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Hindustan Institute of Technology & Science

Syllabus with
Curriculum and Regulations
2008

M.E
AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING

M.E. – AERONAUTICAL ENGG. 1


2 M.E. – AERONAUTICAL ENGG.
ACADEMIC REGULATIONS (M.E. / x To inculcate a flair for research,
M.Tech / M.B.A. / M.C.A.) development and entrepreneurship.
1. Vision, Mission and Objectives
2. Admission
1.1 The Vision of the Institute is “To make
everyone a success and no one a failure”. 2.1. The admission policy and procedure
shall be decided from time to time by the
In order to progress towards the vision, the Board of Management (BOM) of the
Institute has identified itself with a mission to Institute, following guidelines issued by
provide every individual with a conducive Ministry of Human Resource Develop
environment suitable to achieve his / her ment (MHRD). Government of India. The
career goals, with a strong emphasis on number of seats in each branch of the
personality development, and to offer quality (M.E. / M.B.A. / M.C.A.) programme will
education in all spheres of engineering, be decided by BOM as per the directives
technology, applied sciences and manage- from Ministry of Human Resource
ment, without compromising on the quality and Development (MHRD), Government of
code of ethics. India and taking into account the market
demands. Some seats for Non Resident
1.2 Further, the institute always strives Indians and a few seats for Foreign
x To train our students with the latest and nationals shall be made available.
the best in the rapidly changing fields
of Engineering, Technology, Manage 2.2. The selected candidates will be
ment, Science & Humanities. admitted to the (M.E. / M.Tech / M.B.A. /
M.C.A.) programme after he/she fulfills
x To develop the students with a global all the admission requirements set by the
outlook possessing, state of the art Institute and after payment of the
skills, capable of taking up challenging prescribed fees.
responsibilities in the respective fields.
2.3. Candidates for admission to the first
x To mould our students as citizens with semester of the Master’s Degree
moral, ethical and social values so as Programme shall be required to have
to fulfill their obligations to the nation passed in an appropriate Degree
and the society. Examination recognized by Hindustan
University
x To promote research in the field of
science, Humanities, Engineering, 2.4. In all matters relating to admission to
Technology and allied branches. the (M.E. / M.Tech / M.B.A. / M.C.A.).
programme, the decision of the Institute
and its interpretation given by the
Chancellor of the Institute shall be final.
1.3 Our aims and objectives are focused on
2.5. If at any time after admission, it is
x Providing world class education in found that a candidate has not fulfilled
engineering, technology, applied science any of the requirements stipulated by the
and management. Institute, the Institute may revoke the
x Keeping pace with the ever changing admission of the candidate with
technological scenario to help our information to the Academic Council.
students to gain proper direction to
emerge as competent professionals fully
aware of their commitment to the society
and nation.

M.E. – AERONAUTICAL ENGG. 3


3. Structure of the programme Minimum
prescribed
3.1. The programme of instruction will have the Program
credit
following structure range
i) Core courses of Engineering / Technology /
M.E. / M.Tech 85 – 90
Management.
M.B.A. (Full time / Part time) 85 - 95
ii) Elective courses for specialization in
MCA 110 - 115
areas of student’s choice.
3.2. The minimum durations of the 3.5. The medium of instruction,
programmes are as given below: examination and the language of the
project reports will be English.
No. of
Program 4. Faculty Advisor
Semesters
M.E. / M.Tech 4 4.1. To help the students in planning
M.B.A. (Full Time) 4 their courses of study and for getting
M.B.A. (Part Time) 6 general advice on the academic
M.C.A. 6 programme, the concerned Department
will assign a certain number of students
Every (M.E./ M.Tech / M.B.A. / M.C.A.) to a Faculty member who will be called
programme will have a curriculum and their Faculty Advisor.
syllabi for the courses approved by the
Academic Council. 5. Class Committee
5.1 A Class Committee consisting of the
3.3. Each course is normally assigned certain
following will be constituted by the Head
number of credits. The following norms will
of the Department for each class:
generally be followed in assigning credits
for courses.
(i) A Chairman, who is not teaching
ƒ One credit for each lecture hour per the class.
week per semester;
ƒ One credit for each tutorial hour per (ii) All subject teachers of the class.
week per semester;
ƒ One credit for each laboratory practical (iii) Two students nominated by the
(drawing) of three (two) hours per week department in consultation with the
per semester. class.
ƒ One credit for 4 weeks of industrial
training and The Class Committee will meet as often
ƒ One credit for 4 hours of project per as necessary, but not less than three
week per semester times during a semester.

3.4. For the award of degree, a student has The functions of the Class Committee will
to earn certain minimum total number of include:
credits specified in the curriculum of the
relevant branch of study. The curriculum of (i) Addressing problems experienced by
the different programs shall be so designed students in the classroom and the
that the minimum prescribed credits laboratories.
required for the award of the degree shall
be within the limits specified below. (ii) Analyzing the performance of the
students of the class after each test
and finding ways and means of
addressing problems, if any.

4 M.E. – AERONAUTICAL ENGG.


6.4 Raw marks will be moderated by a
(iii) During the meetings, the student moderation board appointed by the Vice
members shall express the opinions Chancellor of the University. The final
and suggestions of the class students marks will be graded using absolute
to improve the teaching / learning grading system. The Constitution and
process. composition of the moderation board will
be dealt with separately.
6. Grading
7. Registration and Enrollment
6.1 A grading system as below will be adhered
7.1 Except for the first semester,
to.
registration and enrollment will be done in
the beginning of the semester as per the
Range of Grade schedule announced by the University.
Letter Grade
Marks points
7.2 A student will be eligible for enrollment
95-100 S 10 only if he/she satisfies regulation 10
85 - 94 A 09 (maximum duration of the programme) and
will be permitted to enroll if (i) he/she has
75- 84 B 08
cleared all dues in the Institute, Hostel &
65-74 C 07 Library up to the end of the previous
55-64 D 06 semester and (ii) he/she is not debarred
from enrollment by a disciplinary action of
50-54 E 05
the University.
< 50 U 00
7.3. Students are required to submit
I (Incomplete) --
registration form duly filled in.

6.2 GPA & CGPA 8. Registration requirement

GPA is the ratio of the sum of the product of 8.1. A full time student shall not register for
the number of credits Ci of course “i “ and less than 16 credits or more than 24
the grade points Pi earned for that course credits in any 12 given semester.
taken over all courses “i” registered by the
student to the sum of Ci for all “i ”. That is, 8.2 If a student finds his/her load heavy in
any semester, or for any other valid
reason, he/she may withdraw from the
¦ Ci Pi courses within three weeks of the
GPA i
commencement of the semester with the
¦ Ci written approval of his/her Faculty Advisor
i and HOD. However the student should
CGPA will be calculated in a similar manner, ensure that the total number of credits
at any semester, considering all the courses registered for in any semester should
enrolled from first semester onwards. enable him/her to earn the minimum
number of credits per semester for the
6.3. For the students with letter grades W / I in completed semesters.
certain subjects, the same will not be included
in the computation of GPA and CGPA until 9. Minimum requirement to continue
after those grades are converted to the the programme
regular grades S to U.
9.1 For those students who have not
earned the minimum required credit

M.E. – AERONAUTICAL ENGG. 5


prescribed for that particular semester (Academic) to recommend to the Vice -
examination, awarring letter to the concerned Chancellor the implementation of the
student and also to his parents regarding the decision. The student concerned may
shortage of this credit will be sent by the HOD appeal to the Vice Chancellor whose
after the announcement of the results of the decision will be final. The Dean (Academic)
university examinations. will report the action taken at the next
meeting of the Council.
10. Maximum duration of the programme 12.3. Ragging and harassment of women
The minimum and maximum period for the are strictly prohibited in the University
completion of various programs are given campus and hostels.
below.
13. Attendance
Min. Max.
Program No. of No. of 13.1. A student whose attendance is less
Semesters Semesters than 75% is not eligible to appear for the
end semester examination for that
M.E . M,Tech 4 8
course. The details of all students who
M.B.A. (Full Time) 4 8 have attendance less than 75% will be
announced by the teacher in the class.
M.B.A. (Part Time) 6 10 These details will be sent to the
concerned HODs and Dean.
M.C.A. 6 12
13.2. Those who have 75% or more
11. Temporary discontinuation attendance for the period other than their
medical leave will be considered for
11.1. A student may be permitted by the condonation of shortage of attendance
Dean to discontinue temporarily from the provided the overall attendance in the
programme for a semester or a longer course including the period of illness
period for reasons of ill health or other valid does not fall below 65%. Application for
reasons. Normally a student will be condonation recommended by the
permitted to discontinue from the Faculty Advisor, concerned faculty
programme only for a maximum duration of member and the HOD is to be submitted
two semesters. to the Dean who, depending on the merit
of the case, may permit the student to
appear for the end semester
12. Discipline examination. A student will be eligible for
this concession at most in two semesters
12.1. Every student is required to observe during the entire degree programme.
discipline and decorous behavior both in-side Application for medical leave, supported
and outside the campus and not to indulge in by medical certificate with endorsement
any activity which will tend to bring down the by a Registered Medical Officer, should
prestige of the University. reach the HOD within seven days after
returning from leave or, on or before the
12.2. Any act of indiscipline of a student last instructional day of the semester,
reported to the Dean (Academic) will be whichever is earlier.
referred to a Discipline Committee so
constituted. The Committee will enquire into 13.3. As an incentive to those students
the charges and decide on suitable who are involved in extra curricular
punishment if the charges are substantiated. activities such as representing the
The committee will also authorize the Dean University in Sports and Games,

