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Emmanuel Jean Francois

Copyright © Emmanuel Jean Francois, 2015.
Softcover reprint of the hardcover 1st edition 2015 978-1-137-39174-2
All rights reserved.
First published in 2015 by
in the United States—a division of St. Martin’s Press LLC,
175 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10010.
Where this book is distributed in the UK, Europe and the rest of the world,
this is by Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited,
registered in England, company number 785998, of Houndmills,
Basingstoke, Hampshire RG21 6XS.
Palgrave Macmillan is the global academic imprint of the above companies
and has companies and representatives throughout the world.
Palgrave® and Macmillan® are registered trademarks in the United States,
the United Kingdom, Europe and other countries.
ISBN 978-1-349-48307-5 ISBN 978-1-137-38677-9 (eBook)
DOI 10.1057/9781137386779
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Jean-François, Emmanuel, 1971–
Building global education with a local perspective : an introduction to
glocal higher education / Emmanuel Jean Francois.
pages cm
Includes bibliographical references and index.
1. Education, Higher. 2. Education and globalization. 3. Education,
Higher—Administration. 4. Educational leadership. 5. Education,
Higher—Social aspects. 6. Glocalization. I. Title.
LB2322.2.J43 2015
378—dc23 2014038912
A catalogue record of the book is available from the British Library.
Design by Newgen Knowledge Works (P) Ltd., Chennai, India.
First edition: April 2015
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
This book is dedicated to my adorable wife Pierrette,
my incredible daughters Emmarald and Maellie,
and my handsome son Pierremael
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List of Figures and Boxes ix

Preface xi

1 Education and Society 1

2 International Education 17
3 Globalization and Higher Education 35
4 Global Higher Education and Local Context 47
5 Glocalization 61
6 Glocal Symbiosis 73
7 Glocal Higher Education 85
8 Glocal Validation 101
9 Glocal Partnership 111
10 Glocally Informed Pedagogy 127
11 Glocal Competence in Context 141
12 Glocal Inquiry 155
13 Glocal Higher Education and Strategic Planning 169
14 Managing Glocal Higher Education Programs 183
15 Glocal Leadership 197

References 209
Index 231
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1.1 Purposes of Education in a Society 7
1.2 Intergenerational Income Elasticities for Nine Developed
Countries 12
2.1 Distribution of Foreign Students in Tertiary Education,
in Percentage, by Region of Origin (2010) 26
2.2 Fast College Degree in 10 Days 29
4.1 Global Education Ambitions 52
5.1 Facets of Glocalization 64
6.1 Glocal Symbiosis 75
6.2 Principles of Glocal Symbiosis 76
7.1 Glocal Higher Education 88
7.2 The Four Cs of Effective Glocal Higher Education 96
8.1 Types of Assets 109
9.1 Global Partnership Networks 112
10.1 Glocally Informed Pedagogy (GIP) 131
11.1 Competence 148
11.2 Social Construction of Glocal Identity 150
12.1 The Research Process 158
12.2 Glocal Inquiry 161
13.1 Strategic Planning Process 172
14.1 Steps in Paracontextual Problem Solving 190

2.1 Sample Memorandum of Understanding (MOU)
between Two Universities 23
6.1 Adjusted Global Symbiosis Ratio 83
8.1 Key Elements of a Cross-Societal Readiness Assessment 106

8.2 Cross-Societal Readiness Assessment through a

Transculturality Framework 108
10.1 Hofstede Cultural Dimensions and Short Descriptive 128
10.2 Mezirow’s Ten Phases of Transformative Learning 132
13.1 Benefits of Strategic Planning for Higher Education
Institutions 170
13.2 The Motivation for Internationalizing Curriculum Scale
(MICS) 175
13.3 Internationalization at Home and Abroad 180
15.1 Selected List of Traits Associated with Leadership in
Various Studies or Publications 200
15.2 Lists of Clusters by Alphabetic Order and Selected
Examples of Countries Included 206

T he purpose of this book is to introduce the concept glocal higher

education through a systematic, comprehensive, and cohesive con-
ceptual framework for analyzing, planning, implementing, and sustaining
educational policies, programs, and projects in transnational and tran-
scultural contexts. More specifically, the book will enable the reader to:

M Explore a rationale for the concept glocal higher education;

M Explore factors that constitute the foundations of glocal higher
M Explore key conceptual frameworks related to glocal higher educa-
tion initiatives; and
M Examine planning, managerial, and leadership frameworks that will
enable to sustain effective glocal higher education programs, and

The book includes 15 chapters. Chapter 1 emphasizes on the nature

of the interconnectedness between education and society, including the
sociological theories, the political, social, and economic conditions that
shape the mission, structures, curriculum and instructional practices
of educational institutions at the national and global levels. Chapter 2
defines the mission and purpose of international education, and ana-
lyzes the roles of various international organizations in interpreting and
implementing international education. Chapter 3 provides an overview
of the historical, political, social, cultural, and economic dimensions of
globalization, including the theoretical assumptions underlying global-
ization’s conceptual frameworks and research and their relationships to
policy interventions affecting higher education. Chapter 4 analyzes the
worldwide ambitions of global education in relation to their contradic-
tions with the national (local) educational needs of nation-states as local
contexts. Chapter 5 reviews the definition of glocalization in the light
xii P R E FAC E

of previous studies, and discusses the assumptions about glocalization as

an alternative framework to globalization, as well as its relation to higher
education pertaining to the development of a glocal higher education
Chapter 6 argues that a symbiosis of the strengths of both global and
local education may provide a conceptual framework that can compen-
sate for the limitations of global education to create an authentic global
village and addresses the constraints faced by local education to remain
competitive in the interconnected and interdependent world. Glocal
symbiosis is based on the interactions between the global and the local to
create a new dynamic that benefits both the global and the local.
Chapter 7 introduces the concept glocal higher education as a neolo-
gism inspired by the framework glocalization. Chapter 8 argues that glo-
cal validation is a facet of glocal higher education that can help contribute
to create an environment that is responsive to the needs, perceptions, and
assumptions of a local context. Chapter 9 introduces the concept glocal
partnership within the context of glocal higher education.
Chapter 10 explores the glocal instructional context that would involve
a glocal higher education program, and discusses the concept locally
informed pedagogy, which may interact to globally utilized teaching and
learning principles to offer the opportunity of a glocally informed peda-
gogy. Chapter 11 reviews the term global competence through its various
uses and limitations, and introduces the concept glocal competence, as
well as some factors that participate in the social construction of glocal
identity. Chapter 12 includes an overview of concepts, and approaches on
scientific inquiry and ways of knowing, and introduces the concept glo-
cal inquiry, including its facets and characteristics. Chapter 13 examines
the strategic planning approach and processes used by leaders to direct
educational change and improvement at the national, international, and
transnational levels, in the context of glocal higher education. Chapter 14
suggests some approaches and principles related to the management of
a glocal higher education program. Finally, chapter 15 introduces the
concept glocal leadership based on the interactions between the globally
recognized theories of leadership and the need for endogenous adaptation
to local contexts characterized by specific cultural dimensions.
The target population for this book is broad and diverse. However,
the primary audience for the book will be master’s and doctoral students,
academics, scholars, activists, and practitioners interested in interna-
tional, global, and comparative higher education, sustainable develop-
ment, and international training and development. The book can be used
as a textbook in the growing number of graduate courses on international
P R E FAC E xiii

education, global education, globalization and higher education, transna-

tional education, and comparative education, international development,
and transcultural human resource development. The book should also be
found useful and helpful by international and transnational organizations
interested in effective frameworks for sustainable development.
This book is a primer in introducing the concepts, theories, and prac-
tices associated with glocal higher education. In that context, the book
addresses an old idea “think globally, act locally,” and “think locally,
act globally” in a contemporary fashion. The framework glocal higher
education makes propositions and suggests concepts that can serve as
alternative to the limitations of the imperialist ambitions of global educa-
tion. The frameworks will also serve as an alternative way of approaching
higher education and training for sustainable development, especially in
the domain of international educational development.
Every chapter includes “Questions and Activities” for review and
ref lection. The “Questions and Activities” can be especially useful for
self-directed learning, online, and face-to-face courses. The book intro-
duces lots of new concepts that should be of interest to anyone inter-
ested in developing a glocal higher education, especially faculty, scholars,
researchers, administrators, and leaders of postsecondary education insti-
tutions from around the world.
This book was born from a desire to reshape the debates on interna-
tional and global higher education with the hope that there will be more
emphasis on the symbiotic relationship that should characterize the dia-
lectic of the global and the local. The introduction of the neologism glocal
higher education and related conceptual frameworks is an invitation to
researchers, scholars, faculty, administrators, graduate students, and other
practitioners to participate in a forum of complex and challenging dia-
logues about glocal symbiosis, glocal higher education, glocal validation,
glocal partnership, glocally informed pedagogy, glocal competence, and
glocal inquiry. I anticipate that they can take on that challenge and try
to push the envelope of their critical thinking in a scholarly insane way
that questions, validates, and dismantles the propositions in this book. In
the process, I would have achieved my goal to contribute to advance the
debates on international, global, and comparative higher education.


T he relationship of antecedence between the concepts “education”

and “society” is one that can be a challenge for social scientists.
Anthropologists, sociologists, or other social scientists may be on con-
f licting sides of the argument. Some may argue there is no society with-
out education. Therefore, education comes first, and is more important
than society. Others may argue that a society must exist before there
can be education. Furthermore, education is a ref lection of a society, or
is inf luenced by society. Therefore, the society comes first and is more
important. Regardless of the side of the argument supported by one
group of scholars or another, there is an evident consensus that educa-
tion and society are interconnected. This chapter will not argue over the
philosophical viewpoints about whether education comes before society
or whether society comes first. Instead, the chapter emphasizes on the
nature of the interconnectedness between education and society. This
chapter focuses on the development of educational systems through vari-
ous sociological theories, the political, social, and economic conditions
that shape the mission, structures, curriculum, and instructional practices
of educational institutions at the national and global levels. The chapter
examines the relationships between education and society through vari-
ous theories and concepts related to social mobility and stratification,
social reproduction, social change, education and development, as well as
differences in educational outcomes based on gender, race and ethnicity,
and socioeconomic status.

Education occurs within the complexity of the structures of a society.
This factual statement justifies the need to elaborate on the relationship

between education and society. Before further consideration, let me

underline that a society is composed of a group of people living in a
defined geographical territory, governed by a same political authority,
and participating in a common culture (Shepard, 2010). The term cul-
ture encompasses languages, physical objects of a society, the arts, norms,
values, habits, and all patterns of behaviors that are transmitted from one
generation to another through a lifelong learning process called social-
ization (Heider, 2004). The agents of socialization are mainly the family
structures, mass communication, governmental institutions, and the edu-
cation systems.
Society is an anthropological, sociological, and political construct. As
a sociological construct, a society is characterized by the nature of the
social interactions among actors in the social action. The interactions in
a social system foster change and modernity, which inspire sociologists
to differentiate traditional, modern, and postmodern societies (Shepard,
2010). As an anthropological construct, a society involves the mode of
subsistence and power structures that characterize and define the func-
tions and interactions in a given geographical territory. In other words,
anthropologists view a society in terms of the degree of cohesion and
power structures, and categorize societies as hunter gathering, traditional,
industrial, and postindustrial (Heider, 2004). As a political construct, a
society is defined by the degree of governance to manage conf licts and
maintain order that can enable healthy social interactions and economic
prosperity. Political scientists view societies as anarchic, in transition, or
democratic (Kendall, 2002).

Society as Territory
When people refer to a society, they mean not only the individuals, but
also the physical place where such individuals spend their daily lives,
reproduce, and die. A society is an “alma mater.” This is a specific piece
of territory with set borders and a form of organization, including gov-
ernmental structures and functions. In that context, a society is also
a country. As a country, a system of order is necessary. This system is
referred to as a government. A government may include various execu-
tive, judicial, and legislative structures, and governs on behalf of the
people who are members or residents or citizens of a country. This form
of governmental organization constitutes what is called a State. Some
may refer to a country and its governmental organization as a nation-
state (Nau, 2007).
E D U C AT I O N A N D S O C I E T Y 3

Society as Culture
When a group of people live in a territory for a long period of time, they
adopt or develop a way of living that is specific, form habits, adopt, share,
and practice beliefs, as well as values that they connect with an intan-
gible way. They also build shelters, find ways to entertain themselves, and
interact through various forms of communication. All these elements put
together correspond to what anthropologists and sociologists call culture.
A society is a culture. A society is defined or identified by its culture
(Heider, 2004).

Society as Community
Individuals in a society have individual goals. However, they also share
common goals that are inherent to their membership or citizenship or
residency in a society. People living in a society mostly care about the
welfare of their territory, the form of authorities that govern them, and
the continuity of their culture not only in the present, but also for the
future. These common goals create a material and an immaterial commu-
nity. The material community is represented by the regular transactions
that they have with one another and the support they receive because of
their belonging in that society. The immaterial community is based on
the common purpose that bounds them together and makes them partly
relying on the power and protection of the society as a collectivity, a
community, which should stand for the interests of everyone.

Local Society
Societies exist in every part of the world. In other words, the world is a
collection of different societies that recognize the rights of each other,
even when they try to infringe them. Every society is a single entity in
comparison to the collections of societies in the world. In that context, a
society is a local entity (being a local territory) or a national entity (being
a nation-state). The local society exists as a sovereign nation or nation-state
(Nau, 2007).

Global Society
The collection of world societies and the interactions and interdepen-
dence that exist among them form the global society. In other words,
the global society is defined in terms of the interdependence among

world nations through the phenomenon called globalization. The world

is referred to as a global village, a global society, or a global community
(Rajaee, 2000).

Defining the term education seems easy and difficult at the same time.
It is easy when considering that education includes everything that an
individual learns from birth to death. It is difficult, because the word
education does refer not simply to a concept, but also to a product (Cost
of education), an institution (school, college, or university), or a system
(national education). The word education comes from the Latin “educo, as,
are = lead out of, to bring forward. . . . ” Education is about transfer of
knowledge (Shepard, 2005). “Education is the social institution respon-
sible for the systematic transmission of knowledge, skills, and cultural
values within a formally organized structured.” (Kendall, 2002, p. 210).
According to Spring (1991), public schooling aims to “educating
citizens, selecting future political leaders, creating a political consensus,
maintaining political power, and socializing individuals for political sys-
tems” (p. 6). Spring (1991) argued that education has also a social pur-
pose, which involves “social control, improving social conditions, and
reducing social tensions caused by economic inequalities” (p. 12). Simply
put, education is a process, system, and institution through which know-
ledge is transmitted from one generation to the next.

Education as System
What is a system? A system is a set of structures, functions, and prin-
ciples that operates through an orderly process, in order to provide results
that are predictable and more efficient. A system involves structures or
parts or branches or sections. The best example is the human organism.
The human organism has circulatory (blood circulation), integumentary
(skin), skeletal (bones), reproductive (reproduction), digestive (food pro-
cessing), endocannabinoid (neuro/immune), urinary (excretion), respi-
ratory (breathing), endocrine (body communication), lymphatic (tissue,
vessels), muscular (muscles), and nervous (brain) systems. These systems
are structures of the human organism. As you can notice, these structures
do not serve the same purpose. They have functions. They provide spe-
cific services to the human organism as a whole. The functions of these
structures are interrelated, interconnected, and in most cases interde-
pendent. Given the interconnection, interrelation, and interdependence,
E D U C AT I O N A N D S O C I E T Y 5

there are some principles that must apply accurately in order for the struc-
tures to be effective in providing the anticipated result, which is to keep
the human organism operational, alive, and productive. If the principles
are not applied properly, the system can be severely affected and eventu-
ally die. The question is what makes education a system? The answer
seems obvious in the light of the definition and illustration that I just
provided. Education is at the heart of what makes a society a social sys-
tem. At the same time, education is a system in itself. Education serves a
purpose, a vital purpose in a society (socialization, adaptation, integra-
tion). Education involves structures and substructures that work interde-
pendently to serve such purpose. Education includes stakeholders (policy
makers, leaders, administrators, teachers, parents, and community) who
collaborate to serve its beneficiaries (learners) and help them fulfill their
social purpose.

National Education
The education of any society or nation is referred to as the national edu-
cation. It operates as a system with structures, functions, and principles.
National education system represents the overall orientation, structure,
process, and practices of education defined by the government of a coun-
try. As mentioned earlier in this chapter, education is part of the culture
of a society. Therefore, it involves and affects every member in a society.
Consequently, the governmental structures have a fiduciary responsibil-
ity to work with the citizens of their country to set the overall orientation
of education for a given society. The overall orientation or aim of edu-
cation for a society is then managed by various governmental and non-
governmental structures. In their respective functions, various structures
apply commonly accepted principles to translate the aims of a national
education into policies, and implement such policies through programs
and curricula.

Subnational Education System

Given the complexity of education, a national education system includes
substructures for policy implementation within the territorial divisions
of a country. In a country like the United States, the territorial divisions
encompass the state and the district. The United States is not necessary
the best example of national education system, because the states oper-
ate as a micronations. However, the aims of education are still decided
at the federal levels. The states develop education policies that concur

toward the achievement of the national aims. The main implementation

of education policies occurs at the school district level. It is important
to underline that school districts concern only compulsory education.
Other government and nongovernment structures are in charge of
policy implementation at the postsecondary education level. In France,
the provinces constitute the subnational education system. Subnational
education systems or the subsystems of an education within a given
country are based on the territorial divisions (states, provinces, regions,
departments, and districts).
Furthermore, a local or national education system includes subsystems
such as:

M Preschool, which prepares children who are not old enough to attend
their first year of formal schooling (kindergarten);
M Primary or elementary school, which consists of the first five to seven
years of formal education, depending on the country or the district
or type of school inside a country; some school districts or some
types of schools have options that allow elementary school students
to skip grades based on certain academic and performance criteria;
M Secondary or high school, which includes six to seven years of formal
education after primary or elementary school, depending on the
country, and prepares students for vocational schools, colleges, and
M Postsecondary school or tertiary education or higher education, which pre-
pares students who completed secondary or high school through
higher learning that enables the learner (student) to receive certifi-
cates, diplomas, or degrees (associate, bachelor, master, doctorate,
and postdoctorate), and prepares workforce and intellectual elite of
a country.

Education as a Process
Education is a process that involves learning new information, skills,
and attitudes. Learning includes the formal and informal curricula that
are managed by preceptors, mentors, instructors, or peers. Education is
formal (schools, colleges, and universities), nonformal (institutions for
continuing education), or informal (from the various institutions that
provide education, e.g., family, religion, media, and peer/community).
The education process includes various substructures based on maturation
or levels of education (early childhood, elementary or primary, second-
ary or high school, and postsecondary or higher education). Individual
E D U C AT I O N A N D S O C I E T Y 7

maturity evolves with physical, psychological, and cognitive development.

Education is a commodity, which involves supply and demand (costs,
services), and is provided by institutions that can be public, nonprofit, for
profit, or private.

Purpose of Education
Education serves various social, economic, and political purposes, as indi-
cated in Figure 1.1.
Social purpose: Education aims to instill social, religious, and cultural
values that can help individuals integrate their society and communities.
Through education, children learn how to become responsible contribu-
tors, citizens, and residents of their society. Education enables the transfer
of the culture of a society from one generation to another through social-
ization. It helps ensure that individuals are raised, trained, and utilized
appropriately as member of a society. It contributes to cement what is
permissible, acceptable, and what is prohibited to members of a society. It
enables to manage tensions and conf licts within the borders of a nation-
state. Education also plays a role in maintaining social order.
Economic purpose: Education is an investment in individuals to increase
the wealth of a nation-state, foster innovation, and facilitate development
and progress. Education contributes to economic productivity through


Economic Political
JhW_dfheZkYj_l[meha[hi :[l[befb[WZ[hi

Figure 1.1 Purposes of Education in a Society.


transmission of knowledge, national workforce development, and global

competitiveness. In that context, human capital that results from educa-
tion is the greatest asset of any society.
Political purpose: Education develops leaders who can provide vision to
their country and community, and govern the affairs of various branches
(executive, legislative, and judicial) and structures (federal, state, pro-
vincial, district, community, religious, civic) of their nation-states. In
other words, education enables to train citizens who can become lead-
ers of their society and community, govern the social interactions, and
manage the economic resources. The political purpose of education
can be implemented through the oppression of a dominant group by
another group. On the other hand, education can facilitate social change
through education for social and restorative justice, education for lib-
eration, education for peace and conf lict resolution, and education for
civil/human rights.

Philosophy of Education
Think for a moment about the following questions: “What really
exists?”; “Can anything be known?”; “Are there any universal moral
standards?”; “Does God really exist?”; “What happens after death?” The
ref lection and discussions that you would have with a peer about these
questions would be a philosophical exercise. Etymologically, philosophy
means the love of wisdom. The word philosophy comes from the Greek
words “Philo = love” and “Sophos = wisdom.” Wisdom includes ele-
ments such as “understanding, insight, good judgment, and the capacity
to live well and guide conduct well” (Holmes, 1998, p. 9). According
to Rand (1984), philosophy is the study of “the fundamental nature of
existence, of man, and of man’s relationship to existence . . . In the realm
of cognition, the special sciences are the trees, but philosophy is the soil
which makes the forest possible” (p. 2). Philosophy is a pursuit of under-
standing and quest for meaning of human nature and the nature of the
reality in which we live. Philosophy includes various branches, such as
(a) metaphysics or the study of the structure of the world, including the
questions of human life, the existence of things, truth, goodness, and
beauty; (b) epistemology or the study of knowledge, belief, language,
and their relationships to experience; (c) logic or the study of the struc-
tures of arguments and codification of rules of rational thought in philo-
sophical inquiries; (d) ethics or the study of right and wrong, good and
evil, in a moral perspective; and (e) aesthetics or the study of arts with
respect to beauty.
E D U C AT I O N A N D S O C I E T Y 9

What is the relationship to education? The philosophical systems

are part of worldviews that dictate the orientation of education systems
throughout the world. Philosophy of education aims to study the purpose,
process, nature, and ideals of education through particular understanding
of knowledge, learning, cognition, and the world. Philosophy of educa-
tion asks questions such as “What is the purpose of education, schooling?”;
“What ought we to teach?”; “How should we teach it?”; “How should
we treat our students?”; “How do we expect our students to treat us?”;
“Is it fair to treat students differently?”; “What is the role of the state in
providing equal education for all?”; “Can a student who fails a test be
said to know less than a student who passes?”; “Can you really grade a
student’s art project or musical composition?”; “Should a student’s culture
inf luence how they do their assignments and how they are assessed?” The
philosophy of education of a society depends on the dominant religious
and cultural discourses and the ideology of the people in power inside a
nation-state. Philosophy of education is translated into legislative docu-
ments that set the aims and strategic programmatic choices of a national
education policy or policies.

Social Perspectives on Education and Society

As a social institution, education has been part of the curiosity of anthro-
pologists and sociologists. Various conceptual and theoretical frameworks
have been developed, giving birth to the subdisciplines of anthropology
of education and sociology of education. While this chapter does not
focus on a review of the literature in anthropology and sociology of edu-
cation, it is important to underline their basic purposes before exploring
the social perspectives on education. The three most popular perspectives
on education and society are the structuro-functionalism, conf lict, and
interactionism theories.
Structuro-functionalism perspective: Structuro-functionalism is a socio-
logical theory developed and promoted by early sociologists such as
Emile Durkheim and Talcott Parson who argued that social equilibrium
and social order constitute the essence of a healthy society (Anderson
and Taylor, 2009). According to the structuro-functionalists, education
is a key institution that helps maintain such social order. The rationale is
that education helps transmit knowledge, values, and attitudes from one
generation to the next through the process called socialization. For the
structure-functionalists, socialization occurs through manifest (primary,
visible) and latent (secondary, hidden) functions. The manifest function is
structured around the formal curricula of the local or national education
10 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

system. The latent function involves the internalization (indoctrination)

of social values that make up the hidden curricula, which involve edu-
cational practices supplied by all the institutions of socialization (school,
religion, media, and peers). The socialization process fosters consensus on
the general moral values of a society, and creates productive citizens that
sustain social equilibrium and social order.
As you may notice, the structuro-functionalist theory provides a
descriptive about education and society. It does not analyze the dynam-
ics of power, special interests, and ideologies in society, which do not
necessarily contribute to the social equilibrium and the social order. In
modern society, especially, education is not always the product of a con-
sensus among all the various groups of interests in the wider society. In
the United States, for example, there are still debates about whether cre-
ation or evolution or both should be taught in school. I am not making
an argument in favor or against. I am just underlining an observation to
illustrate that there is no consensus as to what is the social moral value
in that context. At the same time, there are religious schools that have
curricula which are partly based on their core religious beliefs. In Saudi
Arabia, for example, religious education is part of the formal school cur-
riculum, because of a “consensus” accepted by the majority of the people
who are ruled by the monarchy in that country.
Conflict perspective: As I just indicated, there are various groups in any
given society that define social moral values in a way that does guarantee
consensus. There are special interests or ideological groups in a society
that do not have consensus over what the structures of the local education
system or the content of the curricula should be. Most of the time, the
special interests or ideological groups fight for what they believe educa-
tion should be in their society. The conf lict theory developed mainly
by Marx and Engels (1962) and Weber (1964) captures the tensions or
struggle for power among individuals and groups over the structure and
operations of education in society. Simply put, the conf lict theory argues
that society involves tensions and struggles for power because of com-
peting interests among individuals and groups. According to Marx and
Engels (1962), a society includes the “haves” and the “have nots.” The
“haves” tend to have control over power, wealth, privilege, and material
goods. The “have nots” tend to struggle to ensure their survival. In most
cases, the “haves” can manipulate the design of the local education system
and control the structures and organizations of education. However, the
“have nots” can use education to challenge the power structures, and
create social change or overthrow the statu quo. In the United States,
for example, the tensions between interests groups have facilitated the
E D U C AT I O N A N D S O C I E T Y 11

creation of the public schools, the earning of the rights for teachers to
organize and bargain, development of the land grant colleges and univer-
sities, the creation of community colleges, and the adoption of financial
aid systems (grants, loans), which contributed to provide greater access to
individuals who belong to the “have nots” categories in society.
Interactionism perspective: You remember that I talked about culture
as inherent to any society. In other words, there is no society without
culture. A society is an ever-evolving cultural project through various
social, economic, and political angles. Also, every individual in a society
is a living biography who carries a rich cultural capital that stems from
the various experiences and interactions. The interactionism perspec-
tive argues that the constancy of individual interactions shapes one’s
overall behavior as a means for social reproduction. The French soci-
ologist Pierre Bourdieu (Bourdieu, 1973) and the American sociologist
James Coleman (Coleman, 1968) are among two of the most renowned
scholars who argued that educational institutions develop explicit and
implicit collaborations to ensure that individuals reproduce the social
system in which they live based on their cultural capital. Obviously,
Bourdieu and Coleman do not interpret the concept cultural capital the
same way. For Coleman (1990), social capital refers to “intangible social
resources based on social relationship that one can draw upon to facili-
tate action and to achieve goals” (Coleman, 1990, p. 302). According to
Bourdieu (1973), individuals internalize the means of social reproduc-
tion through “habitus,” which is the family structures and daily experi-
ences that determine the life chance of a member of a society. Bourdieu
and Passeron (1990) argued that society tends to adopt the cultural capi-
tal of the dominant group in a society. Consequently, members of the
dominant group have greater chances to succeed than nonmembers.
In other words, there is an inequality of chances that guarantees the
reproduction of an unequal society.

