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Computational Fluid Dynamics! Computational Fluid Dynamics!

http://www.nd.edu/~gtryggva/CFD-Course/! Multiscale Issues!

Some communities have Buoyant bubbles in an inclined

channel flow!
defined two types of multi-
Average
scale problems.!
“Classical”! Velocity-B!

Type A Problems: Dealing

Turbulence with Isolated Defects!

Modeling! Type B Problems:

Constitutive Modeling Based
on the Microscopic Models !
gravity!
Grétar Tryggvason! Reference: W. E and B. Enquist,
The heterogeneous multiscale
Spring 2011! methods, Comm. Math. Sci. 1 Thin film
(2003), 87—133.! model-A!

Outline!

A jet in a cross flow!

Why turbulence modeling!
Reynolds Averaged Numerical Simulations!
Zero and One equation models!
Two equations models!
Model predictions!
Wall bounded turbulence!
Second order closure!
Direct Numerical Simulations! Most engineering problems involve
Large-eddy simulations! turbulent flows. Such flows involve
Summary! are highly unsteady and contain a
large range of scales. However, in
most cases the mean or average
cross section of a jet! motion is well defined. !

Instantaneous flow past a Instantaneous flow past a sphere

sphere at R = 15,000.! at R = 30,000 with a trip wire

A modest Reynolds number the separated boundary layer remains initially

laminar (left), before becoming turbulent. If the boundary layer is tripped (right)
it becomes turbulent, so that it separates farther rearward. The
The drag depends on the separation point! overall drag is thereby dramatically reduced, in a way that occurs
naturally on a smooth sphere only at a Reynolds numbers ten times
as great. ONERA photograph, Werle 1980.!
From "An Album of Fluid Motion," by Van Dyke, Parabolic Press. !
Computational Fluid Dynamics! Computational Fluid Dynamics!

Examples of Reynolds numbers:! Kinematic viscosity ! It can be shown that for turbulent flow the ratio of the
(~20 °C)! size of the smallest eddy to the length scale of the
Flow around a 3 m long car at
problem!
100 km/hr:!
Water ν = 10-6 m2/s! ! !
LU 3 ! 27.78 " O(Re#3 / 4 ) " O(Re#1/ 2 )
Re = = = 5.5 !10 6 Air ν = 1.5 ✕10-5 m2/s! L L
v 1.5 !10"5 In 3D! In 2D!
Flow around a 100 m long submarine 1km/hr = 0.27778 m/s! If about 10 grid points are needed for
at 10 km/hr:! Re=10 (the driven cavity problem) !
LU 100 ! 2.78
Re = = = 2.78 !10 8
v 10"6 Re ! 3d ! ! 2d!
103!~ 3003 ! ~ 1002!
Water flowing though a 0.01 m diameter pipe with a velocity
10 ! ~ 2000 ! ~ 3002!
4 3
of 1 m/s!
LU 0.01!1 105!~ 100003 ! ~ 10002!
Re = = = 10 4
v 10"6 Largest computations today use about 40003 points!

Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS): Only

the averaged motion is computed. The effect of Reynolds
fluctuations is modeled!
Large Eddy Simulations (LES): Large scale
Averaged
motion is fully resolved but small scale motion is
modeled!
Navier-Stokes
Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS): Every length Equations!
and time scale is fully resolved!

Computational Fluid Dynamics! Computational Fluid Dynamics!

To solve for the mean motion, we derive equations for the There are several ways to define the proper averages !
mean motion by averaging the Navier-Stokes equations.
The velocities and other quantities are decomposed into the For homogeneous turbulence we can use the space average!
average and the fluctuation part ! L
1
L !0
Defining an averaging <a> = adx
a = A + a' procedure that satisfies
the following rules:! For steady turbulence flow we can use the time average!
T
1
This will hold for <a> = A
spatial averaging, <a> =
temporal averaging, < a' > = 0 T 0
and ensamble < a+ b> = A+ B For the general case we use the ensemble average!
averaging!
< ca > = cA <a> = ! a (x,t)
r a = A + a'
< !a > = !A ensambles
Computational Fluid Dynamics! Computational Fluid Dynamics!

! 1 Applying the averaging to the Navier-Stokes
u + " # uu = \$ "p + &" 2u equations results in:!
!t %
Decompose the pressure and velocity !
into mean and fluctuations:! U + " # UU = - \$1 "P + %" 2U + "# < u'u'>
< a >= A !t
u = U + u'
< a' > = 0
p = P + p' ! < u' u'> < u'v'> < u' w'> \$
< ca > =cA # &
Or, in general, for any < u'u'>= # < u'v'> < v'v'> < v' w'> &
dependant variable:! < !a > = !A
#"< u' w'> < v' w'> < w' w'>&%
a = A + a'
Reynold s stress tensor!

Computational Fluid Dynamics! Computational Fluid Dynamics!

Physical interpretation!
Closure:!
< uv >
Since we only have an equation for the mean flow,
Fast moving fluid particle! the Reynolds stresses must be related to the mean
flow. !
Net momentum transfer
due to velocity fluctuations!

