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Let's look at a polygon inscribed in a circle... If we increase the number of sides of the

polygon, what can you say about the polygon with respect to the circle?

As the number of sides of the polygon increase, the polygon is getting closer and

closer to becoming the circle!

If we refer to the polygon as an n-gon, where n is the number of sides, we can make

some equivalent mathematical statements. (Each statement will get a bit more

technical.)

As n approaches infinity, the n-gon approaches the circle.

The limit of the n-gon, as n goes to infinity, is the circle!

The n-gon never really gets to be the circle, but it will get darn close! So close, in fact,

that, for all practical purposes, it may as well be the circle. That's what limits are all

about!

Archimedes used this idea (WAY before Calculus was even invented) to find the area

of a circle before they had a value for PI! (They knew PI was the circumference

divided by the diameter... But, hey, they didn't have calculators back then.)

SOME NUMERICAL EXAMPLES:

EXAMPLE 1:

Let's look at the sequence whose nth term is given by n/(n+1). Recall, that we let n=1

to get the first term of the sequence, we let n=2 to get the second term of the

sequence and so on.

What's happening to the terms of this sequence? Can you think of a number that

these terms are getting closer and closer to? Yep! The terms are getting closer to 1!

But, will they ever get to 1? Nope! So, we can say that these terms are approaching 1.

Sounds like a limit! The limit is 1.

As n gets bigger and bigger, n/(n+1) gets closer and closer to 1...

EXAMPLE 2:

Now, let's look at the sequence whose nth term is given by 1/n. What will this sequence

look like?

As n gets bigger, what are these terms approaching? That's right! They are

approaching 0. How can we write this in Calculus language?

What if we stick an x in for the n? Maybe it will look familiar... Do you remember what

the graph of f(x)=1/x looks like? Keep reading to see our second example shown in

graphical terms!

SOME GRAPHICAL EXAMPLES:

On the previous page, we saw what happened to the sequence whose nth term is

given by 1/n as n approaches infinity... The terms 1/n approached 0.

Now, let's look at the graph of f(x)=1/x and see what happens!

The x-axis is a horizontal asymptote... Let's look at the blue arrow first. As x gets

really, really big, the graph gets closer and closer to the x-axis which has a height of 0.

So, as x approaches infinity, f(x) is approaching 0. This is called a limit at infinity.

Now let's look at the green arrow... What is happening to the graph as x gets really,

really small? Yep, the graph is again getting closer and closer to the x-axis (which is

0.) It's just coming in from below this time.

Since different things happen, we need to look at two separate cases: what happens

as x approaches 0 from the left and at what happens as x approaches 0 from the right:

and

Since the limit from the left does not equal the limit from the right...

First of all, let's look at what's happening around the dashed blue line. Recall that this

is called a vertical asymptote.

So...

Another way to think about the limit is the find the height of the graph at (or really

close to) the given x. Think about a little mountain climbing ant (call him Pierre) who is

crawling on the graph. What is Pierre's altitude when he's climbing towards an x?

That's the limit!

Let's look at what's happening at x = -7... The limit from the right is the same as the

limit from the left... But there's a hole at x = -7!

That's ok! We don't care what happens right at the point, just in the neighborhood

around that point. So...

That's right!

Right again!

Let's look at one more type of limit. To do this we'll show you the screen of a TI-92

graphing calculator!

(If you have a TI-92, the viewing window here is -1.5, 2.1, 1, -3.3, 4.7, 1, 2.)

It sure wiggles around a lot! But, we see that

Well, that's all I have to say about limits right now. I hope it helped!

Graphing

Slopes of Lines

Equations of Lines

Tangent Lines

Piecewise Functions

Absolute Values

Sideways Parabolas

Polynomials

Tail Behavior

Rational Functions - The Whole Thing

Tools

Logarithms

Composition of Functions

Freaky Factoring

Precalculus Trigonometry

I'm going to start with the basics here. I know that you probably know this

easy stuff... But, I'm going to build up to something, so bear with me and

read it.

and

at the slope is

(-2 , -1) to the point (4 , 3), you

rise up 4...

and run over 6.

The slope is

You can "rise" up or down, but you ALWAYS "run" to the right!

Let's look at this in a way that will get us that formula for crunching slopes

from two points:

Look at the as

familiar formula:

In math and science, we often use a Greek capital "D"... delta ( )... to

represent a "change".

A Calculus notation you'll see a LOT ditches the Greek letter part and uses

"d's"...

It's a simple thing from Algebra, but the slopes of lines are going to be

REALLY important in Calculus.

One last thing on slopes of lines...

Remember that lines with positive slopes are ones that go uphill (as you go

from left to right):

<i

You're going to be surprised at how important finding the equations of lines

is in Calculus. In some chapters, you'll be doing it as the last step to almost

every problem! So, let's make sure that you really have it down.

But, the form that is used the most in Calculus is the slope-intercept form:

Slopes are going to be a big deal and this form shows the slope!

Let's do a quick review of the pieces and how the graphing works just to

clean some cobwebs out of your brain.

Remember the pieces:

The y-intercept is 4:

TRY IT:

Graph

The next thing is to remember how to find the equation of a line given a point

and a slope.

Find the equation of the line that passes through the point

Find the equation of the line that passes through the point

with a slope of :

YOUR TURN:

Find the equations of the lines:

passing through

passing through

Horizontal and Vertical Lines

These puppies are going to pop up on you a lot in Calculus, so let's make

sure you remember which is which!

If you remember which of these is the vertical guy and which is the

horizontal guy, then you're good to go... But, if you still have to think twice

about it, I've got a way to keep them straight.

and x can be anything!"