Education and Social Mobility

Education aims to provide knowledge to students so that they can con-
tribute to the social, political, and economic life of their society, as
well as participate in social mobility. The term social mobility “refers
to the movement of individuals or groups within a stratification struc-
ture” (Shepard, 2010, p. 227). The term movement can be measured by
changes in status related to cultural capital (e.g., college degree), social
capital (e.g., membership to a selective/prestigious organization), owner-
ship (e.g., ownership of a house), symbolic capital (e.g., public office title),
12 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

or economic capital (e.g., change in income). Social mobility is intragen-

erational when the movement of individual or group occurs within a
generation. For example, a former military officer who becomes a police
officer is participating in intragenerational social mobility. On the other
hand, social mobility is intergenerational when the movement of indi-
vidual or group occurs from one generation (grandparent or parent) to
the next (children). A child of a college janitor who becomes a college
professor or a college dean or a university president participates in inter-
generational social mobility. Further, social mobility can be upward (rise
to a higher position or status) or downward (fall to a lower position or
status), vertical (change at the same general status), or horizontal (upward
or downward change).
Miles (2006) conducted a study on social mobility among nine industri-
alized countries (Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Norway,
Sweden, United Kingdom, and United States). As Figure 1.2 indicates,
Miles (2006) found that Canada, Denmark, Finland, and Norway had the
highest intergenerational social mobility while the United States and the
United Kingdom had the lowest level of intergenerational social mobil-
ity. In other words, despite the meritocracy claim and belief in the United
States and the United Kingdom, it is more difficult for people to rise to
higher income status from one generation to the next, in such countries
that represent the symbol of capitalist successes.

&$*- &$+
&$'+ &$'- &$'. &$'/




















Figure 1.2 Intergenerational Income Elasticities for Nine Developed

E D U C AT I O N A N D S O C I E T Y 13

Markus et al. (2006) assert that social mobility is declining in the

United States and the United Kingdom. Obviously, decline in social
mobility implies increase in social and economic inequality as evidenced
by studies that found negative correlation between intergenerational
social mobility and income inequality in Brazil (Dunn, 2007; Cogneau
and Gignoux, 2008), Chile (Torche, 2005), China (Wu and Treiman,
2007), India (Kumar, Heath, and Heath, 2002), and South Africa
(Louw, van der Berg, and Yu, 2007). In the case of the United States,
Bourdieu, Ferrie, and Kesztenbaum (2009) found that social mobility
was high, but is declining. Gilbert (2008) conducted a study on social
mobility in the United States in relation to occupations. He found an
increase in downward mobility, which results from increase in jobs that
require higher level of postsecondary education. While access to educa-
tion plays a role in upward intergenerational social mobility (Treiman
and Ganzeboom, 2000), the assistance provided by a previous genera-
tion (grandparent, parent) to the next (children, grandchildren) seems to
exert an even more significant inf luence (Holland, 2007). Therefore, a
decrease in social/public assistance may contribute to downward mobil-
ity. For example, in the United States, Heller and Schwartz (2002) found
that merit-based scholarships and tax credits tend to favor individuals
from middle and upper classes. On the other hand, the increase in share
of the costs that many students have to carry for their postsecondary
studies served as a deterrent for such students to achieve their higher
education goal (Heller, 2001). In other words, many students decide
simply not to take a loan. Obviously, this will affect their opportunity
to move upward. In fact, some studies found that lack of appropri-
ate level of education to perform advanced technology-required jobs
caused some US workers to experience downward mobility by taking
lower-paying jobs after they lost their employment as a result of offshore
outsourcing (Frank, 2007; Isaac, 2007). The implication is that access
to basic education alone will not be effective in reversing downward
social mobility. However, access to higher education may contribute to
increase opportunities for upward social mobility. The challenge is that
investment in higher education is at a disadvantage position in compari-
son to basic education. Pasacharopoulos and Patrinos (2002) conducted
a study involving the education system of 98 countries for the period
1960–1997, and found that there is a significant higher rate of return on
investment (ROI) for primary school (ROI = 18.9%) than for postsec-
ondary education (ROI = 10.8%). Consequently, there is less appetite for
investment in postsecondary education. For the past decades, the United
Nations Education Science and Culture Organization (UNESCO) and
14 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

the World Bank have based their entire education policy on support
for basic education, not higher education. To be fair, there is a more
recent realization that higher education cannot be seen just in terms of
its ROI in comparison to basic education. Actually, some recent stud-
ies have documented the significant positive effect of higher education
on the economic growth of countries. Lin (2004) conducted a study
on the association between higher education and economic growth in
Taiwan, and found that a 1% increase in college degree holders (any col-
lege degree) contributes to a 35% increase in industrial output. Given
the advances in information and communication technology (ICT) that
alter the way workplaces and economies operate, higher education has
provided qualitative ROI, especially in research and development that
may be more sustainable than the quantitative ROI of compulsory edu-
cation. However, it is not a mutually exclusive reality. In other words,
education overall is a good investment for social mobility, social change,
progress, and development in any society.

Questions and Activities

1. How would you define a society?
2. What is education? How would you define the various meanings of
3. What is the relationship between education and society?
4. Consider the educational system of your country of citizenship or
(a) What are the dominant cultural and religious discourses in that
(b) Why do you think this is the dominant discourse?
(c) What are the groups (social, religious, political) that promote
such cultural and religious discourses?
(d) How inf luential are such groups? Explain!
(e) How do they inf luence education policies, curricula, programs,
and activities?
5. The structuro-functionalists argue that education has manifest
and latent functions in a society. Identify and list in two columns
the elements of manifest and latent functions of education in your
country of citizenship or residence!
6. The chapter argues that education can contribute to oppression,
as well as liberation or freedom, or social change. How can you
explain such contradiction, if any?
E D U C AT I O N A N D S O C I E T Y 15

7. How would you summarize the relationship between education

and society, using illustration from your country of citizenship or
8. In what sense education can be considered as a path to both social
reproduction and (equal) opportunity?
9. Identify a college or a university of your choice. What are the
sociological factors that exist within that college or university and
its surrounding communities? How does the college or university
respond to such sociological factors?
10. To what extent education has contributed to social mobility in
your country of residence? What are the data that support your
answer? How does social mobility in your country of residence
compare to that of a neighboring country? What factors account
for the differences, if any?


What Is International Education?

The concept international education is used in contrast to the term
national education. As indicated in chapter 1, national education refers
to the educational system, policies, structures, practices, and outcomes
related to a single nation-state. Therefore, international education is the
collaboration in any aspect of education between at least two nation-states
within a legal framework that determines the relations (international)
between the countries involved. International education can be con-
sidered as (a) a model of international cooperation between countries
through either individuals or entities representing partner countries, or
(b) an approach to education in relation to other countries in the world.
As a model of international cooperation, international education can
involve scholarship or grant for foreign students, scholarship or grant to
study abroad, organization of study abroad programs, organization of
joint-degree programs involving entities of partner countries, foreign
students, student exchange, or other similar activities within the diplo-
matic and trade frameworks that exist between cooperating countries.
As an educational approach in relations to other countries, international
education can be a curriculum that focuses on knowledge of other coun-
tries of the world, familiarity with global issues, multilingual abilities,
respect and concern for other cultures and people, and other contents
that can contribute to international mindedness. International education
is also a field of study. Many colleges and universities around the world
maintain bachelor, master, or doctoral degree programs in international
education. Some institutions have international education in their pro-
gram as a subspecialization in international development or in a closely
related field.
18 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

Purpose of International Education

The broad purpose of international education is to expand the cultural,
economic, and diplomatic and political relations practices between coun-
tries. International education is used to promote development agenda,
especially in developing countries. Industrialized countries have used
international education as a strategy to expand their values beyond their
borders. Consequently, citizens from developing countries have received
international scholarship to study in industrialized countries. When
students from developing countries travel to study in an industrialized
country, they learn the language and culture of such industrialized coun-
try. They return to their home countries to further the hidden agenda
of such foreign country. These scholars tend to become implicit cultural
ambassadors on behalf of foreign countries in their countries of citizen-
ship. Other times, it has been translated in the form of anti-imperialism
sentiments to inspire indigenous initiatives. On the other hand, many
developing countries have used international scholarship as a strategy to
develop talents at the international standards and improve the human
capital of their countries.
International education contributes to further the cause for human
rights around the world. International education initiatives and activities
are used to inf luence conf lict resolution endeavors and promote peace in
situations of war between countries or ethnic groups, or civil war inside
a given country. Through international education programs, the inter-
national community has implemented educational activities to infuse
contents of Western-based democracies in the social interactions among
actors, especially in countries that are experiencing civil wars or at war
with their neighbor.
During the past decades, international education has evolved to
further the purpose of fostering intercultural interactions, nurtur-
ing critical thinking, increasing international mindedness, developing
intercultural competence and mutual understandings among citizens of
countries that maintain diplomatic relations, enhancing an appreciation
of cultural diversity, and contributing to international and sustainable

International Relations as Social Space for

International Education
Although the current practice of international education involves all the
levels of an education system, the history of international education is

primarily related to higher education. The traditional practice of inter-

national education had been occurring in the context of international
relations as an alternative social space. International relations refer to how
(process and practices) nation-state government representatives interact
with one another in all aspects of political (branches of government), mil-
itary (army and police), economic (trade, finance, and commerce), social
(social classes, social groups, and civil society), cultural (e.g., religion,
culture, and education), and humanitarian affairs and concerns. Some
nonstate actors such as civil society organizations (e.g., Red Cross) and
intergovernmental organizations (e.g., United Nations) are also involved
in international relations.
Modern nation-states of the world are independent. They govern
themselves and act in ways that protect their independence, survival, and
existence, as well as their interests (Mearsheimer, 1994). The relations,
diplomatic ties, or trade that a modern nation-state develops with another
nation-state are negotiated and maintained in that context of survival
and protection of self-interests, through accords, conventions, and trea-
ties. The traditional practice of international education occurs within the
legal frameworks provided by international relations between countries.
Without international relations between two countries, it is very diffi-
cult, and even impossible in some cases, to have student mobility or edu-
cational collaborations between the citizens or entities of such two given
countries. In fact, international education activities are regulated through
diplomatic relations and trade agreements between countries. Given the
reality of independence of a nation-state, education is a prerogative of
the state vis-à-vis its citizens. This prerogative does not extend beyond
the borders of a country or to citizens of another country. International
relations provide an alternative space (accord, treaty, convention) that
enables citizens of a country to become involved in the education system
of foreign country either as beneficiary, provider, and partner, or as stake-
holder in other capacity. In other words, international relations provide
alternative legal social spaces for international education to occur. The
social space is structured around legal, cultural, and economic frameworks
and quantitative prospective.

International Legal Framework

Relationships between nation-states exist within the context of the
international legal system, which encompasses the general principles
of law, treaties and conventions, jurisprudence, judicial decisions,
and writings of legal scholars. Nation-states can react to treaties and
20 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

conventions in various ways, such as signature, intention to sign, or

ratification. Treaties and conventions are ratified by each nation-state
either through their representative or through their referendum. The
ratification of a treaty or convention provides legitimacy for the inter-
national community to hold a given country accountable through the
international legal system. International education or cooperation in
education between countries occurs inside the framework of the inter-
national legal system. In other words, the practices of international
relations between countries dictate the legal framework for international
education activities.

International Economic Framework

International economic activities involve the exchange of goods and
services between residents or citizens of countries. Individual countries
measure such economic activities through what is called the balance of
payment (BOP). For example, a foreign student who pays tuition fees
to attend a college or university in another country is involved in an
international economic transaction subject to exchange rates under the
International Monetary System (IMS). After World War II, the repre-
sentatives of 44 nations have set up the IMS through the Bretton Woods
Agreement, which created the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and
the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development or the World
Bank, in order to set the procedures and policies regarding exchange
rates, use of currencies, and banking systems. International education
is an economic activity. It cannot occur within the borders of a nation-
state without being rooted in an international economic framework. The
IMS provides such framework for international education transactions to
take place.

International Cultural Framework

One of the purposes of international relations and diplomacy is to pro-
mote mutual respect and understanding between people, nations, and
cultures. Citizens of every country develop and carry with them their
cultural identity, which has its foundations in their overall experience
with their national culture. According to Miller (1994), “Geographic
origin and identity for the individual contributes significantly to one’s
worldview or more specifically to one’s perceptions of the immediate
external environment” (p. 17). Cultural identity of an individual has
the potential to hinder interactions or communication with citizens of

another country. However, such challenge can be overcome through

knowledge of a foreign language, awareness of the history and culture
of another country, and ability to adjust in a new social environment.
International relations provide a framework for cultural exchange, thus
facilitating collaboration in international education activities. The inter-
national cultural framework has the potential to facilitate effective inter-
cultural interactions, which is the dynamic of intercultural contacts and
communications that occur between or among individuals from differ-
ent nationalities and cultural backgrounds (Gudykunst and Kim, 1992;
Lustig and Koester, 1999). Many scholars in the field of international
education assert that intercultural interactions can lead to the devel-
opment of intercultural competence. Intercultural competence is “the
ability to communicate effectively and appropriately in intercultural
situations based on one’s intercultural knowledge, skills, and attitudes”
(Deardorff, 2004, p. 184). According to Hunter (2004), intercultural
competence involves an intercultural awareness, respect, and apprecia-
tion of diverse cultures. In other words, intercultural interactions pro-
vide an opportunity for students to move beyond their comfort zones
and develop a multiple perspective of the world through self-ref lection
(Braskamp, 2009).

Quantitative Prospective
International education is based on a quantitative prospective, because it
depends on accords, treaties, or conventions between countries through
individuals or entities. In other words, the growth of international educa-
tion activities in a given country depends on the quantity of collabora-
tions or partnerships that such country can develop through individuals
or entities.

The Practice of International Education

The practice of international education includes the international relations
context, the input, output, and outcomes that result from educational
partnership or collaboration between at least two countries. The prac-
tice of international education stems from government policies as well
as partnerships of individuals and entities between countries. Altbach
(1998) argued that governmental policies and academic institutions “play
a crucial role in determining the nature of foreign study opportunities
and in shaping the realities of the experience” (p. 151). Government poli-
cies provide the legal, economic, and cultural framework within which
22 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

individuals and entities can engage in international education programs,

projects, or activities. The practice of international education can take
various forms, including, but are not limited to, international educa-
tion policy, international school or university, international students and
scholars’ services, institutional partnership, study abroad and exchange
program, international degree program, distance education, and joint
project and research ventures.

International Education Policy

International education policy sets the purpose, orientation, strategic
goals for international education initiatives and activities within a given
country, according to the strategic political, cultural, and economic
interests of such country. The existence of an international education
policy adopted by a given country is very critical to help address some
challenges to institutional partnership (e.g., power struggle, unclear
contractual agreement, confusing partnership roles, difference in aca-
demic calendar, and other issues) identified by Tedrow and Mabokela
(2007). Also, international education policy can be instrumental to help
overcome challenges related to quality assurance (Hodson and Thomas,
2001; Woodhouse, 2006) and power structures in a given country
(Fowler, 2009).

Institutional Partnership
Institutional partnership is established between entities from at least two
countries with diplomatic ties. An institutional partnership is expressed
through a partnership agreement. The starting point varies from one type
of partnership to another. For example, one partnership may start in an
informal manner between executives, administrators, or faculty of insti-
tutions from two different countries. Another partnership may start with
a formal letter of intent from one of the parties, expressing an interest
for collaboration or partnership. Institutional partnerships are secured
through a memorandum of understanding (MOU) or memorandum of
agreement (MOA), a bilateral agreement, or another format of institu-
tional linkage. Box 2.1 provides an illustration of what an MOU or MOA
should look like. An institutional partnership can serve many purposes,
such as study abroad and exchange of students and staff, international
scholarship, international degree programs, joint project or research ven-
tures, curriculum development, technical assistance, institutional devel-
opment, and other similar aims.

Box 2.1 Sample Memorandum of Understanding (MOU)

between Two Universities


This Memorandum of Understanding is made on October 5, 2012,

between XYZ University (USA) and University ABC (Haiti), here-
inafter referred to as “XYZ” and “ABC.”

1. XYZ and ABC hereby agree to encourage academic coopera-

tion through research and study in furtherance of the advance-
ment of learning as stated below:
(a) To encourage visits by faculty from one university to the
other for the purpose of engaging in research;
(b) To promote and facilitate the exchange of research and
teaching staff as well as students;
(c) To facilitate the admission of qualified students from one
university to the other for the purpose of enrolling in
undergraduate and graduate programs, and in the case of
advanced graduate students, participating in research;
(d) To promote exchange of information and materials of
mutual interest;
(e) To organize international conferences, cultural and sports
(f ) To foster the exchange of academic publications and
scholarly information; and
(g) To promote other forms of cooperation which is to be
arranged jointly by both parties, which can enhance the
above-mentioned goals.
2. Both universities acknowledge that the visit by faculty and
students from one university to the other shall be subject to
the entry and visa regulations of Haiti and the United States
and shall comply with the regulations and policies of XYZ
and ABC.
3. Both universities agree that all expenses including salary, travel,
living, and varied costs and expenses shall be determined by
24 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

the home visitor’s institution, unless otherwise agreed upon.

However, each side will make its best efforts to make available
university accommodation to visiting faculty and students.
4. This MOU shall commence on the date of its signing and
shall remain in effect for a period of 5 (five) years subject to an
annual review, at which both parties shall by mutual agree-
ment determine the terms and conditions of any extensions or
duration of this MOU.
5. This MOU may be terminated prior to the expiry date by
mutual agreement between both parties, subject to at least 6
(six) months prior written notice.
6. This MOU is not intended to be legally binding but it sim-
ply expresses the intentions and understanding between both
parties. This MOU shall form the basis of a detailed and
legally binding agreement to be drafted and executed in the
7. This MOU is subject to the laws and regulations of their respec-
tive countries.
8. Both universities agree that this MOU is incorporated into,
and will provide the foundation and framework for, projects
developed by academic and administrative units from the two
universities and documented in other subsequent agreements.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties by their authorized agent

or representatives have signed this MOU on this October 15, 2012.

XYZ University University ABC

Dr. Jean Jean Jean, President Dr. Bob Bob Bob, President
Date: _____________________ Date: _____________________

International School or University

In simple terms, an international school is an educational institution
attended by students from multiple countries that offers an internation-
ally focused curriculum or adopts a curriculum that is different from the
national curriculum of the host country. The concept of international
school in modern history can be traced from the early twentieth century
with the creation of the International School of Geneva after World War I,

within the peace spirit of the League of Nations (Precursor of the United
Nations). The concept evolved after World War II with the organization
of the Conference of Internationally Minded Schools and the creation of
the International Schools Association (ISA) in 1951. The idea was further
strengthened in 1968 with the creation of the International Baccalaureate
Diploma Program. The International Baccalaureate Organization (IBO),
which manages the international baccalaureate, operates as a nongov-
ernmental organization of the United Nations Educational Science and
Cultural Organization (UNESCO). The purpose of the IBO is to “to
develop inquiring, knowledgeable and caring young people who help to
create a better and more peaceful world through intercultural understand-
ing and respect.” (IBO, 2013, para 1). International baccalaureate programs
serve mainly at the levels of elementary and secondary education. According
to the IBO (2013), there are more than 1 million students, attending a total
of 3,557 international baccalaureate schools, in 144 countries.
On the other hand, an international university can be an institution
created through international agreements between countries or by an
intergovernmental organization. International universities that are cre-
ated through agreements between countries are primarily subject to the
terms of the agreement signed by the parties involved. An international
university created by an intergovernmental organization is subject to
international law. A group of universities around the world have created
the International Association of Universities (IAU, 2012) as a UNESCO-
based entity, which

aims to give expression to the obligation of universities, as social institu-

tions, to promote, through teaching and research, the principles of freedom
and justice, of human dignity and solidarity. IAU contributes to these
principles by strengthening international cooperation between universi-
ties and through partnerships between key HE organisations and other
stakeholders. (para 1)

Overall, 40% of the members of the IAU are from European coun-
tries and 24% come from Asia and Pacific. The smallest share (5%) of
IAU members comes from Latin American countries (International
Association of University, 2013).

International Students and Scholars’ Services

An international student is an individual who travels to study and is
enrolled in a school, college, or university located in a country different
26 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

from the student’s country of citizenship or residence. The definition of

an international student may vary from one country to another based on
the criteria used by legislators in a given nation-state. The Organization
of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD, 2011) estimated
that, in 2010, about 3.7 million students were enrolled in a postsecondary
institution outside their country of citizenship. Asia has the largest share
of international students enrolled in colleges and universities around the
world. As Figure 2.1 illustrates, more than 52% of students in OECD
and non-OECD who are studying outside of their country of citizenship
come from Asian countries. The next largest percentage of foreign stu-
dents in tertiary or higher education comes from Europe (22.7%). Then,
11.8% come from Africa, 6.2% from Latin America and the Caribbean,
2.7% come from North America, and 1% come from Oceania. The
mobility of international students facilitated intercultural communica-
tion and awareness that may have significant impacts on how individuals
from various citizenships view citizens of another country. As Van Der
Meid (2003) argued, “To be an informed citizen in this society requires
an understanding of other cultures and societies. International educa-
tional exchange is one avenue that allows students from all over the world
to develop an international understanding by experiencing life in a new
culture or country” (p. 71).

Share of foreign Students

7c[h_YWWdZj^[ JejWb\hec7\h_YW
9Wh_XX[Wd '(

Dejif[Y\_[Z ;khef[
) ()

JejWb\hecEY[Wd_W JejWb\hec7i_W
' +(

Figure 2.1 Distribution of Foreign Students in Tertiary Education, in

Percentage, by Region of Origin (2010).

International Administrator and Faculty

Administrator and faculty have played key roles in international education
practices. They have the responsibility to implement partnership agree-
ments signed by their institutions. The administrator provides services to
help international students cope with cultural shock in a foreign country
and adapt to their new academic and nonacademic environments. The
faculty develops curriculum and instructional strategies that must not
only meet national and international quality standards, but also take into
account the cultural differences that involve international students. Also,
faculty develop internationally infused curriculum to provide their stu-
dents an international perspective on some issues or topics. In many cases,
administrators collaborate with faculty to develop extracurricular activi-
ties, language programs, and remediation courses that can enhance the
social and academic integration of international students.

Study Abroad and Exchange Program

Study abroad programs encompass various structured and nontraditionally
structured formats, including, but are not limited to, for credit programs
of study, internship abroad, work abroad, volunteer or service abroad, and
teach abroad (Dwyer, 2004; Rai, 2004). The term study abroad program
usually refers to a structured learning experience led by a faculty member
in which student participants have to live and learn in a foreign country
for a long or a short period of time. Long-term study abroad programs
typically last one semester or more. Short-term study abroad programs
vary from one week to six weeks, but less than a semester long. Research
in international education has extensively documented that study abroad
programs provide students with unique opportunities for intercultural
interactions (Green et al., 2008). Study abroad provides students with
first-hand cultural differences that can facilitate their better adjustment in
diverse workplace after they graduate and enter the workforce.

Joint Project and Research Ventures

An international joint project or research venture is a partnership between
practitioners or scholars from at least two institutions from different
countries, in order to implement a project or conduct a research study
that involves a cross-national or cross-cultural perspective. The National
Science Foundation (United States), the German Academy Exchange
Services (Germany), the Research Council of Canada (Canada), and the
28 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

State of Sao Paolo Research Foundation (Brazil), to mention only a few

countries, maintain grant opportunities to support international joint
project or research ventures.

International Degree Programs: Joint and dual degrees

International degree offerings result from a partnership agreement
between degree institutions from different countries. Students who par-
ticipate in joint degree program study at both institutions. The time of
residence spent in each institution varies based on the terms of the agree-
ment. The degree that students receive from an international degree pro-
gram bears seals of two colleges or universities. On the other hand, a
dual degree program consists of two distinct degrees that a student can
earn from two different postsecondary institutions involved in a partner-
ship, through an agreement that shortens the time to complete the two
degrees, articulation in the curriculum, transfer of courses, and special
considerations in payments of tuitions and fees. Student participant must
meet the admission and course requirements for each institution. Then,
the student receives a distinct degree from each institution.

International Education and Quality Assurance

In the early years of international higher education, quality has been
the cornerstone of international education. Usually, the elites in indus-
trialized as well as in developing countries target the best colleges and
universities in the world for their kids. And in many instances, such post-
secondary institution may not exist in the home country. However, the
variety of approaches to international education has gradually raised con-
cerns for quality. With greater demand for access to higher education,
there have been some concerns about quality assurance. Individuals were
able to purchase college degree in 10 days, as Figure 2.2 illustrates.
If you look closely in Figure 2.2, you can read “In just 10 days you
could have an accredited college degree,” “No coursework, no exams,
no studying,” “No book, no tests, no study,” and the program guar-
antees “Full accreditation.” The words speak for themselves. Imagine
somebody receives a medical diploma from such institution, travels to
a developing country with little structures of accountability, and starts
providing medical or health care. In fact, this is not hypothetical or
possible only in developing countries. There have been cases of fake
doctors throughout the world, in Chile (Fox News Latino, 2014) and
the United States (The United States Attorney Office, 2013), to mention

Figure 2.2 Fast College Degree in 10 Days.

only these two countries. Institutions have detected countless cases of

fake or purchased degrees and transcripts, as well as falsified immigra-
tion records. Hendrickson (2013) has published a research report that
provides information about fraudulent agencies that provide accredi-
tation with no academic value to colleges and universities that are
awarding diploma mills or false diploma. It is clear that such practices
have raised suspicions about diplomas or degrees coming from both
sending and receiving countries. However, this cannot be generalized,
because many countries have developed policies to ensure the quality
assurance of their programs. Quality assurance policies and practices are
the responsibility of accrediting agencies or entities, which can be gov-
ernmental or nongovernmental, depending on the country. For exam-
ple, in the United States, standards for institutions and programs are
developed by voluntary nonprofit agencies (Middle States Association
of Colleges and Schools, New England Association of Schools and
Colleges, Northwest Commission on Colleges and Universities, North
Central Association of Colleges and Schools, Southern Association of
30 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

Colleges and Schools, and Western Association of Schools and Colleges)

and various specialized or national accrediting agencies that accredit
postsecondary institutions. In Haiti, accreditation of universities is the
responsibility of the State University of Haiti (public entity) and the
Ministry of Education (government entity). In Malaysia, Qualifications
Agency (public entity) accredits institutions of higher education. These
examples are cited to make an illustration that types of accreditation
vary by countries.