6 M.E. – AERONAUTICAL ENGG.


Cultural Festivals, and Technical Festivals, concerned within five days after he / she
NCC/ NSS events, a relaxation of up to 10% missed examination, giving reasons for
attendance will be given subject to the absence.
condition that these students take prior
approval from the officer –in-charge. All 15.2. Permission to appear for make-up
such applications should be recommended examination/periodical test will be given
by the concerned HOD and forwarded to under exceptional circumstances such as
Dean within seven instructional days after admission to a hospital due to illness.
the programme/activity. Students should produce a medical
certificate issued by a Registered Medical
14. Assessment Procedure Practitioner certifying that he/she was
admitted to hospital during the period of
14.1. The Academic Council will decide examination / periodical test and the same
from time to time the system of tests and should be duly endorsed by
examinations in each subject in each parent/guardian and also by a medical
semester. officer of the University within 5 days.

14.2. For each theory course, the 15.3. The student will be allowed to make
assessment will be done on a continuous up at the most two out of three periodical
basis as follows: tests and end – semester examination.

16. Project evaluation


Duration
of
Test / Exam Weightage
Test /
16.1. For Project work, the assessment
Exam will be done on a continuous basis as
First Periodical follows:
15% 1 Period
Test
Second Review / Exam Weightage
15% 1 Period
Periodical Test First Review 10%
Third Second Review 20%
20% 2 Periods
Periodical Test Third Review 20%
End – End semester Exam 50%
Semester 50% 3 Hours
Examination
For end semester exam, the student will
14.3. For practical courses, the assessment submit a Project Report in a format
will be done by the subject teachers as below: specified by the Dean. The first three
reviews will be conducted by a
(i) Weekly assignment/Observation note book / Committee constituted by the Head of
lab records – weightage 60%. the Department. The end – semester
(ii) End semester examination of 3 hours exam will be conducted by a Committee
duration including viva – weightage 40%. constituted by the Controller of
Examinations. This will include an
15. Make up Examination/periodical Test external expert.

15.1. Students who miss the end-semester


examinations / periodical test for valid reasons 17. Declaration of results
are eligible for make-up examination
/periodical test. Those who miss the end- 17.1 A candidate who secures not less
semester examination / periodical test should than 50% of total marks prescribed for a
apply to the Head of the Department course with a minimum of 50% of the

M.E. – AERONAUTICAL ENGG. 7


marks prescribed for the end semester Registrar/Controller of Examinations
examination shall be declared to have through the Head of the Department.
passed the course and earned the specified The Registrar/ Controller of Examination
credits for the course. will arrange for the revaluation and the
results will be intimated to the candidate
concerned through the Head of the
17.2 After the valuation of the answer Department. Revaluation is not
scripts, the tabulated results are to be permitted for practical courses and for
scrutinized by the Result Passing Boards project work.
of UG and PG programmes constituted
by the Vice-Chancellor. The recommenda-
tions of the Result Passing Boards will be 18. Grade Card
placed before the Standing Sub Committee
of the Academic Council constituted by the 18.1. After results are declared, grade
Chancellor for scrutiny. The minutes of the sheet will be issued to each student,
Standing Sub Committee along with the which will contain the following details:
results are to be placed before the Vice- (i) Program and branch for which
Chancellor for approval. After getting the the student has enrolled.
approval of the Vice-Chancellor, the results (ii) Semester of registration.
will be published by the Controller of (iii) List of courses registered during
Examination/Registrar. the semester and the grade
scored.
(iv) Semester Grade Point Average
17.3 If a candidate fails to secure a pass in (GPA)
a course due to not satisfying the minimum (v) Cumulative Grade Point Average
requirement in the end semester (CGPA).
examination, he/she shall register and re- 19. Class / Division
appear for the end semester examination
during the following semester. However, Classification is based on CGPA and is
the internal marks secured by the candidate as follows:
will be retained for all such attempts. CGPA•8.0: First Class with distinction
6.5 •CGPA < 8.0: First Class
5.0 •CGPA < 6.5: Second Class.
17.4 If a candidate fails to secure a pass in
a course due to insufficient internal marks
though meeting the minimum requirements 20. Transfer of credits
of the end semester examination, wishes to
improve on his/her internal marks, he/she 20.1. Within the broad framework of
will have to register for the particular course these regulations, the Academic Council,
and attend the course with permission of the based on the recommendation of the
HOD concerned and Dean with a copy transfer of credits committee so
marked to the Registrar. The sessional and constituted by the Chancellor may permit
external marks obtained by the candidate in students to earn part of the credit
this case will replace the earlier result. requirement in other approved
institutions of repute and status in the
17.5 A candidate can apply for the country or abroad.
revaluation of his/her end semester
examination answer paper in a theory 20.2. The Academic Council may also
course within 2 weeks from the declaration approve admission of lateral entry (who
of the results, on payment of a prescribed hold a diploma in Engineering/
fee through proper application to the technology) candidates with advance

8 M.E. – AERONAUTICAL ENGG.


credit based on the recommendation of the
transfer of credits committee on a case to
case basis.

21. Eligibility for the award of (M.E. /


M.Tech / M.B.A. / M.C.A.) Degree

21.1. A student will be declared to be


eligible for the award of the (M.E. / M.Tech
/ M.B.A. / M.C.A.). Degree if he/she has
i) registered and successfully credited all
the core courses,
ii) successfully acquired the credits in the
different categories as specified in the
curriculum corresponding to the
discipline (branch) of his/her study
within the stipulated time,
iii) has no dues to all sections of the
Institute including Hostels, and
iv) has no disciplinary action pending
against him/her.
The award of the degree must be
recommended by the Academic Council and
approved by the Board of Management of
the University.

22. Power to modify

22.1. Notwithstanding all that has been


stated above, the Academic Council has the
right to modify any of the above regulations
from time to time.

M.E. – AERONAUTICAL ENGG. 9


HINDUSTAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE, PADUR
M.E. AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING
CURRICULUM 2008

SEMESTER I
Sl. Course
Course Title L T P C TCH
No Code
Theory
1 MA1601* Advanced Engineering Mathematics 3 1 0 4 4
2 AE1601 Aerodynamics - I 3 0 2 4 5
3 AE1602 Aerospace Propulsion 3 1 0 4 4
4 AE1603 Aircraft Structures 3 1 0 4 4
5 - Elective-I 3 1 0 4 4
6 - Elective-II 3 1 0 4 4
Total 24 25

Semester - II
Sl. Course
Course Title L T P C TCH
No Code
Theory
1 AE1604 Aerodynamics II 3 1 0 4 4
2 AE1605 Composite Materials and Structures 3 1 0 4 4
3 AE1606 Experimental Stress Analysis 3 1 0 4 4
4 AE1607 Finite Element Methods 3 1 0 4 4
5 AE1608 Rocketry and Space Mech. 3 1 0 4 4
6 AE1609 Theory of Vibrations 3 1 0 4 4
Practical

7 AE1625 Aircraft Structures Lab 0 0 3 1 3


Total 25 27
* Common to AERO, CAD, R&AC, ICE & THERMAL

Semester III
Sl. Course
Course Title L T P C TCH
No Code
Theory
1 -- Elective-III 3 1 0 4 4
2 -- Elective-IV 3 1 0 4 4
3 -- Elective-V 3 1 0 4 4
Practical

4 AE1626 Aircraft Systems Lab 0 0 3 1 3


5 AE1610 Project Work-Phase I 0 0 12 6 12
Total 19 27

10 M.E. – AERONAUTICAL ENGG.


Semester IV
Sl. Course
Course Title L T P C TCH
No Code
Theory
1 AE1611 Project Work-Phase II 0 0 24 12 24
Total 12 24

Total No. of Credit = 80

ELECTIVE COURSES
SEMESTER I

Sl. Course
Course Title L T P C TCH
No Code
1 AE1612 Advanced Propulsion Systems 3 1 0 4 4
2 AE1613 Theory of Elasticity 3 1 0 4 4
3 AE1614 Advanced Heat Transfer 3 1 0 4 4
4 AE1615 Aircraft Design 3 1 0 4 4

ELECTIVE COURSES
SEMESTER III

Sl. Course
Course Title L T P C TCH
No Code
1 AE1616 Computational Fluid Dynamics 3 1 0 4 4
2 AE1617 Cryogenics 3 1 0 4 4
3 AE1618 Fatigue and Fracture Mechanics 3 1 0 4 4
4 AE1619 High Temp. Problems in Structures 3 1 0 4 4
5 AE1620 Theory of Plates and Shells 3 1 0 4 4
6 AE1621 Industrial Aerodynamics 3 1 0 4 4
7 AE1622 Helicopter Aerodynamics 3 1 0 4 4
8 AE1623 Aero Elasticity 3 1 0 4 4
9 AE1624 Hypersonic Aerodynamics 3 1 0 4 4

M.E. – AERONAUTICAL ENGG. 11


SEMESTER I
MA1601 - ADVANCED ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS
L T P C
3 1 0 4
OBJECTIVES
The course objective is to impart analytical skills, as a prerequisite for post graduate and
specialized studies and research.