When I want to graph , I say,

and y can be anything!"

YOUR TURN:

Multiply

Graph

Graph

Lesson 4 - Graphing - Tangent Lines

Here's a Calculus preview of WHY slopes of lines and equations of lines will

be so important.

Tangent lines!

First of all, don't think of the tangent from trig... Yeah, it's definitely related,

but we don't have to think that hard here.

A tangent line is a line that touches a graph in one local point so that, when

you zoom in on it, the graph and the tangent line will eventually look the

same.

Why will we need this in Calculus?

Because we want to study the exact behavior of graphs at every little point

and section... Lines are much easier to work with than the entire graph.

Tangent lines will give us easy snapshots of what's going on!

on graphing:

That's right. I said it. The official definition of a "sissy" is a weak or feeble

person... and, if you try to graph something like a parabola by making one of

those pathetic x-y charts

and making guesses... then you are a big sissy! Real geeks graph with their

brains because they know what they're doing. It takes a heck of a lot less

time and it's more accurate. I once saw a Calculus teacher draw a complete

blank and try to graph a parabola by plotting points... It got ugly fast. Don't

let this happen to you!

You'll be finding

areas between

two curves...

You'll even be

rotating things

around and

finding volumes!

Actually, it's pretty dang cool. (cough - geek!) It's not so cool if you stink at

graphing.

This section has all the main graphs that pop up over and over in Calculus

texts...

First, here's a special line guy that you've probably seen before... I call him

Line Guy:

The Disco Graph:

You know...

John Travolta?

That pose?

a parabola lying

on its side.

Absolute Value Guy (or V guy):

The Volcano:

These last two will be important if you go on to take Calculus -- they make

great examples.

Lesson 6 - Graphing - Shifting, Reflecting, Etc

I hope you got really good at shifting parabolas around! It works the same

way for the Graphs to Know & Love.

Let's review:

Graph

Graph

Graph

OK, let's go!

Graph

Graph

TRY IT:

Graph

Graph

YOUR TURN:

Graph

Graph

TRY IT:

Graph

This dashed line is called an asymptote.

Graphs approach, but they don't touch!

YOUR TURN:

Graph

Lesson 7 - Graphing - Piecewise Defined Functions

Ah, Calculus teachers love using piecewise functions! They stay home

Saturday nights dreaming up new ones... just for you!

If you've loathed them before, no fear. I've got a simple way to keep all the

pieces straight.

Now, we just need to figure out who the fence owner is...

Let's graph part :

Done!

TRY ONE:

Graph

Remember that they can't cross over into the other neighborhoods!

OK, so why are we being so careful about not crossing the fences into the

other neighborhoods?

Because these guys are functions! Remember that functions have to pass

the vertical line test.

TRY ONE:

Lesson 8 - Graphing - Absolute Values

You probably haven't seen these before, but they really do make ultra cool

Calculus problems. I've seen them in most texts. They're really pretty easy

if you look at them the right way.

Absolute values leave positive numbers and zero alone... and make

negative numbers positive!

So, what would the graph of this guy look like?

(y guys)... them positive!

YOUR TURN:

Graph

It takes these negative heights...

(Go tell your cat.)

Lesson 9 - Graphing - Sideways Parabolas

really do have to know how to graph

these... And I don't want you trying

to plot points like you don't know

what you're doing!

coordinate system.

This will get us through these!

positives -- just like Standard Parabola Guy:

Now, we are going to need to be able to move this new guy around.

FLIPS:

Let's look at Standard Parabola Guy:

Now, for Sideways Parabola Guy:

Graph

Graph

IN SHIFTS:

* shifts towards positive x's * shifts towards negative x's

x is a back-n-forth guy, so the h is the back-n-forth shift!

y is an up-n-down guy, so the k is an up-n-down shift!

(Again, I'm just going to do quick sketches --

you should make yours the official way and label 3 points.)

* shifts 1 towards positive y's! * shifts 2 towards negative y's!

YOUR TURN:

Graph

Graph

Finally, we've got the shifts that are hanging off on the end:

* shifts 3 towards negatives! * shifts 1 towards positives!

These go together...

y is an up-n-down guy, so k is an up-n-down shift.

some people actually write the graphing form this way to really lock

them together:

Sideways Parabola Guy:

These go together...

x is a back-n-forth guy, so h is a back-n forth shift!

(Remember, I'm only doing quick rough sketches.)

TRY IT:

Graph

Graph

YOUR TURN:

Graph

Graph

I know, you've worked with polynomials before, but we need to make sure

that you really understand how their shapes work. I definitely take an artist's

approach to these critters!

Understanding shapes and graphs will actually help you to know what some

answers in Calculus will be before you crunch them!

, ,

etc.

Starting us off is Standard Parabola Guy. Let's really pay close attention to

his basic shape. (I'm just going to draw rough sketches here.)

The tails both shoot

up...

it just touches (a kiss).

Remember that this is a multiplicity of 2 ( )

mountain.

shoot down.

Parabolas can also cross the x-axis TWO times (since their degree is

TWO.) This happens when they have extra terms (other stuff added on!)

Like

Fourth degree polynomials get a lot more exciting... If they have extra stuff

added on.

calculator* to graph him, you'll see that he looks a lot like Standard

Parabola Guy - but with a wider valley.

both shoot up.

wider here

Your graph should look about like this:

THINGS TO NOTICE:

One mountain

Two valleys

In Precalculus, you were mostly concerned with finding where these cross or

touch the x-axis -- because, really, that's all you COULD easily find without

Calculus.