International Education and

Intergovernmental Organizations
Many international organizations are inf luencing the practices of interna-
tional education initiatives and activities around the world. International
organizations are intergovernmental and nongovernmental. According
to Karns and Mingst (2004), intergovernmental organizations “are orga-
nizations whose members include at least three states, that have activi-
ties in several states, and whose members are held together by a formal
intergovernmental agreement” (p. 7). Intergovernmental organizations

M general purposes (e.g., United Nations or UN, Organization of

American States or OAS, European Union or EU, African Union
or AU),
M specialized purposes (e.g., United Nations Educational Scientific
Cultural Organization or UNESCO, United Nations Children’s
Fund or UNICEF, World Trade Organization or WTO), or
M multipurposes (e.g., The World Bank).

Their geographic scope of intergovernmental organizations can be

M global (e.g., UN, WTO, UNESCO),

M regional (e.g., Organization of American States or OAS, African
Union or AU, Caribbean Community or CARICOM, Association
of Southeast Asian Nations or ASEAN), or
M subregional (e.g., CARICOM).

The United Nations defines a nongovernment organization as “a not-for-

profit group, principally independent from government, which is orga-
nized on a local, national or international level to address issues in support
of the public good” (United Nations Rule of Laws, 2014, para 1).

Both intergovernmental and nongovernmental organizations are

inf luential in the practices of international education. The UNESCO
is a classic example of intergovernmental organization that inf luences
international education. As a specialized agency of the United Nations
(UN), UNESCO aims to

contribute to peace and security by promoting collaboration among the

nations through education, science and culture in order to further universal
respect for justice, for the rule of law and for the human rights and funda-
mental freedoms which are affirmed for the peoples of the world, without
distinction of race, sex, language or religion, by the Charter of the United
Nations. (UNESCO, 2013, para 1)

Although UNESCO does not accredit institutions of higher education,

it supports research in comparative education, promotes international
cooperation in higher education, maintains specialized institutes (e.g.,
International Bureau of Education, International Institute for Higher
Education in Latin America and the Caribbean, European Center for
Higher Education), and establishes official relations with many nongov-
ernmental organizations (e.g., IBO, IAU).
The IAU is an example of nongovernmental organization that affects
international education. As an independent organization officially linked
with UNESCO, the Association of International University provides
colleges and universities in various countries of the world with a forum
for “ref lection and action on common concerns and collaborates with
various international, regional and national bodies active in higher educa-
tion” (IAU, 2013, para 1).

Challenges of International Education

This chapter has introduced the concept international education in its
traditional meanings and practices. International relations and diplomacy
have served as the foundations for the traditional practice of international
education whose purpose has been to develop and promote cultural
exchange among countries. International education serves different pur-
poses for industrialized and developing countries. Industrialized countries
have traditionally used international education as a strategy to protect
their national security, expand their cultural imperialism, provide foreign
aid to improve their favorability, and recruit self-financed international
students. Developing countries have traditionally used international edu-
cation as an opportunity to attract aid to development, and development
32 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

of human capital through international scholarship and self-financed

international students. The traditional practice of international education
based on bilateral or multilateral agreements among countries has been
the norm until globalization had broken the borders among nation-states
and transformed the world into a global village. Consequently, interna-
tional relations and diplomacy no longer have the monopoly in driving
the international education agenda.
International education has faced challenges related to its reliance
on international relations among countries and the political, economic,
and cultural power relations inside a nation-state. Conf licts among
countries have restricted the mobility of students and scholars as in the
case of the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, in the United States,
which have led to stricter visa policies affecting international students
and scholars willing to study not only in the United States, but also in
many European countries. War and political instability in some coun-
tries have prevented students from traveling to such countries. Inf lation
and financial crises tend to increase the cost of living and inf luence
funding for international education, and potentially limit the opportu-
nities for students and scholars to travel or sojourn in another country.
Also, the organizational culture inside higher education institutions of
receiving countries had limited the mobility of international students
and scholars. Some faculty see international students and scholars as
a burden or a liability, and feel empower to create additional hurdles
to prevent citizens from a particular cultural background from being
provided admission or access for collaboration with their institution.
The political, economic, and cultural challenges faced by international
education can be partly overcome by the new reality of borderlessness
fostered by globalization.
International education has evolved to become internationalization,
in relation to the globalization phenomenon, which transformed educa-
tion into a commodity to be traded on the global market (Altbach and
Knight, 2010).

Questions and Activities

1. Do you think international education is a threat to national iden-
tity? Explain!
2. Describe the international education policy of your country of citi-
zenship or residence, through its aims, regulations, stakeholders,
outcomes, and challenges.

3. Identify the key aspects of the practice of international education in

your country of citizenship or residence. For each aspect, explain
the relevance, opportunities, and challenges.
4. Do you think that international education is a waste of time, money,
and energy for an industrialized country? Explain!
5. Do you think that international education is a strategy to expand
and strengthen cultural imperialism in developing countries?



As I previously indicated ( Jean Francois, 2014), the growth of global trade
has been very significant in reshaping the networks of production through
new geographic maps, facilitating the emergence of new distribution net-
works, creating transnational capitalist structures that alter global gover-
nance, and providing the notion of global competence, which became a
major challenge for competitiveness (Karoly and Panis, 2004). Furthermore,
advances in technology have changed practices in communication, travel,
business, science, and medicine across borders. In the United States, for
example, there have been concerns about the global competence of gradu-
ates who are unable to secure some jobs in the technology sector due to
competition from foreign graduates who outcompeted either inside their
own country or as a result of offshore outsourcing. Some scholars and
institutions had raised concerns about the issues of global competence of
the graduates from American schools (ACE, 2000; Korbel and Halder,
2002). Further, the critics have questioned the ability of the current US
education policy to produce competitive human capital for the global
market (Rosenfeld, 2000; Blair, Phinney, and Phillippe, 2001).
Globalism is not new, but has become very popular during the last two
or three decades (Siaya, Porcelli, and Green, 2002). Globalism is also a
controversial concept that some people see favorably (Wheatley, 2001),
and some others unfavorably (Bhatti, 2009). Regardless of individual
opinions or positions about globalism, it is important to underline that
such phenomenon has always been part of relations, interrelations, and
interconnections between countries, societies, people, cultures, econo-
mies, and politics (Roudometf, 2000; Friedman, 2005).
36 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

Globalism and globalization are not conceptually the same, although

both express the idea of connecting the globe. Globalism explains our
reality of being interconnected, whereas globalization captures the
degree of decline or increase of globalism in the world (Mittleman, 2002).
Globalization is a new form of modern capitalism that has taken shape
through neoliberal policies (i.e., structural adjustment, privatization) pro-
moted by the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF)
under the inf luence of imperialist countries that wanted to create new
markets for their products and services. Obviously, evolvement of global-
ism through globalization was facilitated by new progress in informa-
tion and communication technology (ICT) that enabled quick and direct
access to consumers worldwide. Through globalization, industrialized
countries easily conquered new markets that would require long process
of negotiation and signature of bilateral or multilateral agreements.

Dimensions of Globalism
As indicated earlier, globalism has taken many dimensions throughout
history. The first dimension of globalism refers to economic transac-
tions among people, culture, and societies. World economy is based on
f low of production of goods, services, market networks, and capital that
go beyond the control of any geographic border (Giddens, 1990; Lister,
2000). In other words, the trade relations that have been part of the his-
tory of international relations among country constitute a very old form
of globalism.
There is a political dimension of globalism, which has shrunk the geo-
political distance between nation-states (White, 2001). In the past, the
conquest of territories to establish new kingdoms and the movement of
colonization through slavery constituted a form of political globalism. In
recent time, the tragic events of September 11, 2001, in the United States
had uncovered the reality of global terrorism and the reality of global
interconnections of political decisions and activities. Floy, Walker, and
Farnsworth (2003) argued that

A lesson from this tragedy is that the United States cannot resolve the world
challenges by itself, but that it needs to have a global perspective to find the
root of the problem. (p. 14)

In addition, international migration and progress in information and

communication, especially the emergence of the internet, have facilitated
social and cultural exchanges in ways that are faster, less controlling, and

less costly than if people were to physically travel to other countries in

the world. It is fair to say that the mass circulation of information that has
become possible with the internet had allowed people from all over the
world to have a more complex understanding of the diversity that other
countries represent. As some scholars argued, the invention of the World
Wide Web has opened a new era in social and cultural interconnections
in the world (Held and McGrew, 2000; Modelski, 2000).
The evolvements of globalism through globalization have significantly
altered the traditional patterns of international relations among countries
in the world (Friedman, 2005). For example, in the past, raw materials
for the industrial companies used to come mainly from developing coun-
tries through a periphery-center and center-periphery approach. Today
it is different. The cars that we are driving, for example, contain parts or
inputs that come from various industrialized and developing countries,
through a transnational assembly line approach (Sklair, 2002). Unlike
20 years ago, people can transfer money using one click on a computer.
Using a global platform, people can do all kinds of trade transactions,
which would have required lots of time, energy, and compliance to com-
plicated regulations that they no longer need. The meanings of time,
distance, market, culture, competence, and partnership are different from
what they were 20 years ago. There are skills that are no longer an asset
for competitiveness. There are new skills that become prerequisites for
competitiveness (Siaya, Porcelli, and Green, 2002) due to new relations
of interconnectedness and interdependence in politics, society, economy,
and culture called “globalization.”

Sklair (1991) identified several globalization frameworks such as the
imperialist and neoimperialist theories (struggle for new markets of
expansion of political, cultural, and economic inf luences among the
major powers), the modernization and neoevolutionist theories (tradi-
tions of underdeveloped societies are considered as constraints that hinder
modernization), the neo-Marxist theories (center-periphery relationships
foster underdevelopment), the world system theories (argues for a new
international division of labor), and the mode of production theory (fac-
tors of underdevelopment lie within the underdeveloped societies). These
theories constitute an illustration of the complex meanings and diverse
interpretations of globalization.
According to the world system theory, the world exists as cultural,
political, and economical structures in which nation-states, governments,
38 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

institutions, and people have to adapt to its characteristics and global

evolvements (Bergesen, 1991). Kottak (2002) saw globalization as the
“accelerating interdependence of nations in a world system linked eco-
nomically and through mass media and modern transportation systems”
(p. 43). Lechner and Boli (2008) asserted that “globalization refers to the
fact that more people across large distances become connected in more
and different ways” (p. 1). Globalization has occurred in:

M Politics: The end of exclusive national sovereignty through indepen-

dence beyond borders (Robertson, 1992),
M Economy: The elimination of physical borders through free market
(Waters, 1995),
M Culture: The end of cultural exclusivist through multiculturalism
(O’Meara, Mehlinger, and Newman, 2001), and
M Society: The end of national social class structures replaced by trans-
national classes (Sklair, 2002).

Globalization is a systemic phenomenon that goes beyond the mobi-

lization of worldwide labor and resources. Sklair (2002) explained the
global system through the emergence of transnational practices in the
light of the capitalist ideology to create products and services that can be
marketed across state borders regardless of the origins and their qualities.
Transnational practices have created transnational capitalist class, not in
the traditional Marxist sense, but through transnational executives (cor-
porate fraction), inter-state bureaucrats and politicians (state fraction),
globalizing professionals (technical fraction), and merchants and media
(consumerist fraction). Transnational economic enterprises and border-
less organizations constitute the master brain that shaped the economic
landscape of the global village and the driver that determined and con-
tinues to determine the profile of political, social, and cultural events all
over the world (Giddens, 1990).
Globalization is characterized by the explosion of national boundar-
ies, unprecedented expansion in technology and rapid development in
all areas, an ever-increasing availability of information, a greater inter-
dependence of world economies, a complex mobility of world popula-
tion, and an interconnectivity of the global environment (Connor, 1998;
Dauphinais and Price, 1998; Black, Morrison, and Gregersen, 1999). It is
important to underscore that the expression of globalization through neo-
liberalism has significantly contributed to the impoverishment of many
people in developing nations. Wade (2004), for example, has explained
that the inequality of world income distribution has rapidly increased,

and contributed to make the poor poorer while the rich are becoming,
more than ever before, richer. On the other hand, Cox (1996) argued that
globalization is another form of imperialism, which reduces the regula-
tory power of the states.
Globalization contributes to worldwide knowledge explosion, partic-
ularly through the use of technology (Rosen et al., 2000). And, glo-
balization has serious implications for institutions of higher education
in the world and in the United States, given its foundations on know-
ledge and intensive information and innovation (Carnoy, 2002; Wenger,
2002; Zhao, 2002). This has increased the pressure on higher education
institutions to graduate global competent leaders, managers, and work-
ers (Daun, 2002). According to Bate (2002), higher education institu-
tions face some globalization-related challenges that they will be able to
overcome depending on whether they can provide their graduates skills
needed to be global competent, offer a global curriculum, develop and
appropriate technologically mediated pedagogy, develop global perfor-
mance standards, and possess a management system that can help satisfy
the demand for global competitiveness.
The education of the global workforce must be understood in the
context of neoliberal education transactions between the academic prior-
ities of intellectuals from developing countries and the economic oppor-
tunities offered by elite dominant nations, especially the United States
(Wallerstein, 2004). The new reality of globalization has transformed
the meaning of education into an entrepreneurial endeavor (Morrow and
Torres, 2000; Eaton, 2001). Globalization was able to free itself from
social constraints and define education primarily in terms of economic
assets, and an almost unavoidable path for financial success. As in any
capitalist terrain, competition has integrated and controlled neoliberal
education reforms and raised the bars for financial rewards through educa-
tion (Eaton, 2001).

Globalization and Global Competence

Globalization has defined new rules for competition of workers. With
businesses making transactions beyond their borders, they want employ-
ees who have the skills to reach new customers from different cultural
backgrounds, and consequently maximize their profit. The ability to
compete in what have become global environments created a new real-
ity of the need for global skills or workers who are global competent.
In other words, global competence was born not out of a desire for
appreciation of other cultures and diversity, but as strategies for global
40 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

companies to expand their market and maximize their profit through

human resources who can connect with new consumers, thus who are
global competent.
As a concept, global competence involves knowledge, attitudes, and
skills that are compatible with the new reality of globalization (Green
and Olson, 2003). Several studies have questioned the performance of
American students comparing to those of other industrialized countries
(Cummings, 2001). A filmmaker has provided a controversial documen-
tary titled “2 Million Minutes,” in which he indicated that students in
schools of India and China that he visited were “two and three years
ahead” of students in American schools. He expressed personal con-
cerns for her daughters’ competitiveness abilities in the global market
(Sescu, 2008). Well-designed scientific studies indicated that science and
math achievement of US students are far behind their counterparts in
Singapore, Taiwan, South Korea, Hong Kong, and Japan (Dillon, 2007).
The attempts to increasing the level of accountability of the school sys-
tem, using alternative teaching methods, and improving the remunera-
tion system do not seem to provide the expected results (Korbel and
Halder, 2002).
Most people agree that students should be internationally aware and
knowledgeable, because globalization has transformed the world into a
global village (Green and Olson, 2005). Caligiuri and DiSanto (2001)
indicate that the availability of global competent managers is essential to
the future success of multinational companies. Some global companies
have developed various strategies such as short-term assignments (Forster,
2000) and expatriation (Brake, 1997) as means to develop global compe-
tent managers. One of the reasons for such strategies is that being a global
manager means having a global competent mindset, which is a state of
readiness to engage and interact with others from their own perspective
(Rhinesmith, 1996).
It is fair to say that the notion of global competence is not as utilitarian
as it once was. New perspectives on the scholarship of the term global
competence ref lect that evolvement. For example, Curran (2003) defined
global competence as an “appreciation of other cultures and the ability
to interact with people from foreign lands. It is the ability to become
familiar with an environment, not causing a rift while experiencing
something new, and ref lection upon the experience at its completion”
(Curran, 2003, p. 10). Deardorff (2004) argued that global competence
implies the ability to communicate and interact effectively and appro-
priately in intercultural situations based on an individual’s cross-cultural
knowledge, skills, and attitudes, which can be acquired through study

abroad programs and international education. In fact, the quest for global
competence has been primarily materialized through various initiatives
of international education.

Globalization and Higher Education

Globalization has reached a point where most industrialized countries in
the world cannot remain competitive if their college-educated workforce
lacks strong international, intercultural, or global knowledge and skills.
In the United States, the challenge is not only to remain competitive in
the global market, but also to ensure political leadership and strengthen
national security in a world that has become more fragile than one could
imagine after the terrible terrorist attacks in New York, on September
11, 2001. The Association of International Educators (NAFSA) indicated
in 2003 that

the challenges of the new millennium are unquestionably global in nature.

This reality imposes a new and urgent demand on Americans, one this
country has been all too quick to ignore: international knowledge and skills
are imperative for the future security and competitiveness of the United
States. [ . . . ] (p. 7)

Higher education plays a strategic role in the development of strategies to

instill the values, skills, and knowledge that helps strengthen economic,
cultural, and even political ties among countries across the world (Lovett,
2008). In this sense, higher education impacts more than just national
education policy; it also and especially impacts international and/or global
education policy.
Experts in public policy believe that the United States should reposi-
tion its leadership and competitiveness in the world through the defini-
tion of a new international or global education policy (Treverton and
Bikson, 2003). The American Council on Education argued that global
education should focus on producing international experts and know-
ledge to address national strategic needs, strengthening the ability of the
United States to face global challenges, and developing a global compe-
tent citizenry and workforce (ACE, 2002). Similarly, the Association of
International Educators (NAFSA, 2003) noticed that

the United States effectively lack a coherent, clearly articulated, proactive

policy for imparting effective global literacy to our people as an integral
part of their education and for reaching out to our future foreign leaders
through education and exchange. (p. 7)
42 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

Simandiraki (2006) asserts that lack of information about the global world
is a sign of deficiency for any education system. Consequently, scholars have
advocated for a better understanding of globalization due to its implications
for the global economy and the opportunity offered by international edu-
cation (Green, 2002; Vandamme, 2002). Political and educational leaders
have also argued for greater internationalization of higher education in the
United States (Hamrick, 1999). The President’s Commission on Foreign
Languages and International Studies (1979), the Association of American
Colleges (1985), the Council on International Educational Exchange (1988),
the Association of International Education Administrators (NAFSA, 1995),
the American Council on Education (1998), and the National Association
of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges (NASULGC, 2000) have all
recommended the internationalization of colleges and universities in the
United States. Bremer and Van der Wende (1995) asserted that internation-
alization can help improve the quality of a higher education institution.
This is probably linked to the fact that top US globalized universities are
among the best universities in the world (Horn, Hendel, and Fry, 2007).
The reality is that higher education institutions are not immune to global
changes. They must react and restructure to meet the needs of the global
demands in order to remain competitive. Leibold (1997) claimed that the
lack of internationalization of US higher education institutions can put the
United States at a competitive disadvantage in the global economy, given
the increasing interdependent nature of the world. The same thing can be
said about most industrialized countries who are competing for their share
of the global market.

Global Education or Internationalization

Global education or internationalization in higher education implies the
integration of international, intercultural, or global dimensions in curric-
ulum, instruction, research, and service functions in colleges and universi-
ties (Knight, 2004). Scott (2005) argued that global education contributes
to national security, peaceful relationship among nations, social and
cultural diversity, environmental interdependence, and economic com-
petitiveness. Aigner, Nelson, and Stimphil (1992) explained that inter-
nationalization contributes to a country’s national security, economic
competitiveness, and mutual understanding among nations. Similarly,
de Wit (2002) asserted that internationalization in higher education may
(a) contribute to mutual understanding among people, nations, and cul-
tures; (b) help meet challenges of competitiveness and economic growth;
(c) foster greater student development and learning; and (d) facilitate

exchange of national cultural values. As you may notice, scholars used the
terms global education or internationalization interchangeably to refer to
aims, purpose, and outcomes that are similar. A semantic distinction can
certainly be established between global education and internationaliza-
tion. However, in the context of their aims and anticipated outcomes,
there is no significant difference between the two.
Knight (2004) suggested that institutions of higher education should
incorporate global education initiatives not only through internation-
alized mission statement, strategic plan, human resources, policies, and
administrative systems, but also through the use of approaches related to
academic programs, research and scholarly collaboration, external rela-
tions, and extracurricular activities such as:

M Student exchange programs

M Foreign language study
M Internationalized curricula
M Area or thematic studies
M Work/study abroad
M International students
M Teaching/learning process
M Joint and double degree programs
M Cross-cultural training
M Faculty/staff mobility programs
M Visiting lecturers and scholars
M Link between academic programs and other strategies
M Area and the centers
M Joint research projects
M International conferences and seminars
M Published articles and papers
M International research agreements
M International development assistance projects
M Cross-border delivery of education programs (commercial and
M International linkages, partnerships, and networks
M Contract-based training and research programs and services
M Alumni-abroad programs
M Student clubs and associations
M International and intercultural campus events
M Liaison with community-based cultural and ethnic groups
M Peer support groups and programs
M Community services and intercultural project work.
44 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

It is evident from the literature on international education that there

is a growing interest among postsecondary education institutions to plan
and implement internationalization initiatives (de Wit, 2002 Siaya and
Hayward, 2003). For example, many studies have concentrated on trends,
definition, rationale, and approaches to internationalize higher educa-
tion in the United States (Harari, 1989; Arum and Van de Water, 1992;
Hayward, 2000; Cummings, 2001; Deardoff, 2004; Bashir, 2007). This
interest stems from a desire to produce globally competent graduates
(Ninnes and Hellsten, 2005), and the opportunity for recruiting inter-
national students. As Siaya and Hayward (2003) indicated, “the impor-
tance given to international learning opportunities by both students and
the public suggests that institutions with robust international offerings
will have advantage in attracting future students” (p. 3). However, Fisher
(2008) noticed in a study using a sample of 1,070 US colleges and uni-
versities that internationalization has not been recognized as a priority
among most US institutions of higher education. The study revealed that
despite significant increases in support for faculty to study and research
abroad, less than 10% of US colleges and universities take into account
international work or experience in their tenure process (Fisher, 2008).
The lack of consideration for international work and experience in tenure
process has impacted the willingness of many faculty members in US
colleges and universities to participate in internationalization efforts even
when the institutions offer other types of campus incentives (Siaya and
Hayward, 2003). In other words, the desire to implement global educa-
tion initiatives or internationalization in higher education is not being
discussed without some challenges by stakeholders who question its merits
or academic values.
Internationalization carries the potential to contribute to (a) improv-
ing the quality of higher education institutions to respond to the demand
for global competence skills (Etling, 2001), (b) enhancing national eco-
nomic competitiveness (Mestenhauser and Ellingboe, 1998; Hamrick,
1999), (c) increasing global understanding and intercultural sensitivity
(Kauffmann et al., 1992; Steglitz, 1993; Riskedahl, 1997), and (d) ulti-
mately making the world a better place to live (Acker, 1999; Etling,
2001). Internationalization in higher education requires the commitment
of senior leadership to define institutional vision and strategic plans, as
well as faculty acceptance and engagement for the implementation of
global learning goals in curriculum, teaching, research, and service func-
tions of institutions of higher education (Olson, Green, and Hill, 2006).
Several studies suggested that institutions of higher education should
proactively encourage and reward faculty to participate in implementing

global education initiatives (Engberg and Green, 2002; Green and Olson,
2003). Internationalization in higher education requires the internation-
alization of the curriculum (Mestenhauser and Ellingboe, 1998; Halliday,
1999), which, in turn, requires the acceptance and engagement of faculty
as part of a holistic institutional commitment (Shetty and Rudell, 2000).

Globalization as Social Space for Global Education or

Globalization provides a social space for global education or interna-
tionalization. The concept global education itself was coined based on
the inf luence of globalization on higher education and the potential
for higher education to benefit from what was seen as opportunities
offered by globalization to colleges and universities. Globalization has
unfolded through deregulating policies that removed the social demo-
cratic consensus that used to serve the basis for international economic
relations between countries (Castells, 1996). Consequently, industrial-
ized countries easily conquered new markets that would require long
process of negotiations and signatures of bilateral or multilateral agree-
ments. Wallerstein (2004) stressed that the world had witnessed long-
term changes in the capitalist economy, which brought not only a global
division of labor, but also a dominant world culture. The notion of world
culture is not to be confused with cultural imperialism, but translates
the reality of a “global turn” that makes world societies highly interde-
pendent (Lechner and Boli 2008). The increase of international migra-
tion for various political and economic reasons as well as international
education programs and scholarships have reshaped the map of human
capital in the new world order that emerged as primarily a global econ-
omy. Colleges and universities have concluded that they need to take the
initiative to educate students to think outside of the box or think outside
of their nationality. The aim is to train students who not only know
their specific discipline, but also have acquired intercultural competence
to interact with clients, customers, and other stakeholders in a global
market place. Navarro (2004) suggested that students who graduate from
US higher education institutions without a basic understanding of global
issues and the ability to interact effectively with people from other
countries and cultures might not be prepared to position themselves at
a competitive standpoint in the global market. Obviously, many faculty
and scholars who are involved in global education or internationaliza-
tion efforts will genuinely express their burning desire to train students
to become global citizens in a diverse and ever-changing multicultural
46 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

world. However, for higher education administrators, global education

or internationalization is primarily a matter related to competitiveness
on a global capitalist market.

