turbulence modeling guide

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turbulence modeling guide

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http://www.nd.edu/~gtryggva/CFD-Course/! Multiscale Issues!

channel flow!

defined two types of multi-

Average

scale problems.!

“Classical”! Velocity-B!

Turbulence with Isolated Defects!

Constitutive Modeling Based

on the Microscopic Models !

gravity!

Grétar Tryggvason! Reference: W. E and B. Enquist,

The heterogeneous multiscale

Spring 2011! methods, Comm. Math. Sci. 1 Thin film

(2003), 87—133.! model-A!

Outline!

Why turbulence modeling!

Reynolds Averaged Numerical Simulations!

Zero and One equation models!

Two equations models!

Model predictions!

Wall bounded turbulence!

Second order closure!

Direct Numerical Simulations! Most engineering problems involve

Large-eddy simulations! turbulent flows. Such flows involve

Summary! are highly unsteady and contain a

large range of scales. However, in

most cases the mean or average

cross section of a jet! motion is well defined. !

sphere at R = 15,000.! at R = 30,000 with a trip wire

laminar (left), before becoming turbulent. If the boundary layer is tripped (right)

it becomes turbulent, so that it separates farther rearward. The

The drag depends on the separation point! overall drag is thereby dramatically reduced, in a way that occurs

naturally on a smooth sphere only at a Reynolds numbers ten times

as great. ONERA photograph, Werle 1980.!

From "An Album of Fluid Motion," by Van Dyke, Parabolic Press. !

Computational Fluid Dynamics! Computational Fluid Dynamics!

Examples of Reynolds numbers:! Kinematic viscosity ! It can be shown that for turbulent flow the ratio of the

(~20 °C)! size of the smallest eddy to the length scale of the

Flow around a 3 m long car at

problem!

100 km/hr:!

Water ν = 10-6 m2/s! ! !

LU 3 ! 27.78 " O(Re#3 / 4 ) " O(Re#1/ 2 )

Re = = = 5.5 !10 6 Air ν = 1.5 ✕10-5 m2/s! L L

v 1.5 !10"5 In 3D! In 2D!

Flow around a 100 m long submarine 1km/hr = 0.27778 m/s! If about 10 grid points are needed for

at 10 km/hr:! Re=10 (the driven cavity problem) !

LU 100 ! 2.78

Re = = = 2.78 !10 8

v 10"6 Re ! 3d ! ! 2d!

103!~ 3003 ! ~ 1002!

Water flowing though a 0.01 m diameter pipe with a velocity

10 ! ~ 2000 ! ~ 3002!

4 3

of 1 m/s!

LU 0.01!1 105!~ 100003 ! ~ 10002!

Re = = = 10 4

v 10"6 Largest computations today use about 40003 points!

the averaged motion is computed. The effect of Reynolds

fluctuations is modeled!

Large Eddy Simulations (LES): Large scale

Averaged

motion is fully resolved but small scale motion is

modeled!

Navier-Stokes

Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS): Every length Equations!

and time scale is fully resolved!

To solve for the mean motion, we derive equations for the There are several ways to define the proper averages !

mean motion by averaging the Navier-Stokes equations.

The velocities and other quantities are decomposed into the For homogeneous turbulence we can use the space average!

average and the fluctuation part ! L

1

L !0

Defining an averaging <a> = adx

a = A + a' procedure that satisfies

the following rules:! For steady turbulence flow we can use the time average!

T

1

! adt

This will hold for <a> = A

spatial averaging, <a> =

temporal averaging, < a' > = 0 T 0

and ensamble < a+ b> = A+ B For the general case we use the ensemble average!

averaging!

< ca > = cA <a> = ! a (x,t)

r a = A + a'

< !a > = !A ensambles

Computational Fluid Dynamics! Computational Fluid Dynamics!

! 1 Applying the averaging to the Navier-Stokes

u + " # uu = $ "p + &" 2u equations results in:!

!t %

Decompose the pressure and velocity !

into mean and fluctuations:! U + " # UU = - $1 "P + %" 2U + "# < u'u'>

< a >= A !t

u = U + u'

< a' > = 0

p = P + p' ! < u' u'> < u'v'> < u' w'> $

< ca > =cA # &

Or, in general, for any < u'u'>= # < u'v'> < v'v'> < v' w'> &

dependant variable:! < !a > = !A

#"< u' w'> < v' w'> < w' w'>&%

a = A + a'

Reynold s stress tensor!

Physical interpretation!

Closure:!

< uv >

Since we only have an equation for the mean flow,

Fast moving fluid particle! the Reynolds stresses must be related to the mean

flow. !

Net momentum transfer

due to velocity fluctuations!

Slow moving fluid particle! No rigorous process exists for doing this!!