Now, we'll be more interested in the mountains and valleys, where the graph

is going up and down and what those tails are doing.

So, what would this guy look like?

I'm not really sure about those wobbles though... Not without the specific

info... And not without a graphing calculator... OR CALCULUS! So, I'll just

do my best and draw a basic shape for now.

Remember that a 4th degree

polynomial can cross the x-axis, at

most, FOUR times. This info really

helps with these rough sketches!

What about ?

It can cross, at most, six times... positive even degree always starts with the

left tail up... Let this info guide the shape as you draw...

mountains and three

valleys.

Let's move on to odd degree polynomials. Our easiest odd degree guy is

the disco graph... We really should give him a more mathematical name.

How about Standard Cubic Guy?

in opposite directions!

Cubic Guy... But, we get to cross three

times (3rd degree!)

look like? No wobbles,

What does

that's for sure.

Just like

looked like ,

His left tail starts low like the disco graph. He can cross the x-axis, at most,

five times...

Tails go in opposite

directions...

May have two mountains

and two valleys.

YOUR TURN:

Draw a rough sketch and make a note of its features.

Lesson 11 - Graphing - Increasing and Decreasing

One of the main things you'll be hunting in Calculus is where graphs are

increasing and decreasing... So, we'd better review it!

You've got an ant climbing on the graph. Not just any ant... Pierre the

Mountain Climbing Ant!

(He's kind of a pathetic math super hero.) For this, the rule is that Pierre

only crawls from left to right (like we read):

So, our graph is increasing on

So, our graph is decreasing on

What if Pierre is walking on ?

That line is horizontal (slope of 0). He's not going uphill or downhill, so the

graph is not increasing or decreasing there.

TRY IT:

For the following graph, list the intervals where the graph

is increasing and decreasing:

*Remember to answer in interval notation using only x values (no y values

allowed)!

Lesson 12 - Graphing - Relative Minimums and

Maximums (Extrema)

Another huge thing in Calculus is finding relative extrema.

The tops of the mountains are relative maximums because they are the

highest points in their little neighborhoods (relative to the points right around

them):

Suppose you're in a roomful of people (like your classroom.) Find the tallest

person there. (It's usually a guy.) He is the relative max of that room.

Specifically, he's the tallest, relative to the people around him. But, what if

you took that guy to an NBA convention? There'd be lots of guys who beat

him.

(Relative extrema (maxs & mins) are sometimes called local extrema.)

Other than just pointing these things out on the graph, we have a very

specific way to write them out.

f has a relative max of 1 at x = 2.

The max is, actually, the height... the x guy is where the max occurs.

So, saying that the max is (-3, 2) would be unclear and not really correct.

Now, for the relative minimums... These are the bottoms of the valleys:

Relative mins are the lowest points in their little neighborhoods.

f has a relative min of -1 at x = 4.

YOUR TURN:

Find the relative extrema:

So, how many relative mins and maxs does the typical polynomial critter

have?

Remember, we use how many times he can cross (his degree) to guide us.

a plain

Hmm... It looks like an guy can have, at most, 3 relative extrema.

What about ?

I smell a theorem brewing! (Either that or it's because I didn't shower this

morning.)

at most, n - 1 relative extrema.

Let's say I've got a graph describing Coolmath's revenue...

(fictional!)

Let's plop some tangent lines in there:

It's pretty clear that the tangent lines with positive slopes are good (yea -

profits are going up)... and tangent lines with negative slopes are bad (boo -

profits are going down.)

decreasing.

But, we can use tangent lines to tell us even more than that.

Let's check out one of the mountains on the graph:

Look at what's happening to the slopes on the left side... Yeah, they are

positive... which means that the graph is increasing... But, their values are

getting smaller as you climb the mountain from left to right. If I'm smart, I

see that a revenue problem could be coming up! Look at the top...

That's a horizontal tangent line. It could mean that a big change is coming.

Yeah, it could mean that this will happen:

But, unfortunately, that's not what happens here.

The slopes not only tell us that revenue is decreasing... But, those values

are getting smaller! This is NOT a good thing when revenue is involved.

Things are bad... But, although those slopes are negative, they're getting

bigger.

Look at the bottom... There's one of those horizontal tangent lines again!

Not only are those slopes positive, they are getting bigger. This is when you

start celebrating!

In Calculus, you'll be doing a lot of hunting for those horizontal tangent lines

because that's where interesting stuff happens: maximums, minimums,

changing from increasing to decreasing and changing from decreasing to

increasing.

While we're here, I want to point out a couple more things to you.

Notice that it's shaped like an upside down bowl... In Calculus, you'll call this

"concave down." Let's take another look at those slopes:

Here's the list in order from left to right:

Notice that it's shaped like a regular bowl... In Calculus, you'll call this

"concave up."

Here's the list in order from left to right:

One of the other things you'll be hunting for is the point where the graph

changes from concave down to concave up (and visa versa).

This tangent line stuff was probably way more than you wanted to know.

But, believe me, it's nice to get to see it all ahead of time before you have all

those Calculus numbers, x's and formulas flying at you at what will seem like

the speed of light!

YOUR TURN:

On the following graph, draw tangent lines at

x = 1, x = 2, x = 3 , x = 4, x = 5 and x = 6.

Where is the graph concave up?

Lesson 14 - Graphing - Tail Behavior

Now, were going to play a little Calculus game on these guys. Don't worry --

it's really easy. Just some picture stuff.

What happens to the height of the graph as x gets really, really big?

What happens to the height of the graph as x gets really, really small?

The phrasing on this might get you... Just keep reading and I'll put it a few

different ways.