A Qualitative Perspective
Unlike international education that is based on a quantitative perspec-
tive, global education or internationalization is rooted in a qualitative
perspective. Variables linked to global education or internationalization
are knowledge, skills, abilities, and attitudes related to tolerance, inclu-
siveness, open mindedness, appreciation, respect, integration, intercon-
nectedness, and intercultultural competence, which are not necessarily
quantifiable. In a qualitative perspective, the quantity of partnerships
and collaborations still matter. However, the quality of collaborations,
partnerships, and interrelations matter more. A perspective defined by
quantity automatically limits the scope of interactions that can occur.
On the other hand, a perspective defined by quality creates space for
f lexibility and adaptability, which carries the opportunity for unlimited
authentic interactions.

Questions and Activities

1. How does globalization differ from globalism?
2. How do the dimensions of globalization affect higher education
institutions in your country of citizenship or residency?
3. Is globalization good or bad for: (a) Western countries and (b) non-
Western countries?
4. Is globalization reversible? Explain!
5. Globalization projects a sense of global agenda that requires every
country to be on the same page. Do you agree or disagree? Explain!
6. How does globalization conf lict with the aims of national education,
especially higher education, in your country of citizenship?



Nation-States as Contexts
Nation-states are identified as local contexts, because this is the setting
where higher education is taking place. The state is an institution dated
back to ancient times, and theorized during the period of Greek clas-
sic philosophers such as Plato and Aristotle. According to Tilly (1990),
the traditional state existed as early as around 6000–8000 bc. Eisenstadt
(1963) characterized the traditional state as “city-states, feudal systems,
patrimonial empires, nomad or conquest empires and centralized histori-
cal bureaucratic empires” (p. 10). The traditional state existed through its
strong, autocratic power that exercised control over some territories and
coercion over people residing inside such territories. Held (1992) asserted
that the traditional states were characterized by (a) traditional tribute tak-
ing empire, (b) feudalism systems of divided authority, (c) polity of estates
combining power and corporate needs, and (d) absolutist states. It is fair
to say that the traditional states lacked the form of political, economic,
and administrative organizations that could help them resist the big tests
or challenges of time or history. The traditional states were replaced by
the modern states, which Mann (1993) believed are the product of the
twentieth century, particularly the context after World War II. Although
there are still models of traditional states in modern world, such states
constitute an exception and not the norm.
Mingst (2003) defined the modern state to the extent by which there
is geographically defined territorial base, a stable population within such
boundaries, a government which benefits the allegiance of its popula-
tion, and diplomatic recognition by other states. There might be a few
48 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

exceptions to this definition, because a state can still exist while a part of
its territory is being challenged. Similarly, the stability of a state may be
potentially affected by a civil war in a neighboring country, but does not
automatically change the status of such state. Pierson (1996) identified
nine key features of a modern state:

M monopoly or the ability to control the means of violence,

M territoriality or the existence of a geographical territory with legitimate
borders within which authority is exercised,
M sovereignty or existence of absolute power within the limits of geo-
graphic boundaries and the rules of law,
M constitutionality or political order rooted in a constitution,
M impersonal power or the supremacy of the rule of law,
M public bureaucracy or administration of public affairs,
M authority and legitimacy or the acceptance of the state coercion power
by the people for stability and survival of the state,
M citizenship or the situation of citizens who are entitled to participate
in the political life of the state, and
M taxation or the ability to collect taxes in order to spend for public

The modern state is mainly characterized as a nation-state, which Smith

(1986) defined as sovereign territories with

frontiers, capitals, f lags, anthems, passports, currencies, military parades,

national museums, embassies and usually a seat at the United Nations. They
also have one government for the territory . . . a single education system, a
single economy and occupational system, and usually one set of legal rights
for all citizens. (p. 228)

It is important to underline that some states do not have an army (e.g.,

Costa Rica, Grenada); thus, they may not have military parades. In
addition, modern states like the United States, and South Africa, have
existed without having one set of legal rights for all citizens. This is to
say that Smith’s (1986) definition of a nation-state has its conceptual
In simple terms, a nation-state is a nation and a state that metamor-
phoses to create a new entity rooted on a common feeling of nationhood
and loyalty to the state. A nation exists through a sense of belonging
and identification to a common heritage, history, language, culture,
race/ethnicity, or religion. A nation-state is not an accumulation of the
G L O B A L H IG H E R E D U C AT I O N A N D L O C A L C O N T E X T 49

factors I just mentioned. A nation-state dwells in a sense of identifica-

tion, distinction, and belonging that combinations of some of the afore-
mentioned factors provide to a group of people who owe allegiance to
the same government that rules over a geographically defined territory
diplomatically recognized by other states. The modern states have been
largely inf luenced by the industrial revolutions, progress in information
and communication technologies, demographic transitions and changes,
increased and complex division of labor, democratization and interde-
pendence, peaceful conf lict resolutions, urbanization, rationalization,
and the rise of scientific knowledge as engine for economic production
and well-being of population. I will concede that the concept of nation-
state is a complex one to define, because it is very difficult to make
the case for a state with one nation, given the multiculturalism of most
countries in the world.

Fundamental Purposes of Higher Education in

a Nation-State
Higher education started many centuries ago as an institution dedicated
to prepare political and religious elites who would assume leadership
roles in shaping the mind and character of the ruling class. Consequently,
access to higher education was very selective for a long time. Colleges and
universities aimed mainly to prepare graduates who can think critically
and have the ability to make decision based on understanding and sound
judgment. During the last century, the purpose of higher education was
expanded with the massification of postsecondary education to include
the preparation of individuals for more technical roles in economy and
society (Trow, 1973). With the new knowledge economy, many higher
learning institutions have shifted their focus on the training of people
with skills and knowledge needed to carry effectively a particular occu-
pation (Beder, 2000). In that context, the purpose leans more toward
the preparation of individuals for future careers. Preparation for future
careers also includes the transmission of knowledge that can enhance
the ability of graduates to integrate ideas and concepts, communicate,
solve problems, improve their learning, and work in groups and teams.
Polanyi (1974) stressed that higher education’s purpose is to help students
“learn who they are, to search for a larger purpose for their lives, and to
leave college as better human beings” (p. 47). This facet of the purpose
of higher education has contributed to the creation of a middle class in
many nation-states, thus contributed to foster a stable, peaceful, and well-
functioning society (Weir, 2014).
50 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

On the other hand, many nation-states have made strategic deci-

sions to adopt education policies that aimed to develop human capital
for social and economic development. In fact, various studies have found
correlation between higher education and the economic productivity of
a country (Barro and Lee, 2001; Katircioglu, 2009). The development
of human capital for a nation-state aims to prepare not only produc-
tive members in economy and society, but also responsible citizens who
can assume leadership roles in public life, and academic leadership in
research and innovation.
Overall, the purpose of higher education in nation-states has evolved
and is multifaceted. However, the fundamentals have not changed.
Higher education inside nation-states has public and private purposes.
The public purposes aim primarily to serve the common good through
the preparation of individuals for the reproduction of the academic, eco-
nomic, and political elites. The private purposes strive primarily to trans-
mit to individual skills and knowledge that will enable them to succeed
in social, political, or economic life. For Lagemann and Lewis (2012),
undergraduate students must

develop general skills and dispositions to listen intently and empathetically to

other people; . . . analyze rationally what is said, read, and observed; . . . present
thoughts clearly; . . . confront unsupported assertions; and . . . identify reason-
able strategies to take necessary action. (p. 12)

The purposes of higher education inside nation-states are revised with

evolvement and change in national economies and the emergence of the
global economy created by globalization. Consequently, transmission of
global skills or global competence has been integrated in the purpose of
higher education of many nation-states. For example, Nussbaum (2012)
recommended that higher education provides students with skills and
dispositions, such as the ability to think critically; the ability to tran-
scend local loyalties and to approach world problems as a ‘citizen of the
world’; and, finally, “the ability to imagine sympathetically the predica-
ment of another person” (p. 7). The global competence facet has become
a complement to preceding purposes of higher education. Hansen (2011)
asserted that the purpose of higher education is to teach students general
skills in civic courage, moral judgment, critical thinking, and scientific
and global awareness in order to prepare them for a democratic, civilized,
and global society.
Whether to support a public or private purpose, the delivery of higher
education has been seen as a prerogative of a nation-state. Even when
G L O B A L H IG H E R E D U C AT I O N A N D L O C A L C O N T E X T 51

offered by private providers, higher education institutions are considered

as not-for-profit entities. The power of a nation-state to collect taxes con-
stitutes an automatic entitlement of citizens to have access to education,
including higher education. In fact, Article 26.1 of the UN Declaration
of Human Rights signed by most nation-states clearly stipulates,

Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in

the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be
compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally
available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis
of merit. (United Nations, 2014, Art. 26)

Obviously, higher education is not primary education in the sense that

foundations’ knowledge is necessary. Therefore, equal access to higher
education should be based on academic merit, which is the minimum
academic standard set by authorized quality assurance agencies.

Globalization and Higher Education

Globalization refers to the phenomenon that connects people around the
globe in different and new ways (e.g., mass media, technology, and mod-
ern transportation systems) through relations of interdependence among
countries, cultures, people, and societies. As I argued previously, glo-
balization has occurred in politics, economy, society, and culture ( Jean
Francois, 2010). According to Lechner and Boli (2008), “globalization
refers to the fact that more people across large distances become con-
nected in more and different ways” (p. 1). Globalization creates a situation
of interdependence among countries in the world. As a result, situations
that involve actors and events in different parts of the globe affect each
other within a system. The financial crisis of 2008 was a good illustration
of interdependence in the world. Kamin and DeMarco (2010) found that
financial derivatives related to the US subprime mortgages contributed
to the global financial crisis of 2008. Although there were other factors
that were internal to individual countries affected by the 2008 global
financial recession, the reality was that some countries paid the conse-
quences of decisions made by leaders in other countries. This is not new,
but expresses a greater integration of economies through globalization.
In fact, later in 2012, the European Union had to provide a controversial
second bailout package to rescue the Greek economy and prevent finan-
cial repercussions in other countries such as Spain, Italy, and Portugal,
which are members of the Euro zone (Schuman, 2012).
52 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

Globalization had various implications for higher education, which

include, but are not limited to,

M Economic: Human capital improves local/national competitiveness in

the global economy and marketplace;
M Sociocultural: Need for cross-cultural knowledge and understanding;
M Academic: Transnational search for truth and knowledge;
M Political: Transworld governance (Scholte, 2000);
M Financial: New markets for the recruitment of international students.

There are also some implications for college graduates, in relation to:

M ICT revolution: Innovation, knowledge management, and borderlessness;

M Knowledge Society: Internationally portable qualifications;
M Risk Society: Flexibility and adaptability;
M High-performance workplaces: Mobilization of human resources;
M Globalization: Cross-national competition;
M Changes in economic structure: Entrepreneurship and marketization.

Ambitions of Global Higher Education

Global higher education aims to understand the interaction of human
society and its environment. It aims to prepare graduates who can assume
leadership roles in organizations and institutions in a rapidly changing
world. More specifically, postsecondary education institutions strive to
prepare global citizens who are aware of the world around them, respect
and value diversity, and take actions for human rights, social justice, and
sustainability. The global ambition of higher education is articulated
around knowledge and understanding of the interconnectedness and



Figure 4.1 Global Education Ambitions.

G L O B A L H IG H E R E D U C AT I O N A N D L O C A L C O N T E X T 53

independence of countries in the world, learning process that is inclusive

and culturally responsive to a diverse humanity, and transdisciplinary
learning projects and activities. As Figure 4.1 illustrates, the global ambi-
tions of global higher education can be best explained by global standard-
ization, marketization, and linguistic imperialism.

Global Standardization
Higher education cannot escape from the inf luence of globalization,
because such phenomenon affects almost all aspects of most societies in
the globe. Societies and educational institutions have to produce graduates
who can compete on the global market. This is a homogeneous market.
In other words, this is the homogenization of skills, knowledge, and atti-
tudes through curriculum, practices, and quality assurance. The infusion
of global contents in curriculum, instruction, and practice of postsec-
ondary institutions is referred to as internationalizing the curriculum.
According to Knight (2003), internationalization is “a process of inte-
grating of integrating an international, intercultural, or global dimen-
sion in the purpose, functions, or delivery or postsecondary education”
(p. 2). Similarly, Jean Francois (2010) defined internationalization as the
“introduction of international and global dimensions in curriculum,
research, teaching, and service functions in higher education institution”
(p. 22). Internationalization of the curriculum implies integration of global
dimensions and contents in degree programs and courses in a systematic
way. Internationalization in research involves collaborative and compara-
tive research studies with colleagues from other countries. The interna-
tionalization of teaching suggests the adoption of learning instructional
strategies that are sensitive to the multiculturalism ref lected in college
campuses. The internationalization of service refers to a leadership com-
mitment to use the diversity opportunities offered by faculty, staff, and
students from multicultural backgrounds, in other to provide inclusive
and cultural responsive student services. Both Knight (2003) and Jean
Francois (2010) definitions ref lect not only a global ambition for higher
education, but also an implicit agenda to homogenize, to standardize.
To a large extent, globalization includes standardization in its larger
meaning and manifestation. Globalization implies that “the world is f lat”
to refer to the title of a book published by Friedman (2005). If the world is
no longer a globe separated by borders as we thought, this means the rules
have changed, and the standards are different. In fact, in his previous
book, Friedman (1999) asserted that globalization is a system with its own
technological standards, which are “computerization, miniaturization,
54 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

digitization, satellite communications, fiber optics and the internet . . . ”

(p. 125). Standardization is not new. Most occupations, if not all, include
standards of best practices that practitioners must follow, especially for
quality assurance purposes. The difference is that, unlike specific profes-
sional standards that apply to particular professions, global standardiza-
tion, as the term implies, strives to set standards for a global market place,
irrespective of national borders, societies, or cultures.
Standardization is expressed by the desire of many universities around
the world to acquire the status of world-class universities as determined
by some international university raking such as:

M the Center for World University Rankings (CWUR, 2014), which

ranks universities based on criteria such as quality of education,
alumni employment, quality of faculty, publication, inf luence, cita-
tions, broad impact, and patents; or
M the Time Higher Education World University Ranking (THE,
2014), ranking world universities, using 13 performance indica-
tors grouped into five areas of teaching (the learning environment),
research (volume, income, and reputation), citations (research inf lu-
ence), industry income (innovation), and international outlook
(staff, students, and research).

The race for postsecondary education institutions to prove themselves

as world-class universities is an expression of the tendency for global
homogenization. It is not a stretch when I argue that there is an implicit
goal for homogenization. It may not be the intention of the rankings.
However, the fact that some universities want to prove themselves to
some global criteria is in itself an implicit acceptance of the principle
of homogenization. This is not a judgment about whether the idea of
global ranking is right or wrong. It is a factual observation that the ten-
dency to be responsive to global ranking criteria will shape how univer-
sities operate and make decisions. Obviously, universities participate in
global rankings as a means to promote their institutions to students from
across the globe, who are consumers of the global market of higher edu-
cation, seeking to earn their degrees from prestigious, world-ranked, or
world-class universities. As a result, the standardization through global
rankings has fostered an environment in which higher education institu-
tions feel more empowered to use their entrepreneurial facets, in order to
attract more funding through various sources such as tuitions, grants, and
international fundraisings. There is nothing wrong for universities to be
entrepreneurial. However, a fully entrepreneurship-minded university
G L O B A L H IG H E R E D U C AT I O N A N D L O C A L C O N T E X T 55

will serve a market purpose, but may limit access to individuals who can
benefit from social mobility only through access to higher education.
This has implications not only for the development of human capital,
especially in developing countries, but also for the growth of the middle
class, which is vital for the economic sustainability of any country.
The Bologna process provides another illustration for the implicit aim
of standardization related to the global ambitions of global higher educa-
tion. The Bologna process started in 1998 through an accord involving
the ministers of France, Germany, Italy, and the United Kingdom, to
restructure higher education in Europe. Representatives of 29 European
countries joined the Bologna process in 1999, adopting

M a system for comprehensive comparable degrees,

M a system consisting of undergraduate and graduate cycles,
M the establishment of a system of credits,
M a process for student and staff mobility,
M the promotion of quality assurance in Europe, and
M the promotion of European dimensions of higher education (The
Bologna Declaration, 1999).

That restructuration led to a relative standardization of postsecondary

education in Europe through the creation of

M the Europe higher education area (i.e., facilitation of joint programs

and f lexible curricula across universities in almost 50 countries),
M the European credit transfer system (i.e., mutual recognition of
degrees), and
M the Standards and guidelines for quality assurance (i.e., quality assur-
ance policies and procedures).

The Bologna process had inf luenced systems for standardization in

Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Consequently, the African Quality
Assurance Network was launched in 2009 to set quality assurance stan-
dards for postsecondary institutions in African countries. In Asia, there
is the Asia-Pacific Quality Network started in 2004, which set principles
for quality assurance for postsecondary institutions in the Asia-Pacific
region. In Latin America and the Caribbean, there is the European
Union-Latin America-Caribbean (EULAC) and the Ibero-American
Network for Higher Education Accreditation (RIACES) started in 2003,
which set quality assurance principles for universities in Latin American
and Caribbean countries.
56 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

It is clear that global higher education has facilitated the develop-

ment of processes, systems, and institutions that are oriented toward the
relative standardization of postsecondary education across the globe.
Standardization in higher education is a direct result of the standardiza-
tion principles that characterize globalization. This is a ref lection of the
inf luence of globalization on higher education.

The creation of the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 1995 has been
instrumental in the transformation of the economies of world countries
into a global economy. As of June 2014, the WTO includes 160 members,
and perform the functions of (a) administering WTO trade agreements,
(b) serving as forum for trade negotiations, (c) handling trade disputes,
(d) monitoring national trade policies, (e) providing technical assistance
and training for developing countries, and (f ) maintaining cooperation
with other international organizations (WTO, 2014). Before the WTO,
trades among nations used to take place through the General Agreement
on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) established since 1948. However, the GATT
was limited to dealing only with trade in good. The WTO agreements
complemented the GATT to include trade in services, traded inventions,
and creations and designs.
The liberalization of higher education as a commodity is left up to
each country in the discussions concerning trade in services under the
WTO agreements. The WTO (2014) argued that trade liberalization
contributes to economic performance, development, consumer savings,
faster innovation, greater transparency and predictability, and technol-
ogy transfer. Globalization has certainly been beneficial to industrialized
countries, but not so much for impoverished countries that have become
poorer, and recorded wider gaps of inequality. The attempts and ini-
tiatives for marketization and deregulation of higher education within
the context of the global market have been at the center of the debates
in Australia (Baldwin and James, 2000), Canada (Young, 2002), China
(Mok, 2000), Israel (Oplatka, 2002), Japan (Arimoto, 1997), Spain (Mora,
1997), the United Kingdom (Binsardi and Ekwulugo, 2003), and the
United States (Binsardi and Ekwulugo, 2003; Dill, 2003). Obviously,
marketization tends to lead to the commodification and privatization of
postsecondary education.
The liberalization of higher education under WTO agreements that
opened the door for converting postsecondary education into a com-
mercialized commodity has the potential to increase the cost to attend
G L O B A L H IG H E R E D U C AT I O N A N D L O C A L C O N T E X T 57

colleges and universities, and eventually eliminate the affordability of

public higher education. In the United States for example, revenue
reported by postsecondary education institutions to the Department of
Education’s Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System for the fis-
cal years 1987–2012 showed a “25 years of declining State support for
poublic colleges” (The Chronicle of Higher Education, 2014, para 1).
The decline of public funding automatically implies that students have
to pay more in tuition fees, and the continuing of such trend may lead
to the full or near full privatization of public higher education. Sawyerr
(2004) explained that the liberalization of higher education in developing
countries has led to the expansion of private postsecondary education,
and neglect to invest in higher education. Similarly, international educa-
tion aid has focused on compulsory education, and completely neglected
higher education, which received very little support from international
donors. The Task Force on Higher Education and Society (2000) wrote

The World Bank drew the conclusion that its lending strategy should
emphasize primary education, relegating higher education to a relatively
minor place on its development agenda. The World Bank’s stance has been
inf luential, and many other donors have also emphasized primary and, to
some extent, secondary education as instruments for promoting economic
and social development. (p. 39)

Linguistic Imperialism
Global higher education is inf luenced by the linguistic imperialism of
the English language through research, publications, information and
communication technologies, and other intercultural communications.
It has projected the perception that the global competent individual
must know the English language. English has become the language of
instruction for various universities in non-English speaking countries in
Africa, Asia, Europe, and Latin America and Caribbean, as a strategy to
prepare graduates who can (a) claim academic backgrounds similar to
graduates from North American and Western universities, (b) work in
cross-cultural settings where English is the common language, (c) publish
for English-speaking readers, (d) participate in academic and scholarly
settings such as conferences, symposiums, and seminars, where English is
adopted as the language of communication, and (e) perform other profes-
sional, occupational, or personal functions that require some command of
the English language. The dominance of English results from the larger
political, economic, and cultural imperialism of the United States and
other English-speaking countries that are part of the Commonwealth of
58 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

Nations (i.e., countries that used to be territories of the former British

Empire). It is important to underline that universities in non-English-
speaking countries with English as the language of instruction still con-
stitute a minority. Wächter and Maiworm (2008) conducted a study about
English-taught programs in Europe, which revealed a growing trend, but
“still not a mass phenomenon” (p. 10).

Global Education and Local Contexts

Institutions of higher learning in various countries have set global pur-
poses or have integrated global education goals within their mission or
their vision statements. Local education needs contradict global educa-
tion ambitions. The main reason is because of cultural particularities
among countries and societies. Global higher education refers to issues,
theories, processes, programs, policies, institutions, and overall teaching
and learning practices in postsecondary education that have implications
for countries across the globe within the context of globalization. Welch
(2001) put it well, explaining that “globalization processes are having
substantial effects on education; indeed . . . it is becoming incredibly dif-
ficult to understand education without reference to such processes. One
arena where such effects are increasingly evident is that of higher educa-
tion” (p. 478). Globalization facilitated the emergence of network societies
that affect the theories and practices of higher education. However, there
is a differentiation about the impact of globalization on higher education
when considering global trends and the local realities of single countries.
The institutions of international education use a deficit model to address
issues of access and quality in education systems of development coun-
tries. Globalization has provided a framework for higher education leaders
to set global agenda based on the models of multinational corporations.
Discontents about the negative facets of globalization have reinforced
the imperative to maintain the local purpose of higher education within
national boundaries. National educational development requires endog-
enous approaches to be sustainable. Even in a country like the United
States, the states believe that they must have their own state policy. Why
do people think this is radical if a country requires having its own educa-
tion policy that is not dictated by the terms of foreign aid? The reality is
that such an approach of international aid on donors’ terms may continue,
but will not provide the expected outcomes.
Furthermore, with rising poverty, income, and wealth inequality
in the world (Fuentes-Nieva and Galasso, 2014; Grusky et al., 2014),
privatization of higher education undermines the role of a nation-state
G L O B A L H IG H E R E D U C AT I O N A N D L O C A L C O N T E X T 59

to guarantee equal access on the basis of merit. In addition, the actions

of international institutions such as the World Bank have provided jus-
tification to people who are suspicious of global higher education. For
example, while higher education is neglected in the millennium develop-
ment goals, the World Bank did not neglect to promote privatization to
less developed countries in all facets, including higher education (Spring,
2004). Munck (2002) asserted that “the World Bank signaled a decisive
move away from development as a process of national economic growth
to embrace a vision of development as equal to participation in an inte-
gration with the capitalist market” (p. 6). Critiques of global higher edu-
cation tend to associate it with the negative consequences of globalization
on the poor and the middle class. Therefore, many people who take issue
with global higher education make their challenges based on its global
ambitions, which are not compatible to many local contexts. It is clear
that the realities of nation-states are different. Therefore, it is a cliché to
stress that standardization will not always fit the needs of some nation-
states, especially the impoverished and less developed countries. In addi-
tion, the linguistic imperialism of global higher education reminds of
cultural imperialism, which is a facet of Western political and economic
imperialism. As a result, global higher education is seen as threat to public
higher education, and local/national cultures and interests. It is fair to
say that global higher education is contaminated in many respects by the
discontents about the negative consequences of globalization on the poor
and the middle class, in local contexts.

Questions and Activities

1. What is a nation-state?
2. What is the purpose of global higher education?
3. Based on existing literature and your own observation, what would
you consider as the purpose of global higher education for your
country of residence?
4. Do you agree or disagree that standardization, marketization, and
linguistic imperialism are ref lection of global ambitions of global
higher education?
5. Record the evolution of funding for public higher education in your
state or your country for the last 10 or 20 years: Has there been an
increase or a decrease? How would you interpret the trend?
6. Should access to higher education be a right based on merit or a
privilege based on one’s ability to pay?