UNIT - I CALCULUS OF VARIATIONS 12


Concept of variation and its properties- Euler’s Equation-Functional dependant on first and
higher order derivatives - Functional dependant on functions of several independent variables-
Isoperimetric problems – Direct methods-Ritz and Kantrovich methods

UNIT - II TRANSFORM METHODS 12


Laplace transform methods for one dimensional wave equation – Displacements in a long
string – Longitudinal vibration of an elastic bar - Fourier Transform methods for one dimensional
heat conduction problems in infinite and semi-infinite rod
UNIT - III ELLIPTIC EQUATIONS 12
Laplace equation – Properties of Harmonic functions – Solutions of Laplace equation by
means of Fourier transform in a half plane in an infinite strip and in a semi-infinite strip
UNIT - IV NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS 12
Solution of Laplace and Poisson equation on a rectangular region by Lieebmann’s method
– Diffusion equation by the explicit and Crank Nicolson – Implicit methods – Solution of wave
equations by explicit scheme Cubic spline interpolation
UNIT - V CONFORMAL MAPPING AND APPLICATIONS 12
The Schwarz – Christoffel transformation – Transformation of boundaries in parametric form
– Physical applications - Application to fluid and heat flow
TOTAL: 60
REFERENCES
1. Gupta, A.S, “Calculus of Variations with Applications”, Prentice Hall of India(P)Ltd., New Delhi,
6th print, 2006
2. Sankar Rao, .K, “Introduction to Partial Differential Equations”,Prentice Hall of India(P) Ltd.,
New Delhi, 5th print, 2004.
3. Jain.R.K,Iyengar.S.R.K, “Advanced Engineering Mathematics”. Narosa publications 2nd
Edition, 2006
4. Grewal, B.S,“Numerical Methods in Science and Engineering”., Kanna Publications, NewDelhi.
5. Kandasamy.P , Thilagavathy. K and Gunavathy. K, “Numerical Methods”., S. Chand and Co,
Ltd., New Delhi, 5th Edition, 2007
6. Spiegel, M.R ,“Theory and problems of Complex Variables with an Introduction to Conformal
Mapping and Its applications ”, Schaum’s outline series, McGraw Hill Book Co, 1987.

12 M.E. – AERONAUTICAL ENGG.


AE 1601 - AERODYNAMICS - I
L T P C
3 0 2 4
OBJECTIVE
To understand the behaviour of airflow over bodies with particular emphasis on airfoil sections
in the incompressible flow regime
UNIT - I REVIEW OF BASIC FLUID MECHANICS 10
Continuity and Momentum equations, Point source and sink, Free and Forced Vortex, Uniform
parallel flow, combination of basic flows, Pressure and Velocity distributions On bodies with and
without circulation in ideal and real fluid flows, Magnus effect
Lab : 1. Calibration of wind tunnel
2. Pressure distribution on 3-D bodies
UNIT - II AIRFOILS 12
Conformal Transformation, Kutta condition, Karman – Treffz profiles, Thin aerofoil Theory and
its applications.
Lab: 1. Pressure distribution over an aerofoil at different angles of attack.
UNIT - III WING THEORY 12
Vortex line, Horse shoe vortex, Biot and savart law, lifting line theory, effects of aspect Ratio,
planform and taper ratio.
Lab : 1. Drag measurements in Wind Tunnels.
UNIT - IV ELEMENTS OF COMPRESSIBLE FLOWS 14
Isentropic flows – shock and expansion waves, compressibility effects on aerodynamic
Coefficients, method of characteristics – small perturbation theory.
Lab : 1. Calibration of supersonic wind tunnel.
UNIT - V WIND TUNNELS 12
Types of wind tunnels – Flow visualization processes – Measurements in wind tunnels,
6-component balance.
Lab : 1. Supersonic flow visualization with schlieren systems.
TOTAL: 60
REFERENCES
1. J.D. Anderson, “Fundamental of Aerodynamics”, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1985.
2. E.L. Houghton and N.B. Carruthers, “Aerodynamics for Engineering Students”, Edward Arnold
Publishers Ltd., London (First Indian Edition), 1988.
3. W.H. Rae and A. Pope, “Low speed Wind Tunnel Testing”, John Wiley Publications, 1984.
4. Shapiro, A.H., Dynamics & Thermodynamics of Compressible Fluid Flow, Ronald Press,
1982.
5. Zucrow, M.J., and Anderson, J.D., Elements of gas dynamics McGraw-Hill Book Co., New
York, 1989.
6. Rathakrishnan.E., Gas Dynamics, Prentice Hall of India, 1995.
M.E. – AERONAUTICAL ENGG. 13
AE1602 - AEROSPACE PROPULSION
L T P C
3 1 0 4
OBJECTIVE
To understand the principles of operation and design of aircraft and spacecraft power plants.
UNIT - I ELEMENTS OF AIRCRAFT PROPULSION 12
Classification of power plants based on methods of aircraft propulsion – jet and rocket
propulsion – Differences between jet propulsion engines and rocket propulsion engines – Types
and areas of applications – fundamental of aircraft piston engines.
UNIT - II INTRODUCTION TO GAS TURBINE ENGINES 12
Classification of air breathing engines – Principle of turbojet, turbo-prop, turbo-jet with
reheat, by-pass and turbo fan concepts – Thrust augmentation in jet engines and its application to
aircraft.
UNIT - III THERMODYNAMICS OF JET ENGINES 12
Thermodynamic analysis of jet engine – components of a jet engine – Compressor, combustion
chamber, turbine and jet nozzle – their efficiencies – Introduction to ramjet, pulse jet and their
application – Introduction to combustion and chemical kinetics.
UNIT - IV ROCKET PROPULSION 12
Introduction to rocket propulsion – Reaction principle – Thrust equation – Classification of
rockets based on propellants used – solid, liquid and hybrid – Comparison of these engines with
special reference to rocket performance.
UNIT - V RAMJET AND SCRAMJET PROPULSION 12
Ram jet -Operating principle – Sub critical, critical and supercritical operation – Combustion in
ramjet engine – Ramjet performance - Fundamentals of hypersonic air birthing vehicles, Preliminary
concepts in engine airframe integration, Various types of supersonic combustors, Requirements for
supersonic combustors, Performance estimation of supersonic combustors.
TOTAL: 60
REFERENCES
1. G.C. Oates, “Aerothermodynamics of Aircraft Engine Components”, AIAA Education Series, Published
by AIAA, New York, 1985.
2. G.C. Oates, “Aircraft Propulsion system technology & design”, AIAA Education Series, 1989.
3. G.P.Sutton, “Rocket Propulsion Elements”, John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York, 5th Edition, 1986.
4. H.Cohen, G.F.C.Rogers & H.I.H.Saravana muttoo,“Gas turbine theory”,Longman Co., ELBS Ed., 1982.
5. W.P.Gill, H.J.Smith & J.E. Ziurys, “Fundamentals of Internal Combustion Engines as applied to
Reciprocating, Gas turbine & Jet Propulsion Power Plants”, Oxford & IBH Publishing Co.,
1980.
6. J .D. Mattingly and H.V. Oha, “Elements of Propulsion - Gas Turbines and Rockets”, AIAA
Education Series, 2006.