Remember that this guy goes on forever. That's what those arrows are for!

As x gets bigger and bigger, the height of the graph is going down, down,

down!

As

As

As x gets smaller and smaller, the height of the graph is going up, up, up.

.

As

To sum up:

Let's do another one:

Both tails are shooting up on this guy. So, whether Pierre runs way out to

the right or to the left, it's mountain climbing time.

TRY IT:

Draw a rough sketch of the graphs and label the end-tail

behavior:

FYI, what we've been doing here is called "finding limits"... And, yes, this is

Calculus, baby! Not bad, eh?

Lesson 15 - Graphing - Intro to Rational Functions

Remember graphing these?

Oh, the horror! Not these again? Yep. They're baaaack! Yeah, you

guessed it. These are important in Calculus, too.

But, not to worry! I have a great way to teach them that I'll bet you've never

seen before (unless your Precalc teacher is a Coolmath fan!)

and

That's it!

Here are the 2 things:

intercepts

asymptotes

Graphs hug asymptotes.

(Don't worry. The next sections will tell you what these things mean.)

I'm guessing that you haven't seen my method before, so I'm going to go

through all the gory details. Since plotting points is for sissies, it will be our

personal challenge to graph these things ONLY using the 2 things and the 2

sentences. Oh, and one more little thing: our brain!

NOTE: Until we learn Calculus, we'll really just be able to get pretty good

rough sketches of these critters. Calculus will fill in all the details!

Lesson 16 - Graphing - Rational Functions:

Finding the Intercepts

These are easy!

OK, think about it... When you are on the y-axis, what is your

x value?

The x value is 0.

So, find the y-intercept...

Set x = 0!

Check it out:

TRY IT:

Find the y-intercept of

But, here's the cool thing: For these rational guys, you just need to set the

numerator = 0 and solve!

Check it out:

numerator = 0

and

TRY IT:

Find the x-intercepts of

BIG NOTE:

There will NOT be any others!!

Lesson 17 - Graphing - Rational Functions:

Finding Vertical Asymptotes

Remember asymptotes?

What does it mean?

getting closer and

closer to the axes?...

But, it will never

touch them?

The x and y axes are

asymptotes!

Asymptotes are lines (usually invisible) in space that a graph gets closer and

closer to but never touches...

This is like finding the bad spots in the domain. It's where the function

cannot exist.

Check it out:

We draw them with dashes since they are really invisible.

TRY IT:

Find (and draw) the vertical asymptotes of

Lesson 18 - Graphing - Rational Functions: Finding

Horizontal and Slant Asymptotes

I'll start by showing you the traditional method, but then I'll explain what's

really going on and show you how you can do it in your head. It'll be easy!

If

, then the x-axis is the horizontal asymptote.

diagonal or oblique asymptote.)

Yeah, yeah, you COULD just memorize these things... but it's way better to

KNOW what's going on. Then you can just do it.

What we're really doing is some quick long division to divide the denominator

into the numerator. The cool thing is that we only need to do the first part --

no remainder crud! And we can do it in our heads!

Check it out:

Find the horizontal asymptote for

So, let's do this one the quick way:

Look at

Look at

TRY IT:

Find the horizontal asymptote of

Look at

(which is the x-axis)

YOUR TURN:

Find the horizontal asymptote of

, we find that

If we look at WILL divide in...

the

But, there's going to be some x stuff left over to deal with. This is when

you need to start in with some long division... and we get to ignore the

remainder!

You can stop here since the rest will be remainder stuff.

TRY IT:

Lesson 19 - Graphing - Rational Functions: The

Whole Thing

intercepts

asymptotes

Graphs hug asymptotes.

2 things

Graph and

2 sentences!

The x-intercept: Set numerator = 0 and solve

graphing, this has no solution! This is going to be very

* Do you see why? useful info!

Horizontal asymptote:

Look

at

Now we're ready to graph... Remember that plotting points is for sissies, so

use your brain!

* Remember that the graph CANNOT cross the y-axis anywhere else and it

CANNOT cross the x-axis at all!

There are the three neighborhoods that this graph lives in:

Let's look at the left neighborhood:

* Remember your 2 sentences!

Since he's a function (and must pass the vertical line test), he can't do both.

What did we say about crossing the x-axis for this guy? (Look back if you

need to.)

Yep -- he's not allowed to cross the x-axis! But, look at that bottom guy:

But, he's not allowed to -- so, he's got to live upstairs!

And remember, he's not allowed to cross the x-axis! So, he CAN'T do any of

these things:

What's left?

DONE!

YOUR TURN:

Graph pieces!)

Hey, you can check it on the graphing calculator! Enter it like this:

2 things

Graph and

2 sentences!

Horizontal asymptote:

Look

at

* When this is the case, we're going to be forced to "quickie plot" a few

points to nail the graph. No, this isn't being a sissy -- we'll have no choice.

But, Calculus will fix this problem by telling us where the graphs are

increasing and decreasing!

Since we've got that pesky y = 0 horizontal asymptote, we can't use our

"nowhere else" info on the x-intercepts to figure out the "upstairs" or

"downstairs" stuff. Until we have Calculus, we're going to have to humble

ourselves and plot some points -- kind of! We're going to avoid taking that

pathetic trip to Sissyville by cheating a little bit... I call it "quickie plotting."

Four strategically located points will do it and all we really need to know is if

he's above or below the x-axis at each point.

and negatives -- See if you can

do it!

