemination. schedule development. Project Communications Management ensures that the generation.

and control of the operations. General management focuses on the planning. however sometimes overlap is found with other management disciplines. The processes contained in this knowledge area are risk identification. Project Procurement Management assists in the acquisition of goods and services from outside the performing organization. Called application areas. risk quantification. The processes included are procurement planning. and respond to risks to the project. financial forecasting. and contract close-out. The knowledge required for managing projects are usually specific to the project management discipline. solicitation planning. and construction 39 . Project Risk Management focuses on those processes that are used to identify. and planning techniques. and risk response control. pharmaceuticals. The applications areas are generally defined as technical elements which are found in software development. the projects found within these areas have common elements significant to related projects but not needed in all projects. staffing. organization. Many of the disciplines used in project management are also found in general management including organizational behavior. execution. analyze. risk response development.Project Management • • distribution. source selection. contract administration. Some projects are definable by the industries that they are utilized. and administrative closure. performance reporting. solicitation.

The processes used by project management interact with the processes within an individual knowledge area as well as interact with the processes in other knowledge areas. the application area. The intention of any process description is to provide the project manager and team enough knowledge to discern when a process is being initiated. and financial services. 8. Although the practice and experience of project management have determined the common trends of process interactions. and the constraints and limitations on the project. and industry groups such as automotive. management elements found in government contracting and new product development.Project Management engineering projects. a great deal of coordination of the project elements is required.1 The Project Plan as an Integration Product The project manager's primary responsibility is to deliver acceptable results to the customer in a timely and affordable manner. and change of the overall project plan. execution. 40 . the management structure of the performing organization. Project Integration Management provides the framework for this coordination. To accomplish this. How or when the processes interact depend on the type of project involved. The processes that make up this framework assisting in the development. the processes may overlap or interact in ways that specified in any documentation. chemicals.

Awareness of these actions is prudent for coordinating project activities. so the construct of the operational state at the beginning of a project may be different than the operational state at the end of project. issues are identified that are not within the scope of the project to resolve but once communicated. several other integration activities are also required. and budget.Project Management There are many processes found in project management that deal with the specific planning of project components. When the individual plans are readjusted. While integration of the project processes is important. the overall project plan also needs to be adjusted. resources. A work of the project must integrate with the ongoing operations of the business. The plans need to be integrated together as a whole and then executed. events may occur that impact one or more of the plans and they have to be reevaluated and adjusted. Sometimes. and expectations placed on them. a resolution is sought through another project or through the operational improvement processes of the business. The project cannot interfere with the fulfillment of those operational objectives. Staying abreast of any operational changes can be valuable information for the success or failure of a project. Operations will not halt or be slowed simply because a project exists. Many operations have continual improvement mechanisms in place. Many business operations have deadlines. Additionally. As the project progresses. quotas. such as time. deliverables to the project may be found: these are products that are necessary to the 41 .

1. This professional may not become a core team member for the project.1 Developing the Project Plan The major focus of the integration management processes is the creation and maintenance of the project plan. The goal of project management is to identify a final project plan as quickly as 42 . The project plan is a living document. subject to change throughout the life of the project. In this case. so the project manager has to coordinate with the quality control department to ensure that the work is done in a timely manner. For example. The project plan is a consistent and coherent document that encompasses the outputs of the planning processes to guide both project execution and project control. 8. but the creation of the assessment is outside the boundaries of the project. the project manager needs to integrate the activities of the project to coincide with the development of the assessment of an outside entity.Project Management project but are outside of the scope of the project either because they are assumed to already exist or because they are performed by members outside of the body of stakeholders. Quality assessment because of regulatory standards may require the skills of a quality management professional. an assessment of power consumption may be the product of the electrical engineering department and required by the project. namely the electrical engineering department. but the assigned project work is only one task in the project.

The purpose of the project plan is to guide project execution. and other information that may affect how the project proceeds. past project information.Project Management possible and apply change control to the project plan to manage how and when the plan is changed. The first attempt failed and the project manager looks at the conditions of the failed attempt to ensure the same mistakes are not repeated. the project has a certain amount of money for a set time but a different amount after a specific date. Historical information is typically consulted on during other planning processes and involves statistical information. The more common governing entities are 43 . Many of these policies will come from governing entities outside of the project that have responsibilities related to the operational side of the business. constraints and assumptions. This can impact how and when money is spent on the project. For instance. In addition to the outputs of other planning processes. Every organization has formal and informal policies that may affect the project. define key management reviews. that is. budget constraints may be time stamped. Or this is the second time this project has been initiated. the development of the project plan can also include historical information. facilitate communication with all stakeholders. document plan decisions with primary paths and alternate paths if any. document project assumptions. organizational policies. and provide the baseline for measurement project effectiveness. progress and control.

Many ways for organizing and presenting project plans can be found and many have the same common elements found in them. Contracts provide a number of constraints that must be incorporated into the project and adhered to under all conditions. or certain for the project plan. it 44 . The tools and techniques utilized for development of the project plan include any number of methodologies available for project planning. execution. For instance. Assumptions are typically generated within the planning stage and should be noted in all occurrences. personnel administration. and outcome. Assumptions and constraints are factors that affect the project planning. The scope of the project constrains the work done by the project. A budget is a constraint that limits the amount of money spent. Constraints are defined factors that limit the project in some way. There is an element of risk involved with assumptions. Assumptions are considered to be true. and financial controls. the skills and knowledge of the stakeholders. or present a project plan be used. As the project progresses. and any adopted Project Management Information System (PMIS) by the company.Project Management responsible for quality management. the delivery date of a resource is uncertain. the assumptions may prove to be false. or uncertain and the project plan is impacted. unreal. PMBOK does not require any particular method be used to develop. real. organize. A time table limits the amount of time given to complete the project. so the project team assumes a specific date for planning purposes.

etc. scope. budget. and designs • Documentation of relevant standards and regulations.e. including constraints and assumptions and the responses planned for each • Subsidiary management plans. Some of the elements promoted for the final draft of a project plan include: • Project charter • Description of the approach or strategy for project management • Scope statement with project deliverables and objectives • Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) • Cost estimates. time. • Open issues and pending decisions Also included could be the following supporting details: • Additional information found during the planning phase but does impact the planned scope of the project • Technical documentation such as requirements. specifically around cost and time • Major milestones and target dates • Key or required staff • Key risks.Project Management does however identify those elements that have recognized value to the project. specifications. 45 . and responsibility assignments integrated with the WBS • Performance measurements baselines. i. scheduled start dates.

such as leadership. To ensure that the proper staffing is in place at any given time of the project. organizational policies and/or procedures that need to be followed. The authorization typically includes the required skills and knowledge. The guide to project execution is the final project plan and any supporting details. This form procedure ensures that the right people are working the project at the right time by fulfilling written authorizations. and as the project progresses.2 Executing the Project Plan The primary process of providing the project deliverables and meeting project objectives will be performed in the project plan execution process. and the time and cost limitations in place for the activity. and negotiating.1.Project Management 8. To properly execute the project plans. As such. The execution of the project plan relies heavily on the team members of the project and any key individuals required to support the product or service that the project is affecting. In many situations. These skills will definitely be required by the project manager. the work to be done. but may also be necessary for the team members of the project. skill and knowledge related to the product or services is typically the most important requirement for successful execution. team members may be tasked with activities that will be 46 . communication. a work authorization system may be involved. general management skills may be required. any corrective action put into place to realign the project.

the expectation of the work results are unfulfilled because of a change of assumptions. or to declare any dependencies that need to be fulfilled. constraints. The result may require a change to the project which is initiated by the creation of a change request. Status review meetings provide an opportunity for the project team to communicate with each other on the progress of their assigned tasks. or misinformation.3 Controlling Change to the Project Plan Changes to the project plan have to be coordinated and controls to minimize the impact of the change to the entire project. 8. therefore it is prudent for the project manager to plan for change and establish controls from the very beginning of the project on 47 . change will be present. In most projects. Either the activities identified by the project plan produced the result intended or they didn't. Many times. The execution of the project plan lead to either work results or change requests. Depending on the system and the work involved.1. Project team members may be asked to update any existing project management information systems that may require project progress information. to communicate any issues and risks that may have been identified. the task of updating the system may fall on the project manager to complete. issue.Project Management performed away from any of the other team members in parallel to the activities assigned to those team members.

Project Management

how and when changes will be made to the project plan. The requirement of change control is rooted in: • The necessity of maintaining performance baselines. Every change should be reflected in the project plan, but only changes in scope will change the performance baselines established. • The possibility of changes to product scope forcing a change to project scope and minimizing the impact of such as change. • Coordinating changes across knowledge areas: a change in schedule may impact cost, risk, quality, and staffing. Overall change control utilizes the project plan as the basis for its work. The process is initiated by performance reports and change requests. Typically, a formal, documented set of procedures for controlling change is already in place for use by the project. If not, the project team may have to develop one. Many change control systems apply a formal review and approve procedure and the opportunity for stakeholders to approve or reject a change request. Most change control systems have the ability to handle emergencies; these are changes that need to be approved and executed but cannot wait for formal review of the change request. Some systems will even allow for “automatic” approvals for certain predefined changes. All changes must be properly and completely documented. Configuration management is used by change control as a documented procedure for applying technical and 48

Project Management

administrative direction and monitoring. The purpose of configuration management form a project perspective is that it identifies and documents the functional and physical characteristics of an item or system, controls the changes to such characteristics, record and report any changes made, and audit the items or systems to verify requirement conformity. It is important to note a change control process may exist within the operational aspect of the business as well as the project management aspect. Sometimes, the process is different for both but they use the same change control system. Sometimes the process utilizes completely different systems that need to talk to each other. Any some instances such as configuration management require that both systems provide the necessary output of changes to the appropriate parties. Change control may utilize performance measurement, the project management information system, and additional planning as tools and techniques for ensure success for controlling change. Change request going through the overall change control process typically result into updates to the project plan, corrective action and/or an exercise called lessons learned which identifies the causes of project variances and the reasons for actions resolving or mitigating the variance.

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Project Management

8.2 Putting a Stake in the Ground – Project Scope
One of the hardest components of a project to maintain is project scope. The scope of the project details all the work required by the project to deliver and only the work required. Unfortunately, influences from business culture, social cultures, issues, risks, and discoveries will be constantly at play. Because many of the project team members will be working within the operational side of the business, they will see or hear of activities, technologies, or decisions that may impact the project. They may pressured to do additional work to incorporate ideas, concepts, activities, or even technologies, or feel that the incorporation is necessary themselves and take it on. The problem is that anything that changes the intended execution of the project plan is a change that most be controlled properly. The result is actively preventing these influences from impacting the project plan or graciously accepting the influences through change control.

8.2.1 Igniting the Project
The scope of the project essentially shields the project from outside influences and change control is the gate where those influences are allowed to enter. As a result, scope protects the integrity of the project and ensures its success within the context of its predefined requirements, deliverables, and constraints. Scope is typically the very 50

These proposed improvements are typically the result of intense mathematical models using programming algorithms to promote optimization opportunities for the business. The method using benefit measurement is typically used one the companies has several projects being proposed and have to choose some over others. Many projects are a result of one of more reasons: the most common are a demand in the market. benefit contribution. Some businesses use a combination of both methods. Though some work may be necessary to define the scope more. scoring models. a technological advance. The company may select projects based on benefit analysis. market share. but on the definable improvements to the current operational environment. a new business need. such as financial return. Information aiding the selection of the project may be included. or a legal requirement. Those methods usually fall into two categories. A customer request. In initiating a project. the project can be recognized in general terms. public perception and more. they are typically associated with a basic scope statement. Many companies have some method for selecting project. some companies base their decisions not on the comparative benefits of the projects proposed. or economic models. In some 51 . some description of the expected product or service is provided that is mapped to the reasons already mentioned as well as how the product and service apply to fulfilling the strategic plans of the business. When projects are authorized. However.Project Management first step in initiating formal acceptance of a project. generally using comparative approaches.

the project charter. Once the project is agreed to. a project charter is created that formally recognizes the project's existence and includes the business need that the project is addressing as well as the description of the product or service that will be the primary result of the project. The goal of initiating a project is to have agreement for the project.2. the components of the scope statement are already present and the document just needs to be written. These experts may be found in other departments. The first is any product analysis that allows a 52 . For most projects. professional and technical associations. 8.Project Management cases. a document that serve as the basis for future project decisions with specific criteria to determine if the project of phase has been completed successfully. outside consultants. The inputs to the planning the scope is the description of the product or service. constraints and assumptions. A project manager is identified and assigned to the project and basic constraints and assumptions are generated. or industry groups.2 Creating the Stake The key deliverable of project scope planning is a written scope statement. Several tools and techniques assist in creating the scope statement. project initiation requires the use of expert judgment from different parties. The initiation process is used not only at the beginning of the project but also the beginning of each project phase.

more manageable components of the 53 . Obtaining a benefit/cost analysis provides the estimated outlays and returns of various project alternatives as well as the relative desirability of those alternatives. The point is to understand the product or service sufficiently to address the boundaries required to deliver it. a list of project deliverables were created. any supporting details related to the scope and its development should remain accessible as well as a plan for managing scope throughout the project. both situations requiring that major project deliverables be broken into smaller. These techniques can include anything from systems engineering analysis to analysis for value or function. 8.Project Management greater understanding of the product or service which the project will deliver. a list of all deliverables expected from the project. The scope statement should include directly or by referencing other document the justification for the project. and the objectives of the project.3 Defining the Boundary Limits When creating the scope statement. or more. In addition to the scope statement. Some projects have huge deliverables or more than the usual number of deliverables. a brief summary describing the product.2. These alternatives are typically generated through numerous general management approaches including brainstorming and lateral thinking.

The process for this activity is called decomposition.Project Management project. These usually are the project deliverables and the project 54 . many projects may have similar enough activities that a template can be used. any historical information and the outputs of process in other knowledge areas to identify the possible impact on the project scope definition? At this point. and resources. but to be used a guide to ensure that many of the steps required for a particular type of project is included. WBSs are often reused for deliverables that are similar to some extent. Though each project is unique. However. and to facilitate clear assignments of responsibility. The need to define the scope into smaller components is critical to the success of the project. To assist in defining the scope are the scope statement. The first step is to identify the major elements of the project. The purpose of this breakdown is to improve the accuracy for estimating cost. Especially for manufacturing or development industries. the project manager may begin looking at templates for the work breakdown structure or the WBS from a previous project. a template should not be used to take a short cut in developing the scope and project plan of a project. define a better baseline for performance measuring. The real work of defining scope is the breaking down of the project deliverables into manageable components. the constraints and assumptions already obtained on the project. time.

