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and Applications in CBIR

Budapest Tech

SSIP’05, Szeged

Outline

n Introduction

n Demonstration of the algorithm

n Mathematical background

n Computational background: Matlab

n Presentation of the algorithm

n Evaluation of the test

n Conclusion

Introduction (1)

n Retrieval in large image databases

n Textual key based

n Key generation is subjective and manual

n Retrieval is errorless

n Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR)

n Key generation is automatic (possibly time

consuming)

n Noise is unavoidable

Introduction (2)

n If a new key is introduced, the whole

database has to be reindexed.

n In textual key based retrieval the reindexing

requires a lot of human work, but in CBIR

case it requires only a lot of computing.

Introduction (3)

n CBIR

n Low level

n Color, shape, texture

n High level

n Image interpretation

n Image understanding

Introduction (4)

n Typical task of low level CBIR

n Search for a given object using similarity

distance based on content keys

n One way of defining similarity distance is to

use color histograms – we concentrate on

this approach in the present talk

Demonstration of the algorithm

Image versions and their histograms

Two images and their histograms

Similarity distance between two image

histograms

4 4 4

dEuclid ( hx, hy ) =

2

rgb

r =1 g =1 b =1

Different illuminations

Normalized versions

Normalization may change image

outlook

Normalization may change image

outlook

Mathematical background

Color cluster analysis

n f = f ij [ ] i = 1, K , M ; j = 1, K , N

1. Compute the cluster center of all pixels f by

m=E[f]. m is a vector which points to the

center of gravity.

[

2. C = E ( f − m )( f − m )

T

]

The eigenvalues (λ1, λ2, λ3) and

eigenvectors of C are computed directly.

3. Denote the eigenvector belonging to the

largest eigenvalue by v=(a,b,c)T.

07. 07. 2005 SSIP'05 – Szeged 16

Rodrigues formula

Rotating v along n (n is a unit vector) by θ: Rv, where

0 − n3 n2

U ( n) = n3 0 − n1

− n 0

2 n1

Color rotation in RGB-space

Color rotation in RGB-space

n′ = (a, b, c ) × (1,1,1)

T 1 T

1 T T

Color rotation in RGB-space

4. Use the Rodrigues formula in order to rotate

with θ’ around n’.

5. Shift the image along the main axis of the

RGB-cube by (128,128,128)T.

6. Clip the overflows above 255 and the

underflows under 0.

Computational background

Fundamentals of MATLAB

Presentation of the algorithm

MATLAB code

function color_normalization(FILENAME, OUTPUT);

[m,n,d]=size(inp_image); % get size of input image

f=double(inp_image); % double needed for computations

M=zeros(m*n,3);

z=1;

mv=mean(mean(f)); % a vector containing the mean r,g and b value

v1=[mv(1),mv(2),mv(3)]; % means in red, green and blue

MATLAB code

for i=1:m

for j=1:n

v=[f(i,j,1),f(i,j,2),f(i,j,3)]; % image pixel at i,j

M(z,:) = v - v1; % image normed to mean zero

z = z + 1;

end

end

C = cov(M); % covariance computed using Matlab cov function

MATLAB code

%find eigenvalues and eigenvectors of C.

(diagonal elements of D) of the color cluster C

%get the max. eigenvalue meig and the corresponding eigenvector ev0.

Could also be norm(C)

if(meig==D(2,2)), ev0=V(:,2);, end

if(meig==D(3,3)), ev0=V(:,3);, end

% selects the eigenvector belonging to the greatest eigenvalue

MATLAB code

Idmat =eye(3); % identity matrix of dimension 3

wbaxis=[1;1;1]/sqrt(3); % unit vector pointing from origin along the main

diagonal

sinphi = norm(nvec); % sinphi is the length of the cross product of two

unit vectors

%normalized rotation axis.

MATLAB code

if(cosphi>0.99)

f=uint8(f);

imwrite(f,OUTPUT); %in this case we dont normalize, output is

input etc.

else % we normalize

n3 = nvec(3); n2 = nvec(2); n1 = nvec(1);

% remember: this is a unit vector along the rotation axis

U2 = U*U;

Rphi = Idmat + (U*sinphi) + (U2*(1-cosphi));

07. 07. 2005 SSIP'05 – Szeged 27

MATLAB code

n0 = [0 0 0]';

n255 = [255 255 255]';

for i=1:m

for j=1:n

s(1)= f(i,j,1)-mv(1); % compute vector s of normalized image at i,j

s(2)= f(i,j,2)-mv(2);

s(3)= f(i,j,3)-mv(3);

t = Rphi*s' ; % s transposed, as s is row vector, then rotated

tt = floor(t + [128 128 128]'); % shift to middle of cube and

make it integer

MATLAB code

tt = max(tt,n0); % handling underflow

g(i,j,:)=tt;

end

end

g=uint8(g);

imwrite(g,OUTPUT);

end % end of normalization

07. 07. 2005 SSIP'05 – Szeged 29

Evaluation of the test

Test databases

n 5 objects

n Alternative color cubes

n 3 illuminations

n 3 background

n 90 images

Some test results (without

normalization)

Some test results (with normalization)

Conclusions

References

n Paulus, D., Csink, L., and Niemann, H.: Color

Cluster Rotation. In: Proc. of International

Conference on Image Processing, 1998, pp.

161-165

n Sergyán, Sz.: Special Distances of Image

Color Histograms. In: Proc. of 5th Joint

Conference on Mathematics and Computer

Science, Debrecen, Hungary, June 9-12,

2004, pp. 92

Thank you for your attention!

Csink.laszlo@nik.bmf.hu Sergyan.szabolcs@nik.bmf.hu

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