What Is Glocalization?
The term “McDonalization” of society introduced by Ritzer (1993)
ref lects the idea of a homogenized world that carries at best a cultural
imperialism, and at worst a Western arrogance. Several sociologists
thought that there is rather a hybridization or syncretism, or synthesis,
or “mélange” when global products in application are customized to suit
local tastes or interests (Pieterse, 2000). The idea was not to reject glo-
balization as a phenomenon, but to argue that such a term did not ref lect
accurately the reality of localization. In fact, Giddens (2000) argued that
globalization is “the reason for the revival of local cultural identities in
different parts of the world” (p. 31). I am not sure this is completely accu-
rate. However, I will concede that the Internet has facilitated the appre-
ciation of local cultures by people from other cultures. Glocalization has
been identified as the perfect term to express the connection between the
global and the local (Robertson, 1992; Boyd, 2006).
There are conf licting accounts about the origin of the term glocaliza-
tion. Ohmae (2005) argued that the term glocalization has its genesis from
Japan, and may have been used for the first time by Sony Corporation’s
CEO Akio Morita, referring to the slogan “think globally, act locally.”
Clark (2003) also reported that the concept glocalization derives from the
Japanese term “dochakuka,” which means “global localization” (p. 191),
referring to the globalizing process in local communities. Waters (1995)
identified the British sociologist Roland Robertson as the early user of
the concept glocalization. Robertson (1992) argued that globalization
will not lead to a homogenization of world cultures, and suggested to
replace the term globalization by glocalization. For Robertson (1992),
62 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

globalization is the “interpretation of the universalization of particulariza-

tion and the particularization of universalism” (p. 100).
Simply put, glocalization is the integration of local cultural differ-
ences and practices in initiatives, programs, or projects that are based
on a globalization framework. Many organizations and institutions have
defined goals to play in a global sphere, and do not want to lose sight
of the local realities (Bruce, 2002), not out of concerns for local reali-
ties themselves, but because local realities are made up of consumers or
Glocalization enables an integrative relationship between global
systems and local cultures, communities, and societies, in various con-
texts of political, social, and economic collaboration. Glocalization is an
acknowledgment that globalization can be in contradiction with local
interests and needs. Consequently, a compromise with the local is needed.
The interplay between the global and the local creates a third place where
assets of both global and local systems can be taken into account to com-
pensate the weaknesses of patronizing globalization and short-sighted
localization. As Gabardi (2000) argued,

[Glocalization is marked by the] development of diverse, overlapping fields

of global-local linkages . . . [creating] a condition of globalized panlocal-
ity . . . what anthropologist Arjun Appadurai calls deterritorialized, global
spatial ‘scapes’ (ethnoscapes, technoscapes, finanscapes, mediascapes, and
ideoscapes). . . . This condition of glocalization . . . represents a shift from a
more territorialized learning process bound up with the nation-state soci-
ety to one more f luid and translocal. Culture has become a much more
mobile, human software employed to mix elements from diverse contexts.
(pp. 33–34)

Assumptions about Glocalization

Ritzer (2007) seemed to prefer the term grobalization instead of glocaliza-
tion. He argued that grobalization (from the verb “to grow”) combines
both the idea of homogenization and heterogenization. He asserted that,
“in the real world, there is always a combination, an interaction, of glocal
and the grobal processes” (p. 25). I do not believe that one can implicitly
dismiss that glocalization does not include both an idea of homogeniza-
tion and heterogenization. I believe that glocalization combines facets of
globalization and localization. Globalization is undoubtedly a project for
homogenization. However, as I argued before the world is multicultural
by nature ( Jean Francois, 2012). Therefore, localization does not stand
G L O C A L I Z AT IO N 63

for a singular local, but for the multiplicity of locals, which implies some
form of heterogenization. I believe that glocalization combines homog-
enization and heterogenization through globalization and localization.
Consequently, I argue that glocalization can be interpreted through the
following assumptions:

1. Existence of glocal realities is factual: Some issues exist in countries,

societies, and cultures across the globe. Therefore, such issues
have both global and local implications, because global and local
are not mutually exclusive realities. They are interconnected and
2. Globalization is not sufficient to address issues or challenges in glocal reali-
ties. Global solutions can be theoretical and neglect to account for
local realities across national borders.
3. Globalization is relevant when dealing with glocal challenges. Therefore,
globalization does not constitute an automatic threat to cultural
particularity. Social movements have successfully used global frame-
works to create a positive change in local contexts.
4. Localization is indispensable in tackling glocal issues. No glocal issue can
be addressed in an efficient and effective manner without the inte-
gration of localization.
5. Localization is bordered, and not sufficient to tackle glocal challenges.
Localization will always be limited by its scope and geographic
boundaries in what it can offer to address glocal issues. Some local
issues that are global in their implications cannot be fully addressed
by localization alone.
6. Glocalization helps localization go beyond borders, and informs on global
settings. Localization can benefit from the existence of global set-
tings. Some issues at the local levels will need some form of global
7. Glocalization accommodates for globalization to have efficient and effective
reach of local borders. In a nutshell, glocalization helps globalization
reach local borders.
8. Glocalization helps bring ideas, practices, and institutions to global settings.
In other words, glocalization helps maintain a relative balance
between the global and the local.
9. Glocalization helps accommodate for global ideas, practices, and institu-
tions in local settings. Consequently, glocalization has the potential
to help provide sustainable solutions to glocal issues, practices, and
64 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

Facets of Glocalization
I see globalization as a multifaceted phenomenon within the context of
globalism. In other words, glocalization is not that different from global-
ism or globalization. It is an evolvement of globalization through facets
of globality, localness, multistakeholder perspectives, and inclusiveness.
In my view, glocalization is the hybridization of globality and localness
through the integration of multistakeholderness into a framework of seg-
mented inclusiveness (see Figure 5.1).

Glocalization is an acknowledgment of globalization. It is about global-
ity within the old principle “think globally, act locally.” Glocalization
is based on the idea that global processes or networks are inherently
connected to local processes. This makes sense, because global refers to
the collection of countries, societies, and cultures of the globe. On the
other hand, Jean Francois (2012) explained that each individual coun-
try, society, or culture is a sample or a representation of the local in
comparison to the conglomeration of all the “locals” (i.e., countries,
cultures, or societies). Therefore, globality is a central facet of glocaliza-
tion, which is used by many scholars to describe or explain the d ynamics
of interconnections and interrelations between the global processes and
the local contexts (Robertson, 1992; Latour, 1993; Backhaus, 2003).
The interconnection between the global and the local is best translated
by Giddens (1990) who defined globalization as “the intensification of
worldwide social relations which link distant localities in such a way that
local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and
vice versa” (p. 64).

=beXWb_jo BeYWbd[ii



Figure 5.1 Facets of Glocalization.

G L O C A L I Z AT IO N 65

Glocalization is an understanding that localness cannot be avoided.
Glocalization is a reaction to the resistance encountered by globaliza-
tion in many local communities around the world. Petras and Veltmeyer
(2001) explained that

all the groups adversely affected by globalization have turned towards

extra-parliamentary activities and organizations: general strikes in France,
Italy, Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, South Korea . . . ; land occupations in
Brazil, Paraguay, El Salvador, Mexico, Colombia, Guatemala, etc.; urban
revolts in Venezuela, the Dominican republic, Argentina . . . and guerrilla
movements in Mexico, Colombia, Peru, Zaire. . . . (p. 57)

The resistances to globalization occurred due to the development and

implementation of economic policies (i.e., structure adjustment, unfair
trade laws, and financial deregulation) designed by international insti-
tutions such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World
Bank, which helped widen the gaps between the rich and the poor,
increase inequality among social groups, and expand the domination of
Western cultures. It is fair to say that glocalization is the retreat of global-
ization to restrategizing through adaptation to local realities and cultures.
Globalization practices were faced with resistances in local contexts. The
resilience of such resistances affected the economic bottom line of enter-
prises, institutions, and countries with the most stakes in global outcomes
(Persianis and Stamouli, 2014). Therefore, the adaptation to local con-
texts has become the natural strategy to adopt, in order to ensure that
local consumers continue to support globally oriented decisions, use ser-
vices, and buy products that are global in application. Similar to globality,
localness is an essential facet of glocalization, because it involves an inter-
pretation of global processes through local tastes and interests.

Glocalization provides opportunities for the involvement and inputs of
multistakeholders. Glocalization is the involvement of more than one
stakeholder in the customization of global processes, products, or ser-
vices to suit local contexts. The localization of globalization cannot hap-
pen without collaboration between global and local stakeholders. This
phenomenon that I call multistakeholderness is an important facet of
66 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

Segmented Inclusiveness
Glocalization is a form of inclusion of otherness. However, the inclusion is
designed to achieve specific purposes, and is segmented accordingly. The
multinational corporations represent the poster child of globalization. In
simple terms, a multinational corporation is a company that produces and
sells goods or services in more than one country. The primary goal of
a multinational corporation is to produce and sell goods and services to
consumers worldwide, in order to make the maximum profit possible.
Multinational corporations are also called global corporations, because
of their global reach. They offer global products and services, but do not
have customers that are global. Customers are people in local commu-
nities. Therefore, consumers are local. Consequently, global companies
have to include local f lavors in products and services in order to satisfy
local tastes and interests. This localization of products and services is seg-
mented. The localization is not designed as a holistic strategy to integrate
local communities as equal partners. The localization is rather targeted
based on segments in local societies or local cultures that can help main-
tain the global f low of supply lines and exploit the weaknesses of local
processes and networks. In other words, the localization of globality is
never global, but partial, because,

M global inf luence will never be able to completely destroy local tra-
ditions, identities, beliefs, and worldviews; thus, homogenization
through globalization is impossible;
M glocalization is an acknowledgment of such limitation of globaliza-
tion, which can go as far as a segmented inclusiveness; and
M not all aspects of local inclusion fit the agenda of companies, organi-
zations, or institutions with global statures; thus, segmented inclu-
siveness enables to be as utilitarian as possible.

Hybridization implies the adaptation of globality with facets localization.
Hybridization is another way to express the convergence of the dynamics
between globality and localness, with the segmented inclusion of mul-
tiple stakeholders. Khonder (2004) argued that through glocalization, the
local is globalized and the global is localized, and called such hybridiza-
tion phenomenon a dual process of microglobalization (i.e., incorporation
of some global processes into the local context) and macrolocalization
(i.e., expansion of local ideas in a global context). Hybridization par-
tially translates the phenomenon of glocalization, because there can be
G L O C A L I Z AT IO N 67

hybridization without glocalization. However, glocalization is definitely

a form of hybridization. For example, individual countries with ethnic or
racial diversity can experience hybridization processes for the integration
of demographic or cultural or political minorities. On the other hand,
glocalization necessarily involves facets of globality and localness.

The Meanings of Glocalization

Glocalization is meaningful for both the aims of globalization to reach
across national border of countries in the world, and the acknowledg-
ment of the authenticity of local realities and indigenous ways of life. The
meanings of glocalization are multiple, and include, but are not limited
to, global integration, local accommodation, partnership, collaboration,
open mindedness, and seed for sustainability.

Gocalization as Segmented Global Integration

The ultimate purpose of glocalization is to achieve segmented global
integration. By segmented global integration, I mean practices and out-
comes that are based on a global goal in a specific sector of activity.
Global integration is the standardization process used by many businesses,
especially the multinational corporations, to ensure that their activities in
various countries follow the same methods or procedures. For example,
companies offer products or services that are designed for global markets,
which means consumers in various countries in the world. With glocal-
ization, such products and services can be customized to accommodate
the profile of consumers in single countries.
The segmented localization of globalization occurs through the inte-
gration of local laws, customs, beliefs, habits, and other cultural patterns
or consumer preferences into the planning, design, and delivery of products
and services that are global in application. For example, Facebook is a
global company, because people from various countries around the globe
use its platform. Therefore, there is no question about the globality of
Facebook. Further, Facebook offers consumers opportunities to shape
such services or products as their own, based on their own cultural tra-
ditions. However, this is not a complete integration, because Facebook
still comfortably occupies the driver seat through an ability to control
how far the adaptation to cultural contexts can go. Every now and then,
Facebook would be faced with some cultural pressure to intervene in a
way that limits the cultural integration of some groups, or respond to the
cultural sensitivity of local societies.
68 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

Glocalization as Local Accommodation

Glocalization aims to facilitate local accommodation of project, activi-
ties, products, or services that have a global or international genesis or
intent. Local cultures are essential to the economies of countries and, by
extension, the global economy. Local cultures inf luence the social, eco-
nomic, and political behaviors of individuals. Robertson (2002) argued
that people respond differently to cultural messages from the United
States, depending on their cultural backgrounds. Glocalization has cap-
tured that sentiment by providing a framework for local accommoda-
tion. Cui (2001) explained that most multinational corporations develop
intentional marketing strategies and programs that target ethnic consum-
ers. Marketing experts of global companies customize strategies for local/
national contexts, and ensure that materials are translated in language that
is sensitive to the culture of local people. Alderman (2012) explained how
in European context, Starbuck was forced by the realities of local cultures
to open stores that accommodate for longer sitting to consume coffee as
opposed to a place to pick up and leave. This local accommodation to local
tastes and interests offered by glocalization helped Starbucks overcome its
struggles to make profit in Europe. Similarly, Chan (2012) reported on
how a subsidiary of AIG, American International Assurance Company,
Ltd. (AIA), developed local accommodation strategies to introduce the
concept of life insurance in China. According to Chan (2012), the initial
strategies adopted by the company to use risk management-based selling
strategies that worked in many Western countries failed to be success-
ful in China, because of the taboo surrounding early discussions about
death. Finally, the company accommodated to local beliefs, and was suc-
cessful at selling life insurance services or products. Further, McDonalds
use local accommodation approaches in Austria, France, Germany, the
Netherlands, Argentina, Ecuador, and other countries to offer wine or
beer in their premises (Nehring, 2014). As far as I know, beers and wine
are not available in McDonalds in the United States.
Laws on taxes, customs, liability, foreign investment, and technology
differ by countries and regions of the world. However, global corpora-
tions manage to make appropriate accommodations to local contexts so
that they can expand their network of consumers. In other words, they
make accommodation based on local political systems, economic trends,
labor and employment laws, foreign investment and approval procedures,
language and cultural differences, trademark registration requirements,
access to resources and raw materials, and methods of dispute resolu-
tion. Furthermore, global companies adjust hiring decisions (i.e., raising
G L O C A L I Z AT IO N 69

standards, lowering standards), labor relations (i.e., adopting collective

bargaining, suspending collective bargaining), and employee relationship
(i.e., touching, physical contact, punctuality), based on some deep tradi-
tions in local cultures. These accommodation strategies may contribute to
better motivation and commitment of local employees to foreign employ-
ers. Such accommodations provide a sense to locals that they still conserve
their local cultural traditions while being part of a global enterprise.

Glocalization as Partnership
Glocalization brings collaboration to projects or activities or programs
or enterprises that are based on a global framework. Glocalization is an
alternative way to develop global or international partnership without
carrying the burden related to the cultural imperialism of globalization.
Partnership in the context of glocalization is not fictitious, because mul-
tinational corporations develop legal partnerships, alliances with smaller
companies that are rooted in local societies, so that they can access the
customers of their local partners. Multinational companies open local
branches that hire local staff that can provide clues for accommodation
to local cultural patterns. They also award franchises and licenses, as a
strategy to expand their global brands or networks. Further, companies
offshore-outsourced aspects of their production or services to increase
their bottom line. In the process, offshore-outsourcing helps them build
bridges to reach local consumers.
Glocalization is a partnership between the global and the local, in
order to achieve the objectives of the global. I insist that glocalization
serves more the interests of the global than the local. However, unlike
the tenets of globalization that convey a message in the like of “Do not
let the train of globalization leave you behind,” which is patronizing,
demeaning, and hyper-arrogant, glocalization at least acknowledges the
reality of local uniqueness and differences that cannot be swallowed by
globalization. By acknowledging and accommodating for local contexts,
glocalization conveys a sense of partnership, collaboration between the
global and the local, even if the partnership is relatively unequal.

Glocalization as Openmindedness
Globalization has imposed itself on the economy and culture of many
societies in the world (Stigliz, 2003 Jean Francois, 2014). Therefore, there
is little room left for a middle ground way. On the other hand, glocaliza-
tion creates spaces for openmindedness. With openmindedness, there is
70 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

no place for “one size fits all,” but opportunities to take risks, to accept
misunderstanding as an integrative part of a process, to fail, and to try
again, until the shared global and local purposes reach an acceptable level
of satisfaction.
Glocalization represents a reassessment of globalization in relation
to the realities of local cultures and societies. In that sense, glocaliza-
tion opened the door for a globalization that is open to otherness and
differences in an integrative manner. Glocalization acknowledges the
differences between the global and the local, and serves as a construct to
reconcile such differences. In that regard, glocalization is an expression
of openmindedness.

Glocalization as Seed for Sustainability

Glocalization can provide seed for sustainability, because of the oppor-
tunity to mix conf licting purposes, accommodating multistakeholder
perspectives, localness, and inclusiveness. Globalization carries with it
a sense of foreignness in local communities and societies. Foreignness is
always considered as temporal in the eyes of the local. Foreignness can
never be fully embraced by the locals, because there is a sense that it will
not last forever. The continuity and sustainability of initiatives or enter-
prises based on a globalizational framework is very fragile, because such
initiatives or enterprises lack a sense of local ownership. If the locals do
not invest or are not committed to a foreign enterprise, it is very difficult
for such enterprise to succeed locally and last for a long period of time.
The problem may not be in the value or the worthiness of such enter-
prise. It is certainly in the fact that anything that targets the contribution
of a community (i.e., participating, purchasing, or being involved) must
benefit the trust of such community to have sustainable success. There
can always be superficial excitement about an initiative, but such excite-
ment will not sustain the test of local cultural patterns and habits without
the integration of the locals. However, given that glocalization implies
an integration of the locals, an accommodation of local cultures, and an
involvement of multiple stakeholders, it carries inherent seeds for local
takeover and sustainability.

Deceptive Glocalization
Globalization is perceived to have negative cultural and economic effects
on local communities (Asobie, 2001; Odock, 2002; Stiglitz, 2003; Jean
Francois, 2014). On the other hand, glocalization can be perceived as a
G L O C A L I Z AT IO N 71

moderating approach to globalization. Glocalization can be very decep-

tive, because globalization is still at the root of glocalization. To be more
specific, glocalization is an evolvement of globalism and a relatively bal-
anced form of globalization. Glocalization can be deceptive, because
the globalized and internationalized may be incorporated into the local
while fulfilling an agenda that contradicts the interests of the locals.
Furthermore, transnational corporations can exploit the local through
interiorized glocal strategizing. In both contexts, there is a local accom-
modation, but at the expense of the interests of the locals. Therefore,
accommodation alone is not enough to differentiate the negative con-
sequences of globalization from the potential negative effects of glo-
calization. Glocalization is not as simple as localness, multistakeholder
perspectives, and inclusiveness, as I argued in the previous paragraphs.
Glocalization can be deceptive, because it accommodates for localness
while carrying some of the homogenization ambitions of globalization.
Khondker (2004) asserted that “glocalization to be meaningful must
include at least one component that addresses the local culture” (p. 17).

Glocalization and Higher Education:

Glocal Higher Education
Globalization has inf luenced the planning, operations, contents, and
delivery of higher education to create global higher education. In fact,
universities in Western countries use the frameworks and strategies of
multinational corporations to reach international students, and develop
programs (i.e., online and distance learning, study abroad, branch cam-
puses). As a result, the perceptions of global higher education initiatives
are inf luenced by the perceptions of globalization and its cultural and
economic imperialist agenda ( Jean Francois, 2010). Global higher educa-
tion is not necessarily bad. However, its inspiration from globalization
has inf luenced its acceptation or resistance by students, faculty, policy
makers, and stakeholders depending on whether they have a favorable or
unfavorable view of globalization.
As globalization inf luences higher education to give birth to global
higher education, I argue that glocalization is a starting point for an alter-
native framework that I called glocal education or glocal higher education
( Jean Francois, 2010). Glocalization can inspire integration, partnership/
collaboration, local accommodation, openmindedness to global higher
education, and transform it into glocal higher education, which may
become more receptive to people who value localness while remaining
open to globality. In other words, facets of glocalization can be used to
72 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

inf luence higher education to counterbalance the ambitions of homog-

enization hidden in global higher education, and foster frameworks that
integrate globality and localness. In that sense, glocalization represents
a social space for a glocal higher education framework the same way
international relations are for international education or globalization for
global higher education.

Questions and Activities

1. What is glocalization? How would you define glocalization? Why?
2. What is your perception of globalization? To what extent, if any,
glocalization may alter your perception of globalization?
3. Do you think glocalization is really different from globalization?
4. Do you agree or disagree with the assumptions about glocalization
outlined in this chapter? Why?
5. Select a multinational corporation of your choice. To what extent
do you think that some of their activities fit the glocalization frame-
work described in this chapter?
6. Consider the facets of glocalization outlined in this chapter: Provide
an example for each facet, and explain whether you think such facets
can inf luence one’s perception of globally oriented initiatives?


The Global and the Local

Glocal symbiosis is the intangible mechanism that cements the melding
between the global and the local, within the spirit of the phrases: Think
globally, act locally; and think locally, act globally. I use the term glocal
as a concept to convey an inherent idea of partnership or collaborative.
In other words, glocal is inherently a concept pertaining to a collabora-
tive or a partnership framework, mindset, or terms of reference, between
an outsider (with a global perspective, expertise, agenda, scope, or inter-
ests), and an insider (with a local perspective, expertise, agenda, scope, or
The global in the glocal is not based on geography, but on the basis of
outsider perspective. The global may reside in the fact that an outsider

M carries an international or global vision or mission statement,

M prioritizes an approach based on global standardization,
M maintains operations beyond one’s national borders,
M operates programs, projects, or activities that aim to have an interna-
tional or multinational impact,
M has a diverse staff with international/global expertise and recogni-
tion, and
M has other similar characteristics inspired by internationalization or

This is not in any way an exclusionary criterion. A global partner can

be identified as such with an outsider status combined with any of the
above criteria.
74 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

Contrary to the global, the local is geographically based. The local

may reside in the fact that a partner, who is an insider,

M carries a locally/nationally oriented vision or mission statement,

M prioritizes a national or indigenous approach rooted in the cultural
background of a specific community or society,
M maintains its operations at the local or national level, except for
international cooperation,
M operates programs, projects, or activities that aim to have local or
national impact,
M has culture-specific expertise about a culture, country, or society
M has other similar characteristics related to its local, national, or
regional location.

The global and the local can be represented by an (a) individual with
an outsider or insider perspective, (b) an organization or institution, or
(c) a combination of individuals and organizations. An individual pro-
viding an outsider or insider perspective will be identified based on one’s
institutional affiliation.

Glocal Symbiosis
The word symbiosis comes from the Greek “syn = together” and “biosis =
living,” and literally means “entangled,” “interwoven,” or “living
together.” The term symbiosis has been used first in biology in relation
to the interaction between two or more different biological species liv-
ing together (Moran, 2006). The key in a symbiotic relationship is the
mutualistic relationship that exists between the biological species living
together. The mutualistic relationship implies that all parties involved
benefit from the relationship. Biologists distinguish various types of what
they call short-term and long-term symbiotic relationships between
two or more different biological species (Sapp, 2004; Moran, 2006).
For example, a symbiotic relationship can be commensalistic; thus, only
one partner benefits from the relationship, although the other partner is
not harmed by the relationship (Abmadijian and Paracer, 1986). On the
other hand, a symbiosis can be mutualistic, implying that both parties
benefit from the relationship (Abmadijian and Paracer, 1986). Scholars
in business have also used the term symbiosis in relation to partnerships
between different companies, in order to increase their market potential
(Chertow, 2000, 2004).
G L O C A L S Y M B IO S I S 75




Figure 6.1 Glocal Symbiosis.

Used in combination with glocal, the term glocal symbiosis in this

book refers to a mutualistic relationship between a global and a local
partner (Figure 6.1). I see glocal symbiosis as the engine of glocal higher
education. Obviously, glocal symbiosis exists within certain boundaries
set by the terms of a collaboration or partnership. Every symbiotic rela-
tionship is not necessarily a mutualistic relationship. The essence of the
symbiotic relationship that I envision resides in its mutualism or the
extent to which all parties involved benefit.

Principles of Glocal Symbiosis

A mutualistic symbiotic relationship is a foundation for mutually ben-
eficial and respectful collaboration or partnership between a global and
a local partner. A mutual and respectful benefit implies that both the
global and the local contribute to the process. With a mutually ben-
eficial and respectful collaboration, there is a relatively high likelihood
that partners will commit themselves to ensure that such partnership
endures, to the extent of their abilities. To that end, I argue that glocal
symbiosis should be articulated around the principles of metacontextual-
ity, transworldiness, metaidentities, cross-societal readiness, assumptions’
d ifferentiation, multipurposefulness, parametabolism, intersectional syn-
ergies, and endogenous benchmarking (Figure 6.2).

Glocal symbiosis combines both global and local contextual factors to
create a metacontextual environment that is auxiliary to the global and
76 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

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Yedj[nj mehbZl_[m _Z[dj_jo h[WZ_d[ii Wiikcfj_edi fkhfei[i WYYekdjWX_b_jo iod[h]o X[dY^cWha

Figure 6.2 Principles of Glocal Symbiosis.

local contexts. Glocal symbiosis is inf luenced by the global political,

social, cultural, and economic contexts in which operates a global actor.
The global context is characterized by multinational interests that may
contradict or threaten the interests of single countries or individuals or
organizations associated with particular countries. On the other hand,
the social, economic, political, and cultural situations of a local partner
inf luence the natures of interactions with global partners. The metacon-
text surrounding glocal symbiosis will be most likely a contextual suited
for unequal power relationship, which can be adjusted for mutualistic

Stakeholders in glocal initiatives, programs, projects, or activities bring
their own outsider and insider worldviews, and develop transworldiness
perspectives. Within the spirit of the German word “weltanschauung,”
the term worldview means a perspective of the world or the universe.
A worldview is a general outlook of an individual about life, society,
social institutions, and the world (Wolman, 1973). According to Mathiot
(1979), a worldview is “a general way of thinking about the world that
underlies all cultural behavior” (p. 163). For Cobern (1991), worldview
is an understanding of human existence and reality or a mental repre-
sentation of the world that someone lives in. Overton (1991) argued
that worldview is “a set of interrelated assumptions about the nature
of the world” (p. 269). Individuals use their worldview to make sense
of the world, their interactions with other people, and institutions of
the world. As Miller and West (1993) asserted, a worldview is “a filter
G L O C A L S Y M B IO S I S 77

through which phenomena are perceived and comprehended” (p. 3). In

brief, worldview is about assumptions, beliefs, and values that individu-
als use to interpret their realities and the likes.
Glocal symbiosis concerns individuals in relationship. These individu-
als may represent themselves or organizations or institutions. Individuals
in a symbiotic relationship carry with them the full extent of their world-
views. Individuals make decisions regarding how and when they can best
use their worldview to interpret their interactions with others. People
have different worldviews that are related to their individual experiences,
their culture, and society. As a result, worldviews from one society can
be conf licting with worldviews from another society.
Given the involvement of the global and the local in a glocal symbio-
sis, there will be broad generalizations about worldviews of countries or
regions of the world that may be implicitly carried by a global partner.
On the other hand, there will be local worldviews carried implicitly by
the local partner, because glocal symbiotic activities take place in the
context of a nation-state. Given the intangibility of worldviews, it is dif-
ficult to make a clear distinction at all time during the cycle of a sym-
biotic relationship. Therefore, as a symbiotic relationship unfolds, there
will be a transworldiness, which is neither a local worldview nor a global
worldview, but a hybrid that would emerge from the interactions of vari-
ous worldviews in a mutualistic relationship.

Interactions between insiders and outsiders metamorphose into metai-
dentities, which go beyond exclusive global or local identities. In sim-
ple terms, identity is people’s understanding or belief about who they
are and what is meaningful to them as members of a society. Identity
is how someone sees one’s own humanity and one’s rights and obliga-
tions in relation to the surrounding environments. For example, someone
who identifies herself as a woman may see her humanity through her
rights as a woman and her obligations to support women’s rights and
struggles everywhere. Such identity is both locally and globally oriented.
Identity is also about what groups in a society that people feel or believe
they belong to. People have multiple identities in societies by identify-
ing themselves with multiple social and types of groups, such as gender,
race, ethnicity, nationality, sexual orientation, religious belief, residency,
occupation, ideology, socioeconomic status, and other similar categories.
For example, one person can identify herself as female, mother, Arab,
American, Lawyer, and Floridian. Another person might identify himself
78 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

as Christian, Latino, Colombian, Engineer, and New Yorker. As you may

notice, these identities reveal not only the individual, but also various
aspects of their lives.
Glocal symbiosis mixes the identities of global and local partners. They
will shape the nature of a glocal symbiosis into some forms of metaidenti-
ties, the same way their identities shape their personal lives. Glocal sym-
biosis adds to the multiple identities of global and local partners involved
in a symbiotic activity, but also alters the meaning of their core identities.
The interwoven of identities contributes to the mutualistic facets of the
glocal symbiosis.