Some questions to ask during the verification step are: • Are the lower level elements both necessary and sufficient for completion of the decomposed item? • Is each item clear and complete in its definition? • Can each item be appropriately scheduled. Activities not in the WBS are not part of the scope of the project. apply a cost and time estimate to it if possible. then provide those estimates. however. After creating the deliverable and its elements. The third step is to identify the elements of the deliverable. They may be further broken down to reflect the different phases of the project. The WBS serves as a deliverable-oriented grouping of project elements that defines the detailed scope of the project. the WBS is sometimes presented in a readable form like a chart or unstructured activity list. 55 . and assigned? At the end of the decomposition. For each element. verifiable results to properly facilitate measuring performance. If an adequate estimate for time and cost can be applied to the different deliverables at this time. budgeted. the correctness of the decomposition needs to be verified. a complete work breakdown structure is available. These elements should be described in terms of tangible.Project Management management tasks. The WBS is not a presentation method.

2. Now is the time to ensure that the other stakeholders agree. The format they have used to organize and communicate this information are the scope statement and the WBS. time. the scope verification process will establish and document the level and extent of completion already made on the project. 56 . In later parts of the project. and resource estimates they believe are necessary to complete the project successfully. They have identified what is supposed to be done through the project and how it will be done. Along with the identifier. If the project is terminated prematurely. it is the process used to obtain acceptance that the scope has been fulfilled. They have provided the cost.Project Management Each item in the WBS is typically assigned a unique identifier and collectively known as a code of accounts. These descriptions are collected into a WBS dictionary. The purpose of the identifier and work packages are to provide a consistent method of identifying items in future communications. Groupings of items at the lowest levels of the WBS are called work packages. The scope verification process is the avenue to obtain formal acceptance of the project scope.4 Announcing the Claim To this point the project team has been working to understand the real scope of the project or phase. 8. each work element should have a description attached to it. The entire WBS now becomes a project result for scope verification.

To initiate the scope verification process. Along with the products coming out of the execution phase. Acceptance of the work result is the concern of scope verification while the correctness of the work result is the concern of quality control. the project work must have created a result either fully complete or partially complete. but later the result is a product from executing the project plan. The term “inspection” is often replaced by calling the activity reviews. Most stakeholders are looking to determine if the product conforms to the initial requirements presented at the beginning of the project. In some 57 . documents describing the products should be included for review. plans. product reviews. examining. audits. etc. they are not the same. Inspections can happen at any time during the project and though the project manager may have scheduled some inspections within the project plan. the product and the supporting documentation will inspected by the stakeholders. or walk-throughs. and testing the product. the result is the scope statement and the WBS. The inspection may require any form of measuring. However. Together. specifications. These descriptions can take the forms of technical documentation.Project Management Sometimes scope verification is confused with quality control since both are concerned with the end result of a project. unplanned inspections may be asked for. and vary from one application area to the next. Initially. drawings.

several influences may appear that threaten the scope of the project. Sometimes. these different terms have different meanings with very specific agendas attached to them. Changes in priority on the operational side may change the already limited resources and budget available to the project. Discovery of a similar project with a slightly different scope from another area of the business may result in the merging of the work of the two projects. Identifying a needed resource or improvement in the operational side may encourage the operational side to attempt to have the project perform the work instead of utilizing the resources and operational budget. The purpose of the inspection and the scope verification process in which it occurs is the formal acceptance of the work result. the acceptance is conditional especially on product that are partially completed at the end of a phase.5 Fending Off the Claim Jumpers As the project proceeds. Even the individuals who are part of the project team may come to the project with their own agendas and expectations of what the project must do. Changes in strategic direction may change the direction of the project or new partnerships created on the operational side of the business may introduce new stakeholders to the project who have different expectations or agendas.2. 8. 58 .Project Management application areas.

change requests. the project will use whatever system they have in place to control scope changes. 2. Managing the actual change in scope when and if they occur so that they are properly integrated with the other control processes handling time. and the scope management plan. Change requests can happen in a variety of ways and from any direction. performance reports. Ensuring the factors that are changing scope are influenced sufficiently to have the changes be beneficial to the project. cost. 3. To change the scope.Project Management These influences are not always negative but they do need to be controlled. Any changes to the WBS whether intentional or not is a potential change to the scope of the project. or a value adding change to the environment such as new technologies are now available which will reduce costs if taken advantage. an error or omission to defining the product or the project. Performance reporting on the project or the interim product may identify issues that need to be addressed. The means for that control is the scope change control process. The process is concerned with three primary objectives: 1. quality. Scope change control starts with the WBS. etc. specifically in the area of adding or removing activities. The system is 59 . The WBS defines the baseline to the project's scope. Most change requests occur because of an external event like a change in regulations. Determining when and how scope changes have occurred.

Project Management

usually described in the scope management plan and is the set of procedures used to manage scope changes properly. The system defines the paperwork necessary, the tracking systems that need to be used, and the approval levels for authorizing changes to the scope. The scope change control system should be integrated into the overall change control system as well as any systems that are in place to control product scope. If the project is a result of a contract, the scope change control system must comply with any contractual provisions that are relevant. Many times a potential change in scope is the result of an identified variance in performance reporting. Or performance reporting may be able to identify the magnitude of any variance on a proposed change in scope. Either way, the use of performance measurement can be a helpful tool to determine the success and validity of creating a change in scope. At the very least, changes in scope may impact what is being measured or how it is being interpreted. Scope changes may require changes to the WBS or the previous analysis of alternative approaches. The result of changing scope requires the appropriate modifications to the original agreed-upon scope as defined by the WBS with the adjustments to cost, time, quality, or resources that may apply. Scope changes are always fed back through the planning processes and the appropriate technical and planning documents are updated. The stakeholders are notified of scope changes. Any corrective actions required to ensure that project performance stays in 60

Project Management

line with the project plan is taken and the lessons learned identifying the cause of variance in performance and the reasoning behind the corrective action should be documented.

8.3 Conquering Time
One of the defining characteristics of a project is that it is temporary: a project has a definite start date and a definitive end date. Though the exact dates may be negotiable, it is clear that time is a limited resource for the project. To successfully manage a project within that limit, project time management is a knowledge area that is consistently and effectively utilized throughout the life cycle of the project. The PMBOK processes found within the knowledge area of project time management includes activity definition, activity sequencing, activity duration estimating, schedule development, and schedule control. Using these processes, the project team determines that specific activities that are required to produce the desired project deliverables. These activities will typically have some interdependencies attached to them; that is, one activity may require that another activity be finished before it is started. Additionally, the project team will determine the number of work periods required to complete the individual activities. A work period may be represented in hours, days, weeks, or even months but is consistent throughout 61

Project Management

the project. All this information is now compiled into a schedule to be used by the project manager to build the WBS and resultant project plan. The processes found within time management are sometimes so tightly linked that the individual processes are difficult to distinguish when performing, especially on smaller project. They can be performed by a single individual who is probably fulfilling the process requirements for all the processes simultaneously. However, the processes for activity sequencing, activity duration estimating, and schedule development are distinct processes using different tools and techniques for each.

8.3.1 Defining the Activity
The first step in time management is determining what needs to be done. The process activity definition focuses on identifying and documenting the specific activities required producing the deliverables of the project. The work done through this process is very similar to the work done in defining the scope, the change is the perspective used: time. To start defining the activities, the process uses the WBS, the scope statement, historical information relevant to the project, constraints and assumptions. Decomposition is used to subdivide the project elements into smaller more manageable components. When decomposition was used in defining the scope, the goal was to breakdown the 62

Decomposition from the perspective of time management breaks down the deliverables into activities or action steps required to produce the deliverables. there is a distinction between work and activity. The list of activities provide greater detail for completing the work described in the WBS. etc. templates may be available to determine the action steps required especially in situations where a deliverable is similar to another deliverable on another project. During decomposition. In developing the activity lists. The activity list is an extension of the WBS. creating work orders for new or changes in outlets. These 63 . negotiating with power company. communicating the project in terms of activity lists is not seen.Project Management project into deliverables or tangible items that could be delivered. fulfilling on work orders. the project team may identify additional deliverables that need to be added to the WBS or clarification or corrections to the descriptions found in the WBS. From a project perspective. For instance in an IT project for a help desk. the WBS defines what needs to be done while the activity list defines how it is done. The activities required to acquire power may include assessing current power capabilities. Especially for large projects. In other terms. a defined work item may be be acquire power. testing power capabilities. In some application areas. the WBS and the activity list are concurrently developed. though those lists are used to clearly define the progress of the work required. The results of activity definition is the activity list and any supporting detail.

the project team needs to determine the order in which the activities are performed and when they need to be performed to meet project objectives. Therefore the roof has a dependency on the walls and it is mandatory because it has to happen.2 Which Came First. There are three categories of dependencies that the project team will deal with.Project Management updates are often called refinements and occur most often when the project includes new or unproven technology. Discretionary dependencies are placed on an activity by the project team. To start the process. the project team will need the activity list. 8. completing the roof cannot be done before the walls are put up. Mandatory requirements are also called hard logic. They will also require a list or understanding of the dependencies on the project. Mandatory dependencies are inherent in the work being done. the Chicken Or the Egg Once the activity list has been generated. Physical limitations are primary examples of mandatory requirements. If the project was to build a house. The activity sequencing process focuses the effort to identify and document the dependencies between activities. This dependency describes a situation where 64 . The process is either done manually or through the aid of a computer. and external.3. the product description. discretionary. mandatory. the constraints and assumptions.

Most project management software packages use this method. or soft logic. with arrows to show dependencies. A software development project is depending on the delivery and setup of hardware. but the project team desires a specific sequence to be utilized. A construction project requires an environmental hearing on a location before site preparation can begin. It constructs a project network diagram connecting nodes. or activities. preferential logic. The reasoning behind the decision may be a result of determining best practices in an application area or some unusual aspect of the project where the specified sequence becomes more desirable. The use of discretionary dependencies should be limited because it will limit the scheduling options later.Project Management a set of activities can be performed in any sequence. These dependencies are noted in the activity list and used during scheduling. There are several methods for determining and presenting activity sequences. 65 . The first method is called precedence diagramming (PDM). The method defines four dependency relationships: • Finish-to-start is the most common logical relationship and describes the relationship where one activity must finish before the next activity is started. External dependencies occur when project activities have some requirement on non-project activities. These types of dependencies are often referred to as preferred logic.

Without starting the car. Before actually driving out of the driveway. From the second viewpoint.Project Management • • • Finish-to-finish describes situations where one activity must finish before another activity can finish. it is the start of the school bell that 66 . There is no dependencies between the modules to require one being done before the other. Using the Finish-to-start relationship can also be applied here and is sometimes more desirable when using a project management software package because unexpected results may be produced later on. they all must be completed before the package is complete. the next activity cannot even be started. A basic example of this is driving a car. The relationship described calls for an activity to start before the next activity can end. Most people would say that lunch began when the school lunch bell rings. class ends. the ignition of the car must be started. Start-to-start relationships describe situations where one activity must start before the next activity can start. But in the perspective of the classroom. Start-to-finish is the rarest logical relationship defined and typically only by professional scheduling engineers. There are few times when this relationship is used. This is a very precise calculation. but since the modules all make up the software package. This is common when parallel work is being done like modules in a software package. when the school bell rings. One of the simplest examples is the school lunch bell.

a method is available called conditional diagramming. These subnets are particularly useful for duplicate activities within a project such as building floors in a high rise building. or conditional activities such as updates to the design if inspection discovers an error. or developing several modules of a software package. the ADM only uses finish-to-start relationships and as such has become the technique of choice in some application areas. The diagram is a schematic representation of the projects activities and the logical dependencies between them. or fragments. For activity sequencing. The diagram is accompanied by a summary narrative to describe the sequencing 67 . Neither PDM nor ADM allow for sequential activities that loop such as software testing. subnets. To handle other logical relationships. the creation of dummy activities may be required. Similar to the PDM in that it uses arrows connecting codes to describe dependencies. these standardized activities are referred to as network templates. To handle project that handle these situations. Of course.Project Management ends the teaching of the class. Another method for sequencing activities is the arrow diagramming method (ADM). The primary result of the activity sequencing process is the project network diagram. or clinical trials at a pharmaceutical company. some activities of a project may be similar to the activities performed on a previous project and have become templates.

but the decision on duration should be based on the type of work required. it requires 48 hours to fully dry. For example. If most of the activities involved take only a few minutes to perform. while painting may take a day. The estimation is done based in work periods. The work period must be consistent throughout the project. The most common work period is the day. or months. whether it is hours. the project team needs to take into consideration elapsed time. In estimating the duration.3 Hard-Boiled or Soft-Boiled To this point. 8.3. weeks.Project Management approach and descriptions of any unusual sequences. updates to the original activity list may have been identified which may also require updates to the WBS. The person on the project with the most experience in the nature of the work typically does the estimating. The next step is to determine how much time will be required to perform each activity. than a shorter duration may be required. The project team must not update the WBS directly without first updating the activity list. the day of the week in which the activity is performed or weekend and holidays may have an impact on how the duration is 68 . the project team has determined the activities that are required to produce the deliverable and the sequence required of those activities. That means the total duration for the activity is actually three days. days. However. Out of the sequencing work. To do this involves the activity duration estimating process.

an activity such as obtain quote may require 15 minutes of effort from the project team to contact a contractor but the duration estimate is four days to allow time for the contractor to schedule a visit. the case. The experience that the individual project team members bring provide historical information to the project. Generally speaking. Whatever. Also one person working half-time will take twice as long as another person working full-time. Most project management scheduling programs handle these types of problems automatically.Project Management perceived. the reality is one business day. the activity lists is required. though the duration is three calendar days. created and deliver an estimate. Given everything being equal except experience. resources requirements and capabilities are necessary because they both can impact the duration of the activity. specific notes should be included to explain any timing considerations. For instance. it can be done by two people in two days. along with the constraints and assumptions already developed on the project. if an activity can be done in four days by one person. To begin estimating the duration of the activities. 69 . If painting is scheduled for a Friday and no work is done until the following Monday. Historical information should be included from previous projects and commercial duration estimating databases which provide standard recommendations or policies such as how long paint should dry or how long a government agency takes to respond to a request. Additionally. The capabilities of the resources also will impact the activity duration.

The tools and techniques used to estimate duration start with expert judgment. similar activity as the basis from creating an estimate for the current project. durations are typically 70 . the project manager usually manages to a mean of the two. When they create the estimate.Project Management someone during the activity required for the last ten years is more likely to perform faster than a person who has done the same work for only one year. Analogous estimating is most successful when the previous activities are similar in actuality and not just in appearance and the individuals preparing the estimates have the expertise required. This is the reason for having team members assigned to the project who will be executing the project as well. This method uses the actual duration of a previous. When the amount of detailed information about the project is limited. This is one of the reasons that some projects include in estimating duration a worst case and best case duration to the project. Another method for estimating is simulations. The most common form of simulation is the Monte Carlo Analysis. A worst case duration is the longest expected time required to complete the work while the best case is the shortest. analogous. or top-down. Though both estimates may be available. they are declaring a commitment to the duration. The end of the process produces the estimates of activity duration. estimating is performed. This method allows the project team to enter numerous assumptions which are used to calculate multiple durations. As mentioned before.