Now we've got it! Remember that he can only cross the x-axis at

x = 0... So, once he's below, he'll be stuck there... and, once he's above,

he'll have to stay above:

YOUR TURN:

Graph

* Remember that, when you are working these things out -- write out all of

your work in a neat and organized way! This is one of the main reasons you

have to take math classes -- they teach you to organize your thoughts AND

TO THINK!

2 things

Graph and

2 sentences!

The x-intercepts: numerator = 0, solve

Horizontal asymptote:

Look at

Slant asymptote:

First , let's think about the left and right neighborhoods:

These guys are functions.

He can ONLY cross the x-axis at x = 0.

Can he do this?

So, it must be like this:

We'll need to quickie plot two points... Try it before going on.

NOTE: A common mistake that students make is to think that a graph

cannot cross a slant or horizontal asymptote. This is not the case! A graph

CAN cross slant and horizontal asymptotes (sometimes more than once).

It's those vertical asymptote critters that a graph cannot cross. This is

because these are the bad spots in the domain.

YOUR TURN:

Graph

Lesson 20 - Graphing - Rational Functions:

Increasing and Decreasing Revisited

Let's look back at some of the critters we graphed in the last section and find

the intervals where they are increasing and decreasing.

that Pierre always walks from left to right for these.

f is increasing on .

Why did we leave the -5 out? Because the graph doesn't even exist there!

Decreasing? Pierre is walking downhill...

f is decreasing on .

It's one wild ride for Pierre! Downhill sledding all the way! But, if we said

that f is decreasing everywhere, that wouldn't be quite right... Because the

graph doesn't exist at x = -4 and at x = 2.

It's decreasing everywhere on its own domain, which is

YOUR TURN:

Given

Given Graph it!

Lesson 21 - Graphing - Rational Functions:

Limits

Remember end-tail behavior? What's going on with those tails?

One of the things math geeks get all jazzed about in Calculus is seeing what

happens when and .

We can do this with these rational function critters, too. The key here is that

horizontal (or slant) asymptote.

Check it out:

Remember... GRAPHS HUG ASYMPTOTES!

As x gets bigger and bigger (goes to the right), our graph gets closer and

closer to that asymptote (which is y = 2.) It will never actually hit the

asymptote ( f(x) will never = 2), it will just get closer and closer. This is why

we use the word "approaches." It's the same story on the left when x is

getting smaller and smaller.

these guys without the graph!

Check it out:

Since the horizontal asymptote is y = 3,

TRY IT:

For each of the following, without doing the graph, find

the end-tail behavior as and as .

Double check your answers by graphing.

There's another limit thing we geeks get excited about with these graphs --

and it has to do with what happens to the graph around those asymptotes.

We just love following the arrows on graphs. It's how we spend our Friday

nights.

Check it out:

he's approaching? Does he need scuba gear? Mountain climbing

equipment?

Hmm... You should now be asking me a question:

right, he's climbing up, up,

up.

he's climbing down, down,

down.

So...

If he's coming

in from the

right, he's

climbing up.

If he's climbing

in from the left,

he's climbing

down.

Again, it matters whether he's coming in from the right or the left:

YOUR TURN:

Label all limits on the graphs:

OK, let's see how you do with some graphs to know and love. For each,

draw a rough sketch and fill in the info:

f is decreasing on ______________________

f is increasing on ______________________

f is decreasing on ______________________

f is increasing on ______________________

Lesson 22 - Graphing - Exponentials and

Logarithms

The important thing to remember for these graphs is the basic shape.

When (like or ),

The bigger x

gets, the faster

the graph climbs

goes downhill:

So, what if there is a negative exponent? Does the graph go uphill?

Downhill? It all depends on the base!

is really

Check out this sequence:

Can you figure out what the next term will be? Maybe you saw the pattern

right away... and maybe you didn't

What's the 50th term?

Unfortunately, with this guy, you'd have to find all the terms leading up to the

50th term -- since he's based on the two before them and so on. When this

happens, it's called recursion.

By the way, this last sequence is very famous! It's called the Fibonacci

Numbers. (Named after Fibonacci, of course.)

figure it out. Luckily, we'll be able to get a formula for this kind of sequence

later.

This one's not so simple... There IS a pattern, but it's a bit buried.

Let's list the differences between the terms and see if that helps.

See what's going on?

We're adding 2 each time down here, so just continue with this pattern and

work your way back up:

We won't be working with these buried guys in later sections, but, they're

kind of interesting, so I wanted to show them to you.

TRY IT:

Find the next term:

There's one last intro thing I need to tell you about.

There are finite sequences that just stop after a certain number of times.

And there are infinite sequences that keep on going forever and ever.

Like:

Lesson 23 - Tools - Logarithm Rules

This is just a formula game. In Calculus, these rules can make an

impossible problem really easy!

on your calculator to see if this really works:

Check this on your calculator:

Here's how you can use these in Calculus to make your life a lot easier:

Having logs of little things will be much easier, so let's use our rules:

Let's do another one:

Guys that start out on the bottom...

TRY IT:

Rewrite this as a bunch of little logs:

They only get a little messier...

The only other thing they'll throw at you is roots... When this happens, just

switch over to exponential notation:

YOUR TURN:

Rewrite these as a bunch of little logs:

* remember

problems doable. I'm not going to lie... They still won't be easy, but, at least

you'll be able to do them!

In Calculus, having a variable in the base AND in the exponent is bad news.

Remember that this guy lets you bring those variables down in front:

TRY IT:

Lesson 24 - Tools - The

Difference Quotient

The Difference Quotient

You probably saw this semi-obnoxious thing in Algebra... And I know you

saw it in Precalculus. Go back and look at the Slopes of Lines lesson

again... This thing is just the slope of a line through the points ( x, f(x) )

and ( x + h, f(x + h) ). It's going to be used in the most important

Calculus theorems, so you really need to get comfortable with it. I know

right where students get messed up on these, so let's back up a bit and start

with some basics. We'll build up from there.