Slow moving fluid particle! No rigorous process exists for doing this!!

Introduce the turbulent eddy viscosity !

\$ #U #U '
Zero and One < u'u'> ij = !" T && i + i
))
% #x j #x j (
equation models!
where!

l02
!T =
t0
Computational Fluid Dynamics! Computational Fluid Dynamics!

Prandtl mixing length! ! T = k1/ 2 t 0

dU
! T = l02 l0 = !y Where k is obtained by an equation describing its
dy
temporal-spatial evolution!
Smagorinsky model!
1 " !U !U j %
! T = l02 (2Sij Sij )
1/ 2
Sij = \$\$ i + '
2 # !x j !x i '&
However, the problem with zero and one equation
models is that t0 and l0 are not universal. Generally, it is
Baldvin-Lomaz model! found that a two equation model is the minimum needed
\$ "U " U ' for a proper description !
! T = l02 (" i" i )
1/ 2 ! i = && i # j
))
% "x j " x i (

To characterize the turbulence it seems reasonable to

start with a measure of the magnitude of the velocity
fluctuations. If the turbulence is isotropic, the turbulent
kinetic energy can be used:!
Two equation 1
models! k= (< u' u'> + < v'v'> + < w' w'>)
2
The turbulent kinetic energy does, however, not
distinguish between large and small eddies.!

Solve for the average velocity!

To distinguish between large and small eddies we need to
introduce a new quantity that describe! ! 1
U + " # UU = \$ "P + (& + & T )" 2U
!t %
Smaller eddies
dissipate faster!
Where the turbulent kinematic eddy viscosity is
given by!
Usually, the turbulent dissipation rate is used!
k2
\$u'i \$u'i ! T = Cµ
! "# "
\$x j \$ x j
Computational Fluid Dynamics! Computational Fluid Dynamics!

The exact k-equation is:! The general for for the equations for k and epsilon is:!
!k !k !U i ! ' !k 1 ' ' ' 1 *
+Uj = " ij #\$ + )% # ui ui u j # p' u'j ,
!t !x j !x j !x j ( !x j 2 & +
!k
+ U " #k = # " Dk #k + production \$ dissipation
where! ! ij = " ui u j
' '
!t
The exact epsilon-equation is considerably more complex !"
+ U # \$" = \$ # D" \$" + production % dissipation
and we will not write it down here.! !t
Both equations contain transport, dissipation and These terms must be modeled !
production terms that must be modeled!
Closure involves proposing a form for the missing terms
and optimizing free coefficients to fit experimental data!

The k-epsilon model!

Dk %U i Two major numerical difficulties!
= +! " (# + C2# T )!k - \$ ij &'
Dt %x j
The equations may be stiff in some regions of
D! ! &U i !2
= " # (\$ + C3\$ T )"! + C4 % ij ' C5 the flow requiring very small time step. This can
Dt k &x j k be overcome by an implicit scheme.!
Turbulent!
transport! Production! Dissipation! In reality k goes to zero at the walls. In
Here! simulations this usually takes place so close to
k2 2 & %U %U ) the wall that it is not resolved by the grid. To
!T = C and! ! ij =< u'i u'j >= k"ij # \$ T (( i + j
++ overcome this we usually use a wall function
" 3 ' %x j %x i * or a damping function!

Turbulent transport of energy and species concentrations is

Other two equation turbulence models:! modeled in similar ways.!
!RNG k-epsilon!
!Nonlinear k-epsilon! For temperature we have:!
!k-enstrophy!
!k-lo! !T u = U + u'
+ " # uT = \$" 2T
!k-reciprocal time! !t T =< T > +T'
!etc!
!<T >
+ " # U < T >= \$" 2 < T > %"# < UT >
!t

< UT >! " T # < T >

Computational Fluid Dynamics! Computational Fluid Dynamics!

! ! exp ! k-e ! !Cmott!

Model Plane jet
Round jet
!0.10 - 0.11
!0.085-0.095
! 0.108!
! 0.116!
!0.102!
!0.095!
Predictions! Mixing layer !0.13 - 0.17 ! 0.152! !0.154!

Computational Fluid Dynamics! Computational Fluid Dynamics!

From: C.G. Speziale: Analytical Methods for the From: C.G. Speziale: Analytical Methods for the
Development of Reynolds-stress closure in Turbulence. Development of Reynolds-stress closure in Turbulence.
Ann Rev. Fluid Mech. 1991. 23: 107-157! Ann Rev. Fluid Mech. 1991. 23: 107-157!

Results!

Wall bounded
turbulence!

From: C.G. Speziale: Analytical Methods for the

Development of Reynolds-stress closure in Turbulence.
Ann Rev. Fluid Mech. 1991. 23: 107-157!
Computational Fluid Dynamics! Computational Fluid Dynamics!

Wall bounded turbulence! Define a shear velocity: ! du

!w = µ , ", #
dy
Fundamental assumption: determined by local !w
v* =
variables only! " [kg /ms ], [kg /m ], [m /s]
2 3 2

Mean flow!