Lead times are often required to allow for preparation before performing an activity. Lead and lag times are also important to consider.3. In addition to the actual estimates. Inside the constraints. Typically done by the project manager with the aid of the project team.Project Management delivered as a range of possible results: for instance 2 weeks plus/minus 2 days to indicate the activity will be done in no less than 8 days and no more than 12. resource pool descriptions especially with shared resources. and key events or milestones which when scheduled cannot be changed without changing expectations. and leads and lags times. calendars. of the contract. Sometimes probability estimates are provided: for instance 15 % probability that an activity will take more than 2 weeks leaving an 85% chance that it will take less. To initiate building the schedule. the activity duration estimates. constraints and assumptions. 8. any assumptions used to create the durations should be included as well as potential updates to the activity list which may have been found. 71 .4 Scheduling The next step is to schedule the activities using a calendar. the stakeholders. the start and end dates for each of the project activities is determined. the necessarily inputs are the project network diagram. such as the wait time between ordering and installing equipment. two major categories have an impact on scheduling: imposed dates by the company. Lag times are generally the time between two activities. resource requirements.

The dates derived from mathematical analysis are not the schedule but rather the time which the activities should be scheduled given resource limitations and other constraints. Several mathematical analysis techniques exist: • Critical Path Method (CPM) calculates a single deterministic start and finish date based on the sequential network logic and a single duration estimate.Project Management Scheduling is most often done using mathematical analysis which calculates the early and late start and finish dates theoretically for all project activities without considering resource limitations. • Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique (GERT) utilizes probability in both network logic and activity duration estimates to determine the best schedule. The purpose of CPM is to determine which activities have the least flexibility in regards to scheduling. • Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) uses sequential network logic and a weighted average duration estimate to calculate project duration. • A special case of mathematical analysis is found with duration compression which looks for ways to shorten the project schedule without changing project scope. It includes techniques like crashing which analysis the trade-offs between costs and schedule to identify where to obtain the greatest amount of time compressions for the least amount of cost. Fest tracking is another technique which looks at performing tasks in parallel which would normally 72 .

73 . The result of the effort is the project schedule with the planned start date and expected finish date of every activity within the project. The project schedule can be represented in summary form as a master schedule or in detail . Resource leveling often creates project durations that are longer than the preliminary schedule. Resource leveling heuristics are applied to the schedule to handle resource constraints. or constraints. bar charts showing the start and end dates (sometimes called Gantt charts). Crashing sometimes results in increased cost while fast tracking can lead to rework and increased risk. The project schedule is considered preliminary until all the resources assignments have been confirmed. Many of the project management software packages provide the functions to perform mathematical analysis and resource leveling. presentations usually find the project schedule shown graphically using project network diagrams with assigned dated.Though it is usually found in tabular form. milestone charts which focus only on key deliverables. Simulation can be used to create a recommended schedule like mathematical analysis. Any of the methods mentioned typically provides a preliminary schedule without applying any knowledge about resource availability. capabilities.Project Management be done in sequential order. or time scale network diagrams which are a combination of the project network diagram and bar charts.

Project Management Also included with the project schedule are any supporting detail. The same inputs are used and similar outputs are generated. the project team has a work breakdown structure and a project schedule.4 Banking On It The project team has formulated the scope of the project determining what the deliverables will be and the general work requirements of those deliverables. 8. Project cost management is the knowledge areas consisting of processes utilized to determine and management cost on the project. Because it should be linked into the same overall change control system as scope management. except the use of the schedule change control system. In much the same way that the project is given a limited time frame to complete the work. The 74 .3. the plan for managing the schedule and any updates to the resource requirements? 8. it may have the same system.5 Controlling the Schedule Schedule control is a process very similar to the control scope change process but from a duration estimate perspective. The deliverables were assessed to determine the activities required to product them and estimates were provided to each of the activities for the duration the effort. the project also is provided a budget. Out of the work. The same tools and techniques are used.

these areas are often viewed as a single process. This is often referred to as lifecycle costing. but each has different tools and techniques used to complete the work. In some companies. project cost management. In some projects. forcing the project to understand the information requirements of the stakeholders for reporting purposes. Though quality management is concerned with the correctness of the deliverable. and cost controls. 75 . cost budgeting. many of the mechanisms for predicting and analyzing the financial performance of a product are done outside of the project. Stakeholders may measure costs in different ways and at different time. cost estimation.Project Management primary concern of the cost management is the cost resources for completing project activities. however not at the expense of increased cost elsewhere. engineering projects that limit the number of design reviews may reduce project costs but increase operational costs. Project cost management deals with resource planning. Cost management for a project is typically balanced with the processes for cost management for the entire business. in others. For example. the costs associated with producing a quality deliverable should be addressed at the beginning of the project.

Project Management 76 .

physical resources are necessary whether they are in the form of people. For projects working under 77 . The primary tool used for resource planning is expert judgment which can come from the project team members. 9. or materials. equipment. The purpose of resource planning is the creation of resource requirements. historical information. Planning for resources start with the WBS. the project team can develop an approximation of the costs required to complete the project activities. other units in the company. consultants. the scope statement and policies of the organization referencing staffing. the pool may consist of software developers for an application project at the beginning a project.Project Management 9 Leaning on Resources To complete a project. For instance. Identifying the resources required and the quantity needed is the focus of resource planning. This description is commonly called the resource pool description and it varies from project to project and even throughout the project. any description of the resources that are potentially available. professional and technical associations and industry groups. Additionally.1. rental and purchase guidelines. but later on have more detail to only include Java programmers.1 Applying Cost Having identified the resource requirements.

The project team uses all these resources to begin estimating the cost for each activity. Pricing. the resource requirements. Some issues have been opened because project cost estimation was done after contract negotiation and therefore. To begin cost estimation. a distinction exists between cost estimation and pricing. the project cost estimate forced the pricing up too high for the product of service to be sold. and materials are needed by the project team. Finally. the project team should have access to the WBS. the pricing is lower than the estimate. how much it will cost the performing organization to provide the product and service. This method of estimation is generally less costly to utilize but also less accurate. If the actual rates are not known.Project Management a contract. equipment. the activity duration estimates. historical information. Cost estimating produces an assessment of the quantitative result. is a business decision on how much the performing organization will charge for the product of service. Other times. The team can use analogous estimating by looking at the actual costs used in a previous. on the other hand. the resource rates for personnel. the goal of the project is to deliver a quality product or service in the shortest amount of time and at the lowest cost possible. similar project. 78 . Ultimately. A chart of accounts is required that describes the coding structure for reporting financial information to the company's ledger. than the rates themselves have to be estimated.

1. a budget involves distributing a financial pool across the work items. 9. The estimate reflects the likely costs of the required resources. All resources that will be charged to the project must be estimated and will include. Costs should be represented using a consistent expression. Cost budgeting establishes a cost baseline for measurement 79 . and the same model can be used for small projects and large projects. the result eventually will be a cost estimate for the project. Bottom-up estimation estimates the individual work items and then summarizes the individual estimates to obtain the project total. The cost and accuracy of parametric models vary but are more reliable when the historical information creating the model are accurate. labor.Project Management Another method is parametric modeling which uses project characteristics in a mathematical model to predict costs. the parameters used are quantifiable. supplies. but not limited to. normally units of currency. No matter the method used. and even special considerations like inflation or cost reserve. Along with the cost estimate any supporting documentation for understanding the estimate s and a plan for managing costs should be included.2 Budgeting the Project While estimating costs for the activities may identify the likely expenses for the project. Materials. However other units may be used like staff hours or staff days but ultimately need to be expressed in units of currency.

Project Quality Management from the PMBOK is compatible with ISO 9000 and 10000 series of standards and guidelines. Cost estimates. Essentially. but the product or service that it delivers does not satisfy the needs expected. The project may have been done on time and according to budget and still fail. the team was successful. and the project schedule are used to create the cost baseline. A cost change control system should be in pace which interacts with the overall change control system.3 Controlling Cost As with scope and time. the tangible aspects of the project were delivered.1. the WBS.Project Management project performance.2 Managing the Right Stuff Unfortunately. time and resources. controlling costs are very similar as a process. 9. 9. PMBOK quality management is compatible with proprietary approaches like 80 . which is a time-phased budget used to measure and monitor cost performance on the project. but the intangible aspects were not. As far as managing the project. Changes in cost may impact scope. but are not successful. Using these series as the basis for describing quality management. project may be started and completed. What was missing from project like this was a balanced focus on quality management.

Project quality management addresses both the management of the project and the product. and the importance of avoiding mistakes over correcting them. 9. so a product with low functionality may have a low grade and still be a quality product. Current quality management disciplines complement PMBOK project quality management disciplines. Quality standards can apply to the 81 . management responsibility. processes within phases. the goal of project quality management is to turn all implied needs into stated needs through project scope management. and others.2. Continuous Improvement. Quality is “the totality of characteristics of an entity that bear its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs. Lean Six Sigma.” Putting this definition into the context of a project. and others and non-proprietary approaches like Total Quality Management (TQM). Both recognize the opportunity of customer satisfaction through conformance to specification and fitness for use.1 Quality is Planned The most important part of project quality management is understanding the relevant quality standards that could impact the project and putting plans into place that will meet those standards. One important concept for project teams is the difference between quality and grade. Juran. Grade often speaks to the functional use of a product.Project Management Deming. Failure to meet quality requirements in either area can have serious consequences for the stakeholders. Crosby.

82 . and increased satisfaction to the stakeholder.” The quality policy of the performing organization is automatically adopted for the project. standard and regulations. the project team will have to develop one.Project Management project. The benefit of meeting requirements for quality is typically less rework. the product and other deliverables. The cost of meeting requirements is the expense spent undertaking the activities of quality management. and outputs from other processes. A benefit/cost analysis will assist the project is justifying the quality management activities on the project. the reporting. the disciplines of project management. which typically leads to higher productivity. every aspect of the project and the work done inside of the project. One tenet of quality management is that quality is planned in. If the project is being performed by multiple organizations. Other inputs to quality planning are the scope statement. lower costs. the product description. as formally expressed by top management. The first requirement for planning quality is the understanding the quality policy which describes “the overall intentions and directions of as organization with regard to quality. If the performing organization does not have a formal policy. not inspected in. a quality policy that encompasses the intentions and directions of all the organizations will need to be developed. With these inputs the planning can start. Essentially.

An analytical technique called design of experiments are often used to understand different quality issues or potentials for the product. Included with the plan are operational definitions which document what something is and how it is measured by the quality control process. or problem.Project Management To measure performance to quality. The prime result of quality planning is the documentation addressing the methods used to control assures and improves quality on the project. Cause-and-effect diagrams show how various elements can cause an effect. These diagrams are also referred to as Ishikawa diagrams or fishbone diagrams. System or process flowcharts also show how various elements interrelate. comparing the project practices that are being done or planned to be done with the practices of other projects to generate ideas for improvement and provide a standard to measure from. Flowcharting provides a number of ways to create this understanding. The goal of quality planning is to identify where the potential risks to quality will acquire and place plans around ensuring the quality of the project and the product. the project may start with benchmarking. Supporting documentation may be included to the plan and 83 . The technique use assists in identifying the variables that have the most impact on the quality of the overall outcome. These very specific documents are sometimes referred to as metrics. Understanding how elements within a project or deliverables relate can provide information on where quality issues may occur.

the operational definitions.2. Those improvements typically go through the control change process to be implemented. and results to quality control measurements. Those inputs are used during quality audits to the project and the products of the project. 9.2. The process also identifies ways to eliminate the sources of unsatisfactory results. Improvements to quality from the audits are identified and communicated. or they could be providing governance over ensuring that the project team does the work.Project Management the definitions: one supporting document may be numerous checklists to be used on the project.2 Quality is Watched The quality system created or utilized by the project team will have systematic activities involved to bring confidence to the project and stakeholders that relevant quality standards are being met. Those improvements exist to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of the project. 9. a Quality Assurance Department will be performing the work. These activities will be performed throughout the life of the project. The results of the project 84 .3 Quality is Controlled Monitoring the specific project results for compliance with relevant quality standards is the function of quality control. Project Quality Assurance begins with the quality management plan. In many instances.

Mathematical analysis can be performed and presented in the form of control charts. such as sampling and probability.Project Management encompass both product results in the form of deliverables and management results in the form of cost and schedule performance. Additionally. • Attribute sampling and variable sampling – results conforming absolute adherence versus degree of adherence. they should understand the differences of: • Prevention and inspection – keeping errors out of the process versus out of the hands of the customer. pareto diagrams. Each of these methods have advantages over the other for displaying different types of 85 . • Special causes and random causes – unusual events versus normal process variation. The project team should have a working understanding of the statistical methods used in quality control. Both product and project results are used with the quality management plan and operational definitions to initiate the quality control process. • Tolerances and control limits – acceptable result versus controlled result. By measuring. and testing the result. the individual or group inspecting the result can identify the characteristics that are most satisfactory and ask pertinent questions on the whole or specific parts of the result. One of the simplest techniques is inspection over the work result. statistical sampling and flowcharting. examining. The process utilizes a number of tools and techniques to perform the necessary work.

a whole of requested changes. The goal of the project team is to minimize the amount of rework required on a project. the analysis is used to identify where potential problems may occur in the future and allow the opportunity to correct. Trend analysis can be used to forecast technical performance of the product as well as cost and schedule performance of the project. Samplings can be made up of the customer base. Flowcharting is used to identify the causes of problems. acceptance decisions. and completed checklists. Pareto diagrams are histograms and used typically to identify the frequency of occurrences. Trend analysis is another mathematical techniques used to provide forecasting information on quality performance. The results of quality control are in the form of quality improvements. Using historical data. Rework is the frequent cause of delays in schedule and going over budget especially when unanticipated. 86 . or any large pool of results related to the project or product. Statistical sampling is a method for inspecting a portion of a large population to identify major characteristics of the whole populations. These results are typically used to make adjustments to the process or force additional action to rework an item. Control charts are appropriate for showing results over time and are used to determine if a process such as cost or scheduling are in control.Project Management information.

budgets. or motivating individuals. Even subjects like performance appraisals. Books can be found to handle general management skills of leadership. or group dynamics. If a person is looking for ways to build teams. labor relations. schedules. retention. The nature and number of people assigned to the project vary and not always consistent with the size of the project. mentoring. regulation compliance. ongoing relationships in the business community. manage conflict. Many of the administration duties of human resources are the direct responsibility of the project team. staff acquisition. they can find it. customers. the core of the project involves working with people. Projects are naturally temporary. The knowledge area encompasses the processes of organizational planning. and negotiation. coaching. communication. Many of these books focus on building long-term. including sponsors. 87 .Project Management 9. Or motivational books describing the differences and techniques of delegating. All of this material is applicable to project management with caution. and external representatives. and quality. and other administration skills have sufficient resources on the shelves. and team development. individual contributors. The intention of project human resource management is to effectively use the people assigned to the project. recruitment. so relationships are typically new and in place for a finite period of time.3 Working with People Despite the work involved with scope. Much has been writing about dealing with people inside the business world.