Given

TRY IT:

Same function:

find

find

find

Now do

(This is important! Use those parentheses!)

Now, let's do :

That wasn't too bad, was it? Now, can we do the whole difference quotient?

NOTE: If you do these difference quotient guys properly, the original h in

the denominator will reduce out!

Given

YOUR TURN:

Given

Find

Given

So,

YOUR TURN:

Given

Find

Lesson 25 - Tools - Composition of

Functions

Remember this notation?

AN OUTSIDE: AN INSIDE:

call it call it

So,

The cool thing is that, for this, we don't need all that messy notation. We just

need to be able to find the levels!

Levels often (but, not always) announce themselves with parentheses or the

word "of" as you read it.

Like

outside

inside

outside

middle

inside

* read it out loud!

outside

next in

next in

inside

TRY IT:

How many levels of composition do you see? List them.

Lesson 26 - Tools - Freaky Factoring

I'm going to assume that you know how to factor the basic stuff like

trinomials and the difference of two squares...

What you really need for Calculus 1 is what I'm going to show you here.

This is a very specific type of factoring that will pop up when you have to

clean up your answers on a certain Calculus technique. With that in mind,

the following examples are designed with some unique patterns.

Let's start with some really easy stuff to get you into the pattern of what's

going on.

Factor

Factor

TRY IT:

Factor

Factor

Factor

YOUR TURN:

Factor

And then we simply slash the exponent off of the other blob!

Giving us

Factor

Take the smallest blob out...

(and deal with the 70 and 30)

TRY IT:

Factor

OK, now we're going to get weirder... and more like these will really be.

Factor

That was easy... So, we should be able to tackle this creep (who has the

same pattern):

Factor

Even though this looks like the messiest factoring you've ever done, it's

really the easiest because the pattern will always work the same way in

Calculus.

Factor

YOUR TURN:

Factor:

The only other creepy thing that's going to happen with these is that some

will have rational exponents... fractions! Not to worry though because they'll

work the same way. You just have to be able to pick which fraction is the

smallest.

Factor

The y's are easy...

Which fraction power

comes out!

Factor

TRY IT:

Factor

Factor

That last guy was to get you ready for this bad boy!

Factor

TRY IT:

Factor

Factor

Lesson 27 - Geometry - Basic Formulas to

Know

In Calculus, you'll still be doing all those typical word problems with ships

and planes... The big difference is that the things in Calculus MOVE!

Calculus gives you tools to find "rates of change." You'll be able to figure out

how fast a boat is pulling away from a dock or how fast water is draining out

of a tub. Lots of these problems will have geometry set ups.

Here's a basic list of geometry formulas that pop up in most Calculus texts:

Rectangle Info:

area

perimeter

Box info:

volume

surface area

Circle info:

area

circumference

Sphere info:

volume

surface area

Cylinder info:

Triangle info:

area

Pyramid info:

volume

Cone info:

volume

area

* Volumes work just like prisms... Take the area of the end and

multiply by the length!

And remember similar triangles!

or

Or, more commonly, you can mix and match like these:

or

Lesson 28 - Trigonometry - The Unit Circle and

Basic Trig Identities

What's ?

If you don't know off the top of your head, then you need this section! These

critters are going to pop up over and over again in Calculus.

The unit circle is a fantastic way to remember your trig values. Remember

that it's just a circle with a radius of one... but, it gives us such cool info!

RADIANS

DEGREES

I'm assuming that you've seen the unit circle before, so I'm not going to go

into the details of where this stuff comes from.

Now, how to remember all this AND put it together with sines, cosines, etc:

Sine guys are "up and down" guys

The long length is

Know

All you really need are the sines and cosines because you can get all the

others from these using basic identities:

When you need to figure something out, just get in the habit of drawing a

little unit circle. Works every time!

Let's do some!

short

positive

long

negative

medium

negative

YOUR TURN:

YOUR TURN:

Lesson 29 - Trigonometry - The

Pythagorean Identities

You are going to need to quickly recall the three Pythagorean Identities. The

first one is easy to remember because it's just the Pythagorean Theorem.

But, can you remember the other two? If you forget, here's the quick way to

get them from the first one:

(You can also remember that the "co" guys go together!)

, divide by .

, divide by .

these come up a lot!

Lesson 30 - Trigonometry - Other Trig Identities

to Know

Here are the identities I've already mentioned:

Also, the cosine guys are in the first position on both

and the sine guys are in the second position on both.

Lesson 31 - Trigonometry - Solving Trig

Equations

You'll be needing to solve some trig equations at the very end of some

Calculus problems... So, let's review!

Solve

solutions on ... which

is one lap around the unit circle.

So, for

or

If you want ALL the solutions, remember that you add to get all the

laps around

or

YOUR TURN:

Solve on

Solve on

*hint:

find this!

Solve

cosine!

or

or

short, positive

YOUR TURN:

One more:

Solve

... So, let's do that.

So,

pick up the other one.

But, we needed to solve for x, not . Stick the 3x back in for the :

TRY IT:

Solve

What's a Sequence?

Arithmetic Sequences

Geometric Sequences

Geometric Series

Mathematic Induction

What's a Sequence?

Let's look at some patterns:

TRY IT:

What's the next shape?

We added 3 each time.

TRY IT:

What's the next number?

Here's another:

What's the next number? 64

These are all squares.