$ #U #U '

Zero and One < u'u'> ij = !" T && i + i

))

% #x j #x j (

equation models!

where!

l02

!T =

t0

Computational Fluid Dynamics! Computational Fluid Dynamics!

dU

! T = l02 l0 = !y Where k is obtained by an equation describing its

dy

temporal-spatial evolution!

Smagorinsky model!

1 " !U !U j %

! T = l02 (2Sij Sij )

1/ 2

Sij = $$ i + '

2 # !x j !x i '&

However, the problem with zero and one equation

models is that t0 and l0 are not universal. Generally, it is

Baldvin-Lomaz model! found that a two equation model is the minimum needed

$ "U " U ' for a proper description !

! T = l02 (" i" i )

1/ 2 ! i = && i # j

))

% "x j " x i (

start with a measure of the magnitude of the velocity

fluctuations. If the turbulence is isotropic, the turbulent

kinetic energy can be used:!

Two equation 1

models! k= (< u' u'> + < v'v'> + < w' w'>)

2

The turbulent kinetic energy does, however, not

distinguish between large and small eddies.!

To distinguish between large and small eddies we need to

introduce a new quantity that describe! ! 1

U + " # UU = $ "P + (& + & T )" 2U

!t %

Smaller eddies

dissipate faster!

Where the turbulent kinematic eddy viscosity is

given by!

Usually, the turbulent dissipation rate is used!

k2

$u'i $u'i ! T = Cµ

! "# "

$x j $ x j

Computational Fluid Dynamics! Computational Fluid Dynamics!

The exact k-equation is:! The general for for the equations for k and epsilon is:!

!k !k !U i ! ' !k 1 ' ' ' 1 *

+Uj = " ij #$ + )% # ui ui u j # p' u'j ,

!t !x j !x j !x j ( !x j 2 & +

!k

+ U " #k = # " Dk #k + production $ dissipation

where! ! ij = " ui u j

' '

!t

The exact epsilon-equation is considerably more complex !"

+ U # $" = $ # D" $" + production % dissipation

and we will not write it down here.! !t

Both equations contain transport, dissipation and These terms must be modeled !

production terms that must be modeled!

Closure involves proposing a form for the missing terms

and optimizing free coefficients to fit experimental data!

Dk %U i Two major numerical difficulties!

= +! " (# + C2# T )!k - $ ij &'

Dt %x j

The equations may be stiff in some regions of

D! ! &U i !2

= " # ($ + C3$ T )"! + C4 % ij ' C5 the flow requiring very small time step. This can

Dt k &x j k be overcome by an implicit scheme.!

Turbulent!

transport! Production! Dissipation! In reality k goes to zero at the walls. In

Here! simulations this usually takes place so close to

k2 2 & %U %U ) the wall that it is not resolved by the grid. To

!T = C and! ! ij =< u'i u'j >= k"ij # $ T (( i + j

++ overcome this we usually use a wall function

" 3 ' %x j %x i * or a damping function!

Other two equation turbulence models:! modeled in similar ways.!

!RNG k-epsilon!

!Nonlinear k-epsilon! For temperature we have:!

!k-enstrophy!

!k-lo! !T u = U + u'

+ " # uT = $" 2T

!k-reciprocal time! !t T =< T > +T'

!etc!

!<T >

+ " # U < T >= $" 2 < T > %"# < UT >

!t

Gradient Transport Hypothesis:!

Computational Fluid Dynamics! Computational Fluid Dynamics!

Spreading rates:!

Model Plane jet

Round jet

!0.10 - 0.11

!0.085-0.095

! 0.108!

! 0.116!

!0.102!

!0.095!

Predictions! Mixing layer !0.13 - 0.17 ! 0.152! !0.154!

From: C.G. Speziale: Analytical Methods for the From: C.G. Speziale: Analytical Methods for the

Development of Reynolds-stress closure in Turbulence. Development of Reynolds-stress closure in Turbulence.

Ann Rev. Fluid Mech. 1991. 23: 107-157! Ann Rev. Fluid Mech. 1991. 23: 107-157!

Results!

Wall bounded

turbulence!

Development of Reynolds-stress closure in Turbulence.

Ann Rev. Fluid Mech. 1991. 23: 107-157!

Computational Fluid Dynamics! Computational Fluid Dynamics!

!w = µ , ", #

dy

Fundamental assumption: determined by local !w

v* =

variables only! " [kg /ms ], [kg /m ], [m /s]

2 3 2

Mean flow!

velocity near the wall!

Only the mean

u y v*

shear rate and

!w =

dU

, ", # u+ = y+ =

the properties of

dy v* v

the fluid are

important!

Called wall variables !

!w du !w

For parallel flow!

0!