Organizational planning assists in identifying. Those assignments may be to individuals or to groups who are either a part of the performing organization or external to it.1 Working Together Project human resources management begins by understanding the relationships between people.Project Management though they need to be aware of the requirements to ensure compliance.3. The project's organizational structure will have a direct impact on the communication requirements on the project and therefore organizational planning is tightly linked with communications planning. and interpersonal. Most of the work of organizational planning is done in the early stages of the project. Three types are interfaces typically exist on a project: organizational. structured and detailed reports provided with some determined frequency or a notification of an event. These reporting relationships may be formal or informal. documenting. Technical. responsibilities and reporting relationships. Organizational interfaces are the reporting relationships among different organizational units. the first being the project interfaces. 9. A number of items are required for successful organizational planning. Understanding these interfaces will assist in understanding the potential reporting structures of 88 . though changes to the team may occur in the later stages. The reporting requirements may consist of formal. and assigning project roles.

Interpersonal interfaces focus on the relationships between the individual members working on the project. or even the expected staff assignments. the project utilizes the staffing requirements which include what skills are required and when. Many companies have a number of policies. guidelines. Similar relationships may be duplicated within the project. Project roles are and responsibilities are closely connected to the project scope definition. essentially establishing how the operational side of the business work together. though most assignments will be made to members of the project team who are actively working the project and should not change during the project. 89 .Project Management the project as well as stakeholders. Technical interfaces define the working interfaces between technical disciplines. These assignments may vary over time. The principle objective of organizational planning is the assignments of roles and responsibilities. as well as the general body of knowledge related to organizational theory. For organizational planning the constraints may take the form of the organizational structure of the performing organization. stakeholder analysis and constraints. a Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) is often used to show the relationship. templates. contractual agreements with unions or other employee groups. the preferences of the project management team. With the project interfaces. and procedures in place to support project human resources.

To acquire the proper staff. the plan.2 Finding the Right People One of the easiest and hardest activities on a project may be finding the right people to be on the project team. TO make this choice.Project Management To manage the assignments. So whoever is assigned to the project must be able to meet project requirements. Though in many companies. Along with the plan may be a graphical display of the reporting structure used on the project. 9.3. This is partially due to the realistic certainty that the “best” people are not available. a project manager typically must communicate the staffing requirements to the appropriate managers. so a strong working relationship may already be in place for the majority of the project team. either human resource for all or individual department heads. In some cases. This display is typically in the form of an organizational chart. the project manager and business manager will 90 . a choice needs to be made from a pool of staff resources. the assignments are typically given to people who have been on projects before. or the reporting structure should be included as well. Particular attention should be made to describe how project team members are to be released when they are no longer required on the project. a constraint may be in place to force the assignment of a single option for a particular spot on the project team. a staffing management plan is created. Unfortunately. Any supporting detail for determining the assignments.

In some instances.Project Management usually look at previous experience. the right person needs to be recruited. The techniques used to acquire staff range from preassignment to negotiating to procurement. effective management of the dual 91 . Whatever the method for acquiring staff. 9. In matrix organizations team development can sometimes be difficult since the individual team members are accountable to a functional manager and a project manager at the same time.3. personal interests. Preassignments are typical of a competitive proposal where specific individuals were promised to be part of the project. Many projects will create a directory of the project team. the end result will be project staff assigned to every activities found into the project plan.3 Developing Team The intent behind developing a team is to improve the individual contributions of stakeholders and their ability to work as a team. Individual development servers the team while team development service the project. In these situations. Negotiation may be required with the business manager to obtain the right person at the right time. If a person cannot be found within the performing organization to fulfill some portion of the project requirements. characteristics and availability. the project may have to look at external resources to hire or contract in.

if such a system exists it is utilized at the end of a project. with little or no potential for the team to be physically located together as a team.Project Management reporting relationship is a critical success factor for the project. Typically. Especially for large projects. especially on large or complex projects. Some projects require team members who are located throughout the global. team-building activities may be used to have the group recognize and utilize the individual strengths of the team members. and capabilities in order to properly fulfill the activity requirements of the project. the project plan. Working with the group. performance reports. Many companies already have a system in place for the 92 . however some benefit may be obtained by using it at the end of each phase. and external feedback. it can prove beneficial to have the team meet in a conference room periodically to focus on the project. The purpose of team-building in this sense is to improve team performance. To develop the team. Team development begins with the project staff. Even on smaller projects where members tend to do their duties at their desk or on the floor. the initial step may be to train the individuals or group to enhance the skills. the staff management plan. One development tool that can be sometimes overlooked on projects is a system for rewarding and recognizing individual and group contributions. knowledge. collocation may be a necessary requirement to have the majority of the team working together.

and disposed of constantly. Improvements in team behaviors allow the team to focus on the technical activities of the project. 93 . these systems are inappropriate or difficult to fit into the project management model. collected. Throughout the life of the project. ideas. and information. A project is successful because of the critical links between people. the most important aspect to a project is the communication structure that it uses. Additionally. disseminated. focus on individual and team development also provides awareness to sufficiently provide information for performance appraisals. some companies have adopted separate systems for project management use. Therefore. Improvements in both areas help to identify and develop better practices for project management.Project Management operational portion of the business and are adopted for project management.4 Opening up the Lines of Communication In addition to the activities required to manage a project and to produce a product through the project. The intent of team building is to improve performance on the project. Sometimes. Improvements in individual skills allow a person to complete activities more effectively. Every person involved in the project must be able to send and receive information in the language of project management. 9. information is being generated. stored.

but where the contribution will lead to failure of the project. The value applied can be used to determine how project resources are used: if the communication contributes to the success of the project. The actual implementation of a communication structure on a project may be influenced by the cultural. resources will be denied.4. The requirements will focus on the type and format of the information requirements with an analysis of the value of that information. resources will be provided. information distribution. the information needs and the method for distributing that information may differ from one project to the next. In incorporates all general information and education associated with building effective communication skills used by general business models. 94 . and administrative closure. performance reporting.1 Laying the Infrastructure Communications planning involves identifying and understanding the needs of the stakeholders in the areas of information and communication: who needs what when and how should it be presented. 9.Project Management Project communication management incorporates the processes of communication planning. and behavioral aspects of the communication practices already found in the performing organization or its customer. The need for communication is self-evident for project work. Compiling the individual needs of the stakeholders will provide the basic requirements for communication on the project. technical.

Project Management The technologies or methods available to transfer information is a critical component to project success. data. especially in cases where new technologies are used and the stakeholders are not yet “trained” in its use. schedules. • Methods for accessing information between scheduled communications. • Production schedules for when the different types of communications will be produced. like status reports.. the availability of the technology. • A distribution structure detailing who will get information and how. 95 . etc. Depending on these considerations. Some of the considerations for the technology used are the immediacy of the information need.. the project may adopt an extensively constructed avenue to communicate information or they may simply supply presentation materials to a board meeting. technical documentation. and the length of the project. • A method for updating or refining the communications management plan. the expected project staffing. the content expectations. • A description of the information to be distributed. The description will include the format used. the level of detail and the conventions and definitions used. The result is a comprehensive communication plan which includes: • A collection and filing structure for storing information.

The first is a passive approach for sharing information that used any variety of mediums. the next requirement on the project is to ensure the right information is to the right people at the right time. 9. The second is an active method of sending information to appropriate parties using several possible methods. The most important component of information distribution is the effective communication skill of the person responsible for managing communications. and storage of project records.2 Making the Connection Once the communication plan is in place. Two tools may be used for communications: the information retrieval system and the information distribution system.4. This includes following the communication plan as well as handling unexpected requests for information. Whether reporting 96 . They will also utilize the appropriate system for delivering the information. sharing. The primary result of information distribution is the creation. The process of information distribution handles the dissemination of information on the project.3 Cleaning Up Static The greatest piece of information for the project to have and to share is its performance record.Project Management 9. and fulfills the requirements of all parties involved.4. concise. This skill will ensure that the information being communicated is clear.

or predicting future events in status and progress (forecast). Are the deliverables fully or partially completed? Is the project on time. what it has accomplished (progress). trend analysis. or the estimated cost of performing the activity. or behind schedule? Are the project costs in line or above or below budget? Are there any issues currently present that need to be resolved at this time? Some of the tools used to define the performance of the project are performance reviews. Performance reporting includes the process activities required to collect and distribute information related to performance on the project. or the actual 97 . performance reporting looks at the work results. Using the project plan as a basis. Earned value analysis is the most commonly used form of performance measuring. ahead of schedule. cost.Project Management where the project is (status). variance analysis. • The actual cost of work performed (ACWP) identifies the total direct and indirect costs attributed to the performed work in any given period. and earned value analysis. Essentially it answers the question of project value to the business. • The budgeted cost of work scheduled (BCWS) identifies the portion of the approved cost estimate planned to be spent during any given period. It used the scope. and schedule of the project to determine the measure and calculates three key values for each activity in the project. the information has great interests to all persons involved in the project.

Project Management cost of performing the activity. the process for administrative closure will be called. is a percentage of the total budget equal to the percentage of the work actually completed. improvements or corrective actions may have been identified which need to go through the change control process. Some application areas use another measurement to forecast project completion date called schedule performance index (SPI). or earned value. • The budget cost of work performed (BCWP). 9. or customer. The purpose of this process is to complete any administrative work that may be required by the project. In addition. schedule variance (SV). The process entails collecting 98 . These measurements explain how far off of budget and schedule the project through CV and SV measurements.4.4 Ending the Connection At either the end of a project phase or the end of a project. and cost performance index (CPI). client. So how much money was spent to perform a specific amount of work. The performance reports are delivered using whatever system was described in the communication plan. The three values above are used in combination to identify cost variance (CV). It begins with verifying and documenting project results with the intent to obtain formal acceptance of the project deliverables by the sponsor. The CPI measurement is used to forecast project cost at completion.

and is considered poorly done when the entirety of the project close is done at the end of the project. At the end. Project risk management is the PMBOK 99 . and any lessons learned from the project will be documented and communicated. and making the information available as well as archiving it for future use. a number of concerns and issues may be introduced that cause doubt on the success of the endeavor.Project Management all pertinent project records. ensuring that they reflect the final specification of the deliverables. or using the resources assigned to it. The chief inputs to the administrative closure are the performance measurement and the documentation pertinent to the deliverables or the product of the project. 9. the project documents will be indexed and archived. Other documentation may be available. For a project. the analysis of project success and effectiveness. At the end of the administrative closure process. any issue to this effect is considered a risk to the project and risks can be managed. the project team will have formal acceptance of the product of the project or phase.5 Base Jumping a Project With any endeavor. these are items that question whether a particular deliverable or activity can be delivered as intended in the time frame or budget allotted to it. Administrative closure works best when it is done throughout the project to end phases.

With any endeavor that has risk associated with it. Project risk management involves the following processes: risk identification. Risks are in the strictest sense only those items that have the possibility to causing harm or loss to the project or the product of the project. The risks identified can be internal or external in relation to the project. and resources is questioned. risk management broadens its scope to include those items that can help or 100 .5. the Better the Experience Identifying and understanding risk to the project is the goal of risk identification. the key to success is first understand the risk and then to prepare for it. risk response development.Project Management knowledge area that concerns itself with identifying. External risks are beyond the immediate control and influence of the project team. For the most part risk is not eliminated. 9. not all the concerns behind the question will become risks.1 The More Risk. It is not a one-time process for the project but is done consistently throughout the project whenever the ability of the activity to be performed as intended with the associated cost. Internal risks are those that the project team can impact or control. and risk response control. analyzing and responding to risk. schedule. but by planning for it. From a project management perspective. risk quantification. the impact of the risk can be avoided or mitigated to prevent severe impact to the project. Though any time a performance of the project is questioned.

Because of the project perspective to introduce opportunities as well as threats as risks. The reasoning behind viewing opportunities as risks is rooted in the possibility portion of the risk definition. Potential risk events are discrete occurrences that may affect the project. an opportunity to utilize new technology that was not introduced when defining the scope may reduce the time required to complete the project by weeks and improve the quality of the product. More work is required to justify any changes to the project. A project member leaving the team is a potential risk event. the people involved with the project should be encouraged to identify as many potential risks as possible to the project. but with an increase of the budget by 10%. the project team will has a list of potential risk events. and even interviews with various stakeholders and experts.Project Management aid the project or product of the project. Project risk is found in both opportunities and threats. there is a risk to scope and cost. and procurement management plan. Historical information may serve to identify risks as well as plans to handle the risk. cost and duration estimates. For instance. At the end of the process. If the probability 101 . To aid in discovering risks. Where the opportunity shows up as positively for time and quality. Some of the tools used by the project team to identify and document the characteristics of risks are checklists. flowcharts. staffing plan. the outputs of other planning processes specifically the WBS. the symptoms of risk and the sources of risk. the team may use the description of the product.

the alternative outcomes of the event. the range of possible outcomes. these risk events should be added to the sources of risk. Most potential risk events are never application area specific. and misunderstandings • poorly defined or understood roles and responsibilities • poor estimates • insufficient skill in staff Descriptions for the sources of risks should include the probability of occurrence. and frequency of the risk. omissions. have a greater magnitude of loss if it ever does happen. Common sources of risk include: • changes in requirements • design errors. the expected timing of the event. The importance is actually how the risk is managed. though a list of common risk events can usually be identified for each application area. The list of sources should be comprehensive. The source of risk is categories of possible risk events. and the anticipated frequency. so it is prudent to provide more detail to them later in the project. Potential risk events identified early in the project may have broader descriptions applied to them. 102 . or it is an immediate concern of one or more of the stakeholders that has to be addressed. Descriptions of potential risk events should include estimates for the probability that the risk will occur. expected timing. The distinction between potential and possible can be hazy at times. Possible risks event are more like to happen.Project Management of occurrence or magnitude of loss is relatively high.

or risk symptoms. • A single risk event having multiple effects on the project. This is risk quantification.Project Management In addition to the potential risk events and the sources of risk. 9. but the process is no different for the new or the experienced person: both need to ensure that the chute is properly packed. a key member being involved in an accident may cause a strain on the schedule. • Opportunities for one stakeholder may prove to be a threat to another. A number of factors may be used to evaluate and ascertain any warranted responses. For example. new technology saves time but costs more. 103 . Some of the factors may include: • Opportunities and threats that interact in unanticipated ways. These are indirect manifestations of actual risk events. e. Someone who is parachuting for the first time will recognize the risk of the chute not opening.g. the process should identify triggers. This is the same risk that an experienced jumper has. • Techniques used creating a false impression of precision and reliability.2 Extreme Sports or Golf? Having identified all the risks associated to the project isn't enough to manage that risk. Each risk required some form of evaluation to assess whether the risk warrants a response outside of the normal course of a project.5.