Cross-Societal Readiness
Glocal symbiosis is rooted in the assessment of cross-societal readiness,
which involves both global and local readiness. Glocal symbiosis occurs
in the context of the meeting of at least two different societies through
their representatives. In a glocal relationship, the global partner repre-
sents the assumptions, values, beliefs, worldviews, interests, and agendas
of a society oriented toward globality, and the local partner represents
another society through assumptions, agenda, interests, worldviews, and
values, focusing primarily on localness. Mutualistic glocal symbiosis can
occur to the extent that there is a global readiness to learn from the
local and integrate localness, and a local readiness to learn from globality
and integrate globalism. This requires a cross-societal readiness, which
must be mutualistic in order to foster glocal symbiosis. Jean Francois
(2012) suggested the transculturality framework, which can serve as a
conceptual tool to assess cross-societal readiness through the analysis of
the sameness (What do we have as similarity?), uniqueness (What do we
have as unique?), uniquesameness (What do we have as similarity, but
with particularity?), and samniqueness (What do we have as unique, but
with similarity?) of a glocal relationship (p. 11).

Assumptions’ Differentiation
Outsiders and insiders in glocal collaborations always engage with their
own negative and positive assumptions. The assumptions must be sorted
out to balance the potential negative effects on a partnership or col-
laboration. Individuals grow up and are raised through a process called
socialization. In simple terms, socialization is a process through which
individuals acquired the social, physical, affective, and cognitive skills
needed to operate as members of a society. Socialization occurs through
G L O C A L S Y M B IO S I S 79

various institutions such as family, church, school, mass media, and

peers. During the process of socialization, individuals acquire all kinds of
assumptions, which are beliefs that people adopt about their own society
and other societies. Cultural assumptions tend to include positive facets,
such as beliefs and values that are related to one’s social identity and pride,
but also some negative aspects such as cultural bias, prejudice, and ste-
reotypes about other cultures and societies. In glocal relationships, both
the global and local partners bring negative and positive assumptions that
represent opportunities and threats for glocal symbiosis. Differentiation
of assumptions in an alternative space that fosters tolerance for ambiguity,
and offers opportunities to address misunderstanding in ways that can be
instrumental for glocal symbiosis.

Glocal symbiosis enables to satisfy multiple purposes, especially the
insider and outsider purposes that can be similar and different at times.
Multipurposefulness brings clarity regarding mutual benefits and may
potentially affect commitment. It refers to the purposes set by the global
partner to further its international/global agenda, and the purposes
defined by the local partner in relation to its local/national agenda.

Glocal symbiosis should enable some form of parametabolism, by setting
accountability at both the outsider and insider levels. Metabolism is a bio-
logical concept related to the chemical processes that help a living organism
maintain life. The term parametabolism in the context of glocal symbio-
sis is loosely based on an analogy with the metabolism of organisms, and
refers to the ability of a glocal relationship to sustain itself through vari-
ous forms of mutualistic commitment to a purpose, accountability, and
mechanisms of communication and conf lict resolution between the global
and local partners.

Intersectional Synergies
Glocal symbiosis is based on the identification of common challenges,
the definitions of goals, objectives, and strategies to maintain the needed
strategies across various facets of a glocal collaboration or partnership.
The term synergy comes from the Greek “synergia = working together,”
and refers to the phenomenon of multiple elements in a system interacting
80 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

together to produce effect or result that is greater than the sum of indi-
vidual effects. In a glocal relationship context, synergy will refer to the
ability of interactions between the global and the local to outperform
the best performance of the global or the local. Intersectional synergy is
to signify the synergy of the glocal relationship on the one hand and the
synergy of each core facet of the glocal relationship on the other.

Endogenous Benchmarking
In a glocal endeavor, there should be benchmarks based on global and
local contextual factors. The symbiosis can be established through endog-
enous benchmarking, thus setting the stage to assess performance and
return on investment for both outsiders and insiders. Benchmarking is a
process used by many companies to assess their process, systems, and per-
formance based on best practices from other companies. Arnold (2000)
defined benchmarking as “the process of identifying, learning, adapting
and measuring outstanding practices and processes from any organization
to improve performance” (p. 14). Benchmarking is not just about measur-
ing. It is a process for continuing quality improvement that can be very
helpful for glocal symbiosis. Herald (2000) said it best when asserting that
“the key purpose in benchmarking is to document the current state of
services and provides a guide on how it should be improved” (p. 27).
Glocal symbiosis can be nurtured by endogenous benchmarking. The
word endogenous associated with benchmarking comes from the Greek
“endo = inside” and “genos = coming from,” to designate something that
originates from inside an organism. In a glocal relationship, the mutualis-
tic symbiosis can be best served by benchmarks and benchmarking origi-
nating from within the interactions between the global and the local,
which I consider as an endogenous benchmarking.

Glocal Symbiosis Ratio and Adjusted Glocal

Symbiosis Ratio
A glocal collaboration may involve partners with unequal abilities, and
access to resources. This may create a glocal power relationship that
may balance on one side or the other. The partner that contributes and
will benefit more may have more power. This is often the case in many
partnerships in international education that adopt a partnership frame-
work that is not only patronizing, but also fostering a situation of depen-
dency of a local partner. Glocal collaboration should involve partnership
of equal standing, giving each partner the ability to co-contribute and
G L O C A L S Y M B IO S I S 81

measure the extent of their contributions. This can only strengthen and
cement commitment in a partnership. This is a way to plant the seed for
the sustainability of significant investment in a partnership. The glocal
symbiosis ratio (GSR) is a simple formula that I envision could help do
that. The GSR helps measure the proportion of global and local con-
tribution to a glocal collaboration, including a glocal higher education
program or project.

Glocal Symbiosis Ratio

The GSR is developed through the opportunity offered by the Gantt
chart. The Gantt chart is a project scheduling chart developed by the
American engineer and social scientist Henry Gantt during the early
1900s (Wilson, 2003). The Gantt chart helps determine all the tasks that
will be performed in the development of a project. A simple Gantt chart
includes a vertical column listing the tasks to perform in a project, and a
horizontal line showing the starting and ending dates of a task.
Let us call “G” all the tasks that will be performed by a global partner
or someone representing a global partner or a global or outsider perspec-
tive in a project. Let us call “L” all the tasks that will be performed by
a local partner or someone representing a local or national or insider
perspective in a project. Lest us call “GL” the total of tasks that will be
performed in a glocal collaborative or partnership project or program.
The equation will be: GL = G + L
To measure the proportion of contribution of the local partner, one
may simply divide the total contribution of the local partner by the total
contribution of the global and the local partners. I use the contribution
of the local partner, because this is the contribution that is most likely to
be dismissed, ignored, or underestimated either by a global partner or by
the local partner.
The GSR will be: GSR = L/GL

Adjusted Glocal Symbiosis Ratio

In a more complex way, the GSR can be adjusted to provide more mean-
ingful information. This would be an adjusted glocal symbiosis ratio
(ΔGSR). The ΔGSR will be calculated based on the GSRs of all the
phases of collaboration, a program, or a project. Therefore, a GSR can
be calculated for each phase based on the relevance or significance of
each task or contribution in a glocal collaboration. A scale of relevance or
significance of a global or local contribution to a task or an activity or a
82 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

program or a project can be used according to the following criteria (rel-

evance or significance to be determined between the glocal partners):

1. Very irrelevant or very insignificant: A contribution whose absence

would not have affected the completion of a task or an activity or a
program or a project.
2. Irrelevant or insignificant: A contribution whose absence would
slightly affect the effectiveness of a task or an activity or a program
or a project completion.
3. Somewhat relevant or somewhat significant: A contribution whose
absence would significantly affect the effectiveness of a task or an
activity or a program or a project completion.
4. Relevant or significant: A contribution that is necessary to complete a
task or an activity or a program or a project.
5. Very relevant or very significant: A contribution that is indispensable to
complete a task or an activity or a program or a project.

Then, the ΔGSR will be calculated for the overall glocal collaboration
according to the following:
Global symbiosis ratio per project phase (planning, implementation,
monitoring, evaluation, and continuing quality improvement). The fol-
lowing grid can be used to calculate the GSR for each phase (Box 6.1):
The adjusted GSR will be ΔGSR = Σ GSRs/Σphases or 5.

Interpretation of the GSR and the ΔGSR

The GSR and ΔGSR are not intended to measure whether a glocal rela-
tionship is good or bad. However, internal and external stakeholders
in a glocal relationship can use the GSR and the ΔGSR to analyze the
mutualistic nature of their activities or their overall enterprise. GSR and
ΔGSR can be calculated when engaging in a glocal partnership or collab-
oration, conducting glocal inquiries, planning and implementing glocal
higher education programs or projects, or designing and implementing
glocal development programs or projects. The GSR and ΔGSR can be
calculated for: (1) specific segments or phases of a glocal collaboration and
(2) monetary and nonmonetary contributions. These ratios can be used
as tools for partners in a glocal collaboration to help themselves and one
another accountable. Further, balanced GSR and ΔGSR may potentially
contribute to empower a local partner, validate the strength of a glocal
collaboration, nurture a sense of equal partnership on a factual basis, and
possibly enhance the commitment of partners.
Box 6.1 Adjusted Global Symbiosis Ratio

Task or Relevance or Significance

contribution 1 2 3 4 5 Subtotal
(Very irrelevant (Irrelevant or (Somewhat relevant (Relevant (Very relevant
or very insignificant or somewhat or or very
insignificant significant significant significant
Task/Contribution 1
Task/Contribution 2
Task/Contribution 3

Task/Contribution 4
Task/Contribution i
SR = ΣtlRl ti.Ri
84 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

Questions and Activities

1. What is glocal symbiosis?
2. Discuss the principles of glocal symbiosis, and explain the extent to
which you agree or disagree with them.
3. How would you interpret the GSR for an international collabora-
tion that you are part of?
4. To what extent do you think GSR and ΔGSR ratios can help under-
stand the intersectional synergy in a glocal collaboration?
5. What are some other ways do you think GSR and ΔGSR can be
useful? Explain!


Global Higher Education

Global higher education concerns issues, processes, policies, programs,
institutions, and overall theories, concepts, and practices in postsecond-
ary education that have implications for countries across the globe with
the context of globalization. Global higher education is inseparable from
globalization. Welch (2001) put it well when asserting that

globalization processes are having substantial effects on education;

indeed . . . it is becoming incredible difficult to understand education with-
out reference to such processes. One area where such effects are increas-
ingly evident is that of higher education. (p. 478)

The new economic, environmental, cultural, and political challenges

that define international relations and trade, global security, peace, and
democracy in the world justify the need for education initiatives that goes
beyond the border of a single country. There is broad consensus among
many scholars that global education can help a country foster human
resource development, development of strategic economic and political
alliances, transnational commercial trade, nation building, and social and
cultural development. Recent progress in information and communica-
tion technology provided evidence that a country may face economic,
political, and national security challenges that they will not be able to
address without competent higher education graduates who can compete
on the global market.
Global education has positive impacts on postsecondary institutions
through research and knowledge production, development of strategic
institutional alliances, profitability or income generation, international
86 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

reputation, and student and staff development. The implementation of

global education initiatives provides not only educational opportunities
(preparation of globally competent graduates, international experiences
for students and faculty, and international exposure and reputation), but
also economic opportunities related to generating income in attracting
international students, job creation, and import value through activity
abroad programs. Also, the commodification of higher education has
subjected postsecondary institutions to the management principles of the
private sector, which make effective and efficient operation of such insti-
tutions vulnerable to the laws of the global economic market. In fact,
the lack of public funding can result in forcing institutions of higher
education to seek market-based financial resources through increases in
tuitions and fees. Therefore, alternative sources of income generation
can be a key factor that helps a college or university make a difference.
Additional financial resources can have many implications, including
attracting the best-quality professors as well as leading to achievement in
research and productivity. The powerful universities have the lead in pro-
duction and distribution of knowledge and higher academic standards.
These factors can obviously position an institution to attract more and
the best students.
Globalizing or internationalizing in higher education is not the sole
strategy or approach that an institution can use to make its reputation,
increase income generation, and improve its quality of teaching, learn-
ing and research productivity. It is undoubtedly one way. And it can
provide a competitive advantage in comparison to institutions that are
not globally oriented. Despite the documented positive impacts of the
implementation of global education initiatives for colleges and univer-
sities, a key question remains: Given the local realities and challenges
these institutions face, are there risks for postsecondary institutions in
moving away from being locally centered to becoming more globally
The focus on global education can easily facilitate a situation in
which global centrism replaces ethnocentrism at the expense of local
and national differences. Iacono and Kling (1996) argued that the drive
toward the globalization of higher education can be detrimental for edu-
cation, in the sense that training can take place without the necessary
social interaction through which knowledge is acquired. This argument
of Iacono and Kiling (1996) has its merit, but may be applicable only
to some aspects of distance learning, which is just one aspect of global
education. Other critiques of global education have singled out the
implicit goal of the United States to sustain a major imperial enterprise

through internationalization in higher education (Smith, 2003). The

assumption is that under the name of global education, global centrism
can become a new version of ethnocentrism at the expense of local and
national cultures, values, traditions, and beliefs. Block and Cameron
(2002) explained that cultural identities can be lost easily in language
courses, given the fact that “globalization changes the conditions in
which language learning and language teaching take place” (p. 2). The
challenge is that cultural globalization has created new dilemmas for
teachers who have to teach students from diverse cultural backgrounds
in cultural content that may be sometimes neocolonialist or neoimpe-
rialist (Bourdieu, 1996). Also, Block and Cameron (2002) contended
that universal standards promoted by global education initiatives often
mask ethnocentrism bias. Luke (2001) suggested that the global cul-
ture carried by global education initiatives results from the interests of
the transnational elite, in an effort to sustain their global hegemony.
Consequently, some asserted that the purpose of education is to pri-
marily educate citizens and workers who can help improve the social,
economic, cultural, and political conditions of their local and national
communities (Muirhead and Graham, 2002). On the other hand, one
can argue that the world has become a global village, involving the
interdependence of nation-state, society, people, and culture (Sklair,
2002). The challenge is that some people are very adamant about the
need to implement global education initiatives in postsecondary insti-
tutions while others are very concerned about the detrimental effects
of global education on local and national differences. The alternative
seems to point toward a comprehensive approach that includes aspects
of global education and national/local education, which is “glocal education”
( Jean Francois, 2010).

Glocal Higher Education

As Figure 7.1 indicates, glocal higher education is the interwoven of
the global with the local to design, plan, and deliver higher education
programs based on the principles: Think globally, act locally; and think
locally, act globally. In other words, the thinking and acting must equally
involve the global and local levels. Glocal higher education is an alterna-
tive way to envision global education that involves a melding of a global
perspective with a local perspective, to achieve goals, objectives, and out-
comes in a local/national, international, or transnational setting.
The glocal melts the global and the local together in a collaborative
framework or mindset or perspective. The global is not based on the
88 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

geographic location of a global partner, but stands for an outsider per-

spective. More specifically, an outsider perspective could be

(a) an approach based primarily on global standardization,

(b) a drive to extend or maintain operations beyond one’s national
(c) making international or multinational impact,
(d) having international, global, or transnational expertise or recogni-
tion, and
(e) any other similar facets inspired by internationalization, globaliza-
tion, or transnationalization.

Unlike for the local in the glocal, which is not geographically based,
the local stands for an insider perspective that is geographically located.
A local perspective is based primarily on

(a) an approach rooted in the cultural background and agenda of a

specific local community or society,
(b) maintaining operations within one’s national borders, except for
basic international cooperation (i.e., no operations overseas),
(c) making a local/national impact in the lives of the local communities,
(d) having culture-specific indigenous expertise about a community,
country, or society, and
(e) any other similar perspective that can be provided only by a local/
national individual, organization, or institution with culture-specific
knowledge, expertise, or recognition.




Figure 7.1 Glocal Higher Education.


The concept of glocal higher education is an adaptation from glocaliza-

tion, which refers to the interplay or melding between the global and the
local. The concept glocalization emerged as a challenge to the temptation
of homogenization of globalization at the expense of differences in local
traditions, values, and beliefs (Robertson, 1994). Therefore, the term
glocal higher education is used to refer to education policies and practices
that provide students, faculty members, and higher education administra-
tors a melding globalized and localized perspective of the world, through
an indigenous adaptation of global frameworks in local contexts while
protecting and appreciating local assets, traditions, values, and beliefs.

Aims of Glocal Higher Education

Glocal higher education may (a) help satisfy the national and global goals of
education, to train citizens and workers qualified to interact and work
locally and globally and (b) have sustainable impacts while the local and
global are no longer mutually exclusive realities. In more specific concep-
tual terms, the aim of glocal higher education includes the following:

M glocal awareness,
M glocal knowledge,
M glocal competence,
M glocal development,
M glocal return on investment, and
M glocal performance.

Glocal Awareness
Glocal awareness is an understanding that cultural identities, values,
assumptions, pride, and behavior are lived as local or national experi-
ences, but contribute to the larger global atmosphere of a multicultural
world. In other words, it is an understanding that the world is comprised
of units of local experiences, and the existence of these local experiences
creates a global reality. Therefore, the awareness of the global, the local,
and the interwoven between the global and the local is all essential for
glocal higher education programs or activities.

Glocal Knowledge
Global knowledge is the mastery of facts and information about the
relations of interdependence among countries and societies, as well as
90 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

experiential knowledge of specific cultures as they relate and are com-

pared to other cultures in the global world. Experiential knowledge of
a specific culture is acquired through personal interactions with prac-
tical aspects of such culture (i.e., learning and speaking the language
while interacting/communicating with the natives, direct observation,
participation and exchange, formal or informal learning of history,
socioeconomic and socio-politico groups, conf licts and conf lict resolu-
tion systems, beliefs, symbols and rituals, and other similar aspects) or
immersions in a society hosting such culture (i.e., living and learning in
a society for a medium or long period of time).

Glocal Competence
Glocal competence results from an accumulation of glocal awareness
and glocal knowledge, and the ability to make indigenous adaptation of
global frameworks or approaches in local contexts. In other words, one
cannot be glocal competent without developing a glocal awareness and
acquiring glocal knowledge. Glocal competence in the context of a glocal
higher education program or activity is almost impossible without prior
lived experience in a culture-specific context related to such program or
activity. There is no research finding, report, reading, or lecture that can
replace the knowledge to be acquired from personal interactions with
people from another culture within the border of a country hosting such
culture. I would stress on “within the border of a country hosting a cul-
ture” to counter the idea that one can become competent about another
culture by talking to members of such culture living overseas or interna-
tionalization at home. Internationalization at home is a starting point, but
cannot be an end in itself. In fact, internationalization at home combined
with internationalization abroad is an effective approach. There is no
doubt that foreign nationals can inform others about their culture, but
their information will always be filtered through their own personal bias
rooted in their living abroad experience or a status of privilege that they
may enjoy through their unique opportunity to travel outside of their
country. In other words, the acquisition of glocal competence requires
that one travels and lives outside of a country. Obviously, one can develop
glocal awareness without a lived experience, but I seriously doubt that
glocal knowledge can be acquired in that fashion.

Glocal Development
Glocal development is an indigenous adaptation of best practice global
development frameworks through the development of locally controlled

and managed systems that are fairly redistributive, financially sustain-

able, and responsive to the financial and cultural wellbeing of the local
population. Many indigenous systems exist in various parts of the world.
However, they tend to be oligarchically controlled and managed by a
local leader or a few local leaders or rely on outside aid to be financially
viable. Consequently, such indigenous practices may help their commu-
nities survive, but have not contributed to radically change the quality of
life of many people living in abject poverty while they continue to rely
solely on the potential benefits of indigenous practices, which are yet to
reach them in a significant manner.

Glocal Return on Investment

Glocal higher education should provide some monetary and nonmon-
etary return on investment. The term return on investment is used to
refer to the ratio or percentage of profit resulting from investing financial
resources in an endeavor. Glocal return on investment means benefits
from glocal higher education programs or activities, as well as benefits
that are mutually recorded by both the global and the local partners in a
glocal collaboration. Glocal higher education is a conceptual framework
that can apply only to some contexts. As a result, before the implemen-
tation of glocal higher education program or activity, an assessment
should determine what the return on investment will be. As indicated
earlier, the return on investment can be monetary or nonmonetary.
Obviously, nonmonetary return on investment has a monetary value that
can be determined, if needed. For example, a specific small-scale glocal
higher education program may not generate any direct monetary return
on investment, but enables a higher education institution to develop a
diverse and inclusive campus climate that contributes to attract more stu-
dents from a particular country or secure funding to provide financially
sustainable services in a given country. Therefore, while there was no
direct return on investment from a specific small-scale glocal higher edu-
cation, the partnership developed provided an apparent monetary return
on investment.

Glocal Performance
Glocal performance concerns the short-term, medium, and long-term out-
comes of a glocal higher education program. The type of outcomes needed
for performance measurement will depend on the nature or the extent of
a glocal higher education program. For example, a short-term and small-
scale glocal higher education program may have only short-term outcomes
92 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

that might not outlast the glocal collaboration. On the other hand, a long-
term glocal higher education may provide medium and long-term out-
comes to measure. Glocal performance can be measured by both the global
and local partners involved in a glocal higher education program, based on
the extent to which such program:

M helps a partner fulfill its vision and mission or achieve strategic goals
or objectives;
M helps a global partner internationalize its curriculum;
M helps a local partner increase its self-efficacy and abilities to positively
affect lives and change in its local context;
M helps partners increase enrollment and community support to their
M increases the academic value of their programs as measured by posi-
tive changes in student academic and social integration, academic
performance, persistence, degree attainment, and time to degree;
M helps increase glocal awareness, knowledge, and competence of frac-
tions of their internal and external stakeholders.

A glocal higher education program may have implications beyond the

levels of two institutions involved in collaboration. Outcomes for the
global and local partners will likely be institutional. However, outcomes
with implications for their external (global and local) environments will
likely be policy related. In that context, the outcomes of glocal higher
education may need to be defined:

(a) for a global partner (institutional outcomes);

(b) for a local partner (institutional outcomes);
(c) for global society (policy-related outcomes and community/societal
impact); and
(d) for a local society (policy-related outcomes and community/societal

Principles of Glocal Higher Education

The principles of glocal higher education are made of sets of glocal pairs
that include self-awareness and othernessness, global awareness and local
curiosity, global planning and local accommodation, global inquiry
and locally based participatory inquiry (LBPI), global pedagogy and
locally informed pedagogy (LIP), global outcomes and locally valued

outcomes, global impact and locally rooted sustainability (LRS), and

glocal symbiosis:

Self-awareness and Othernessness

Glocal higher education includes on the one hand self-awareness related
to one personal bias and assumptions when dealing with people from cul-
tural backgrounds that are different from our own. On the other hand,
glocal higher education involves othernessness, which is used to refer to
an understanding that others exist also as valuable entities and with their
own legitimate bias and assumptions. With that understanding one must
enter a glocal higher education with the mindset that bias and assump-
tions are ref lexes that one develops during the process of socialization as
member of a particular society internalizing a culture. Therefore, bias
and assumptions can be challenged by self and others through genuine
dialogue and proactive curiosity to understand and adapt. Therefore,
self-awareness and othernessness go together in a glocal higher education

Global Awareness and Local Curiosity

Global awareness is a sufficient level to conceive or initiate a glocal higher
education program. However, to proceed to the next levels of planning
and implementation, it is mandatory to marry the local awareness with
local curiosity, and consequently develop some form of glocal awareness.
In other words, glocal higher education may start through global aware-
ness, but must be nurtured with local curiosity to grow through planning
and implementation. It is fair to say that glocal higher education is not
possible without a certain level of local curiosity.

Global Planning and Local Accommodation

Glocal higher education is rooted in glocalization as an alternative to
globalization. Therefore, glocal higher education involves some plan-
ning, particularly through a global partner. As in glocalization, glocal
higher education requires a local accommodation, in order for a glocal
collaboration to be effective. Therefore, glocal higher education does not
exclude global planning or planning activities by a global partner, but
must espouse the expertise of a local partner for accommodation. Locally
valued alternative space for dialogue, exchange, and monitoring of prog-
ress must be proactively provided in order for real local accommodation
94 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

to occur. In a glocal higher education program, a plan is simply a dec-

laration of intention, which will be modified or completely changed
as glocal interactions and collaborations are taking place to develop

Global Inquiry and Locally Based Participatory Inquiry LBPI

Glocal higher education should be scholarly based. By scholarly based,
I mean activities inspired, for example, by valid data, previous or current
research, studies, or ethnographic synthesis from overseas lived experi-
ence. Scholarly based activities or program tend to be inf luenced by global
inquiry practices, which may be at times in contradiction with a local
context. Therefore, best practices in global inquiry must be accommo-
dated with locally based participatory inquiry (LBPI). By LBPI, I mean
a process of planning, data gathering, analysis, and synthesizing that
includes the active participation of the internal and external stakeholders
of a local partner. Active participation does not mean simply asking the
local partners for their input as an intellectual exercise. In many cases, an
outsider may ask a local partner for inputs as a mirage for participation,
but such inputs are not taken into consideration in any meaningful way.
This makes the “participation” deceitful and useless. Active participation
means discussing and deliberating with the local partners the purpose,
guiding research questions, the types of data to be collected, the target
population, the procedures for data collection and analysis, and the best
ways to use or disseminate the findings. The melding of global inquiry
with LBPI will enable glocal higher education programs and activities to
contribute to knowledge creation and dissemination in innovative ways
that will place internationalization-related activities at the forefront of
strategic planning at a postsecondary institution.