14 M.E. – AERONAUTICAL ENGG.


AE1603 - AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
L T P C
3 1 0 4
OBJECTIVE
To study different types of beams and columns subjected to various types of loading and
support conditions with particular emphasis on aircraft structural components.
UNIT - I UNSYMMETRICAL BENDING 12
Stresses in beams of unsymmetrical sections, box beams.
Lab : 1. Use of Double Dial gauge to find the deformations of the given Material.
2. Finding the flexibility coefficients of the given cantilever beam and verification of Maxwell’s
reciprocal theorem and principle of superposition.
3. Unsymmetrical Bending of cantilever beam.
UNIT - II AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE MONOCOQUE AND SEMI MONOCOQUE 12
Analysis of tubular, monocoque and semi-monocoque structures – Torsion and flexure of thin
walled boxes – shear centre – Flexural axis and axis of twist.
Lab: 1. Combined bending of hollow circular shaft.
2. Finding the shear center of the given C-section.
UNIT - III ANALYSIS OF STIFFENED STRUCTURES 12
Idealisation and analysis of stiffened tubular structures – Study of open tubes – Analysis of
multi cell tubes. Analysis of rings and frames – Applications to aircraft structures.
UNIT - IV STABILITY PROBLEMS 12
Stability problems of thin walled structures – Flexural, torsional and local failures – Influence
of eccentricity and in elasticity – Buckling of plates and sheet stringer combinations - crippling loads
– Tension field theory.
Lab : 1. Buckling of columns and plotting of Southwell’s plot.
UNIT V SHELLS 12
Idealization of stiffened shells, shear center, shear flow in thin walled multicell box beams,
effect of taper
TOTAL :60
REFERENCES
1. E
.F. Bruhn, “Analysis and Design of Flight Vehicle Structures”, Tristate Offset Co., 1980.
2. Megson, T.M.G; Aircraft Structures for Engineering Students, Edward Arnold, 1989.
3. Peery, D.J. and Azar, J.J., Aircraft Structures, 2nd Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1993.
4. Stephen P. Tinnoshenko & S.woinowsky Krieger, Theory of Plates and Shells, 2nd Edition,
McGraw-Hill, Singapore, 1990.

M.E. – AERONAUTICAL ENGG. 15


SEMESTER II
AE1604 - AERODYNAMICS II
L T P C
3 1 0 4
OBJECTIVE
To understand the behaviour of airflow both internal and external in compressible flow regime
with particular emphasis on supersonic flows.
UNIT - I INTRODUCTION TO PRINCIPLES OF FLIGHT 10
Physical properties and structure of the atmosphere, Temperature, pressure and altitude
Relationship, Measurement of speed – True and Indicated Air speed, Components of an Airplane
and their functions, Different types of flight vehicles.
UNIT - II DRAG OF BODIES 10
Types of Drag, effects of Reynold’d number on skin friction and pressure drag, streamlined
And bluff bodies, Drag reduction of airplanes, Momentum theory of finite wings, Drag polar.
UNIT - III AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE 14
Steady level flight conditions for minimum drag and minimum power required, Gliding and
Climbing flight, Range and endurance, Take-off and landing, High left devices, Thrust Augmentation,
Turning performance, V-n diagram, Froude momentum and black elements Theory of propellers,
Fixed and Variable pitch propellers.
UNIT - IV NORMAL, OBLIQUE SHOCKS AND EXPANSION WAVES 14
Prandtl equation and Rankine – Hugonoit relation, Normal shock equations, Pitot static tube,
corrections for subsonic and supersonic flows, Oblique shocks and corresponding equations,
Hodograph and pressure turning angle, shock polars, flow past wedges and concave corners,
strong, weak and detached shocks, Rayleigh and Fanno Flow.
UNIT - V AIRCRAFT STABILITY AND CONTROL 12
Degrees of freedom of a system, statie and dynamic stability, static longitudinal stability,
Static lateral stability, static directional stability, dynamic longitudinal stability, dynamic lateral And
directional stability.
TOTAL: 60
REFERENCES
1. Houghton, E.L., and Carruthers. N.B., “Aerodynamics for engineering students”., Edward
Amold Publishers, 1988.
2. Kuethe, A.M., and Chow, C.Y., “ Foundations of Aerodynamics ”., John Wiley & Sons, 1982.
3. L.J. Clancey, “Aerodynamics”., Pitman, 1986.
4. Perkins C.D., & Hage, R.E, “Airplane performance, stability and control”, Wiley Toppan,
1974.
5. Babister, A.W, “ Aircraft stability and Response”., Pergamon Press, 1980.
6. Nelson, R.C. Flight ,“ Stability & Automatic Control ”., McGraw-Hill, 1989.
7. McCornic, B.W, “Aerodynamics, Aeronautics & Flight Mechanics”. John Wiley, 1995.
16 M.E. – AERONAUTICAL ENGG.
AE1605 - COMPOSITE MATERIALS AND STRUCTURE
L T P C
3 1 0 4
OBJECTIVE
To understand the fabrication, analysis and design of composite materials & structures.
UNIT - I CLASSIFICATION AND CHARACTERISTIC OF
COMPOSITE MATERIALS 8
Need for the composite materials. Types of composite materials and their use in structures.
UNIT - II BASIC CONCEPTS 15
Hooke’s law for orthotropic and anisotropic materials. Micromechanics and macro mechanics.
Lamina stress-strain relations referred and principal material directions and arbitrary axes.
UNIT - III ANALYSIS OF LAMINATED COMPOSITES 17
Governing equations for anisotropic and orthotropic plates. Angle-ply and cross ply laminates.
Static, dynamic and stability analysis for simpler cases of composite plates. Interlaminar stresses.
UNIT - IV OTHER METHODS OF ANALYSIS AND FAILURE THEORY 10
Netting analysis, Failure criteria. Sandwich construction.
UNIT - V MANUFACTURING & FABRICATION PROCESSES 10
Manufacturing of glass, boron and carbon fibres. Open mould and closed mould processes.
TOTAL: 60
REFERENCES
1. R.M. Jones, “Mechanics of composite materials”, McGraw-Hill, Kogakusha Ltd., Tokyo,
1975.
2. L.R. Calcote, “Analysis of laminated structures”, Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1989.
3. G.Lubin, “Hand Book on Fibre glass and advanced plastic composites”, Van Nostrand Co.,
New York, 1989.
4. B
.D. Agarwal and L.J. Broutman, “Analysis and Performance of fiber composites”, John-Wiley
and Sons, 1980.

M.E. – AERONAUTICAL ENGG. 17


AE1606 - EXPERIMENTAL STRESS ANALYSIS
L T P C
3 1 0 4
OBJECTIVE
To bring awareness on experimental method of finding the response of the structure to different
types of load.
UNIT - I INTRODUCTION 8
Extensometers – Types – Mechanical, Electrical, Electronic and Optical – Review of bridge
circuits.
UNIT - II STRAIN GAUGE TECHNIQUES 12
Strain gauge and transducers for measurement of static and dynamic loads – Instrumentation,
measurement and recording systems.
UNIT - III PHOTO ELASTIC TECHNIQUES 13
Stress analysis by two and three dimensional photo elasticity – Interpretation of stress patterns
– Typical applications – Description and users of reflection polariscope.
UNIT - IV NON – DESTRUCTIVE TESTING 15
Fundamentals of NDT. Radiography, ultrasonic, Holography ,Laser holography magnetic
particle inspection, Fluorescent penetrant technique, Eddy current testing, Acoustic Emission
Technique, Moire fringes –– Grid methods
UNIT - V OTHER TECHNIQUES 12
Stress analysis by stress coat ––Induction heating instrumentation, measurement and
recording techniques – Creep testing. X-ray,– applications. Fundamentals of brittle coating methods,
Introduction to Moiré techniques, , ultrasonic C- Scan, Thermograph, Fiber – optic Sensors.
TOTAL: 60
REFERENCES
1. J.W. Dally and M.F. Riley, “Experimental Stress Analysis”, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York,
1988.
2. P. Fordham, “Non-Destructive Testing Techniques” Business Publications, London, 1988.
3. M.Hetenyi, “Handbook of Experimental Stress Analysis”, John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York,
1980.
4. G.S. Holister, “Experimental Stress Analysis, Principles and Methods”, Cambridge University
Press, 1987.
5. A.J. Durelli and V.J. Parks, “Moire Analysis of Strain”, Prentice Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs,
New Jersey, 1980.