Both tangibles and intangibles should be represented in the earned monetary value. There are typically to paths coming out of the risk quantification process: choosing to pursue a particular 104 . the potential risk events. it serves as a filter to the quantification of risk. decision trees and expert judgment to understand and quantify the risk. Different organizations and different individuals can have different tolerances for risk. Whatever the reason for the tolerance. and the activity duration estimates. a very profitable company will be more willing to spend more money on a project than a company that is breaking even. the sources of risk. the project team will attempt to evaluate and quantify the risks. cost estimates. This takes into account the probability of the risk event as well as an estimate for the monetary gain or loss of the event. A company trying to take market share from its competitors may be willing to spend more to introduce a new technology to the product. In addition to this method. For instance. One method for quantifying a risk is to apply an expected monetary value. simulation. Using those tolerances. the project team may use statistical sums.Project Management One of the key inputs to risk quantification is the tolerance to risk that the stakeholders have. Some companies classify budget overruns and schedule delays differently causing a certain percentage overrun to be high risk for one and low risk for the other.

but create another risk to the project costs. Not all risk can be eliminated. or passive like taken on higher costs if the risk occurs. procurement simply changes one risk to another. may mitigate the immediate risk. Taking the outputs of the risk quantification process. The risk response development process assists in building the steps for taking on opportunities and responding to threats. In these cases. a technology solution to a risk that requires procuring a specific type of equipment. In some cases. mitigation. The purpose of mitigation is to impact the expected monetary value of the risk. Often. Acceptance can become active such as putting a contingency plan in place. most notably by eliminating the cause. development of the responses to opportunities and threats are created. and acceptance. specifically when the risks are associated with a particular technology. the responses may require the procurement of goods or services from outside of the project organization.5. and ignore an opportunity or accept a risk. 105 .Project Management opportunity or respond to a particular risk.3 Be Prepared Responding to risk fall into three possible actions: avoidance. the next set of actions focus on reducing the risk by reducing the probability of occurrence. the next action is to accept the risk as is. When the risk cannot be eliminated or the mitigated. 9. Avoidance is the actions takes to eliminate the risk.

All responses to risk will be documented in the risk management plan as well as additional procedures for handling risks that are identified later in the project. a financial or time reserve may be created. contractual agreements may need to be in place. Sometimes. 9. risks will require some insurance or bonding as a response. For some risk responses. In some cases. a reserve is specific to a category of risk with multiple reserves defined to handle more than one category. The documented risk responses may serve as inputs to other processes in project management. such as spending more time in the design phase to decrease the number of changes that happen during development. Contingency planning involves defining what steps will be taken if and when a risk event occurs. This is particular response is appropriate when there is a substantial expected monetary value and the probability of occurrence is likely to high and the cost of having the insurance outweighs the cost of not. To prevent or avoid risks. alternate strategies may be utilized. As a measure to offset the cost of risk to the schedule or budget. Contingency plans are organized appropriately to allow for quick access if a covered risk occurs.4 Taking the Jump 106 .Project Management Another appropriate response is the creation of contingency plans or strategic alternatives.5.

additional risk response development may be required. equipment and materials requirements make the need for procurement processes to be in placed to acquire the appropriate goods and services for sources outside of the performing organization. workarounds may be employed which are unplanned responses to risk events that immediately reduces the impact of the risk on the project. The knowledge area includes the processes of procurement planning. quantifying. If changes happen during the project.Project Management Risk response control executes the risk management plan to appropriately respond to risk events during the project. source selection. The risk response control processes take the plan. Even with workarounds in place or when one is not appropriate. the potential for risk exists and the cycle of identifying. the actual risk events. contract administration. In these situations.6 Going Shopping For some projects. solicitation. and contract close-out. and responding to that risk is initiated again. the responses are not as effective as planned or a new risk appears that needs immediate response. 9. In some cases. 107 . solicitation planning. and any additional identification of risks can executes the responses.

6. how much. Market conditions can influence procurement decisions as they describe what is available. When the decision to procure a product or service is made. and under what terms and conditions. This is a general 108 . To continue the decision making process. from whom. If a formal contracting group exists for procurement activities. Other constraints and assumptions that have been found throughout the project management processes may also impact procurement decisions. the use of makeor-buy analysis may be utilized. To starting planning for the procurement of products and services. how to procure. the processes from solicitation planning to contract close-out will be used for each product or service to be procured outside of the performing organization. The process contains steps for deciding whether to procure. If no group exists the project team will need the skill and expertise required to support procurement activities. the procedures for interacting with the group will be accessed.1 Creating a Shopping List Procurement planning identifies the needs of the project which are best fulfilled by the acquisition of products and services from outside of the project organization. If the project or service can be obtained from within the performing organization. and when to procure. the project team will utilize the scope statement and the product description to understand the needs of the project. what to procure. the processes will not be utilized.Project Management 9.

How well the product is defined will reduce the risk associated with the purchase. however recent increases in its use may force a business decision to procure the equipment. If the procurement of a product or service involves a fixed total price for a well-defined product. Cost reimbursable contracts involve payments to the total price. renting. For instance. and unit price contracts. are the costs of doing business. or donation. Some projects may be utilized to procure items for the growth of operations that is clearly outside of the intentional scope of the project. the rental of a large piece of equipment for construction projects may be the typical procedure for the e performing organization.Project Management management technique used to determine if the building of a particular product will be more cost effective than actually procuring the product. The costs are classified as direct and indirect costs: direct costs are those incurred for the direct benefit of the project and indirect costs. lease. In some instances. The total value of the contract is based on the quantities obtained. The statement of work (SOW) provides sufficient detail of the 109 . Most contracts fall into one of three categories: fixed price. contractual agreements are required. Unit price contracts provided for payments based on a preset price per unit of service or product. the contract is considered fixed price. Procurement can include purchase. cost reimbursable. The result of procurement planning is the procurement management plan and the statements of work. or overhead.

6.2 Walking the Mall When the procurement needs of the project have been determined and the statements of work created. Some criteria may include an understanding of need. and descriptions. This typically involves using standard forms to create contracts. management approach. bid documents. and financial capability. the need for evaluation criteria from which to determine the right proposal is required.Project Management item to be procured for the prospective sellers to determine their capabilities for providing the item. 110 . Evaluations can be objective or subjective and are typically a part of the procurement documents. the next step is to prepare to find potential providers. overall cost. • Request for Quotation (RFQ) are similar to IFBs. • Request for Proposal (RFP) asks for an explanation of the services provided with the pricing. technical capability. Along with the procurement documents. • Invitation for Negotiation are similar to RFPs • Contractor Initial Response is to identify interested sellers. 9. Different procurement documents exist and may be used: • Invitation for Bid (IFB) requests sellers to provide a price for the procurement item.

In some cases. applying the evaluation criteria. common understanding the procurement before the creation of any proposals. 9. To solicit prospective sellers. These are meetings designed to ensure that prospective sellers have a clear. The more technical the 111 . the project team will need to create one and in doing so perform some research to obtain the credibility of potential sellers. and choosing the right seller. a limit is applied to the number of proposals which are accepted.6.4 Finding the Right Store Source selection provides the methods for receive proposals. but the lowest price may not be sufficient if the item cannot be delivered on time. The time allotted should be defined by the project plan. In some instances. The intention of all solicitation activities is to increase the number of proposals to the procurement item. They may also directly invite perspective sellers. Many proposals have to be balanced between technical approach and price. Some organizations have lists on prospective sellers that may be used.6.3 Window Shopping The project team typically will provide some time for proposals to be made by sellers. the project team may advertise their need. If these lists are not available. The process is not always easy. bidder conferences may be called. Price may be a determinant for most items off-the-shelf.Project Management 9.

For critical products. most purchases require some form of contract negotiation. the project team must understand the legal nature of the contractual relationships in place to be acutely aware of the legal implications of the actions taken when administration the contract. 9. Making sure that the seller meets the contractual requirements detailed in these documents is the work of contract administration. Contract administration is used in conjunction with other project management processes to cover some of the 112 . multiple sources may be necessary. In the end. a screening system may be in place to identify the most potential of the proposals while a weighting system attempts to quantify the proposals. this work is performing by a central department.5 Making the Purchase Contracts sign for the procurement items and now the project team has assurances in place to have the services. For some companies. In determining the appropriate seller. The contracts will be used to ensure that the procurement items are delivered within cost and per the pricing negotiated. and materials in place to successfully execute the project. the more costly the item. For large projects. contracts are managed or why. However.6. the equipment.Project Management approach. the key purpose for contract administration is the management of interfaces between multiple suppliers.

To manage payment schedules requires financial management. and technical performance. Project execution authorizes any work required by outside contractors at the appropriate time in the project. To monitor contractor cost. 9. In many cases. 113 .6 Wrapping It Up Contract close-out is a similar process to administrative closure as it involves product verification and administrative close-out. correspondence.Project Management requirements of effectively executing a project with contracts. Quality control assists in inspecting and verifying the adequacy of the product and services from the contractor. schedule. Nay changes involving the contract are handled through the change control process. the supplier may also have a contract close-out procedure that they need to follow.6. the performance reporting process is utilized. contract changes. The difference is that this process focuses on the completion of the contract and may consist of specific procedures that handle the legalities that exist. Throughout the process. The intent of the process is obtaining formal acceptance of completion. and payment requests are the output expected of the process. Working with the supplier in this matter will speed up the effort.

Project Management 114 .

For organizations which expect to handle projects in the long term. Certification of individuals serving as project managers and even those expected to be on project teams is equally desirable. 115 . it is advisable to create an infrastructure to assist in managing and collaborating on project as well as to create historical documentation. slight differences may be found during the execution of the project management disciplines.Project Management 10 Concluding Project Management Project management from the perspective of PMBOK is an extensive and comprehensive set of processes that cover most situations and concerns experienced on a project. The use of templates and historical information will serve to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of the project in numerous processes. For specific application areas.

Project Management 116 .

Another difference is PRINCE2's focus as implementation methodology rather than the whole project methodology. The actual correlation between the two frameworks is below: 117 . The framework does not claim to be complete and focuses on key risk areas only. “Directing a Project” and “Managing stage Boundaries. This is a definite departure from the comprehensive PMBOK.Project Management 11 Comparing Project Management Frameworks PMBOK is not the only project management framework though it is an internationally recognized standard. This is comparable to PMBOK's five process areas and 44 processes. A number of other frameworks are available and some are gaining popularity in the business world: of not is the United Kingdom recognized PRINCE2 (Projects IN Controlled Environments). There are eight major processes in the framework from “Starting up a Project” to “Closing a Project. The eight processes are supported by 45 sub-processes. PRINCE2 is an open method for projects that are driven by business case rather than customer requirement driven.. PRINCE2 creates a framework based on the life cycle of a project.” are used throughout the project.. The method recognizes that project management processes can be found at the project level and the stage (phase) level.” Six focus on the life cycle while two.

PMBOK focuses on the foundations of project management.Project Management PMBOK Initiating PRINCE2 Starting Up Directing Managing Stage Boundaries Initiating Planning Managing Stage Boundaries Managing Product Delivery Directing Controlling a Stage Directing Managing Stage Boundaries Planning Executing Controlling Closing PRINCE2 is document heavy with descriptions to 33 standard management “products. PRINCE2 has eight components making up the framework. separating the discipline into nine knowledge areas. The similarities are: PMBOK Knowledge Areas PRINCE2 Components Integration Management Combined Processes and Components Change Control Scope Management Time Management Cost Management Quality Management 118 Plans Business Case Quality .” There is no notable difference from the “products” of PMBOK.

Ownership and accountability is with the project team and project boards (owners). PMBOK can 119 . The assets include the products of the project as well as products (deliverables) from the project. rather than a collection of stakeholders. benefits are achieved through the use of both. Though differences exist between PMBOK and PRINCE2. The process structure is integrated and clear in its flow. PRINCE2 has a methodology structure that is easier to implement. It fits into ISO 9000 Quality Management System and is consistent with SEIs Capability Maturity Model Level 5. procurement management is missing.Project Management Configuration Management Risk Management Communication Management Human Resource Management Procurement Management Risk Controls Organization Not covered Two obvious differences are present with PRINCE2. PRINCE2 has its strengths. That implementation should be done inside the knowledge of PMBOK. It uses Configuration Management as a way to manage assets. Using the key components and techniques from PRINCE2. The organization of the project is highly defined with roles and responsibilities clearly laid out. Additionally. even using a certified PMP.

Project Management be used to add depth to the implementation and for additional techniques. 120 . The result is a project management program that addresses the practices of a global community of project managers.

As use of the application increases or decreases. adaptability.Project Management 12 Applying Cloud Computing to Project Management 12. or merging the volume with other 121 . The following pages will explore the benefits of cloud computing to project management. a solution can be available at any time in any location on the planet by any person. For instance. • Virtualization is a technique used to create an abstract rendering of a physical component. Some of the ideas explored here have solutions found within the cloud environment.1 Benefiting from Cloud Computing The benefits of cloud computing fall into quicker implementations and lower costs while providing greater scalability. Especially in terms of web applications. the cloud solution adjusts accordingly. the storage capacity can be increased. The previous pages attempted to show the benefits of project management applied to cloud computing. Cloud computing solutions exploit a number of distinct technologies. With a virtual volume. partitioned without partitioning the physical drive. storage volumes can be virtualized. and reliability to the environment. especially in Independent Software Environments (IDEs) used for software development.

feedback. For instance. quality. Often referred to as a technology. 122 .0 is a perspective change for how to use the web. risks. Many project management solutions already do this to some extent. with cloud computing the options can be expanded to include historical information. Open source is a concept supporting total collaboration between developer and user.Project Management • • storage devices to create a single large volume. Seven benefits are available to project management when adapting cloud computing capabilities: • The ability to interlink distinct components together as a complete whole. Web 2. and portability to occur. linking activity with cost. Web 2. and particular notes.0 provides a number of options that make web applications just as rich as desktop applications. Often attributed to application development. the use of subscription services allow distribution of information to have greater potential and customizable by the stakeholders themselves. the concept is also applicable to any number of solutions where user knowledge is utilized extensively to generate the product that the user is concurrently using. however. The idea ultimately encourages development in production. Virtualization allows for increased scalability. and resources. time. reliability. • To support communication specifically with stakeholders requiring performance reports.

with the business logic of the application on an Internet server. expanded. and reused without impact the whole. basically organized through the URL 123 . at anytime. 12. A main drive of web applications and cloud computing is improved. Improving the experience of individuals on a project will encourage communication.2 The Ease of Linking (Hyperlinks) Looking at the construction of the web. removed.Project Management • • • • • Many aspects of project management can be present at any given time and with an application. richer user experience. With cloud computing. one will see a series of documents in place. productivity. nothing is lost between multiple users. a web application can be accessed anywhere. First of all. by anyone with only a browser and a connection to the Internet. and morale. participation by all parties is possible. Second. The core tenet of cloud computing is the ability to focus on components as parts of the whole allowing an individual component to be added. One of the risks to project management is ensuring that all the right players are involved in the project to ensure that everything that needs to be done on the project has been planned. the possibility of an interface that allows each aspect to deliver is highly probable with web applications. The capabilities of the web allow portability.

information can be made available to the user. Most project management solutions handle the basic 124 . Through searches.Project Management hierarchy. Hyperlinks can be used to transform basic pieces of data into rich volumes of information by creating relationships. Hyperlinks are connections from an original page to a source document. the one construct that makes the web the web has always been the ability to hyperlink. By hovering over the link. such as a person's name and their job position. There are several perspectives that are prevalent in project management. and with some programming scripts to provide some interest. the person's personal profile and the job description for the position can be connected. building relationships can be expanded to incorporate multiple databases. Using the web and hyperlinks. each with some level of importance to the users. By clinking on a hyperlink. Though all of these components make up an effective website and web application. But the perspectives all rely on the need to understand the relationships with different pieces of data. So in addition to a name and a job position. In the back end of an application a database is usually found that holds data and created relationships with that basic data. This connection can be presented as links in a single page or the full or partial renderings of the sources can be presented. multiple hyperlinks can be generated on a single page based on relevancy for the users to peruse. a user can be moved from one page to another with just one click.