Normalize the length and

velocity near the wall!
Only the mean
u y v*
shear rate and
!w =
dU
, ", # u+ = y+ =
the properties of
dy v* v
the fluid are
important!
Called wall variables !

Computational Fluid Dynamics! Computational Fluid Dynamics!

!w du !w
For parallel flow!
0!
Near the wall v* = ! < u'v'>= µ " #w v* =
the fluid knows " dy "
d dp d du Very close to the wall:! < u'v'>! 0
! < u'v'>= " + µ nothing about du du
dy dx dy dy what drives it. ! w = µ du !w = µ
dy so approximately! µ = !w dy
Thus we ignore
Integrate from the wall to y:! u dy u
the pressure +
u = * u+ =
!
gradient! v u(y) = w y v*
y ⎛ d d du ⎞ Integrating!
µ
∫0 ⎜⎝ ρ dy < u ' v ' >= dy µ dy ⎟⎠ dy y+ =
y v*
Using the nondimensional values!
y+ =
y v*
v v
u ! w y " (v ) y v * y
* 2

= = =
du v *
µ v *
µ v* #
Resulting in:! ! < u'v'>= µ " #w
dy or:! u+ = y + Very close to the wall!

Further away from the wall:! µ du ! 0 !w !w

v* = du # v* =
dy " We have! !y =" w "
dy \$
so approximately! ! < u'v'>= "# w du du
!w = µ !w = µ
du dy Using the nondimensional values! dy
Taking:! < u'v'>= ! T
dy
u+ =
u du + # v* u+ =
u
2 du !y + = " w =1
where! ! T = lo and! l0 = !y v* dy +
\$ v*
dy
Or simply y v* y v*
y+ = integrating! y+ =
du du " du %
2
yields! assume:! v 1 dy + v
< u'v'>= l 2
o = \$!y '
dy dy # dy & u' ! y
du " du +
=
!
" y+
dy giving!
du # 1
Giving:! !y =" w u+ = ln y + + C
dy \$ !
Computational Fluid Dynamics! Computational Fluid Dynamics!

!w
Thus, the velocity near the wall is! v* = For a practical engineering problem!
"

Velocity versus ! = 0.4 !w = µ

du L = 1m; U = 1m/s; ν = 10-6 (water)!
dy
distance from wall! C = 5.5 The Reynolds number is therefore:!
u
u+ u+ =
Re =
LU
= 10 6
v*
1 v
u = ln y + + C
+
y+ =
y v* For a flat plate, the average drag coefficient is!
+ +
! v
u =y
FD
y+ CD = 0.592Re!1/ 5 where! CD =
10! 1
2 !U 2 LW
Viscous Buffer Outer
sub-layer! layer! layer!

Computational Fluid Dynamics! Computational Fluid Dynamics!

Or!
Thickness of the viscous sub-layer!
CD = 0.0037 10! 10 "10#6
y= = = 1.667 "10#4 m = 0.1667 mm
The average shear stress is therefore! !* 0.06
FD Find the thickness of the boundary layer!
!w = = CD 12 "U 2 = 3.74
LW
! !
= 0.37Re"1/ 5 = 0.0233m = 23.3mm
And we find! L L
v * = 0.06
To resolve the viscous sublayer at the same time as the
The average thickness of the viscous sub-layer
turbulent boundary layer would require a large number of
is 10 in units of y+:!
grid points!

To deal with this problem it is common to use wall

functions where the mean velocity is matched with
an analytical approximation to the viscosus sublayer.!
Second order closure!
For a reference, see: Patel, Rodi, and Scheuerer,
Turbulence Models for Near-Wall and Low Reynolds
Number Flows: A Review. AIAA Journal, 23 (1985),
1308-1319!
Computational Fluid Dynamics! Computational Fluid Dynamics!

Derive equations for the Reynolds stresses:!

The k-epsilon and other two equation models The Navier-Stokes equations in component form:!
have several serious limitations, including the
∂ ui 1
inability to predict anisotropic Reynolds stress + ∇uiu j = − ∇p + ν∇ 2ui
tensors, relaxation effects, and nonlocal ∂t ρ
effects due to turbulent diffusion.! Multiply the equation by the velocity!
For these problems it is necessary to model % !u (
the evolution of the full Reynolds stress ui ' i + "ui u j = - #1 "p + \$" 2 ui *
tensor! & !t )
and averaging leds to equations for !
!
ui u j
!t

The new equations contain terms like!

Turbulence models are used to allow us to
ui ui u j simulate only the averaged motion, not the
which are not known. These terms are therefore modeled! unsteady small scale motion.!
The Reynolds stress model introduces 6 new equations Turbulence modeling rest on the assumption
(instead of 2 for the k-e model. Although the models that the small scale motion is universal and
have considerably more physics build in and allow, for can be described in terms of the large scale
example, anisotrophy in the Reynolds stress tensor, motion.!
these model have yet to be optimized to the point that
Although considerable progress has been
they consistently give superior results.!
made, much is still not known and results from
calculations using such models have to be
interpreted by care!!
For practical problems, the k-e model or more recent
improvements such as RNG are therefore most commonly used!!