18 M.E. – AERONAUTICAL ENGG.


AE 1607 - FINITE ELEMENT METHODS
L T P C
3 1 0 4
OBJECTIVE
To introduce the concept of numerical analysis of structural components
UNIT - I INTRODUCTION 12
Review of various approximate methods in structural analysis. Stiffness and flexibility matrices
for simple cases. Basic concepts of finite element method. Formulation of governing equations and
convergence criteria.
UNIT - II DISCRETE ELEMENTS 12
Use of bar and beam elements in structural analysis. Computer implementation of procedure
for these elements.
UNIT - III CONTINUUM ELEMENTS 12
Different forms of 2-D elements and their applications for plane stress, plane strain and
axisymmetric problems. Consistent and lumped formulation. Use of local co-ordinates. Numerical
integration.
UNIT - IV ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 12
Definition and use of different forms of 2-D and 3-D elements. Computer implementation of
formulation of these elements for the analysis of typical aircraft structural parts like, wing, fuselage,
turbine blades.
UNIT - V SOLUTION SCHEMES 12
Different methods of solution of simultaneous equations governing static, dynamics and
stability problems. General purpose Software packages.
TOTAL: 60
REFERENCES
1. L.J. Segerlind, “Applied Finite Element Analysis”, Second Edition, John Wiley and Sons Inc.,
New York, 1984.
2. K.J. Bathe and E.L. Wilson, “Numerical Methods in Finite Elements Analysis”, Prentice Hall of
India Ltd., 1983.
3. R.D. Cook, “Concepts and Applications of Finite Element Analysis”, 3rd Edition, John Wiley &
Sons, 1989.
4. C.S. Krishnamurthy, “Finite Elements Analysis”, Tata McGraw-Hill, 1987.
5. V.Ramamurthi, “Computer Aided Design in Mechanical Engineering”, Tata McGraw-Hill.

M.E. – AERONAUTICAL ENGG. 19


AE 1608 - ROCKETRY AND SPACE MECHANICS
L T P C
3 1 0 4
OBJECTIVE
To introduce basic concepts of design and trajectory estimation of rocket , missiles and basic
concepts of orbital Mechanics
UNIT - I ORBITAL MECHANICS AND SATELLITE DYNAMICS 15
Description of solar system – Keplers Laws of planetary motion – Newton’s Law of Universal
gravitation – Two body and Three-body problems – Jacobis Integral, Librations points - Estimatur
of orbital and escape velocities – geosynchronous and geostationary satellites life time – satellite
perturbations – Hohmann orbits – calculation of orbit parameters.
UNIT - II ROCKET MOTION 15
Principle of operation of rocket motor - thrust equation – one dimensional and two dimensional
rocket motions in free space and homogeneous gravitational fields – Description of vertical,
inclined and gravity turn trajectories determinations of range and altitude – simple approximations
to burnout velocity – staging of rockets.
UNIT - III ROCKET AERODYNAMICS 12
Description of various loads experienced by a rocket passing through atmosphere – drag
estimation – wave drag, skin friction drag, foron drag and base pressure drag – Boat-tailing in
missiles – performance at various altitudes – conical and bell shaped nozzles – adapted nozzles –
rocket dispersion – launching problems.
UNIT - IV MATERIALS FOR SPACECRAFT AND MISSILES 5
Selections of materials for spacecraft and missiles – special requirements of materials to
perform under adverse conditions – ablative materials.
UNIT - V SATELLITE INJECTION AND SATELLITE ORBIT PERTURBATIONS 13
General Aspects of satellite Injections – Satellite Orbit Transfer –Various Cases – Orbit
Deviations Due to Injection Errors – Special and General Perturbations – Cowell’s Method –
Encke’s Method – Method of vibrations of Orbital Elements – General Perturbations Approach.
TOTAL: 60
REFERENCES
1. G.P. Sutton, “Rocket Propulsion Elements”, John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York, 5th Edition,
1986.
2. J.W. Cornelisse, “Rocket Propulsion and Space Dynamics”, J.W. Freeman & Co., Ltd., London,
1982.
3. Van de Kamp, “Elements of astromechanics”, Pitman Publishing Co., Ltd., London, 1980.
4. E.R. Parker, “Materials for Missiles and Spacecraft”, McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 1982.

20 M.E. – AERONAUTICAL ENGG.


AE 1609 - THEORY OF VIBRATIONS
L T P C
3 1 0 4
OBJECTIVE
To study the dynamic behaviour of different aircraft components and the interaction among
the aerodynamic, elastic and inertia forces
UNIT - I INTRODUCTION 10
Simple harmonic motion, definition of terminologies, Review of Newton’s, Laws, D’Alembert’s
principle, Energy methods.
UNIT - II SINGLE DEGREE OF FREEDOM SYSTEMS 10
Free vibrations free damped vibrations, forced excitations with and without damping, support
excitation, vibration measuring instruments.
UNIT - III MULTI-DEGREE OF FREEDOM SYSTEMS 18
Two degrees of freedom systems, Static and dynamic couplings, vibration absorber, Principle
coordinates, Principal modes, orthogonality conditions. Hamilton’s Prinicple, Lagrangean equation
and applications. Vibrations of elastic bodies, String or stretched cord, Longitudinal vibration,
Lateral vibration, Torsional vibration. Approximate methods for calculating natural frequencies.
UNIT - IV ELEMENTS OF AEROELASTICITY 10
Aeroelastic problems – Collar’s triangle of courses – Wing divergence – Aileron control
reversal – Flutter.
UNIT - V SOLUTION METHOD 12
Computational technique in vibration, Vibrating string, General method, Beam element,
Global matrices, Transformation of matrices, Equation of motion of complete system, Consistent
and Lambard mass
TOTAL: 60
REFERENCES
1. Timoshenko.S, “ Vibration Problems in Engineering ”, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1987.
2. Meirovitch, L, Elements of Vibration Analysis ”, McGraw-Hill Inc., 1986.
3. F.S. Rse., I.F. Morse and R.T. Hinkle, “ Mechanical Vibrations ”, Prentice-Hall of India, 1985.
4. Fung, Y.C, “ An Introduction to the Theory of Aeroelasticity ”, John Wiley & Sons Inc., New
York, 1985.
5. Rao.J.S. and Gupta.K, “ Theory and Practice of Mechanical Vibrations ”, Wiley Eastern Ltd.,
New Dehli, 1999.

M.E. – AERONAUTICAL ENGG. 21


AE1625 - AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES LAB
L T P C
0 0 3 1
OBJECTIVE
To study experimentally the load deflection characteristics structural materials under different
types of loads, unsymmetrical bending of beams, to find the location of shear centre , obtain the
stresses in circular discs and beams using photoelastic techniques, calibration of photo – elastic
materials and study on vibration of beams.
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
1. Stress Strain curve for various engineering materials.
2. D
eflection of beams with various end conditions.
3. V
erification of Maxwell’s Reciprocal theorem & principle of superposition
4. Column – Testing
5. South – well’s plot.
6. Unsymmetrical bending of beams
7. Shear centre location for open sections and closed section
8. Calibration of Photo- elastic materials
9. Stresses in circular discs and beams using photoelastic techniques
10. Vibrations of beams
LIST OF EQUIPMENTS
(For a batch of 30 students)

SL. NO. EQUIPMENTS QTY


1. Electrical stain gauge 10
2. Stain indicator 1
3. Dial Gauges 12
4. Beam Test set up with various end conditions 2
5. Maxwell apparatus 1
6. South – well’s plot 1
7. Weight 1 Kg and 2kg 10 each
8. Weight Pans 6
9. Column Test Apparatus 1
10. Beam Test set –up 2
11. Unsymmetrical sections like ‘Z’ sections 2

22 M.E. – AERONAUTICAL ENGG.


12. Channel ,angle open and closed section 2
13. Dial gauges 12
14. Vibration Test Set – up 2
15. Strain indicator and strain gauges One set
16. Photo – elastic apparatus 1

SEMESTER III
AE1626 - AIRCRAFT SYSTEM LABORATORY
L T P C
0 0 3 1
OBJECTIVE
To train the students “ON HAND” experience in maintenance of various air frame systems in
aircraft and rectification of common snags.
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
1. Aircraft “Jacking Up” procedure
2. Aircraft “Levelling” procedure
3. Aircraft “Symmetry Check” procedure
4. Control System “Rigging check” procedure
5. Checks on Landing Gear assembly
6. “ Functional Test” on Aircraft Hydraulic system
7. M
aintenance and rectification of snags in hydraulic and fuel systems.
LIST OF EQUIPMENTS
SL.NO. ITEMS QUANTITY
1. Serviceable aircraft with all above systems 1
2. Hydraulic Jacks (Screw Jack) 5
3. Trestle adjustable 5
4. Spirit Level 2
5. Levelling Boards 2
6. Cable Tensiometer 1
7. Adjustable Spirit Level 1
8. Plumb Bob 1