cost. Even connections with existing and past projects can be made. procurement proposals and supplier information. options. However with hyper linking. a construction company can identify and compare the differences between buildings using the same design. and the like can be linked to a single activity. and resources. For instance by referencing contractors familiar with the design. By having the activity show all related information pertaining to it. 125 . historical information. What is linked and to what extent the linkages are made is left only to the imagination of the performing organization. Some solutions even provide notes for referencing. Using the designs as the starting point. features. The opportunities available are to assist in understanding requirements. schedule. connections can be made very easily. Why make these connections? Each constructed building can have its unique attributes: location. like building a house with similar designs. The greatest aspect of this solution is that the information can exist in multiple databases and separated locations.Project Management relationships. all participants on the project can better understand and manage the work expected. even contractors can be different. risks. a replacement contractor can be found quickly if the original supplier is unable to do the job. any document or parts of a document can be referenced allowing risks and risk responses. Contractual terms. In situations where similar project are performed. such as the relationship between activity. quality requirements. and unplanned threats to a particular project.

on the web. Used by a number of columnists. Within minutes. Blogs utilize a subscription web service to ensure that people who want to be informed are. all the responses are compiled for the project team meeting to review and answer. categorizing it and posting it out to the web. The situation just provided is just one of the ways blogs can assist in project management. the list includes all the activities of the project. the list includes only those which are assigned to them or have a dependency 126 . As a project manager. Coming into work early. with logic to identify who is interested in the information for a notice to be sent.3 Subscribing to Success (Blogging) Imagine compiling information into the next status report.Project Management 12. professional and amateur. the one that were completed the previous day. Since a blog is basically a web page. a blog is a mechanism used to post information. and the ones that are late are highlighted. the format of the report can include anything that a typical web page can include. a notification of the report is sent to every stakeholder interested in the project. responses to the report start to show up in the next day. The identity of interested parties was provided by the people themselves when they “subscribed” to the blog. the computer is turned on and waiting for you is a list of all the project activities that are currently being performed. As a project team member. Imagine again that the project is going along nicely. Without any extra effort.

so that the project team can identify the activities and their dependencies. The use of RSS in blogging solutions has provided a new platform for gaining information within business. Really Simple Syndication (RSS) allow a person to subscribe to a web page so that when it changes. use “trackbacks” to other links to the page by other others. users can link to other user’s websites. For project management. thus creating a two-way link. Hyperlinks provided a way to show one way relationships between two items. The mechanism used to compile this information from a project plan is the same used by blogs. both dependent upon as well as depended for. In project management. or permanent links. dependencies within a project can use permalinks to make two way associations possible. For instance. The technology is not attached to the webpage though. permalinks can provided a variety of associations between items. but to the link between the user and the web page. A RSS feed allows these links to exist. it’s a simple way of keeping stakeholders informed of what is going on with the project.Project Management on. Aside from blogging. RSS has allowed two way associations to be made. 127 . or respond to those other links. the RSS technology has made another significant contribution: permalinks. With the permalink feature. link to individual comments on a page. they are notified. At the heart of the blogging feature is the RSS technology.

the information that any person is looking at is typically located in several locations. the project team members and the stakeholders are looking at similar information. And they are not alone. the concerns to be watchful of include: • Is the scope of the project intact? What are the current issues impacting scope? • Are we on schedule? What's late? What is about to start? What is about to finish? What issues are impacting the schedule? • Are we in budget? Where are we about to go over? What threats are present impacting project costs? • Who is supposed to be performing activities on the project today? Are all the equipment and materials required available? What issues do we have against resources? • What is the next milestone? How close are we? • When the next meeting? What information needs to be communicated? • What risks are important to monitor today? This is just a sampling of what the project manager is looking at for the day. Unfortunately. the number of items to be monitored and controlled is considerable. 128 . Though the focus of the information may be different. or the week.4 Interfacing with the Project (Mashups) During project management. In order to get the information. For the project manager. the source needs to be retrieved and scanned to find the information.Project Management 12.

With the ability to customize the interface. but once the information is readable and the criteria is set for how it is read it is ready. but is combined to show in the user's interface of the project. The technique used to make this possible is commonly referred to as a “mashups.Project Management Using a project management engine as a web application. The developer can also create relationships between multiple sets of data. mapping the project plans to the risk responses to change requests. 129 . the source becomes a component in the list of components available for the user. for instance. like a catalog.” They are web applications designed to allow the user to customize their web interface to allow multiple sources of information to be presented at the same time. To allow mashups to work. and presented to the user in a single interface. At that point. one specifically designed by them to meet their information concerns. Some translation may be required to build relationships and associations. the information from these multiple sources can be retrieved. Each user could have a different interface to the project. the application developer simply needs to link the source of the information to the application. the user can determine what information needs to be displayed at any given time. Each piece of data is found in different sources. compiled.

it does alienate other people who are not familiar with project management needs and concerns. one characteristic starts coming into play: the behaviors of the individual start to change to accommodate the tool. concerns with project failure will not come up. Though the initial focus is on a project management tool. Extreme adversity towards changing behaviors will result in the tool not being used at all. If the resistance is coming from one or two individuals on a project because they are new to project management. the same characteristic can be found inside a project. they are being asked to use these tools. and understanding. though a risk may be present. the more likely source of failed projects is forced behavior changes. Unfortunately. these people are simply involved to provide resources to the project. This characteristic always becomes a problem. Modest adversity often leads to not using it to its fullest capabilities or incorrectly. In some cases. And even with project managers. resistance starts to appear.5 Everyone is a Project Manager (Open Source) One of the constraints of the tools used for project management is that they are built for use by project managers. Though these reasons are valid. communication. Though nothing is wrong in this. When an individual or group is forced to behave contrary to their nature or experience.Project Management 12. But when the behaviors of 130 . Many projects claim to fail because of lack of teamwork.

risks. but everyone has a say in its construction.Project Management the entire team are being asked to change. And the trend of open sources has shown that the work is done in far less time than the 131 . The critical components of the plan are quickly identified and agreed upon by the team. The philosophy behind this solution is “open sourcing” the project or tool. what if the project plan is located in a central location that everyone updates. and after is often filtered. The organization of the project plan is completed by the project manager and reviewed with the project team during a meeting when the plan is distributed. In many project management situations. However. dependencies. The organization of the plan may be directed by the project manager. the collaboration continues with change controls in place. the individual contributions to the project plan are made and compiled by the project manager. it means making the project plan a truly living project. during. the probability of failure increases. An easy solution to this problem is readily available: encouraged participation in every aspect of the project and the project management tool. And when the plan is complete. or questions. How is this done? Starting with the project. feedback is provided on specific entries detailing requirements. Eventually. This is the traditional method of project planning. Collaboration is controlled and input to the plan before. As people update. the project plan will be complete and have a richer quality to them than typically available through traditional means.

not just project managers. in 132 . The same method can be applied to the project management tool. The theme continues during project execution.” but the truth is. Traditionally. when a problem arises during the performance of an activity. everyone has the opportunity to be involved. The underlining theme behind open sourcing is collaboration at any time for anything. In most cases. the problem will be resolved faster with a better. eventually a tool is available for use by all users. Such changes to behavior characteristics within an application required extensive budgets to build and maintain customized applications. some of which were never fully used by the users.. the application is developed as it’s being used as and at a far less investment than traditionally required.. more creative solution and in project management. Other team members may get involved at the request of the performing party or the project manager. the risks involved are minimized to the greatest extent. the performing party notifies the project manager and the two may attempt to find a resolution. By allowing users to input their needs into the project management tool. In a collaborative environment. In the cloud. but the group looking at the problem is still restricted.Project Management traditional method because the collaborative component has improved. just the behavior changes to match that of the project management team. The core of the tool or the project does not change. Some people may claim that the old adage “too many cooks in the kitchen.

but the user only wants one or two that suits their needs. the concept of reusing project plans is an attractive notion. Especially for organizations that perform projects of a similar nature repeatedly. most prestigious kitchens of the world. With blogs and other RSS feeds. such as building a house. or a prototype. different components could be used to create a user interface. so some care has to be made to ensure that adoption of historical information is not made blindly.6 Treating the Project as Parts. This 133 . The number of feeds available may reach the hundreds. but once done could be used by anyone. It provides the development of a particular product to be completed much quicker. there are always more than one cook. or application. 12. Variables set in the components could be changed by the user to allow for further focus on the information retrieved. and fewer risks. The concept of reusing predefined components is prevalent in web design and cloud computing. But every project is unique.Project Management the largest. users can identify the parts of the project that they want to be regularly informed. The constructs of these components had to be designed and developed. not the Whole (Reuse) With mashups. PMBOK even encourages the use of historical information and templates to create the necessary documentation on a project. at far less cost.

These interactions will exist internally to the components as well as the external interactions identified. requirements. cloud computing solutions allow business applications to be built in a matter of minutes using components already available. The concept is the same. quicker product to market than recreation from scratch. Each component will have its basic relationships. the majority of a project can be created with all the relationships and pertinent information intact. the ability to reuse components provides a cheaper. Changes to the component for a specific project can be noted and used as historical data for the next project without changing the core component. The different 134 . and also the processes of project management. Separating a project into its core deliverables. a project can be split into components. and reliable than traditional methods. By having multiple components available. At this time. and risks defined. Thinking of the project as a product. the technique is now more scalable.Project Management does not mean that reuse capabilities cannot be encouraged. In minutes. Referring to the relationships is not restricted to the relationships between information. using the project as the basis for the application. By using links. How does cloud computing support this endeavor. By breaking projects down into reusable components. dependencies. flexible. entire components can be added to a project plan with the click of a mouse. a project team can identify the components that are required for the project and add it.

a user can access a project from any location in the world. 135 . 12. especially in manufacturing and construction. and executing a project. monitoring. and indicators to be used actively by the project team and stakeholders. However if the performing party had a hand held device able to connect to the Internet like a phone. Using a browser and a connection to the Internet. This is particularly valid when the software used to update the project plan is sitting on the computer at the office. workflow. Using the web as the basis for building. the performing party is executing on the project several tasks defined by the project at any given times. portability is automatically provided. or project monitoring systems. Many tasks. like a change control system. at any time. require not being readily accessible to the project plan to update the situation. In many situations. the business logic can stay where it exists. Normally these systems are not interrelated. So the performing party waits to the end of the day to update the project plan and any related materials.7 Testing the Limits (Portability) Portability is a great advantage to any endeavor.Project Management components can include the various tools used by project management. or risk response system. or performance reporting. they could make an update to the project plan on the spot. however the presentation layer can show information. In web applications.

Project Management The concept of portability is a simple one. More importantly are the benefits that appear by using a web-based project management. everyone typically has access to a browser allowing them to update the plan as members of the project team. With a cloud solution. 136 . Traditionally. the usage of the members can be added up and charged. everyone had one full license despite the usage. So inactive members would not prove to be an additional cost to license for the company. Many project management programs are very expensive and providing a license to every member of a project management team may not be a cost effective solution. In cloud computing solutions. Many project managers have filled the gap by taking status updates from member s and updating the plan themselves. However. This potentially reduces the administrative work performed by the project manager while also significantly reducing the cost of licensing of the tools. so a company may have several full time project members with a couple of dozen part time members. the usage is typically monitored and charged.

Each role on the project has a different perspective. In the same way that roles can provide different perspectives found on a project. Executive management is often interested solely in the success or failure of the project and how the project impacts the strategy of the company. but their focus tends to stay within the boundaries of control and communication. the schedule. The first sets of perspectives are those by the participants of the project. Just looking at executive management for instance. Their focus is on status on the budget. The supplies and contractors are looking for what needs to be done and when. many perspectives can be taken. They tend to focus on details related scope and risk with a broad overview of other areas. the individual assignments of a person can also control perspective. the CEO may be interested in overall success of the project while the CFO focuses their interest on the financial success and the CIO is focused on the success of the schedule. or interest in the project. The project manager has concerns in every area.Project Management 13 The Perspectives of Project Management When looking at project management. Especially on 137 . Stakeholders tend to look at the impact o f the project on the operations of the company. and the resources of the project. Project team members focused on the deliverables and what they need to do make it happen.

generation. a single individual may be immediately concerned with a single aspect of the project based on their participation.1 A Project as Information Creating a project requires the collection. activities. The scope of the project is typically a compilation of inputs from several sources to define. and distribution of a tremendous amount of information. or constrict accordingly. expand. With all this data come the constraints. Meeting the needs of all these perspectives will be a difficult undertaking and highly discouraged. Acknowledging the different perspectives is imperative to successful negotiating the way a project will work. Historical data is used to assist decision making along with analysis of other sets of information. cost and schedule estimates are all used to build a proper project plan. However. organization. 138 . The work breakdown structure. there are three general perspectives that may be useful in identifying or building a project management tool: • Project management as information • Project management as workflow • Project management as people 13.Project Management large projects. Making an attempt to understand the requirements from these perspectives provide useful information for determining the methods used to run a project.

the connection is made outside of the two tools and displaying the information from both in a single page. From a web application perspective. risks. In addition.Project Management assumptions. the system simple goes to the location of the information and pulls it for view. while the change control system is using a unique identifier. it does not matter where or how the information is stored or managed. A project generates a lot of information. as the system makes a note of where it is located. 139 . In a web solution. regulatory requirements that can be applied to individual items on the project plan. One financial tool may focus on account codes as the basis for querying. Because of its digital nature. an entire filing system can be created to retrieve information. Through virtualization. one of the greatest feats for a project is organization that information in such a way that any particular piece of information is readily found and available. How the two tools are connected typically requires a change in one of the tools. Many of the tools used to house the data may not only be in separate locations but be under separate rules for identifying and organization. When a person retrieves the information. T The key is through vitalizing the organization of the information. a web form could be filled out by a user and several databases could be updated using the information provided. the information does not need to be physically moved to be in the filing system.

plan. Specifically. any number of processes may be initiated. The high level flow of work is initiate. The response itself has forced a change to the project. The example used above shows the flow of work through nearly half of the 44 processes of PMBOK the actual time it took to execute all these processes could be a couple of 140 . cost management. requiring the use of the change control processes. control. some control and monitoring needs to be in effect until the overall change is approved.Project Management 13. the change is executed and the project continues. At this point. The effort handling the risk has just gone through three processes. quality management. As the risk response goes through these knowledge areas. an activity identifies a potential risk during its execution. for instance risk management. After the risk is quantified. execute. Risk management and project execution are working simultaneously. a workaround may be performed. At the same time. Once approved.2 A Project as Workflow A project is a series of processes that are used and reused. Particularly during the execute and control phases. The risk needs to be evaluated and quantified. time management. and close which describes the phases and the work done inside the phases. the impact of the risk and its response now has been routed through the appropriate aspects of the project: scope management. a response is created. Each of these areas will undertake their processes to determine the impact and change the project appropriately. resource management. and the like.