TRY IT:

What's the next number?

(or other things) that changes

according to some sort of pattern.

What would the 10th term in this sequence be?

Sometimes it's really easy to find the pattern and find some random nth term

like we just did... and sometimes it isn't.

Can you figure out what the next term will be? Maybe you saw the pattern

right away... and maybe you didn't

What's the 50th term?

Unfortunately, with this guy, you'd have to find all the terms leading up to the

50th term -- since he's based on the two before them and so on. When this

happens, it's called recursion.

By the way, this last sequence is very famous! It's called the Fibonacci

Numbers. (Named after Fibonacci, of course.)

figure it out. Luckily, we'll be able to get a formula for this kind of sequence

later.

This one's not so simple... There IS a pattern, but it's a bit buried.

Let's list the differences between the terms and see if that helps.

See what's going on?

We're adding 2 each time down here, so just continue with this pattern and

work your way back up:

We won't be working with these buried guys in later sections, but, they're

kind of interesting, so I wanted to show them to you.

TRY IT:

Find the next term:

There's one last intro thing I need to tell you about.

There are finite sequences that just stop after a certain number of times.

And there are infinite sequences that keep on going forever and ever.

Like:

Remember when I did that list with the a's to describe a sequence...

That probably didn't mean much to you at the time. Here's what we use this

for:

We can use this formula to build the sequence.

Check it out:

See the n's in this guy ?

and so on...

It's easy!

When you're given a formula for , you stick in n = 1, then

n = 2, then 3, 4, and 5 to get the first five terms.

TRY IT:

Build the sequence (the first five terms) whose nth term is given by

The cool thing about the last two formulas is that you can just jump in and

find ANY term of the sequence!

Easy!

Some formulas are a bit trickier. Remember what happened with the

Fibonacci numbers? We COULDN'T just pop out the 100th term, since

each term was based on the two previous terms.

So,

let n = 3:

let n = 4:

let n = 5:

let n = 6:

and so on.

and

Here we go!

let n = 2:

let n = 3:

let n = 4:

let n = 5:

*When you build a sequence, finding the first five terms will usually do the

job.

YOUR TURN:

Build the sequence (the first five terms) whose nth term is given by

OK, so we know what a sequence is -- it's a list of numbers (or other things)

that changes according to some pattern.

Here's a sequence:

First, let's get the formula for the nth term of the above sequence...

I think it's

So, how are we going to let people know that we want to add up all the

terms of this sequence and make it a series?

Think of it as an "S" for "sum!"

Greek people

Math geeks

So... If you aren't in groups or ... You KNOW what this means. It's

time you face it.

Here's the official notation and don't worry -- I'll explain each part:

* Notice that we're using a k instead of the n...

This is important and will make something easier later.

have

Let's do another one so you can get more used to the notation.

Crunch it out!

TRY IT:

Find the sum:

Find the sum:

Here are some basic guys that you'll need to know the sigma notation for:

THE EVENS:

THE ODDS:

Odd numbers are just evens plus one...

Wait a minute! What just happened here?!

These guys started at different places.

So, be careful and ALWAYS check the first few terms to make sure that

everything works!

ALTERNATING SIGNS:

These will come up a lot!

Which of these you use depends on where you start your index and if the

thing starts with a positive or a negative. I know you don't believe me, so

check it out:

TRY IT:

Write the sigma notation for

Notation

If you're going on to Calculus, you're going to need these!

Here's the first one:

Do you believe it? (You should have gotten the same thing for both.)

This may not seem like a big deal, but you'll need it to prove some important

calculus stuff, so let's get used to it.

Now, use the commutative and associative properties... Gather up the a's...

Gather up the b's...

Here are the other two properties -- I'll let you do the proofs:

Sequences & Series Lesson 5 - Arithmetic

Sequences

These are arithmetic sequences:

We add -5 each time.

Why?

This is probably the difference, but

we'd better check it!

better get us up to !

YOUR TURN:

Find the difference:

OK, now we need to figure out how to get the nth term for these things.

Let's find the 50th term, the 100th term and the nth term.

Whenever you're trying to create a math formula, it's always a good idea to

make a table and look for a pattern.

Let's get more efficient with the notation:

Do you see the pattern?

Check out the term number and the guy that's changing on the right...

What's and ?

So, the formula for the nth term is

Here's the cool thing: We're NOT going to have to keep making these

tables! Since all arithmetic sequences behave the same way (change by

adding a number), we can get a formula that works for ALL of them!

Let's check to see if this thing works on another arithmetic sequence:

Yep!

The cool thing is that you can use this formula to find the 2000th term:

TRY IT:

Find

YOUR TURN:

Given the arithmetic sequence

Find .

Find the formula for the nth term.

Find .

Find .

and Arithmetic Series

Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777 - 1855) is one of the world's most famous

mathematicians.

This story has been flying around for years... who knows if it's really true or

not!?

Gauss was about 9 years old -- already a super genius (much like Wile E.

Coyote.) His teacher hated math and hated Gauss (because he was so

smart).

As usual, the teacher walked into the class and gave them a horribly tedious

arithmetic problem. They were to work on it and not bother him.

They got out their slate boards and chalk and started hammering away!

The teacher quickly noticed that Gauss was not writing -- HA! He had him

now!

"Oh? You're so smart -- why don't you share your answer with the class?"

"It's 5050."

"#*@#&*!"

It was true. Gauss had figured it out... In his head... At 9 years old... Do

you hate him too?

There are 50 pairs of 101...

That's

Dang!

TRY IT:

Do you think we can find a formula that will work for adding all the integers

from 1 to n?