M.E. – AERONAUTICAL ENGG. 23


SEMESTER III & IV
AE1610 & AE1611 - PROJECT WORK (Phase I & II)
L T P C
0 0 36 18
OBJECTIVE
The objective of the project work is to enable the students on a project involving theoretical
and experimental studies related to the branch of study. Every project work shall have a guide who
is the member of the faculty of the institution. Full semester shall be allotted and this time shall be
utilized by the students to receive the directions from the guide, on library reading, laboratory work,
computer analysis or field work as assigned by the guide and also to present in periodical seminars
on the progress made in the project.
Each student shall finally produce a comprehensive report covering back round information,
literature survey, problem statement, project work details and conclusion. This final report shall be
typewritten form as specified in the guidelines.
The continuous assessment shall be made as prescribed by the regulation (Hindustan
University Regulations 2008 for ME. programme)
Total : 18
ELECTIVES
SEMESTER I
AE1612 - ADVANCED PROPULSION SYSTEMS
L T P C
3 1 0 4
OBJECTIVE
To understand the principles of operation of advanced propulsion systems , working of Ramjet
and Scramjet Engines.
UNIT - I THERMODYNAMIC CYCLE ANALYSIS OF AIR-BREATHING
PROPULSION SYSTEMS 12
Air breathing propulsion systems like Turbojet, turboprop, ducted fan, Ramjet and Air
augmented rockets – Thermodynamic cycles – Pulse propulsion – Combustion process in pulse jet
engines – inlet charging process – Supercritical charging and subcritical discharging – Subcritical
charging and subcritical discharging – Subcritical charging and supercritical discharging.
UNIT - II RAMJETS AND AIR AUGMENTED ROCKETS 10
Preliminary performance calculations – Diffuser design and hypersonic inlets – combustor
and nozzle design – air augmented rockets – engines with supersonic combustion.
UNIT - III SCRAMJET PROPULSION SYSTEM 14
Fundamental considerations of hypersonic air breathing vehicles – Preliminary concepts in
engine airframe integration – calculation of propulsion flow path – flowpath integration – Various
types of supersonic combustors – fundamental requirements of supersonic combustors – Mixing of
fuel jets in supersonic cross flow – performance estimation of supersonic combustors.
24 M.E. – AERONAUTICAL ENGG.
UNIT - IV NUCLEAR PROPULSION 12
Nuclear rocket engine design and performance – nuclear rocket reactors – nuclear rocket
nozzles – nuclear rocket engine control – radioisotope propulsion – basic thruster configurations
– thruster technology – heat source development – nozzle development – nozzle performance of
radioisotope propulsion systems.
UNIT - V ELECTRIC AND ION PROPULSION 12
Basic concepts in electric propulsion – power requirements and rocket efficiency – thermal
thrusters – electrostatic thrusters – plasma thruster of the art and future trends – Fundamentals of
ion propulsion – performance analysis – electrical thrust devices – ion rocket engine.
TOTAL: 60
REFERENCES
1. John D. Anderson, Jr,. “ Hypersonic and High Temperature Gas Dynamics ”. McGraw-Hill
Series, New York, 1996.
2. John. D.Anderson, Jr “, Modern Compressible Flwo with Historical perpectant ”. McGraw-Hill
Series, New York, 1996.
3. William H. Heiser and David T. Pratt ,“ Hypersonic Airbreathing propulsion ”. by, AIAA Education
Series.
4. John T. Bertin “ Hypersonic Aerothermodynamic ”, 1994 published by AIAA Inc., Washington
D.C.

AE 1613 - THEORY OF ELASTICITY


L T P C
3 1 0 4
OBJECTIVE
To understand the theoretical concepts of material behaviour with particular emphasis on their
elastic property
UNIT - I FUNDAMENTALS OF ELASTICITY 10
Assumptions In Elasticity ,Strain – displacement relations, Stress – strain relations Equilibrium
equation in Cartesian and polar coordinates., Compatibility conditions. Saint-Venant’s principle.
UNIT - II BASIC EQUATIONS OF ELASTICITY 10
Lame’s constant – cubical dilation, Compressibility of material, bulk modulus, Shear modulus,
Principal stresses and principal strains, Mohr’s circle
UNIT - III PLANE STRESS AND PLANE STRAIN PROBLEMS 15
Airy’s stress function, plane stress and plane strain idealization. Special problems in polar
coordinates. Kirsch, Boussinasque’s and Michell’s problems.
UNIT - IV POLAR COORDINATES 10
Equations of equilibrium, Strain displacement relations, Stress – strain relations, Axi –
symmetric problems, Kirsch, Michell’s and Boussinesque problems

M.E. – AERONAUTICAL ENGG. 25


UNIT - V TORSIONAL THEORY 15
Navier’s theory, St. Venant’s theory, Prandtl’s theory on torsion, The semi- inverse method
and applications to shafts of circular, elliptical, equilateral triangular and rectangular sections
TOTAL: 60
REFERENCES
1. S.P. Timoshenko and J.N. Goodier, Theory of Elasticity, McGraw-Hill, 1985.
2. E. Sechler, “Elasticity in Engineering” John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York, 1980.

AE 1614 - ADVANCED HEAT TRANSFER


L T P C
3 1 0 4
OBJECTIVE
To introduce the concepts of heat transfer to enable the students to design components
subjected to thermal loading.
UNIT - I ADVANCED HEAT CONDUCTION ANALYSIS 12
Conduction – Convection systems – Mathematical analysis of two-dimensional heat conduction
– graphical and numerical analysis – Numerical solutions to problems heat conduction problems.
UNIT - II CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER ANALYSIS 15
Heat transfer involving laminar and turbulent flows over a flat plate and through a tube - Heat
transfer in high speed flows – closed form and numerical solutions.
UNIT - III RADIATIVE HEAT TRANSFER 11
Physical mechanism of radiation – radiation shape factors – relations between shape factors
– heat exchange between non-black bodies – radiation shields – solar radiation – radiation heat
transfer coefficient.
UNIT - IV HEAT EXCHANGERS 12
Classification – Temperature Distribution – Overall heat transfer coefficient, Heat Exchange
Analysis – LMTD Method and E-NTU Method.
UNIT - V APPLICATIONS IN AEROSPACE ENGINEERING 10
Heat transfer in gas turbine combustion chambers and rocket thrust chambers – Heat transfer
in ablation cooling process.
TOTAL: 60
REFERENCES
1. John H. Lienhard, “A Heat Transfer Text Book”, Prentice Hall Inc., 1981.
2. J.P. Holman, “Heat Transfer”, McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York, 6th Edition, 1991.
3. S.C. Sachdeva, “Fundamentals of Engineering Heat & Mass Transfer”, Wiley Eastern Ltd.,

26 M.E. – AERONAUTICAL ENGG.


New Delhi, 1981.
4. G.P. Sutton, “Rocket Propulsion Elements”, John Wiley & Sons, 5th Edition, 1986.
5. M.Mathur and R.P. Sharma, “Gas turbine and Jet and Rocket Propulsion”, Standard Publishers,
New Delhi, 1988.

AE 1615 - AIRCRAFT DESIGN
L T P C
3 1 0 4
OBJECTIVE
To introduce and develop the basic concept of aircraft design
UNIT - I REVIEW OF DEVELOPMENTS IN AVIATION 12
Categories and types of aircraft specifications – various configurations – Layouts and their
relative merits – strength, stiffness, fail safe and fatigue requirements – Manoeuvering load factors
– Gust and manoeuverability envelopes – Balancing and maneuvering loads on tail planes.
UNIT - II POWER PLANT TYPES AND CHARACTERISTICS 12
Characteristics of different types of power plants – Propeller characteristics and selection –
Relative merits of location of power plant.
UNIT - III PRELIMINARY DESIGN 12
Selection of geometric and aerodynamic parameters – Weight estimation and balance diagram
– Drag estimation of complete aircraft – Level flight, climb, take – off and landing calculations –
range and endurance – static and dynamic stability estimates – control requirements.
UNIT - IV SPECIAL PROBLEMS 12
Layout peculiarities of subsonic and supersonic aircraft – optimisation – of wing loading to
achieve desired performance – loads on undercarriages and design requirements.
UNIT - V STRUCTURAL DESIGN 12
Estimation of loads on complete aircraft and components – Structural design of fuselage,
wings and undercarriages, controls, connections and joints. Materials for modern aircraft – Methods
of analysis, testing and fabrication.
TOTAL: 60
REFERENCES
1. G. Corning, “Supersonic & Subsonic Airplane Design”, II Edition, Edwards Brothers Inc.,
Michigan, 1953.
2. E
.F. Bruhn, “Analysis and Design of Flight Vehicle Structures”, Tristate Offset Co., U.S.A.,
1980.
3. A.A. Lebedenski, “Notes on airplane design”, Part-I, I.I.Sc., Bangalore, 1971.
4. E.Torenbeek, “Synthesis of Subsonic Airplane Design”, Delft University Press, London,
1976.

M.E. – AERONAUTICAL ENGG. 27


5. D.P. Raymer, “Aircraft conceptual design”, AIAA Series, 1988.
6. H
.N.Kota, “ Integrated design approach to Design fly by wire” Lecture notes Interline Pub.
Bangalore, 1992.
7. S.C. Keshu & K.K. Ganapathi “Aircraft Production Techniques and Management”, 1995.