Execute one activity which initiates the next. the change control system is updated with approvals. The change request is now sent back to the performing a party or another party based on the nature of the response to have the change executed. schedule. Sometimes 141 . The execution of the project even has a workflow element rendered by the dependencies of the project activities. resources. For each process as a set of roles and responsibilities. and the like. and creates a response. Sometimes. Each activity may have a different performing party required to execute. When the work is done. or send the information to an “expert” to do that work. At the same time. Another workflow perspective is the flow of work through roles. communicated to the project manager and a workaround initiated by the executing party. Project management is simply a series of workflows to handle different situations. The example above showed the flow through the processes. Once the stakeholders finish their evaluation. which initiates the next until all the activities are completed.Project Management days a maybe just a few minutes depending on the problem and its impact. The project manager with the information available identifies the risk. quantifies. an activity will initiate two or more additional activities. Same situation: a risk is found by an executing party. they may notify all the stakeholders of the problem. the project manager sends the risk response to the appropriate stakeholders to obtain feedback on impact to cost. Sometimes multiple activities need to be completed before a particular activity is initiate.

manage. each other. record generations. The same solutions allow for the project to tap into the people. Web-based solutions allow people to tap into the project.Project Management the performing party may be an individual or a group of individuals. and control workflows present on the project. In the end. the work is still executed by people. 13.3 A Project as People Despite all the plans. and supporting documentation required by project management. having a handling on managing the work through multiple workflows is essential. A project is a myriad of possible workflows. the initiation of work can provide the necessary updates. Though there are a number of tools. and processes available for identifying what to do and how to do it. Through connecting multiple systems together as well as predefining interested parties. reports. and triggers to move the work as well as track it. Tapping into people is essential for the success of a project. Web-based project management is one way to identify. the experience becomes a richer. the results are still dependent on people. more exciting adventure for 142 . techniques. Controlling and monitoring the work through the project is one of the primary responsibilities of the project manager and in many cases. notifications. and themselves.

reliability. Whatever the methods.Project Management collaboration and excellence. and greater gains because of the potential growth of the project team and associated stakeholder. the use of a web solution for project management allows for greater productivity. 143 .

Project Management 144 .

to finally closing the project due to completion or failure. schedules. the use of project management it creating. PMBOK makes the complex issues of project management easier. project closure. to executing the plan. Five processes areas acknowledge the life cycle flow of projects from the initial creation of the project. The nine knowledge areas focus on the disciplines of project management: project integration. For cloud computing solutions. and risks of the project. procurement. time. The PMBOK identifies 44 processes essential to project management success. The processes are viewed in two ways: as process areas or knowledge areas. communications. expanding and changing those solutions provides greater control over the business 145 .Project Management 14 Summarizing Management Project Project management based on PMBOK is a disciplined approach to manage project: temporary endeavors focused on producing a new and unique product of service. and quality. They are also integrated with relationships found across the entire spectrum. to controlling that the plan is executed properly and handling any disruptions. resources. and project management of cost. risk. to planning the costs. project scope. staff. The processes are iterative requiring their use several times during the project.

PMBOK works well with agile methods. and greater understanding of the project at any given time.Project Management concerns of using these solutions. PMBOK works well with ITIL. While project management can aid web-based solutions. For IT infrastructures. 146 . For application development. better communication. The different technologies and features allow better organization of information. the same solutions can serve to benefit project management. Luckily. project management is compatible with other standard that may already be in place for any solution providers.

A Guide to the Project Management Body or Knowledge. Ronald J. PMBOK Approach Insights for Software Development Projects. PMBOK – Making it Work. Lawrence. http://www.pragmatic-solutions. 2006: Contact to ContRact.bcs.globalknowledge. Implementing ITIL using the PMBOK Guide in Four Repeatable Steps. 2006: Global Knowledge.org/histevents/pdfs/psg0503%20-%20PMBOK. Peter.com/attachments/2006WhitePaper-PMBOK. http://images.unipi. Matt. William R. 1996: PMI. http://www. Dr.pdf Gammon.net/proceedings/gita/2005/pape rs/43.com/wwwimages/whitepaper pdf/WP_Cooper_PM_ITIL.promsg. What is the PMBOK and What Can It Do For Me? Osmose Utilities Services. http://www.pdf Duncan. Kenneth A. Fostering a Good Project Environment through Your Project's Culture and Communications – Its 147 .pdf McVearry. http://www.gisdevelopment.pdf Wojcik.gr/akad_tmhm/biom_dioik_tech/files/pmbo k.Project Management 15 References Cooper. Pragmatic! Solutions.pdf Johnson.

LLC. http://www. Alan S.assistpoint.pdf Udo.pdf Blend Approach of IT Service Management and PMBOK for Application Support Project.pmiwdc. http://hosteddocs.pittsburghpmi. Nathalie and Koppensteiner. http://images. CSC.Project Management Critical Components for Success. http://pmiwic.pdf Koch. Sonja.com/wwwimages/whitepaper pdf/WP_Cooper_ITILV3PMBOK_Q21.pdf Budiman.org/presentations/Your%20Project's%20Cultur e%20and%20CommunicationsIts%20Critical%20Components%20for%20Success_r2.org/files/presentations/presentation2008 08Chantilly.ittoolbox.com/paper_agilevspmbok. Complimentary Relationship Between ITIL and PMBOK.org/documents/meetings/presenta tions/AgileManifesto-PMBOK. 2008: Global Knowledge. Lawrence.com/GT120505. Linda. Will Agile Development Change The Way We Manage Software Projects? 2003: Projectway.pdf Cooper. 2004: Pittsburgh Project Management Institute. Are Agile Methods Compatible with the PMBOK? January 6. http://www.globalknowledge. ITIL V3 and the PMBOK – Distinct but Complementary. http://www.pdf 148 .

http://en.org/downloads/Prince2PMBOK.org/wiki/Project_Management_Institute Wikipedia. Project Management Institute (PMI).com/resources/articles/agileProces s.maxwideman.wikipedia.com/Resources/documents/AgileProject Management. http://en. Project Management Professional. January 8.ccpace. pdf Wikipedia.pdf ccpace. Jay M.objectmentor. Max.org/wiki/Project_Management_Professio nal 149 . Agile Project Management. pdf Wideman. http://www.pmiwestchester. How PRINCE2 Can Complement PMBOK and Your PMP. Comparing PRINCE2 with PMBoK. 2002: AEW Services. http://www. 2004: PMI/Westchester Chapter.Project Management Agile Processes.wikipedia. http://www.com/papers/comparing/comparing. R.pdf Siegeluab. http://www.

78 assets 119 assignments 88-90. 38. 135. 78. 137 budget cost 98 building 67. 11. 145 arrow diagramming method (ADM) 67 assessment 42. 62. 65. 138 150 . 52. 63. 33. 44-5. 97-9. 123-4. 108 authorizations 46 B bar charts 73 blogging 4. 115 Applying Cost 4. 79-80. 106. 64. 77 approach. 57. 41. 82 earned value 97 mathematical 72-3. 105. 61. 38. 69-71. 71. disciplined 8. 67. 128. 126-7 blogs 126-7. 133. 137 assumptions 43-5. 74. 67 ADM (arrow diagramming method) 67 agendas 58 Agile Project Management 149 agreement 19. 54. 47. 52 American National Standards Institute (ANSI) 13 analysis benefit/cost 53. 21. 104 activity list 63-5. 133 board 7 browser 123. 38. 34-5. 68-9. 86-7. 87. 71 activity sequencing 30. 85 trend 86. 61-2. 97 ANSI (American National Standards Institute) 13 application 16. 61-2.Project Management INDEX* A acceptance 56-8. 102. 68-70 activity duration estimates 70-2. 58. 105 activities next 65-6 non-project 65 activity definition 38. 132. 94. 132-4 application areas 39-40. 101. 135-6 budget 10. 125. 121. 63 activity duration 30. 129. 109.

9-11. 33. 22. scheduled 95 communication plan 96. 29. 141 change requests 47-9. 34. 80. 39. 123-4. 44. 133-4 Computing to Project Management 121 concept 14. 75. 145 collaboration 131-2 commitment 24-5. 133 benefits of 121 cloud computing solutions 134. 89-90. 77. 19. 7. 26-7. 118. 37. 51. 71. 92. 131 change control process 49. 123 power 63 CAPM (Certified Associate in Project Management) 15 Certified Associate in Project Management (CAPM) 15 certified PMP training 16 certified project management training 16 change control 10. effective 94. 27. 9. 24. 110. 141 changes. 95-6. 136. 96 companies 2. 135. 923. 70 common work period 68 communication. 136-7 companies work 8 Comparing Project 117 completion 55-6. 135 business managers 16. 43. 140 change control system 48-9. 123. 34. 73. administrative 34. 41 business work 89 business world 87. 26. 121. 50. 145 compliance 22. 131. 52-4. 88 components 12. potential 59-60 chute 103 class 66-7 Closing a Project 117 closure. 74. 117 C calendars 71 capabilities 69. 15-16. 139. 49-52. 94. 60. 98-9. 122. 113. 98 communication skills. 43. 81. 75. 109 business logic 123. 133-4. 109 [2] business decision 78.Project Management business 7. 11. 58. 129. 84. 90-1 business operations 17. 59. 97. 98. 93. 48-50. 16-17. 41. 113 cloud computing 4. 112. 98. 136 151 . 113. 19. 129. 62. 104.

79 cost change control system 80 152 . 50. 130. 98 correctness 55. 94. 33. 131. 75 cost 8-9. 43-5. 135 contingency plans 105-6 contract 11. 131 control changes 34 control charts 85-6 control product scope 60 control workflows 142 Controlling 3. 107-10. 44. 109-10. 108. 47. 106. 105-6. 59-60. 96. 62. 69. 72. 71-3. 60-1. 40 core processes 29. 101. 77-80. 75. 112 Contract Close-out 34-5 contractors 69. 145 [10] associated 100 budgeted 97 direct 109 estimated 97 estimating 54. 89-90. 98. 80 Cooper 147-8 coordination 37. 112-13 contract administration 39. 74. 38. 127. 39. 75 indirect 97. 136. 78. 39. 123-5. 45. 123. 125. 109 contributions 91. 139 constraints 40. 34.Project Management Concluding Project 115 connections 4. 33-4. 79 increased 73. 52. 138 resource 73 construction 13. 55-6. 91. 47-9 Controlling Cost 4. 64. 60. 137 contractual agreements 89. 71. 85-6. 27. 113. 107. 32-3. 54. 135. 142 controlling change 3. 37 core project team 17 corrective actions 46. 109 likely 79 lower 82. 49. 31. 118. 57. 121 lowest 78 managing 79 measure 75 operational 75 cost baseline 79-80 cost budgeting 38. 26. 97.

105-6. 42-4. 37. 111 Critical Path Method (CPM) 72 Cultures 20-1 currency. 20. 42. 101-2. 104 estimation 75. 37. 40. 122. 68. 24. 82-3. 117-19. 41. 71. multiple 124-5 date. 85 deliverables 14. 83 pareto 85-6 project network 65. 77. 56-7. 131. 78 limitations 46 management 75. 118 153 . 27. 107 D databases. 21. 133 diagrams 67. 47. 58-9 disciplines 8. 62-3. 39. 99. 25. 106. 47. 119. 67. 141 discretionary 64-5 descriptions 51-2.Project Management cost cost cost cost cost controls 38. 95. 75 estimates 79-80. 118 designations 2 development 23. 115. 85. 53. forecast project completion 98 decomposition 54-5. 125 Directing a Project 117 direction 17. 74. 73 time scale network 73 differences 8. 134. 137 departments 16. 34. 97. 50. 29. 63. 25. 62-3 definitions. 97. 26. 12. 85. 53-5. 112 electrical engineering 42 dependencies 29. 52. operational 83-5 degree 16. 113. units of 79 customize 129 CV (cost variance) 98 cycles 34. 64-7. 77. 140 Project 38 cost performance index (CPI) 98 cost reserve 79 cost resources 75 cost variance (CV) 98 CPI (cost performance index) 98 CPM (Critical Path Method) 72 crashing 72-3 creation 23. 67. 126-7. 81. 87. 110. 96.

83. 82. 104 evaluation criteria 110-11 events 41. 44. 30. 142 unique non-overlapping professional project management extent 33. 99-100. 140-1 execution 14. 37. 94-5. 78. 39. 25. 40. 104 execute 17. 130. 100 Good Project Environment 147 goods 39. 85-6 forecast project cost 98 forecasting information 86 formal acceptance 31. 140-1 flowcharting 83. 68-9. 54. 17. 52. 56. 44. 125 External risks 100 F factors 21. 37. 115. contact hours of 16 format 56. 20. 55. 119. 128 flow 25. 24. 46. 59. 41. 74. 123. 62. 32. 103 finish 65-6. 42-3. 112. 105. 81. 107 72 16 154 . 109. 86. 115. 23. 145 document project assumptions 43 duration 68-71. 105. 58. 97. 88. 81 environment 8. 46-7. 73-4. 98-9 formal PMI. 69-71. 100. 113 aid project management 20 endeavor 29. 56. 78-9. 117-18 Framing Project 37 FRAMING PROJECT MANAGEMENT 3 G GERT (Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique) Global Knowledge 147-8 goal 7. 29. 102. 128 estimates 9. 85. 126 framework 40. 33. 74 E effectiveness. 112.wikipedia. 14. 122.org/wiki/Project 149 equipment 27. 107. 42. 58 experience 4. 29-30. 77-8. 59. 107. 39-40. measurement project 43 effort 11. 26-7. 69. 102. 121 en. 64. 91. 140-1 expectations 8. 134-5 entities 2. 47.Project Management disciplines of project management 13. 19. 15. 72.

123. 20. 87-8. 38. 32. 61. 147 guide project execution 43 H High School 15-16 historical information 43. 34. 88. 130. 141 [7] accessing 95 compiling 126 disseminate 34 distribute 97 financial 78 performance 33 pertinent 134 post 126 project progress 47 retrieve 139 right 96 sending 96 sharing 96 statistical 43 storing 95 supplier 125 transfer 95 information aiding 51 information distribution 94. 32. 142 grouping 3. 87. 25 guidance 17 guide 13. 69. 94. 133 hours 16. 19. 115. 96. 127 I identifier 56 IFBs (Invitation for Bid) 110 impacting project costs 128 implementation 10. 108. 42. 104. 77-9. 27. 68 human resources 30. 92. 54. 85. 58. 1249. 125. 13. 123-4. 25. 23-5. 54. 101. 130. 29-34. 51. 122. 23. 93. 83-4. 43. 58. 122 155 . 119-20 improvements 8. 138-9. 5. 62. 93-7. 98 individuals 15. 142 information 2. 46.Project Management grade 81 Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique (GERT) 72 group 15. 21. 133-5. 41. 27. 17. 132. 45. 70. 89-90 hyperlinks 4. 115. 91-2.