Think about it! Look over the last three problems we just did -- see

anything?

Let's write it out the same way:

pairs of

TEST IT:

Find the sum

A similar formula works for when the terms skip some numbers, like

Let's find the sum of the first 50 terms of the arithmetic sequence:

We have:

We need:

It's a cinch if you know the formulas... and absolutely no fun if you don't!

Make flash cards! Gauss's problem always helps me remember. (That kid

was scary!)

YOUR TURN:

Find

Find

NO!

There are THREE terms.

terms:

So, it's 7 - 4:

YOUR TURN:

Find

Geometric Sequences

If you're going on to Calculus, these are going to be important!

Sometimes, you can just look...

The ratio is 4.

All of a sudden this isn't so funny! Don't start to sweat yet. It's really pretty

easy...

Yep, it got us up to !

YOUR TURN:

Find the ratio:

OK, so how can we find that magical nth term for a geometric sequence?

(Remember that this will get you that sigma notation to generate the series

for these.)

Let's do one the long way and figure out how the formula works for these.

Let's find the 50th term and the nth term of this geometric sequence

This is getting messy! Let's streamline the notation so we can nail the

pattern.

Check out the term number and the guy that's changing on the right:

Let's just leave it like

this -- it's a really huge

number!

Now that we know how these geometric guys work, we won't have to do the

table thing anymore!

Given a geometric sequence

So...

By the way, these ( ) are really important if your ratio is negative! So, be

careful!

TRY IT:

Find the formula for the nth term, then use it to find the

11th term of this sequence

Series

OK, this is going to blow your mind! In this section, I'm going to add up an

infinite number of numbers -- all positive -- and get a FINITE answer!

Well, I'm going to get a number. Just wait. We'll get to it in awhile.

First, let's check out the sigma notation for geometric sequences:

Here's an example:

TRY IT:

Find the sigma notation for

To find the sum of the first n terms of a geometric

sequence:

TRY IT:

OK, now for the mind-blowing infinite thing!

and less than 1...

So...

If , then

That's it!

No! Duuuuuude!

Look at this:

Let's add one term at a time...

See what's happening? Can you guess what the sum will be?

,

By the way, when and we CAN find the sum, the series

is called "convergent."

YOUR TURN:

Find the sum

So, what if r is something like ? Then the series does not have

a sum. It shoots off to infinity. When this happens, we call the series

"divergent."

So, if someone asks you to find the sum of an INFINITE geometric

sequence, CHECK THE RATIO!

TRY IT:

Find the sums (if possible):

Induction

There are several different methods for proving things in math. One type

you've probably already seen is the "two column" proofs you did in

Geometry.

In the Algebra world, mathematical induction is the first one you usually learn

because it's just a set list of steps you work through. This makes it easier

than the other methods. There's only one semi-obnoxious step (the main

one!) But, I've got a great way to work through it that makes it a LOT easier.

I was going to start out by officially stating "The Principle of Mathematical

Induction"... But, writing it out on my rough draft even gave ME a

headache! So, I'm just going to write out the steps... Go ahead and read

them through... But, don't expect to understand anything yet. I'm going to

explain how the whole thing works after. It really isn't that bad.

Show is true

Assume is true

Show

* In math, the arrow means "implies" or "leads to."

This is the modern way to end a proof.

The third step is the only tricky part... And it's the most important step... You

have to show EVERY little detail! Remember that you are proving

something -- which means that you have to spell out your entire argument. I

call this a "monkey proof." You have to write it out soooo clearly that the

average intelligent monkey can read it through and not get confused.

Teachers are very hip to the fact that omitting details or skipping steps on

these is, probably, clueless fudging on your part.

OK, I promised that I would actually explain this thing to you, didn't I? Take a

minute and go back to read the steps again. I'll wait.

Don't worry. I didn't understand it at first either. Lucky for you, I'm going to

explain it so you WILL get it!

Did you ever stack them so you could knock them all down? It's actually

pretty fun and, if you've never done it, I highly recommend that you do.

Can we knock down the first domino?

Yes!

Show is true.

in the middle?

Let's call it the kth domino.

Yes!

(This one is the big deal.)

If we knock down that kth domino, will the next domino get knocked

down too?

YES!

Prove

Show is true:

So, is true.

Assume is true:

is true.

Show

So,

Thus, is true.

Whew, that looks like one big mess! When doing a problem like this,

you need to show ALL the work I did except for my

comments. And, yes, you have to show each of the little steps in

part 3... Don't want to confuse the monkey!

Before we do another one, I want you to rewrite this last one out again -- but,

without my comments. Think through each step as you go.

Prove

Prove

Show is true:

So, is true.

Assume is true:

is true

Show

So,

Thus, is true.

OK, you need the practice... Write this guy out without my

comments.

TRY IT:

Prove

OK, here's a different type... Same process, it just works differently because

it's a different kind of formula to prove. It's one of our old algebra buddies!

Prove

Show is true:

So, is true.

Assume is true:

is true

Show

So,

Thus, is true.

Write this guy out without my comments. Think about each step!

TRY IT:

Prove

Binomial Theorem

Remember that a binomial is a polynomial with two terms

Here's where the work starts!

Man! I'm sick of this! Watch me start popping these things out by magic:

The a guys start at the original power and step down one each time...

What's the trick?

Whoa!

Now that you have the idea, we can do some other expansions. We'll just

change the a and b.

Let's expand

Here we go!

YOUR TURN:

Expand

Expand

Look at it like

Our coefficients:

YOUR TURN:

Expand

We'll be revisiting these guys in the next chapter. We just need some more

ammunition!

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