Global Pedagogy and Locally Informed Pedagogy (LIP)

The term global pedagogy is used to encompass all aspects of curricu-
lum development, teaching styles and strategies, learning styles, learn-
ing assessment, and other instructional theories and practices generically
adopted in most formal education settings across the globe. However,
one must admit that teaching and learning processes take place within
local social, political, economic, and cultural contexts that affect policies,
philosophies, approaches, methods, strategies, and resources used. The
context of teaching and learning is more specifically inf luenced by the

beliefs, values, perceptions, and behaviors of the teacher and learners in

relation to their local culture. Therefore, despite the existence of some
globally recognized teaching and learning principles, in culture-specific
contexts the local culture inf luences the dominant instructional strategies
and ways of learning, thus creating a locally informed pedagogy (LIP).
In a glocal higher education program, the globally recognized pedagogic
principles must adapt to LIP through an assessment of the local context
of learning. Findings from such assessment, which is basically a glocal
pedagogy, can not only be used in the context of a glocal higher educa-
tion program, but may also inform transcultural teaching and learning
practices targeting transnational communities.

Global Outcomes and Locally Valued Outcomes

A postsecondary institution may engage in glocal higher education pro-
grams as part of strategies for internationalizing its curriculum. In that
case stakeholders will hold such institution accountable based on global
outcomes related to internationalization initiatives. In other words,
global outcomes are relevant for glocal higher education. However, a
glocal higher education program will not produce quality global out-
comes without a blending with locally valued outcomes related to the
context of a local partner. The term locally valued outcome is used to
refer to outcomes that count from the point the view of the local partner.
Locally valued outcomes aim to satisfy the performance-related interests
of the local partner. Locally valued outcomes can be easily monitored
and nurtured by the local partner. This will not only provide guidance
regarding the potential for sustainability of a glocal higher education,
but also produce culture-specific knowledge that can contribute to the
internationalization process of a college or a university.

Global Impact and Locally Rooted Sustainability (LRS)

Glocal higher education may help a postsecondary institution have an
impact in a global landscape. The impact of a program is measured by
its long-term outcomes. It is very difficult to measure the impact of a
program that is not sustainable. Further, the sustainability of a local pro-
gram adapted from a global framework should be rooted in local assets,
capabilities, and commitments. The hybridization of global impact with
LRS may produce indicators of an effective and successful glocal higher
education program.
96 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

Glocal Symbiosis
A glocal higher education program can be designated as such if it involves
a glocal symbiosis. The glocal symbiosis and adjusted glocal symbiosis
ratios can help determine the glocal symbiosis and the glocal power
relationship in a glocal higher education program. The glocal power rela-
tionship is the extent of the control of the financial outputs in a glocal
collaboration. The partner who contributes financially the most and has
the most to gain from a collaboration has a positive glocal power, and
may potentially inf luence the outcomes. Inf luencing the outcomes is not
inherently bad, if such inf luence is positive, empowering, and respectful.
On the other hand, if the inf luence is exploitative, demeaning, patron-
izing, or disrespectful, the glocal collaboration will be superficial, unpro-
ductive, and will auto-dissolve through some conf lict.

Effective Glocal Higher Education Program

An effective glocal higher education program should focus on the four-
Cs: community, commitment, communication, and conf lict resolution
(see Figure 7.2).

A glocal higher education program should be rooted in a healthy tran-
scultural community to the extent that it is possible. The concept trans-
national community refers to migrant population living overseas while
maintaining significant ties (i.e., financial, political, and cultural) with


9ecc_jc[dj 9ecckd_YWj_ed

Figure 7.2 The Four Cs of Effective Glocal Higher Education.


their country of origin. When a transcultural community is involved in

a glocal higher education program, the global and local partner has an
opportunity to address some unhealthy bias and assumptions in a con-
structive way, and allows for the development of an alternative space that
can nurture the glocal symbiosis, and help develop mutual trust and com-
mitment. A transcultural community is an asset that can make monetary
and nonmonetary contributions to a glocal higher education program,
and help navigate potential period of turbulence and uncertainty during
the planning and implementation. However, the transcultural commu-
nity should in no way replace the equal involvement of the local partner.
In fact, if not used properly, over-involvement of a transcultural com-
munity can become a hindrance to the success of a glocal higher educa-
tion. The reality is that, in many cases, transcultural communities ref lect
issues of class conf licts among social groups in the country of origin. The
planning of a glocal higher education program must be aware of such
realities and be informed by them. Therefore, a transcultural community
should be viewed as an asset to utilize according to the need of a glocal
collaboration, as determined by the dynamic of communication between
the global and the local partner.

Commitment is the primary driver for the success of any enterprise of
activity. The initiation of a glocal higher education, as well as its planning
and implementation can be challenging, because traditional pathways of
global education may seem more convenient for some who do not have the
patience to get a local partner involved in a meaningful and consequential
manner in the conception, planning, and implementation of a glocal higher
education program. The challenge can be from the standpoint of both the
global and the local partner. As a result, the commitment of leaders and
managers concerned by a glocal higher education at both the global and
local levels is essential. The commitment must be extended to internal or
external stakeholders who may be directly or indirectly affected by a glo-
cal higher education program, one way or the other. Commitment may be
assessed among other things by the willingness of global and local stakehold-
ers to take risks in a project that may fit the profile of uncharted territory.
Commitment can be expressed by the willingness to financially contribute
to a glocal higher education program when immediate monetary return
on investment is unclear, uncertain, or even unrealistic. Commitment can
compensate for an unbalanced glocal power and contribute to the effec-
tiveness of a glocal higher education program.
98 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

Communication is essential in any human activity. Inversely, lack of
communication can affect the success of any human activity. Therefore,
mechanisms of communication must be formally established when plan-
ning and implementing a glocal higher education program. Any gap in
communication can affect an entire program. In that context, communi-
cation means intercultural, cross-cultural, or transcultural communication,
which account for worldviews, beliefs, values, history, symbols, points of
pride, and other cultural variables regarding the local context concerned
by a glocal higher education program.

Conflict Resolution
Conf lict is inherent to a glocal higher education program. At some
point, cultural misunderstanding will surface in ways that can threaten
the continuation of the implementation of a glocal higher education.
The conf lict in itself may not be the problem, if proper conf lict resolu-
tion mechanisms are in place. If not, any superficial conf lict can take
unforeseen turns and unexpectedly dissolve a promising glocal higher
education program. Therefore, parametabolism must be an integral part
of the process. Mechanisms of conf lict resolution and negotiation can
help dissipate tensions among stakeholders and help a program succeed.
Mechanisms of conf lict resolution should adapt to systems of negotiation
and arbitration related to the local context of a program.

A Challenge for Glocal Higher Education

Glocal higher education may be seen as an appropriate approach by global-
minded educators/administrators who want to incorporate international
dimensions into curriculum and practices. Similarly, a local partner may
perceive the glocal higher education approach positively. However, a glo-
cal higher education may face the challenge of those who may contest
the proposition of a glocal partnership or collaboration for various rea-
sons. More importantly, a local partner may prefer a global framework as
opposed to a glocal framework in an effort to accommodate with global
standardization that exists within the context of globalization of higher
education. In other words, a global partner may want to use a local per-
spective adapted to a global framework, but the local partner prefers the
Western perspective that such local partner might have been criticiz-
ing. Or simply, local stakeholders may at times opt for the globalness of

collaboration as opposed to its localness. This may result from a fear of

the unknown or endo-colonialism generated by the overseas academic
educational experience of a local partner. Developing a glocal higher
education program is a choice made by an institution, and not a manda-
tory requirement. Therefore, this is a challenge that is anticipated and
welcomed, because such challenge will not affect the relevance of glocal
higher education as a viable alternative to global higher education or an
approach that can be strategically adopted for the internationalization of
a college or a university.

Questions and Activities

1. What is glocal higher education?
2. Discuss the aims of glocal higher education outlined in this chapter,
and explain the extent you think they are relevant to the development
of a global higher education program, using a local perspective.
3. Describe some challenges to glocal higher education and provide
some counterarguments based on your understanding of the prin-
ciples of glocal higher education listed in this chapter.
4. In what sense would you consider glocal higher education as an
alternative approach to global higher education, if any?
5. Assume that you are hired as vice-president for global education by a
college or university in your country of residence. Your first assign-
ment is to develop a strategic plan for global engagement. How do
you think you could use a glocal higher education approach in your
6. What would you consider as inconsistencies in a glocal higher
education framework? Explain!


About Validation
Validation is the process of collecting information about a material, product,
process, or service in order to establish a level of accuracy, completeness,
or quality. A validation process includes the collection and evaluation of
data to ensure that a product, process, or service is able to deliver expected
outcomes. The validation process is a process of acceptance or rejection.
The implicit intent of validation is to verify what is expected. On the
other hand, the process can prove that what is expected cannot be achieved
within a specific context. In that case, validation can lead to the rejection of
a product, process, or service. A generic validation process involves:

M a validation design,
M data collection and evaluation, and
M verification.

Validation design: The validation design is an overall plan detailing the

procedures and strategies that will be used to collect and evaluate data for
the purpose of verifying the extent to which a system, process, service, or
product fits its intended purpose. The validation design should:

M describe the system, process, service, or product that will undergo a

validation procedure;
M describe the expected purpose to verify;
M define the variables under consideration;
M formulate the hypotheses to be tested;
M describe the sample and sampling procedures;
M explain the data collection procedures; and
M describe a data analysis plan.
102 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

Data collection and evaluation: As the concept implies, the data collection
and evaluation phase is about the gathering of information and data, and
the assessment of the quality, validity, and reliability of the data collected
for the purpose of validating a system, process, service, or product.
Verification: The verification is simply the phase of data analysis, which
will enable to confirm or reject the hypotheses, and draw conclusions
regarding whether a system, process, service, or product is able to fit its
expected purpose. There is a variety of statistical analysis tools and softwares
that facilitate the analysis of data collected during a validation process.

Global Standard as Global Validation

Almost all fields of study, disciplines, and sectors of activities develop,
use, or promote some standards of best practices or quality assurance that
are considered to be global in nature. According to the International
Standard Organization (ISO, 2014), “A standard is a document that pro-
vides requirements, specifications, guidelines or characteristics that can
be used consistently to ensure that materials, products, processes and ser-
vices are fit for their purpose” (para 1). It is clear from that definition that
a standard is based on some requirements, specifications, guidelines, or
characteristics that result from an agreement among various stakeholders.
A standard is consistent. A standard helps ensure the quality of materials,
products, processes, and services. I believe that a standard exists because

M there is a level quality that is set (i.e., agreed way, norm, measure,
level of attainment about a material, product, process, or service);
M the level of quality has been validated (i.e., accurately measures the
level of quality);
M the level of quality is reliable (i.e., consistent in its measurement);
M various stakeholders agree upon and adopt such levels of quality as
the comparative norm for measurement and decision making (i.e.,
accepted as a normative basis for decision making);
M there is an accepted body that is custodian for the accountability of
such level of quality (i.e., continuing quality improvement to ensure
ongoing validity and reliability); and
M the custodian body is accountable to the collective of users of such
standards (i.e., there is reverse accountability to prevent abuses,
excess, and ensure the sustainability of a standard).

The principle of separation of power has become a global standard.

A country or more specifically, a democratic country should have three

independent branches of government: executive, legislative, and judiciary.

Every society has: generic standards for what are considered good or bad;
some form of respect for children and the elderly; and a generic standard
of transferring knowledge from one generation to the next. Wherever
education is involved, there is an implicit or explicit aim, some know-
ledge and skills to be transferred, a way of assessing the mastery of such
skills and knowledge, and some form of social or community validation.
In other words, there are some generic standards that are expected to be
met in a formal education system of any country across the globe.

Global Standards versus Local Contexts

Global standards do not always apply to local contexts. When global stan-
dards conf lict with the core of local realities, even the collaborations or
partnerships with the best intention possible fail to deliver, and sometimes
contribute to irreparable or close to irreparable damages. Some standards
are global on the surface, but may be local in their substance. For example,
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights is a classic example of a stan-
dard that is globally accepted. Therefore, it is a global standard. It states in
its preamble, “The general assembly proclaims this universal declaration
of human rights as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and
all nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society,
keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and
education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by pro-
gressive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and
effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples of Member
States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their juris-
diction.” Some of the standards outlined in the Universal Declaration of
Human Rights include, but are not limited to,

M “the right to life, liberty and security of person (Article 3)”;

M “the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law
(Article 6)”;
M “full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and
impartial tribunal . . . (Article 10)”, “the right to a nationality . . .
(Article 15)”;
M “the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion . . .
(article 18)”;
M “the right to freedom of opinion and expression . . . (article 19)”;
M “the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association . . .
(article 20)”;
104 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

M “the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-
being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, hous-
ing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to
security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widow-
hood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his
control (article 25)”; and
M “the right to education . . . (article 26)”, and “the right to the pro-
tection of the moral and material interests resulting from any sci-
entific, literary or artistic production of which he is the author
(article 27).”

I randomly cite these rights as examples related to the global stan-

dards for human rights, which are basically accepted by all of the nations
that are members of the United Nations. However, when confronted
with the reality of a single society, these standards of universal human
rights do not always stand. They conf lict with the local contexts. The
issue is not whether the local context is problematic, but the fact that
there is a contradiction between a global standard and a local context.
Contradictions between global standards and local context may exist
in various aspects of a society or a culture. The planning of a glocal
education program must account for such contradictions through glocal

Glocal Validation
By glocal validation, I refer to the validation of system, process, service,
or product that involves an outsider representing a global perspective or
global claim and an insider representing a local or national perspective
or claim, in order to assess common traits, behavior patterns, variations
between the global and local perspectives, and verify whether anticipated
outcomes are achievable. Glocal validation is articulated around a cross-
societal readiness assessment in a transnational field, using cross-cultural
research procedures.

Cross-Societal Readiness Assessment

The purpose of a cross-societal readiness assessment is to identify assets
and gaps that have the potential to play a key role in implementing a glo-
cal program, or sustain a glocal collaboration or partnership. When assets
and gaps are identified and analyzed, it is easier for a global or a local

partner to provide the corresponding expertise to help compensate and

strengthen the potential for success.
A cross-societal readiness assessment is a very important tool that can
help validate the initial contact with another society. It is important that
each partner involved in a glocal relationship ensures that there is a need
on the other side. The needs must be mutual. This is why the intersec-
tional synergy principle for glocal symbiosis is very important. Synergy is
important for the overall glocal relationship, but also for each key aspect
of the process. In that case, synergy is important at the level of cross-
readiness assessment. Consequently, cross-societal readiness assessment
cannot be just an expeditionary exercise to check a box. There must
be a systematic cross-societal readiness assessment, especially for a glocal
partnership that intends to be for the long term. There is a great poten-
tial for failure if a glocal collaboration does not include a cross-societal
readiness assessment. On the other hand, findings from a cross-societal
readiness assessment can provide useful information to develop strategies
for glocal validation. A cross-societal readiness assessment helps identify
gaps in community, activities, or services across national settings. In a
g local relationship, collaboration, partnership, or program, a cross-societal
readiness assessment can be customized for individuals (i.e., participants,
beneficiaries), or a small (neighborhood), medium (city, county), or larger
community (state, nation). A cross-societal readiness assessment helps
better compare assets and gaps in the contextual situations of the global
and the local, and design appropriate actions that are necessary. A cross-
societal readiness assessment may help confirm strengths and issues that
the global and the local were already aware of, but provides a scientific
basis to move forward. The conduct of a cross-societal readiness assessment
requires (Box 8.1):

1. a justification or rationale for the cross-societal assessment,

2. identification and description of the target groups or communities
concerned by the assessment,
3. a clarification of the specific purpose for the assessment, through a
consensus between the global and the local,
4. a collaborative planning process of information gathering,
5. setting of the methods that will be used to interpret the information,
6. identification and planning of the resources needed to collect the
data, as well as the contributions of the global and the local, and
7. description of a consensual and detail plan for the utilization and
dissemination of the findings.
106 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

Box 8.1 Key Elements of a Cross-Societal Readiness Assessment

Key elements Questions to consider

Justification or rationale What is the target group for the readiness
assessment? Where is that target group located?
What is the importance of that target group in
a larger community or societal context? Are
there previous studies that directly or indirectly
support the need to collect information on that
target group? Are there questions that need to
be answered regarding that target group?
How will the data collected be used?
Identification and Where is the target community located?
description of the target What is the size of the target community?
groups or communities What is the demographic profile of that
community (e.g., race/ethnic, gender, age,
occupation, education, socioeconomic status,
etc.), if known? What is their history of such
community? Are there some cultural factors
to take into consideration?
Purpose What are the specific objectives of the
readiness assessment? What will the results or
findings help accomplish? Are there specific
Information gathering Will there be a community survey (e.g., brief
process literature review on archival information and
possible previous studies, identification and
location of potential participants, strategies to
contact the participants, resources needed, and
timeline)? Or, will you, instead, collect data
from library, the internet, and academic and
specialized databases and sources?
Methods/procedures What data collection approaches will be used,
Who will be contacted, if surveys, interviews,
or focus groups are involved? What instrument
of data collection will be used (e.g., interview
guides, questionnaires, focus group guides)?
What is the sample of population that will
involve the data collection activities? What
sampling strategies will be used? How will
the data collected be analyzed?

Resources needed What are the financial resources needed? How

much will the global contribute? How much
will the local contribute? What nonmonetary
contributions can compensate for monetary
contributions? What staff is needed? Who will
hire the staff needed? Who can volunteer to
contribute his/her expertise?
Utilization/dissemination Who will promote the findings (i.e., short
summaries, key highlights), and presenting or
distributing them to other stakeholders who
are involved? What are the cultural limitations
for dissemination? What is the best format
or process to disseminate at the global, at the
local level?

Transnational Fields
Glocal validation is done within the context of a transnational field or a
transnational social space that encompasses participants and stakeholders
from more than one country. A transnational field will include indi-
viduals from various cultural backgrounds, located in different national
geographic locations, and with different understandings of the mean-
ing of the term validation. Validation in a transnational field requires
preliminary brainstorming and dialogues to develop consensus on what
validation means for both the global and local partners involved in a
glocal collaboration. Validation is necessary not only for the concept of
validation itself, but also for the entire process and conceptual framework
of a validation. It is not uncommon for two societies to use two differ-
ent jargons to refer to a same meaning, or a common concept to signify
different meanings. Furthermore, the existence of a transnational field
in a glocal validation process requires some f lexibility for some “adapt as
you go” decisions regarding access to participants, format and settings for
interviews, appropriate methods of observation, procedures for securing
informed consent, and other similar factors that may follow different pat-
terns within the same study. In other words, there may be one procedure
of validation for the context of the global partner and another process of
validation for the context of the local partner. The consistency test will
not be met in the existence of a uniform validation procedure, but in the
consensus developed between the global and the local to adapt global
validation frameworks to a local context.
108 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

Cross-Societal Readiness Assessment through

a Transculturality Framework
Glocal symbiosis occurs in the context of the meeting of at least two dif-
ferent societies through their representatives. As indicated previously, in
a glocal relationship, the global partner (outsider) represents the assump-
tions, values, beliefs, worldviews, interests, and the local partner (insider)
represents the agendas of a society oriented toward globality, and assump-
tions, agenda, interests, worldviews, and values, focusing primarily on
localness. Mutualistic glocal symbiosis can occur to the extent that there
is a global need to learn from the local and integrate localness, and a local
needs to learn from globality and integrate globalism. Therefore, a cross-
societal needs must be mutualistic in other to foster glocal symbiosis.
Cross-societal readiness assessment involves, among other things, the col-
lection and analysis of data or information about the societies associated
with two partners (global and local) that are working on the development
of a glocal partnership or are implementing a glocal education program.
The cross-readiness assessment is a key contributing factor to the glocal
symbiosis of a glocal partnership. A cross-societal readiness assessment can
be performed through comparative readiness assessment, asset mapping,
and assessment of social environment (culture, society, and economy).
Jean Francois (2012) suggested the transculturality framework (Box 8.2),
which can serve as a conceptual tool to assess cross-societal needs through
the analysis of the sameness (What do we have as similarity?), uniqueness
(What do we have as unique?), uniquesameness (What do we have as
similarity, but with particularity?), and samniqueness (What do we have
as unique, but with similarity?) of a glocal relationship (p. 11).

Box 8.2 Cross-Societal Readiness Assessment through a

Transculturality Framework

Factors Transculturality

Sameness Uniqueness Uniquesameness Sameniqueness


Cross-Societal Readiness Assessment through

Asset Mapping
As indicated in the previous paragraphs, cross-societal readiness assessment
should involve not only an assessment of gaps in global and local contexts,
but also a mapping of global and local assets that can contribute to the glo-
cal validation and ultimately the success of a glocal relationship, collabora-
tion, or partnership. Asset mapping is a strategy used to document tangible
and intangible resources that are available in a community (Kretzman and
McKnight, 1993). According to Kerka (2003), the utilization of asset map-
ping sets the perception of an individual, community, or society as a place
that includes strengths and resources, rather than through its deficits requir-
ing some interventions. By recognizing the assets available in a partner,
community, or society, one makes a powerful statement that can inspire
greater commitment to the purpose of a partnership or collaboration.
As Jean Francois (2014) explained and illustrates in Figure 8.1,

Assets can be individuals (e.g., skills, talents, gifts, and capacities), associ-
ational (e.g., churches, local organizations, groups, and clubs), and insti-
tutional (e.g., government agencies, human service agencies, educational
institutions, hospital, credit unions, banks, community foundations, busi-
nesses, corporate foundations, and community centers) potential sources of
in-kind or/and financial contributions for a nonprofit organization. (p. 73)




Figure 8.1 Types of Assets ( Jean Francois, 2014).

110 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

In a nutshell, asset mapping in a cross-societal readiness assessment

consists of identifying, locating, verifying, documenting, and compiling
the individual, associational, and institutional assets that can be useful
contributors that exist at the global and local levels, which can be con-
tributors to a glocal collaboration, partnership, or program. Both the
global and local must participate in a cross-societal asset mapping pro-
cess. A cross-societal asset mapping should include several iterations to
ensure that assets identified have real potential to contribute to the glocal

Questions and Activities

1. How would you define glocal validation?
2. To what extent do you think glocal validation can help a glocal
3. You want to convince a partner that a cross-societal needs is impor-
tant for an upcoming glocal collaboration. What would be your
4. Identify a list of individual, associational, and institutional assets
that you can use to develop a glocal collaboration!
5. What would you consider as challenges for glocal validation? Explain!


Global Partnership Networks

Global partnership networks are assets and opportunities for glocal col-
laboration and learning that exist through international educational
institutions, transnational organizations, transnational communities, and
other similar stakeholders (Figure 9.1).

Transnational Communities
Transnational communities are the network of relationships developed
in countries of adoption by minority populations resulting from inter-
national migration, war, or natural disasters. Transnational communities
exist beyond the borders of any single country, because members tend to
maintain lives that involve both countries simultaneously. Transnational
communities exist in most metropolitan cities in the world. Transnational
communities include low-skilled workers looking for economic oppor-
tunities, refugees who have escaped death for daring to associate or speak
their mind, and other people who reunited with a family member resid-
ing abroad. Additionally, transnational communities include children of
immigrants who mostly have the citizenship of the country of adoption
of their parents, professionals hired for their advanced skills from other
countries, and international students who decided not to return to their
country of origin. This is a simplified summary of the generic makeup
of transnational communities. This is not a monolithic group of poor and
persecuted individuals looking for economic opportunities and political
freedom. It is still partly that, given immigrants are also affected by wide
inequality in industrialized countries. However, transnational communi-
ties constitute a rich milieu of human capital, cultural understanding, and
financial assets for both the country of origin and the adoptive country.
112 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N


JhWdidWj_edWb =beYWb
Yecckd_j_[i b[Whd_d]


Figure 9.1 Global Partnership Networks.

Transnational communities are structured around associations, corpora-

tions, small enterprises, local places of worship, and accomplished profes-
sionals integrated into mainstream institutions of their country of adoption.
Therefore, they significantly contribute to the lives of their adoptive coun-
try while maintaining inf luential political, economic, and cultural ties with
their country of origin. Transnational communities possess their own chan-
nels of communication (i.e., radio, TV, newspapers, magazines, and social
media networks), besides the mainstream means of communication in their
adoptive country. Individuals in transnational communities have hybrid
perspectives that are, among other factors, inf luenced by their national
cultural backgrounds, their interactions with their country of origin, and
their lived experiences in their adoptive country. Transnational commu-
nities involve globally mediated formations of learning communities that
involve all ethnic and racial identities, including the ways in which such
transnational communities are both producers and consumers of teach-
ing and learning practices through contact with “homelands” (physically
and virtually) and vice versa. Therefore, transnational communities include
individual, association, and institutional assets that can potentially assist
postsecondary institutions interested in developing glocal collaborations.
G L O C A L PA RT N E R S H I P 113

However, institutions must be cautious of the idea of internationalizing

at home by relying on transnational community networks, because trans-
national communities involve an implicit third-state citizenship, which
carries the residues of social conf licts in country of origin, and a filtered
prospective that may not be current with empirical realities all the time.
However, it is always a good idea to reach out to transnational communities
when planning for glocal higher education.

Transnational Organizations
Transnational organizations are organizations that operate across the bor-
ders of several countries, and using processes and systems that transcend
the social, political, and economic contexts of nation-states. Transnational
organizations maintain multidimensional and cross-national structures
that may be designed based on geographic regions of the world, strate-
gic programmatic areas, or sector of activities, or interventions, or other
factors that fit their transnational purpose. For example, a structure that
is geographically based may have branches that replicate the core ser-
vices for specific regions of the world. On the other hand, a structure
that is sectorially based may have specialized branches or units or entities
that offer targeted services or interventions that are different from one
region of the world to another. Transnational organizations may represent
sources for all kinds of potential glocal collaborations, including funding
to implement glocal collaborative activities.

International Educational Institutions

International educational institutions are international or transnational
organizations that may be intergovernmental or nongovernmental in
structures, and whose primary purpose is to promote policies or/and
interventions in formal or/and nonformal education in several countries.
For example, some international educational institutions may fulfill their
mission by providing funding to third-party institutions, which include
colleges and universities. Other international educational institutions
may use their funds to advocate for specific education policies and imple-
ment direct interventions in formal or nonformal education. Other inter-
national educational institutions may combine the two approaches by
awarding grants while being directly involved in policy advocacy and
direct community interventions.
International educational institutions that are nongovernmental may
be for-profit or nonprofit. As the name implies, for-profit international
114 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

educational institutions provide mainly services as a commodity to indi-

vidual or organizational clients who have the ability to pay. An example
would be a study abroad service provider that helps individuals or col-
leges or universities in their needs for study abroad, international service
learning, or internship abroad. Another example would be an interna-
tional agency providing international insurance services to be purchased
by individuals or postsecondary institutions for risk management purposes
involving their staff or students traveling abroad. Nonprofit international
educational institutions focus primarily on providing services to clients
who would not be able to pay for such services or based on specific eli-
gibility criteria such as economic needs or academic merit. An example
would be an international institution providing fellowships or scholarship
for study abroad or research abroad. Whether they are intergovernmental,
for-profit, or nonprofit, international educational institutions represent
potential partners for a postsecondary institution interested in develop-
ing glocal higher education programs. In most cases, international edu-
cational institutions possess rich database from which information can be
purchased or shared when planning for glocal higher education. However,
international educational institutions may, at times, represent both an
opportunity and a threat. International educational institutions constitute
an opportunity given the possibility for students, faculty, and staff of post-
secondary institutions to benefit monetarily or nonmonetarily from them.
The institutions may also represent a threat for potential glocal partnership
in the cases of institutions with a corporate mindset of making money at
all cost, without any regard for student learning outcomes.