55-6. 128. 40. 129 Internet 123. 117 lifecycle 23 limited resources 58. 92. young 7 managers. 63. 81. 121. 119 executive 17. 100. 61 links 93. 40 intentions 2.Project Management information distribution system 96 information retrieval system 96 inspection 57-8. 16. 73. 49. professional project 15 156 . 140. 112. 48. 39. 67. 107. 101-2. 111 interact 40. 139 logical relationships 66-7 loss 2. 129. 86. 37. 63-4. 103 interfaces 88-9. 149 configuration 48-9. 13. 147 knowledge areas 37-40. 37. 127-8. 125. 99-100. 145 L Lawrence 147-8 liability 2 license 136 life cycle 25. 61. 124. 129 location 65. 89. 145. 137 Project Communications 38 management cost 74 manager. 87. 127. 119. 85 insurance 106 Integration Management. 110-12. 44. 17. 39-40. 135. Project 37 Integration Product 3. 82. 123. 112. 118. 139 defined work 63 ITIL 146. 87. 74. 148 J job position 124 K knowledge 8-9. 61. 131. 104 M magnitude 60. 46. 102 management 9. 115. 102. 126. 37. 111. 54. 88. 134 list 53. 135 Invitation for Bid (IFBs) 110 items 14.

131. 52. 33. 82. 7. 43-4. 104 monitor contractor cost 113 monitor cost performance 80 monitor project results 34 Most project management scheduling programs 69 Most project management software packages 65 Most project management solutions 124 N network logic 72 sequential 72 O operational state 41 operations 8.Project Management Managing Stage Boundaries 118 mashups 4. 125 organizational planning 30. 49. 104. 16. 38. 87. 87-9 P pages. 43. 124. 97. 67 performance 39. 42. 54. 139 parties 21. 19. 107-9. 135. 134. 91. 91. 19-22. 39-40. 126. 39. 111. 59-61. 157 . 137 organization 3. 15. 127-8. 27. 138-9 [1] performing 19. 15. 11. 94. expected 104-6 money 11. 126. 39. 141 misinformation 47 mitigation 105 model 79 modules 66-7 monetary value. 41. 121. 78. 133. traditional 131-2. 100. 96. 96-7. 109. 17. 123. 115. 93. 12. single 124. 68-70. 80. 88-9. 141-2 executing 141 performing 132. 82. 103. 135 permalinks 127 person 2. 89. 77. 132. 128. 128-9. 111. 92. 113. 136 time project 136 methods. 141-2 payments 109 pdf 147-9 PDM 65. 93-4. 98. 134 minutes 68-9. 119. 131. 138 meeting project objectives 46 members 11. 19. 133 meeting 7.

66. 147 PMBOK Guide breaks project management 13 PMBOK quality management 80 PMI (Project Management Institute) 13. 22-4. 115. 50. 85. 17. 47. 44. 139 right 91 perspectives 62-3. 60. 23-4. 29. 99. 112 PRINCE2 117-19. 137-8 workflow 141 Perspectives of Project Management 137 PERSPECTIVES of PROJECT MANAGEMENT 5 PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique) 72 phases 25. 15. 13. 82. 107-9 product 2. 100. 52. 110. 133-4 [5] expected 51 158 . 108-11. 29. 124. 118-19. 92. 33 processes. 117-19. facilitating 29-31. 19. 145-9 PMBOK Approach Insights for Software Development Projects 147 PMBOK Guide 13. 74-5. 99101. 105. 55-6. 115. 140. 108-9 procurement 91. 117. 86. 41-2. 83. 51-3. 58. 39. 37. 77. 41. 27. 69.Project Management 137. 101 PMBOK 3. 108. 147. 118. 101-2. 108-9. 31. 32. 7-9. 29. 52 Pittsburgh Project Management Institute 148 planning 3. 149 probability 71-2. 80-6. 81. 37 procure 31. 131 problem 10. 145 planning phase 25. 45 planning processes 42-3. 32-3. 16. 133. 130-2. 122-3. 57-9. 80. 99. 112-13. 49. 141 process group 24-5. 149 policies. 104-6. 140 project of 24. organizational 43. 46. 46 portability 5. 145 procurement documents 110 procurement items 110-12 procurement management 119 Project 39 procurement planning 39. 149 PMIS (Project Management Information System) 44. 135-6 potential risk events 101-4 power 63 preassignment 91 price 110-11 fixed 109 pricing 78. 31. 49 PMP (Project Management Professional) 15-16.

71-2. 130 large 63. 92. 79. 126. 39 multiple 20 quality management disciplines complement PMBOK 81 selecting 51 specialized 13 support 89 way 13 project activities 41. 15. 143 Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) 72 project application 77 breaking 134 complex 92 construction 65. 138 living 131 lower risk 15 managing 11. 105 project cycle 37 project decisions 52 159 .Project Management interim 59 quicker 134 unique 145 well-defined 109 product names 2 product-oriented processes 24 product scope 48 product verification 113 productivity 82. 123. 65. 112. 75 failed 10. 77. 109 engineering 40. 141 completing 75 project alternatives 53 Project-based organizations 20 project boards 119 project budget 34 project charter 52 project closure 145 project components 41 project constrains 44 project control 42 project cost estimate 78 project cost estimation 78 project cost management 74-5 project costs 75. 97.

Project Management

project deliverables 29, 45-6, 53-4, 61, 98 project details 50 project documents 99 project durations 72-3 project elements 40, 55, 62 project execution 42, 46, 113, 132, 140 project failures 9-10, 130 project information 43 project initiation 52 project integration 145 Project Integration Management 40 project interfaces 88-9 project level 117 project life cycle 24-5 project management 3-23, 25-33, 35-57, 59-67, 69-71, 73-80, 825, 87-93, 95-100, 102-4, 106, 108-9, 114-24, 126-8, 130-8, 140-7 [1] benefit 146 certified 26 understanding 27 web-based 136, 142 138 project management accreditation 11 Project Management Agile Processes 149 project management aid 101 project management application areas 58 project management approach 68, 112 project management assumptions 139 Project Management Body 147 Project Management Book of Knowledge 13 project management collaboration 143 Project Management Copyright 2 Project Management Critical Components for Success 148 project management days 141 Project Management Deming 81 project management distribution 39 project management engine 129 Project Management Facilitating processes 34 PROJECT MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORKS 4, 117 project management information 86 Project Management Information System (PMIS) 44, 47, 49 Project Management Information System, adopted 44 project management information systems 47, 49 Project Management Institute, see PMI

160

Project Management

project management interact 40 project management item 110 project management model 93 project management opportunity 105 project management perspective 100 project management processes 3, 24-5, 29, 108, 112, 117 Project Management Professional (PMP) 15-16, 149 project management programs 120, 136 Project Management Project communication management 94 project management relationships 125 project management requirements 113 Project Management Risk response control executes 107 Project Management Scheduling 72 project management situations 131 project management software packages 66, 73 project management solutions 122 project management success 24, 145 Project Management TABLE of CONTENTS 3 project management team 16, 89, 132, 136 project management tool 130-2, 138 Project Management Using 129 Project Management.pdf 149 project managers 3-4, 11, 13, 15-17, 19-22, 25, 32, 40, 42-3, 467, 70-1, 90-1, 128, 130-2, 136-7, 141-2 [8] project member 101 project methodology 117 project monitoring systems 135 project objectives 25, 64 project organization 105, 108 project outcomes 31 project performance 31-2, 60 project perspective 49, 63, 101 project phases 25, 34, 37, 52, 98 project plan 3, 38, 40-50, 54, 57, 61-2, 91-2, 97, 111, 127, 129, 131, 134-5, 138-9 final 42, 46 project plan development 37 project plan execution 37 project plan execution process 46 project planners 33 project planning 10, 29, 33, 44, 131 project practices 83 project processes 41 project processes focus 23

161

Project Management

Project Quality Assurance 84 project quality management 80-1 project requirements 90-1 project resources 94 project results 56, 84-5, 98 project risk 101 project risk management 99-100 project roles 30, 89 assigning 88 project schedule 30, 34, 72-4, 80 project scope 3, 31, 34, 48, 50, 56, 145 changing 72 project scope definition 54, 89 project scope management 38, 81 project scope planning 52 project staff 91-2 project staffing, expected 95 project stakeholders 32 project success 95, 99 project tasks 16, 24 project team 17, 19-20, 31-2, 47-8, 61, 63-5, 68-71, 74, 77-8, 812, 84-7, 89-91, 99-101, 104, 111-12, 134-6 [11] project team meeting 126 project team members 47, 50, 69, 77, 90, 126, 128, 137 project team uses 78 project time management 61 project timelines 10 project value 97 project variances 49 project work 57, 94 assigned 42 bulk of 29, 31 projects activities 67 projects claim 130 Project's Culture and Communications 147 project's existence 52 project's performance 32 projects stem, effective 26 Projectway 148 publisher 2 Q quality 4, 8, 48, 59-60, 75, 81-4, 87, 101, 118, 122, 131, 145 quality control 38, 57, 84-6, 113

162

58. 85 quality management 42. 140 Project 38 quality management activities 82 quality management plan 84-5 Quality Management System 119 quality planning 38. 30. 105-7. see RSS relationships 32. 126. 145 reporting 88. 82-3 quality policy 82 quality standards. 103. 140-1 responsibilities 21.Project Management quality control process 83. 44. 134. 74. 27. 65-6. 121-2. formal 48 rework 73. 44. 30. 31. 43. 84 R RAM (Responsibility Assignment Matrix) 89 Really Simple Syndication. 124-5. 8. relevant 30. 82. 77 resource pool descriptions 71. 32. 17. 81. 99-100 [9] responses 21. 87-90. 71. 143 Request for Proposal (RFP) 110 Request for Quotation (RFQ) 110 resistance 130 resource cost 30 resource estimates 56 resource leveling 73 resource limitations 72 resource management human 87. 107 risk management 100. 119 Project Human 38 resource planning 38. 106-7 risk identification 39. 54. 119. 86 RFP (Request for Proposal) 110 RFQ (Request for Quotation) 110 risk events 102-4. 92 reliability 103. 24. 75. 33-4. 82. 140 Project 39 risk management plan 106-7 163 . 45. 119. 118. 102. 141 Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) 89 reusing project plans 133 review. 54. 100. 129. 41. 77 resource requirements 30. 75. 88-9. 14. 77-80. 80. 94. 60. 77-8 resources 4.

Project Management risk quantification 39. 58-60. 95. 137 [4] preliminary 73 schedule change control system 74 schedule control 38. 100. 97-8. 137-8 [2] changing 59-60 project's 59 scope change control 38. 44-5. 80. 38. 71-4. 48. 24-5. 133 RSS technology 127 S sampling. 69. 122-3. 103-4 risk quantification process 104-5 risk responses 106. statistical 85-6 schedule 3. 48. 47-8. 59 scope change control system 60 scope changes 59-60 scope management 74. 109. 61-2 schedule estimates 138 schedule performance 85-6 schedule performance index (SPI) 98 schedule variance (SV) 98 scheduling 3. 17. 44. 101. 74. 31. 140 required staff Key 45 sources of 101-4 understanding 100 risks event 102 roof 64 RSS (Really Simple Syndication) 127. 62. 74 schedule development 38. 33. 50-6. 39. 130-4. 125. 62. 125. 61. 86-7. 71-2. 100-1. 10. 140 scope management plan 59-60 Scope Management Time Management Cost Management 118 scope planning 38 164 . 129. 14. 86 scope 8. 87. 128. 65. 29. 34. 34-5. 103. 100. 140-1 risk symptoms 101. 139-41. 103 risks 4. 50. 41-2. 145 [3] covered 106 handling 106 high 104 increased 73 low 104 potential 83. 106. 29. 99-107.

56-8. 107-10. 73. 945. 98. 47. 51-3. 130 Starting up a Project 117 statement. 82. 125. project management Scope 45 structure 88. 80. 19-22. 128-9. 145 stakeholders 9. 138 multiple 112. 27. 102. 135. 139 T tap 142 tasks 14-15. 96. 56-7. 101. 78. 78. 45. 52-4. 66. 135 team 14. 95 organizational 88-9 subnets 67 Successful project management 19 Summarizing Project 145 supplier 113. 92-3. 42. 22. 68 Service Management and PMBOK for Application Support Project 148 services 2. 105. 107. 122. 129 sourcing. 74. 11213. 56-7 scope verification process 56-8 sellers 2. 62. 131 165 . 17. 21. 15. 126-8. 128. 42. 55. 124. 42-4. 87-8. 17. 34. 22. 141 [8] standards 13. 64. 32. 145 new 7-8 product of 78 simulation 70. 96. 32. 110-12 prospective 110-11 sequence 65. 108 scope verification 38. 73. 104 skills 8-10. 77. open 131-2 SPI (schedule performance index) 98 staff 90-1. 71. 81-2. 62. 131. 145-7 web-based 142. 17. 22-3. 146 sources 84. 90. 91-3. 39. 48. 142. 125 SV (schedule variance) 98 systems 20. 46. 101-4. 80. 92-3. 83. 59-60. 47-9. 82-3. 75. 102. 108 Software Development Projects 65 software package 66-7 Software Projects 148 solicitation planning 39. 46.Project Management scope statement 29. 107-8 solutions 121-2. 53. 7-8. 80-1 start 7. 17. 40. 44. 89. 30. 24.

95. 105. 142 usage 136 users 122. 67-8. 139 [1] Total Quality Management (TQM) 81 TQM (Total Quality Management) 81 track 33. 127. 74. 62. 23. 101. 124. 130-2. 54. 127. 122-4. 20-1. 45. 89. 62-3. 103-4 templates 54. 63. 64. 140 Project 38 tolerances 104 tools 8. 50-1. 60. 70. 133 network 67 tepaper pdf/WP 147-8 theme 132 threats 31. 62-3. 20. 105. 129. 101. 138 166 . 132-3. 74-5. 103. 68-70. 46-8. 67. 14. 126. 135-6. 70. 49.Project Management team development 38. 131. 64 WBS (Work Breakdown Structure) 14. 74. 122. 112-13. 60-1 W walls 9. 138 web 7. 101. 146 new 59. 84-5. 135 web applications 121-4. 142 trademarks 2 U unit price contracts 109 updates 25. 74. 34. 54-7. 115. 132 teamwork 130 technologies 50. 47. 85. 59-60. 135. 80. 101. 129. 139 uses project characteristics 79 V variances 32-3. 44. 77-8. 128 time management 62. 92-3 matrix organizations 91 team development service 91 team members 46-7. 140-2 [15] work authorization system 46 work breakdown structure 14. 68. 91-2. 74-5. 135 web page 126-7 Wikipedia 149 work 7-8. 96-7. 95. 52. 37-8. 24. 49. 87. 109-10. 135-6. 49. 97-8.

26 workplace 11. 22 167 .Project Management complete 55 objectives 45 Work Breakdown Structure. 140-1 workflow element 141 workflows 5. 138. see WBS work element 56 work packages 56 workarounds 107. 140-2 multiple 142 workforce 17. 135.

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