SEMESTER – III ELECTIVES


AE 1616 - COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS
L T P C
3 1 0 4
OBJECTIVE
To study the flow of fluids using computational methods
UNIT - I NUMERICAL SOLUTIONS OF SOME FLUID DYNAMICAL
PROBLEMS 12
Coordinate system, Body fitted coordinate systems, Stability analysis of linear system. Finding
solution of a simple gas dynamic problem, Local similar solutions of boundary layer equations,
Numerical integration and shooting technique.
UNIT - II TRANSONIC RELAXATION TECHNIQUES 14
Small perturbation flows, Transonic small perturbation (TSP) equations, Central and backward
difference schemes, conservation equations and shockpoint operator, Line relaxation techniques,
Acceleration of convergence rate, Jameson’s rotated difference scheme stretching of coordinates,
shock fitting techniques Flow in body fitted coordinate system.
UNIT - III TIME DEPENDENT METHODS 12
Stability of solution, Explicit methods, Time split methods, Approximate factorization
scheme, Unsteady transonic flow around airfoils. Some time dependent solutions of gas dynamic
problems.
UNIT - IV PANEL METHOD 12
Elements of two and three dimensional panels, panel singularities. Application of panel method
to incompressible, compressible, subsonic and supersonic flows.
UNIT - V SPECIAL PROBLEMS 10
Grid generation techniques
TOTAL: 60
REFERENCES
1. T.K.Bose, “Computation Fluid Dynamics” Wiley Eastern Ltd., 1988.
2. H
.J. Wirz and J.J. Smeldern “Numerical methods in fluid dynamics”, McGraw-Hill & Co.,
1978.
3. C
.Y.Chow, “Introduction to computational fluid dynamics”, John Wiley, 1979.
4. A
.A. Hirsch, ‘Introduction to computational fluid dynamics”, McGraw-Hill, 1989

28 M.E. – AERONAUTICAL ENGG.


AE 1617 - CRYOGENICS
L T P C
3 1 0 4
OBJECTIVE
To study the engineering concept of cryogenic and its application in various field
UNIT - I FUNDAMENTALS OF CRYOGENICS 12
Theory behind the production of low temperature – expansion engine – heat exchangers
– Cascade process - Joule Thomson and Magnetic effects – cryogenic liquids as cryogenic
propellants for cryogenic rocket engines – properties of various cryogenic propellants – handling
problems associated with cryogenic propellants.
UNIT - II CRYOGENIC SYSTEMS EFFICIENCY 12
Types of losses and efficiency of cycles – amount of cooling – the features liquefied – cooling
coefficient of performance – Thermodynamic efficiency – The energy balancing method.
UNIT - III THERMODYNAMIC CYCLES FOR CRYOGENIC PLANTS 12
Classification of cryogenic cycles – The Structure of cycles – Throttle expansion cycles –
Expander cycles – Mixed throttle expansion and expander cycles – Thermodynamic analysis –
Numerical problems.
UNIT - IV PECULIAR PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH CRYOPROPELLANTS 12
Storage problems of cryogenic propellants – cryogenic loading Aerospace Materials – zero
gravity problems associated with cryopropellants – phenomenon of tank collapse – geysering
effect.
UNIT - V CRYOGENIC ROCKET ENGINES 12
Peculiar design difficulties associated with the design of feed system, injector and thrust
chamber of cryogenic rocket engines – Relative performance of cryogenic when compared to non-
cryo engines.
TOTAL: 60
REFERENCES
1. Sutton, G.P. “Rocket Propelsion Elements”, John Wiley, 1993.
2. Hazel D.K. & Hungdh, “Design of Liquid Propellant Rocket Engines”, N.A.S.A. Special
Publications – 125, 1971.
3. Haseldom, G., Cryogenic Fundamentals, Academic Press, 1971.
4. B
arron, R.F., Cryogenic Systems, Oxford University, 1985.
5. Parner, S.F., Propellant Chemistry Reinfold Publishing Corporation, New York, 1985.

M.E. – AERONAUTICAL ENGG. 29


AE 1618 - FATIGUE AND FRACTURE MECHANICS
L T P C
3 1 0 4
OBJECTIVE
To study the concepts of estimation of the endurance and failure mechanism of components
UNIT - I FATIGUE OF STRUCTURES 12
S.N. curves – Endurance limit – Effect of mean stress – Goodman, Gerber and Soderberg
relations and diagrams – Notches and stress concentrations – Neuber’s stress concentration
factors – plastic stress concentration factors – Notched S-N curves.
UNIT - II STATISTICAL ASPECTS OF FATIGUE BEHAVIOUR 11
Low cycle and high cycle fatigue – Coffin-Manson’s relation – Transition life – Cyclic Strain
hardening and softening – Analysis of load histories – Cycle counting techniques – Cumulative
damage – Miner’s theory – other theories.
UNIT - III PHYSICAL ASPECTS OF FATIGUE 10
Phase in fatigue life – Crack initiation – Crack growth – Final fracture – Dislocations – Fatigue
fracture surfaces.
UNIT - IV FRACTURE MECHANICS 15
Strength of cracked bodies – potential energy and surface energy – Griffith’s theory – Irwin –
Orwin extension of Griffith’s theory to ductile materials – Stress analysis of cracked bodies – Effect
of thickness on fracture toughness – Stress intensity factors for typical geometries.
UNIT V FATIGUE DESIGN AND TESTING 12
Safe life and fail safe design philosophies – Importance of Fracture Mechanics in aerospace
structure – Application to composite materials and structures.
TOTAL: 60
REFERENCES
1. W
.Barrois and L.Ripley, “Fatigue of Aircraft Structures”, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1983.
2. D.Brock, “Elementary Engineering Fracture Mechanics”, Noordhoff International Publishing
Co., London, 1994.
3. C.G.Sih, “Mechanics of Fracture”, Vol.1 Sijthoff and Noordhoff International Publishing Co.,
Netherland, 1989.
4. J.F.Knott, “Fundamentals of Fracture Mechanics”, Butterworth & Co., (Publishers) Ltd.,
London, 1983.

30 M.E. – AERONAUTICAL ENGG.


AE1619 HIGH TEMPERATURE PROBLEMS IN STRUCTURES
L T P C
3 1 0 4
OBJECTIVE
To learn damage mechanism and failure of components of elevated temperatures
UNIT - I TEMPERATURE EQUATIONS & AERODYNAMIC HEATING 12
For condition, radiation and convection – Fourier’s equation – Boundary and initial conditions
– One-dimensional problem formulations – Methods and Solutions. Heat balance equation for
idealised structures – Adibatic temperature – Variations – Evaluation of transient temperature.
UNIT - II THERMAL STRESS ANALYSIS 12
Thermal stresses and strains – Equations of equilibrium – Boundary conditions – Thermoelasticity
– Two dimensional problems and solutions – Airy stress function and applications.
UNIT - III THERMAL STRESS IN BEAMS, TRUSSES AND THIN CYLINDERS 12
Thermal stresses in axially loaded members, beams with varying cross sections. Effect of
temperature in thin cylinders.
UNIT - IV THERMAL STRESSES IN PLATES 12
Membrane thermal stresses – Circular plates – Rectangular plates – Bending thermal stresses
– Thick plates with temperature varying along thickness – Thermal vibration of plates.
UNIT - V SPECIAL TOPICS & MATERIALS 12
Thermal bucking, Fatigue and shock applications – High temperature effects on material
properties.
TOTAL: 60
REFERENCES
1. A.B. Bruno and H.W. Jerome, “Theory of Thermal Stresses”, John Wiley & Sons Inc., New
York, 1980.
2. D
.J. Johns, “Thermal Stress Analysis”, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1985.
3. N.J. Hoff, “High Temperature effects in Aircraft Structures”, John Wiley & Sons Inc., London,
1986.