Near the wall v* = ! < u'v'>= µ " #w v* =

the fluid knows " dy "

d dp d du Very close to the wall:! < u'v'>! 0

! < u'v'>= " + µ nothing about du du

dy dx dy dy what drives it. ! w = µ du !w = µ

dy so approximately! µ = !w dy

Thus we ignore

Integrate from the wall to y:! u dy u

the pressure +

u = * u+ =

!

gradient! v u(y) = w y v*

y ⎛ d d du ⎞ Integrating!

µ

∫0 ⎜⎝ ρ dy < u ' v ' >= dy µ dy ⎟⎠ dy y+ =

y v*

Using the nondimensional values!

y+ =

y v*

v v

u ! w y " (v ) y v * y

* 2

= = =

du v *

µ v *

µ v* #

Resulting in:! ! < u'v'>= µ " #w

dy or:! u+ = y + Very close to the wall!

v* = du # v* =

dy " We have! !y =" w "

dy $

so approximately! ! < u'v'>= "# w du du

!w = µ !w = µ

du dy Using the nondimensional values! dy

Taking:! < u'v'>= ! T

dy

u+ =

u du + # v* u+ =

u

2 du !y + = " w =1

where! ! T = lo and! l0 = !y v* dy +

$ v*

dy

Or simply y v* y v*

y+ = integrating! y+ =

du du " du %

2

yields! assume:! v 1 dy + v

< u'v'>= l 2

o = $!y '

dy dy # dy & u' ! y

du " du +

=

!

" y+

dy giving!

du # 1

Giving:! !y =" w u+ = ln y + + C

dy $ !

Computational Fluid Dynamics! Computational Fluid Dynamics!

!w

Thus, the velocity near the wall is! v* = For a practical engineering problem!

"

du L = 1m; U = 1m/s; ν = 10-6 (water)!

dy

distance from wall! C = 5.5 The Reynolds number is therefore:!

u

u+ u+ =

Re =

LU

= 10 6

v*

1 v

u = ln y + + C

+

y+ =

y v* For a flat plate, the average drag coefficient is!

+ +

! v

u =y

FD

y+ CD = 0.592Re!1/ 5 where! CD =

10! 1

2 !U 2 LW

Viscous Buffer Outer

sub-layer! layer! layer!

Or!

Thickness of the viscous sub-layer!

CD = 0.0037 10! 10 "10#6

y= = = 1.667 "10#4 m = 0.1667 mm

The average shear stress is therefore! !* 0.06

FD Find the thickness of the boundary layer!

!w = = CD 12 "U 2 = 3.74

LW

! !

= 0.37Re"1/ 5 = 0.0233m = 23.3mm

And we find! L L

v * = 0.06

To resolve the viscous sublayer at the same time as the

The average thickness of the viscous sub-layer

turbulent boundary layer would require a large number of

is 10 in units of y+:!

grid points!

functions where the mean velocity is matched with

an analytical approximation to the viscosus sublayer.!

Second order closure!

For a reference, see: Patel, Rodi, and Scheuerer,

Turbulence Models for Near-Wall and Low Reynolds

Number Flows: A Review. AIAA Journal, 23 (1985),

1308-1319!

Computational Fluid Dynamics! Computational Fluid Dynamics!

The k-epsilon and other two equation models The Navier-Stokes equations in component form:!

have several serious limitations, including the

∂ ui 1

inability to predict anisotropic Reynolds stress + ∇uiu j = − ∇p + ν∇ 2ui

tensors, relaxation effects, and nonlocal ∂t ρ

effects due to turbulent diffusion.! Multiply the equation by the velocity!

For these problems it is necessary to model % !u (

the evolution of the full Reynolds stress ui ' i + "ui u j = - #1 "p + $" 2 ui *

tensor! & !t )

and averaging leds to equations for !

!

ui u j

!t

Turbulence models are used to allow us to

ui ui u j simulate only the averaged motion, not the

which are not known. These terms are therefore modeled! unsteady small scale motion.!

The Reynolds stress model introduces 6 new equations Turbulence modeling rest on the assumption

(instead of 2 for the k-e model. Although the models that the small scale motion is universal and

have considerably more physics build in and allow, for can be described in terms of the large scale

example, anisotrophy in the Reynolds stress tensor, motion.!

these model have yet to be optimized to the point that

Although considerable progress has been

they consistently give superior results.!

made, much is still not known and results from

calculations using such models have to be

interpreted by care!!

For practical problems, the k-e model or more recent

improvements such as RNG are therefore most commonly used!!

D. C. Wilcox, Turbulence Modeling for

CFD (2nd ed. 1998; 3rd ed. 2006). !

The author is one of the inventors of

the k-ω model and the book promotes it

use. The discussion is, however,

general and very accessible, as well as

focused on the use of turbulence

modeling for practical applications in

CFD!

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