M.E. – AERONAUTICAL ENGG. 31


AE 1620 - THEORY OF PLATES & SHELLS
L T P C
3 1 0 4
OBJECTIVE
To study the behaviour of the plates and shells with different geometry under various types of
loads.
UNIT - I INTRODUCTION 5
Plate and shell structures in aerospace vehicles.
UNIT - II SMALL DEFLECTION THEORY OF PLATES 15
Bending of thin plates-isotropic and orthotropic flat plates of different geometry – rectangular,
square and skew plates-circular plates-different edge conditions-biharmonic equation for plate
deflections.
UNIT - III SHEAR DEFORMATION AND LARGE DEFLECTION
THEORY OF PLATES 10
Assumptions-shear deformation – Analysis of flat plates and applications.
UNIT - IV STABILITY OF PLATES 10
Instability of Plates-different edge conditions – Applications.
UNIT - V SHELLS 20
Basic concepts – Deformation – Membrance theory of shells applied to shells of form of
surface of revolution. General theory of cylindrical shells – Circular cylindrical shells – spherical
shells and conical shells.
TOTAL: 60
REFERENCES
1. W.Flugge, “Stresses in Shells”, II Edition Springer Verlag Co., New York, 1983.
2. A.L.Goldenvizier, “Theory of Elastic Thin Shells”, Pergamon Press, New York, 1981.
3. H.Kraus, Thin Elastic Shells”, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1987.
4. S.P. Timoshenko and S.W.Krieger, “Theory of Plates and Shells”, II Edition McGraw-Hill,
Kogakusha Ltd., Tokyo, 1989.
5. L.R. Calcote, “Analysis of Laminates Structures”, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1989.

32 M.E. – AERONAUTICAL ENGG.


AE 1621 - INDUSTRIAL AERODYNAMICS
L T P C
3 1 0 4
OBJECTIVE
To understand the behaviour of airflow in vehicle, Buildings and the flow induced vibrations.
UNIT - I ATMOSPHERE 12
Types of winds, Causes of variation of winds, Atmospheric boundary layer, Effect of terrain on
gradient height, Structure of turbulent flows.
UNIT - II WIND ENERGY COLLECTORS 12
Horizontal axis and vertical axis machines, Power coefficient, Betz coefficient by momentum
theory.
UNIT - III VEHICLE AERODYNAMICS 12
Power requirements and drag coefficients of automobiles, Effects of cut back angle,
Aerodynamics of trains and Hovercraft.
UNIT - IV BUILDING AERODYNAMICS 12
Pressure distribution on low rise buildings, wind forces on buildings. Environmental winds in
city blocks, Special problems of tall buildings, Building codes, Building ventilation and architectural
aerodynamics.
UNIT - V FLOW INDUCED VIBRATIONS 12
Effects of Reynolds number on wake formation of bluff shapes, Vortex induced vibrations,
Galloping and stall flutter.
TOTAL: 60
REFERENCES
1. M.Sovran (Ed), “Aerodynamics drag mechanisms of bluff bodies and road vehicles”, Plenum
press, New York, 1978.
2. P. Sachs, “Winds forces in engineering”, Pergamon Press, 1978.
3. R.D. Blevins, “Flow induced vibrations”, Van Nostrand, 1990.
4. N
.G. Calvent, “Wind Power Principles”, Charles Griffin & Co., London, 1979.

M.E. – AERONAUTICAL ENGG. 33


AE 1622 - HELICOPTER AERODYNAMICS
L T P C
3 1 0 4
OBJECTIVE
To understand the behaviour of helicopter , elements of helicopter , power estimation and
ground effect machines
UNIT - I LIFT, PROPULSION AND CONTROL OF V/STOL AIRCRAFT 12
Various configurations – propeller, rotor, ducted fan and jet lift-Tilt wing and vectored thrust –
performance of VTOL and STOL aircraft in hover, transition and forward motion.
UNIT - II ELEMENTS OF HELICOPTER AERODYNAMICS 12
Configurations based on torque reaction – Jet rotors and compound helicopters – Methods of
control – collective and cyclic pitches changes – Lead – lag and flapping hinges.
UNIT - III IDEAL ROTOR THEORY 12
Hovering performance – Momentum and simple blade element theories – Figure of merit –
Profile and induced power estimation – Constant chord and ideal twist rotors.
UNIT - IV POWER ESTIMATES 12
Induced, profile and parasite power requirements in forward flight – performance curves with
effects of altitude – Preliminary ideas on helicopter stability.
UNIT - V GROUND EFFECT MACHINES 12
Types – Hover height, lift augmentation and power calculations for plenum chamber and
peripheral jet machines – Drag of hovercraft on land and water. Applications of hovercraft.
TOTAL: 60
REFERENCES
1. B
.W. McCormic, “Aerodynamics of V/STOL Flight”, Academic Press, New York, 1978.
2. A. Gessow and G.C.Meyers, “Aerodynamics of the Helicopter”, Macmillan and Co., New York,
1982.
3. G.H. Elsley and A.J. Devereux, “Hovercraft Design and Construction, David Charies, London,
1982.
4. Anderson J.D. “Aerodynamics”, John Wiley, 1995.

34 M.E. – AERONAUTICAL ENGG.


AE 1623 - AEROELASTICITY
L T P C
3 1 0 4
OBJECTIVE
To study the dynamic behaviour of different aircraft components and the interaction among
elastic and inertia forces
UNIT - I AEROELASTIC PHENOMENA 10
Stability versus response problems – The aero-elastic triangle of forces – Aeroplasticity in
Aircraft Design – Prevention of aeroelastic instabilities.
UNIT - II DIVERGENCE OF A LIFTING SURFACE 14
Simple two dimensional idealisations-Strip theory – Freedom integral equation of the second
kind – Exact solutions for simple rectangular wings – ‘Semirigid’ assumption and approximate
solutions – Generalised coordinates – Successive approximations – Numerical approximations
using matrix equations.
UNIT - III STEADY STATE AEROLASTIC PROBLEMS 12
Loss and reversal of aileron control – Critical aileron reversal speed – Aileron efficiency –
Semirigid theory and successive approximations – Lift distribution – Rigid and elastic wings.
UNIT - IV FLUTTER PHENOMENON 14
Non-dimensional parameters – Stiffness criteria – Dynamic mass balancing – Model
experiments – Dimensional similarity – Flutter analysis – Two dimensional thin airfoils in steady
incompressible flow – Quasisteady aerodynamic derivatives – Galerkin method for critical speed –
Stability of disturbed motion – Torsion flexure flutter – Solution of the flutter determinant – Methods
of determining the critical flutter speeds – Flutter prevention and control.
UNIT - V EXAMPLES OF AEROELASTIC PROBLEMS IN CIVIL AND
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 10
Galloping of transmission lines and flow induced vibrations of tall slender structures and
suspension bridges.
TOTAL: 60
REFERENCES
1. R.L. Bisplinghoff, H.Ashley, and R.L. Halfmann, “Aeroelasticity”, II Edition Addison Wesley
Publishing Co., Inc., 1987.
2. E.G. Broadbent, “Elementary Theory of Aeroelasticity”, Bun Hill Publications Ltd., 1986.
3. Y.C. Fung, “An Introduction to the Theory of Aeroelasticity”, John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York,
1985.
4. R.H. Scanlan and R.Rosenbaum, “Introduction to the study of Aircraft Vibration and Flutter”,
Macmillan Co., New York, 1981.

M.E. – AERONAUTICAL ENGG. 35


AE 1624 - HYPERSONIC AERODYNAMICS
L T P C
3 1 0 4
OBJECTIVE
To understand the behaviour of airflow in hypersonic air speeds
UNIT - I BASICS OF HYPERSONIC AERODYNAMICS 12
Thin shock layers – entropy layers – low density and high density flows – hypersonic flight
paths hypersonic flight similarity parameters – shock wave and expansion wave relations of inviscid
hypersonic flows.
UNIT - II NUMERICAL METHODS FOR HYPERSONIC AERODYNAMICS 10
Local surface inclination methods – modified Newtonian Law – Newtonian theory – tangent
wedge or tangent cone and shock expansion methods
UNIT - III HYPERSONIC INVISCID FLOWS 15
Approximate methods hypersonic small disturbance equation and theory – thin shock layer
theory: exact methods of characteristics hypersonic shock wave shapes and correlations.
UNIT - IV VISCOUS HYPERSONIC FLOW THEORY 15
Navier–Stokes equations – boundary layer equations for hypersonic flow – hypersonic
boundary layer – hypersonic boundary layer theory and non similar hypersonic boundary layers –
hypersonic aerodynamic heating and entropy layers effects on aerodynamic heating.
UNIT - V VISCOUS INTERACTIONS IN HYPERSONIC FLOWS 8
Strong and weak viscous interactions – hypersonic shockwaves and boundary layer
interactions – Role of similarity parameter for laminar viscous interactions in hypersonic viscous
flow.
TOTAL: 60
REFERENCES
1. John D. Anderson “Hypersonic and High Temperature Gas Dynamics”, Jr, McGraw-Hill Series,
New York, 1996.
2. John.D.Anderson “Modern Compressible Flow with Historical perpectant”, Jr. Hypersonic
Series.
3. William H. Heiser and David T. Praff “Hypersonic Air breathing propulsion”, AIAA Education
Series.
4. John T. Bertin “Hypersonic Aerothermodynamics”, 1994 published by AIAA Inc., Washington
D.C.

36 M.E. – AERONAUTICAL ENGG.