Glocal Learning Opportunities

The interactions among the various actors in a glocal learning network
generate glocal learning opportunities that can be beneficial for the institu-
tion financially, the faculty scholarly, and the student developmentally and
professionally. Glocal learning opportunities enable to have learning expe-
rience with global recognition and overseas local settings. Some oppor-
tunities for glocal learning include international service learning, study
abroad, internship abroad, exchange programs, and research abroad.

About the Network Society

Every society includes networks of social actors that can be individual,
organizational, or institutional. Social networks represent spaces for
interactions that can foster nonformal and formal collaborations among
G L O C A L PA RT N E R S H I P 115

individuals, groups, organizations, and institutions in any given society.

Castells (2002) asserted that

The interactions between the revolution in information technology, the

process of globalization, and the emergence of networking as the pre-
dominant social form of organization constitutes a new social structure:
the network society. (p. 548)

The progress in information and communication technology (ICT) facili-

tates the network society that extends beyond the geographic borders of
single societies to create global networks that provide opportunities for
different forms of international or cross-national collaborations. National
and global networks are formed in business, economy, politics, culture,
and education.

About Glocal Partnership

Glocal partnership involves a partnership between a partner with global
standing and another partner at the local level. Glocal partnership is a volun-
tary collaboration established between a partner with global recognition or
agenda (e.g., a world-ranked university) and a locally/nationally oriented
partner (e.g., a local educational institution overseas), in order to achieve
a shared purpose through a formally defined agreement, accord, or con-
tract. In a glocal partnership, there is at least one partner with an outsider
perspective and another partner with a local perspective. A glocal partner-
ship always involves a glocal power relationship that is proportional to the
direction and strength of the glocal symbiosis index in such partnership.

Types of Glocal Partnership

In generic terms, Jean Francois (2014) argues that a partnership can be
tactical (i.e., for a specific project, in order to address a challenge) or
strategic (i.e., intentional collaboration to achieve a long-term goal). In
the context of glocal higher education, a tactical partnership can be estab-
lished, so that a researcher can access a data set or a target population for
a survey. A strategic partnership may be established in order to inter-
nationalizing the curriculum of a college or university or to apply for a
substantial funding. Whether it is tactical or strategic, a partnership can
take various forms, such as:

M Cooperation (i.e., short-term informal relationships that exist without

a clear purpose or structure),
116 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

M Coordination (i.e., longer-term formal agreement for a specific project

or program),
M Collaboration (i.e., formal agreement through achieving a common
goal within the context of shared funding),
M Strategic Alliance (i.e., contractual agreement between or among non-
profit organizations for mutual supports), and
M Merger (i.e., formal partnership that transforms two or more non-
profit corporations into a new entity) ( Jean Francois, 2014, p. 297).

In a higher education context, a glocal partnership can be symbolic,

project based, program based, institution based, or community based.

Glocal Symbolic Partnership

A glocal symbolic partnership is a resourceless accord or agreement
signed by a global and a local partner to express their intent to explore
opportunities for further or more targeted collaboration in the future.
I will stress on the word “resourceless” as what makes a symbolic partner-
ship considered as such. In other words, there is no real resource alloca-
tion and mechanisms for immediate implementation in a glocal sysmbolic
partnership. The basic idea is that both institutions acknowledge each
other as friend institutions, and express the willingness to explore more
concrete ways to collaborate. Usually, a glocal symbolic partnership is
formally established through a memorandum of understanding (MOU)
or memorandum of agreement (MOA). As the name implies, an MOU
or MOA is an agreement between two institutions to explore future
collaboration opportunities. A glocal symbolic partnership is a seed for
exploring and developing more specific future collaborations. The seed
can grow into robust partnerships or collaborations between the partners
involved. Similarly, the partnership can remain at the symbolic stage and
never develop into something meaningful for the partners.

Glocal Project-Based Partnership

A glocal project-based partnership is a specific collaboration developed
and formally signed between a global higher education institution and
a local partner that can be a postsecondary institution, a business, or a
nongovernment organization, in order to implement a specific project or
conduct a specific research study. Glocal project-based partnerships tend
to be either narrow in focus, short, or involve one or a few people in each
institution partner. For example, a glocal project-based partnership can
G L O C A L PA RT N E R S H I P 117

be international research collaboration between researchers affiliated in

institutions based in at least two different countries for the purpose of
analyzing global trends in local contexts. Another example can be a doc-
toral student who wants to write his/her dissertation in a foreign country
where there is no MOU or partnership agreement between the student’s
institution and a local college or university in the country where such
doctoral student intends to collect data for a dissertation. This specific
project can trigger a dissertation director, a department chair, or a dean
to initiate contact with someone from an organization in that country, in
order to obtain authorization or support for the student doctoral disserta-
tion project. The partnership resulting from this situation will be a project-
based partnership. The partnership may develop later to something more
significant. However, in that specific context, this is project-based part-
nership with potential for evolvement. Glocal project-based partnerships
can be signed to organize short-term study abroad programs, international
service learning, international consultancy, joint research studies, joint
community projects, or other similar project-based activities.

Glocal Program-Based Partnership

Glocal program-based partnerships are developed between colleges,
schools, departments, programs, or other institutional units between a
global postsecondary institution and a local postsecondary institution,
in order to implement joint programs that require the achievement of
medium and long-term outcomes. For example, two universities may
decide to develop a program partnership for a joint-degree program. As
such, the deans, the department chairs, the faculty members of the col-
lege or the school offering the joint program at both institutions will
be actively involved in the process. Other stakeholders at the academic
administrative level (i.e., provost, academic deans, etc.) will also be
involved. In both countries, the stakeholders will ensure that legal, cul-
tural, academic, and accreditation issues and concerns are satisfactorily
addressed. There will be clear medium and long-term outcomes set for
such partnership, which will include several types of stakeholders. This
is different from a glocal project partnership, which requires less plan-
ning, and the direct involvement of a lesser number of stakeholders. For
example, a university in Qatar may contact a department chair or the
dean of a college at a research university in Wisconsin (USA) with global
recognition to help develop a new doctoral program in Human Resource
Development. There will be several stakeholders involved in the process,
because this is the nature of academic work. However, specific college
118 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

and department in each institution will be the primary stakeholders in

the implementation of such glocal program-based partnership. A glocal
program-based partnership can be signed to offer a joint-degree program,
joint curriculum development activities, dual degrees that blend cohorts
of students from at least two different countries, development of glocally
interactive classrooms, ongoing long-term study abroad activities, student
and scholar exchanges, international internship, technical assistance to a
community program, or other similar program-based activities.

Glocal Institution-Based Partnership

Glocal institution-based partnership occurs when the first representa-
tives (e.g., president, chancellor, chief executive officer, general director,
minister, or prime minister) of a global higher education institution and
a local institution from another country formally agree on a collabo-
ration that engage legally and financially both institutions in mutual
accountability to conduct ongoing activities or provide joint services.
Two institutions from two different countries can engage in a joint ven-
ture to offer a local program or service at the local level. The questions
one may ask is, “What if the two institutions are global?” This would be
a valid question. However, the partnership will be still glocal in nature,
because it involves a global perspective and a local context. For example,
the United Nations Education Science and Cultural Organization
(UNESCO) or the United Nations International Children’s Emergency
Fund (UNICEF) may partner with a university in the United States or
Canada or France to develop a special master’s degree program for a
cohort of students in a developing country. In that context, UNESCO
or UNICEF may provide the finance to the university, and the univer-
sity is responsible for delivering the program and awarding the academic
degree. Both institutions are engaged and accountable to each other.
Both the university and UNESCO or UNICEF will bring a global per-
spective for a program offered in a local context.

Glocal Community-Based Partnership

Glocal community-based partnership happens when a global institution
offers programs or services that target students or clients from another
country by engaging the community of that country directly, without
the intermediary of an institution or organization based in the country of
residence of the targeted students or clients. An example of glocal com-
munity partnership is an institution that offers an online degree program
G L O C A L PA RT N E R S H I P 119

that students attend in their home country without a need to travel over-
seas. Another example is a college or university from an industrialized
country that opens a branch campus in another country without offering
a joint-degree program with a local college or university. In that con-
text, the institution engages the students directly without an institutional
intermediary. The global institution engages students directly, using local
support (e.g., local staff, local adjunct faculty, local marketing resources)
and infrastructures (e.g., local facilities) without an institutional interme-
diary (e.g., a local college, university, or nongovernment organization).

Phases of Glocal Partnership

A glocal partnership is a process that must be carefully planned. The plan-
ning of glocal partnership starts by the development of a policy or a guide,
so that the institution is always ready to explore partnership opportunities.
A glocal partnership process may evolve into four major phases:

M Initiation
M Articulation
M Implementation
M Closure/renewal.

The initiation phase is the point of entry for a glocal partnership. Initiation
can emerge from glocal interactions, policy implementation, funding
requirement, third-party linkage, or a natural event or crisis.
Glocal interactions: Glocal interactions take places during international
meetings, conferences, forums, seminars, symposiums, or other similar
events. Two individuals can meet, share their interest for future collabo-
ration or partnership, and initiate some dialogue that may lead to a glocal
Policy implementation: A country, state, region, college, or university
may adopt a policy for internationalization in higher education. The
implementation of such policy may require internal stakeholders affili-
ated with an entity to be proactive in looking for opportunity to initiate
Funding requirement: A funding agency may require that grant propos-
als be submitted through collaboration between two or more agencies.
An applicant actively seeking such funding might explore opportunities
to initiate glocal collaborations or relationships.
120 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

Third-party linkage: An individual affiliated with a college or university

“A” (global or local) and other individual or institution affiliated with a
college or university “B” (global or local) may link to another colleague
at a postsecondary institution “C” (global or local), in order to facilitate
the initiation of a glocal partnership.
Natural event or crisis: A natural event (e.g., an earthquake) or a crisis
(i.e., an armed conf lict) may provide an opportunity for a global and local
partner to initiate a glocal partnership to plan and implement a human
rights education program for example, or to train leaders in humanitarian
education or conf lict resolution.
There may be other avenues or settings or situations that would pro-
vide an opportunity to initiate a glocal partnership. The idea is not to
provide an exhaustive list, but to list some examples of contexts in which
the initiation glocal partnership may occur.

The articulation is the stage related to development of a memorandum
of understanding/agreement (MOU/A) or a partnership agreement. The
articulation of a glocal partnership requires at least two glocal-committed
partners (one in each potential institution partner) to advocate for the
process. This involves someone who is committed to the process and is
ready to volunteer some time, knowledge of resources and systems, and
the patience and discipline to make necessary follow-ups.

The implementation phase consists of the overall execution of the terms
of a partnership agreement. The implementation should include the cal-
culation of glocal symbiosis and adjusted glocal symbiosis ratios to ensure
that the level of accountability and empowerment is clear for each part-
ner. The implementation should include an alternative space for safe
discussions, evaluation and acknowledgment of benchmarks, and other
strategies for continuing quality improvement.

The closure/renewal phase is the period at the end of the term of a part-
nership agreement through which the partners decide whether to put
an end to or renew a partnership. A cyclical evaluation must be done
to assess the state of the partnership, and mutually decide whether any
G L O C A L PA RT N E R S H I P 121

modification is necessary for the efficiency and effectiveness of a glocal

partnership. If both parties agree, a glocal partnership should be revised,
if there is evidence that will help achieve specific goals, objectives, or

Planning Glocal Partnership

It has become more evident that faculty and student involvement inter-
national education activities, especially abroad, bring transformative
dialogues and multiple perspectives in the classroom in a way that is ben-
eficial to a better learning experience for students. Consequently, many
academic institutions strive to position themselves in what they consider
as global systems of higher education. Many colleges and universities take
actions to internationalizing their curriculum, primarily through glocal
partnerships with postsecondary institutions and nongovernmental orga-
nization operating in other countries. Obviously, a glocal partnership
should be a win-win proposition if carefully planned. In many institu-
tions, glocal partnership is resumed to sending students to study abroad,
with less consideration for other forms of partnerships related to joint
degree programs, collaborative research studies, cooperative capacity-
building programs, or community development projects. This is due
partly because of a lack of planning for glocal partnership. A careful plan-
ning process for glocal partnership should include the following:

Before engaging in a glocal partnership, an institution of higher education
must define clear aims, objectives, and outcomes related to developing
collaborations with institutions in other countries. A glocal partnership
process can be conceived and designed to achieve purpose, aims, or goals,
such as:

M train students who are globally aware and locally sensitive as citizens
and able workers of their local community and the global world;
M internationalize the curriculum by infusion global dimensions in
programs and courses;
M provide multicultural and transcultural learning experiences to stu-
dents, in order to enhance their critical thinking and abilities to be
successful in multicultural workplace and settings;
M develop the ability of faculty and staff to provide a transformative
and global learning to students;
122 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

M enable faculty to expand their research activities beyond national

borders through networking international institutions and scholars
from other countries;
M enhance the ability of a postsecondary institution to strengthen ties
with other parts of the world and help address global issues (i.e.,
education, health, poverty, economic development, energy, environ-
ment, conf lict, inequality, human rights, and social justice) in local
M enhance the national and international positioning and reputation of
a postsecondary institution;
M increase the revenues of a postsecondary institution through the
recruitment of students from other countries;
M increase the institutional capability of a postsecondary institution to
provide academic services to a diverse body of students;
M contribute to public diplomacy and mutual understanding among
people and culture, thus promoting a world of peace and harmoni-
ous diversity for children, families, and communities; and
M contribute to knowledge, systems, and process that in turn can con-
tribute to transform the world into a better place for life.

A glocal partnership must be intentional in order to be fruitful for an
academic institution. The purpose of a glocal partnership process must
be in alignment with the overall institutional vision, mission, and goals.
A g local partnership process must pass a fitness test through brainstorming
and assessment that involved various internal and external stakeholders.
The fitness test is an assessment of the extent to which students, faculty,
administrators, and community agree on specific facet of glocal part-
nership that will enable a postsecondary institution to secure academic
and financial return on investment. The academic return on investment
refers to the positive effect that a glocal partnership will most likely have
on student learning and faculty professional growth. The financial return
on investment is the extent to which a glocal partnership can enhance the
reputation of an institution to attract more financial support, recruiting
students who can pay tuition fee, and empower scholars and faculty who
can bring more fundings through grants for research and community
development projects. Therefore, a college or university should be selec-
tive in the development of partnership initiatives. Further, fitness can be
assessed through the lens of successful and unsuccessful glocal partnership
experienced by other similar postsecondary institutions.
G L O C A L PA RT N E R S H I P 123

A successful glocal partnership planning process should seek institutional
mandate. Institutional mandate refers to the legal (e.g., authorization
from state or governmental authorities), community (e.g., acceptation
by parents, students), academic (e.g., accreditations to be a provider of
higher learning, acceptation by faculty), and administrative (e.g., leader-
ship, supervisory bodies) frameworks that enable a postsecondary insti-
tution to function. Institutional mandate implies that all stakeholders
of a postsecondary institution are on agreement on the need for glocal
partnership and committed to support future glocal partnerships. Glocal
validation can be an effective strategy to secure mandate for a glocal

Risk and Benefit Analysis

Glocal partnerships carry both risks and benefits. In fact, the risks asso-
ciated with glocal partnership constitute a deterrent to most colleges
and universities, especially in industrialized countries. However, in
many instances, the fears of risks are rooted in prejudices and unjustified
assumptions regarding postsecondary institutional partners in develop-
ing countries. Regardless, before engaging in glocal partnership initia-
tives, a postsecondary institution must perform a risk benefit analysis to
ensure that the benefits for students, faculty, and the institution at large
are greater than the risks.

The mechanics should describe the core activities that will be imple-
mented through the glocal partnership. The activities must be clearly
defined with as much details as possible. The responsibilities of each
partner must be clearly specified in relation to each core activity. The
structures, decision-making process, resources for implementation, forms
of communication, and procedures for conf lict resolution must be
a rticulated in a nonequivocal manner. Regardless of the size and dura-
tion of a glocal partnership, there will always be some expenses to make;
thus, there will be some financial costs. The expenses and the sources
of income to fund the anticipated expenses must be clearly defined, and
later expressed into a budget. Information from the mechanisms of a
glocal partnership should be specific enough to enable the calculation of
glocal symbiosis ratios.
124 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

Agreement and Approval

A glocal partnership agreement must be signed by the people who are
authorized to legally engage in a postsecondary institution. Except in
rare circumstances, the president or the chancellor of a college or uni-
versity is the authorized person to sign a partnership agreement. Some
institutions have generic templates for MOU or MAU or partnership
agreement that can be customized to fit a particular case. However,
I argue that a glocal partnership agreement should be developed through
a process of back-and-forth communication between the global and the
local partner without a preset template. A template should be gener-
ated during the initial discussions based on a mutual understanding
that one of the parties will summarize the ideas of the discussions into
a draft. The draft should be improved until both parties are satisfied
with the terms of initial agreement. Part of the discussions of the draft
should include a special meeting on how each partner interprets specific
aspects of the agreement. Any misunderstanding should be the subject
of clarification or a rewrite. This will help prevent or reduce the poten-
tial for misinterpretation. During the planning process, a draft partner-
ship agreement should undergo various layers of scrutiny to ensure that
an agreement conforms to institutional mandates. Each partner must
ensure that a glocal partnership agreement is signed by a legitimate
authorized person.

When developing a glocal partnership agreement, institutions’ part-
ners must ensure that they set a realistic calendar for implementation.
Academic calendars vary from country to country, and sometimes within
a same country there can be limitations in terms of what time specific
activities can be scheduled to be successful. This seems obvious but, if
not handled properly, errors or mistakes in setting the calendar of imple-
mentation can jeopardize the success of a glocal partnership, and cause
irreparable damages. The calendar of implementation must be developed
based on partnership deliverables, benchmarks, or outcomes.

A glocal partnership is a transcultural relationship that may be subject
to two different approaches of oversight. It is important for the glocal
partnership agreement to allow f lexibility regarding how each partner
G L O C A L PA RT N E R S H I P 125

will oversee and monitor the implementation of core activities based on

the institutional context. However, there must be an agreement about
the formats and sequences of the reporting requirements for mutual

Effective Glocal Partnership and the Four Cs

A glocal partnership will encounter some serious challenges, particu-
larly during the implementation phase. There are four pillars that can
contribute to an effective glocal partnership. I call them the four Cs for
effective glocal partnership: community, commitment, communication,
and conf lict resolution.

A glocal partnership must be nurtured by a transcultural community.
For example, an advisory unit may be created with people identified by
both the global and local partners, to provide outside prospective about
specific aspects of an ongoing glocal partnership. The existence of a tran-
scultural community will ensure that various perspectives contribute to
the implementation and monitoring of a glocal partnership.

Commitment is essential to a glocal partnership, because of the poten-
tial for frustration and short-term disappointments during the process.
Commitment develops as the partners learn to know each other and
overcome minor challenges, thus providing opportunities for personal
investments into a glocal partnership. Commitment to a glocal partner-
ship can be sustained through a shared purpose, and positive and strong
glocal symbiosis.

The terms of a glocal partnership must include the interlocutors, struc-
tures, and mechanisms of ongoing basic and intercultural communica-
tions. The mechanisms of communication should not be left to good will,
but must be elucidated in the glocal partnership agreement. Effective
communication can help nurture the commitment to a glocal partnership,
and avoid unnecessary conf licts on minor misunderstandings.
126 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

Conflict Resolution
A glocal partnership agreement must list all possible points of contention
or conf lict that may emerge during the implementation phase and specify
the mechanisms to successfully and satisfactorily resolve such conf licts. It
is not possible to anticipate all future sources of conf licts that may attack
a glocal partnership. However, if there is a culture of systematic conf lict
resolution in a prompt manner, it will be easier to deal with conf licts that
the partners could not anticipate.

Questions and Activities

1. How would you define the term glocal partnership?
2. Make a list of as many transnational communities, transnational
organizations, and international education institutions as possible
that you can potentially use as assets for a glocal partnership. For
each item on your list, describe how you can best use it!
3. What would you consider as the main challenges for a glocal
partnership? Why?
4. What would be your metrics to measure an effective glocal
5. You have been approached about a potential glocal partnership by
a colleague from a university in another country. What are some of
the questions or concerns that you would address right in the begin-
ning of the process?
6. You have identified a potential for a successful glocal partnership
after your participation in an international conference. Write a
speech to explain to your colleagues and the administrators the
potential benefits for student learning outcomes, faculty develop-
ment, staff development, and financial and nonfinancial returns for
the institution.


Glocal Instructional Context

Glocal instructional context (GIC) refers to an instructional setting and
environment (e.g., student backgrounds, beliefs, goals, values, percep-
tions, behaviors, classroom management, physical space, evaluative cli-
mates, organizational structures, and financial conditions) that involves
both global and local stakeholders. Researchers have found that the
student–teacher relationship of an instructional context affects student
learning in various cognitive, affective, and behavioral facets (Mottet and
Beebe, 2006; Docan-Morgan and Manusov, 2009).

Learning Style Preferences and Cultural Dimensions

Cano and Garton (1994) defined learning style as “the manner in which
learners sort and process information” (p. 6). Similarly, Davidson (1990)
and De Bello (1990) referred to learning styles as the way individual
gains, processes, and stores information. According to Joy and Kolb
(2009), learning styles are individual differences in the way people prefer
to learn. Learning styles vary with individual differences, as documented
by various studies. For example, Kolb (1984) identified four categories
of learning styles: accommodations (Preference for learning through concrete
experiment), divergers (Preference for learning through real life experience and dis-
cussions), convergers (Preference for learning through abstract conceptualization),
and assimilators (Preference for learning through conceptual reflection). Felder
and Silverman (1988) suggested four dimensions of learning styles: per-
ception (sensing/intuitive), input (visual/verbal), processing (active/reflective),
128 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

and understanding (sequential/global). Learning styles are related to indi-

vidual personality (Fallan, 2006). In fact, Cranton (2006) explained that
individuals approach learning tasks through their experience, social inter-
actions, personality, multiple intelligences and emotional intelligence,
perceptions, and their conditions or needs.
Several studies found significant relationship between the learners’
learning styles and the academic achievement (Cassidy, 2004; Kopcha and
Sullivan, 2007). Contrary to Pashler et al. (2008) who asserted that it is
not clear that matching instruction with learning styles significantly pro-
duces superior learning, I believe that such matching may facilitate better
learning experience for students. Several scholars found that matching
instruction with learning styles can significantly affect learner’s academic
performance (Snyder, 2000; Zhang and Sternberg, 2006; Kolb and Kolb,
2009). An assessment of learner’s learning styles can help individualize or
personalize instruction to facilitate student learning.
Cultural backgrounds undoubtedly affect the way individuals engage
in a learning process, because their socialization has suggested them
learning style preferences, strategies, and patterns of behavior that may
provide them better learning experiences (Baldwin and Sabry, 2003).
Hofstede (2001) suggested five cultural dimensions related to coun-
tries in the world, which have implications for teaching and learning
(Box 10.1).
According to Hofstede (2001, p. 29), power distance concerns the
“different solutions to the basic problem of human inequality” and the

Box 10.1 Hofstede Cultural Dimensions and Short Descriptive

Cultural dimension Short descriptive

Power distance Degree of acceptance of hierarchical
differences in society
Individualism/collectivism Degree of individual integration into
Mascul inity/femininity Dominance of personal achievement
(masculinity) over social values
Uncertainty avoidance Desire to avoid uncertain situations
Long-term orientation Emphasis on future-oriented values
compared to present oriented values
G L O C A L LY I N F O R M E D P E DAG O G Y 129

extent to which members of a culture accept inequalities in social rela-

tionships. Jaju, Kwak, and Zinkhan (2002, p. 52) argued that “in high
power distance cultures [students] are not expected to seek knowledge
actively through their own experiences,” contrary to low power dis-
tance cultures in which students are expected to self-direct their learning
through facilitation. Students in high power distance cultures may tend
to religiously accept contents transmitted by the instructor, and may not
challenge or express disagreement, because the instructor would be con-
sidered as a knowledge and truth holder. The teaching style may strongly
emphasize on one way lecture.
Individualism/collectivism refers to the degree that a culture values
individual achievement in comparison to group outcomes (Hofstede,
2001). In societies that value individualism, individual achievement is
the measure of success. In cultures that prioritize collectivism, collective
wellbeing is more important than individual achievement. The teaching
and learning in collectivist societies may emphasize a lot on group inte-
gration, whereas individualistic societies may encourage individuals to
work independently.
Hofstede (2001) asserted that masculine societies are characterized by
the dominance of achievement and competition, and that feminine soci-
eties value cooperation and modesty. A teaching and learning setting
inf luenced by a masculine culture may encourage individual achieve-
ment and competition among learners. On the other hand, the teaching
and learning atmosphere in a feminine society may promote modesty
and mutual cooperation among learners. Jaju, Kwak, and Zinkhan (2002)
argued that

masculine societies prefer concrete and quantitative results, whereas femi-

nine cultures view a problem as a fragmented picture with many solutions.
In masculine cultures, the learning comes from the active and assertive
role of the individual, whereas in feminine cultures, the learning comes
from the ref lective view and opinions of other members of the society
(e.g., teachers, parents, peers). (p. 53)

Uncertainty avoidance refers to the extent to which members of a

society desire to avoid the unknown and prefer to conform to traditional
norms that are more predictable (Hofstede, 2001). In high uncertainty
avoidance societies, the learner will prefer clear structures, guidance,
and rules. In low uncertainty avoidance societies, the learner would like
to have the f lexibility to be creative, innovative, and think outside of
the box.
130 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

The long-term orientation dimension was later added to the Hofstede’s

(2001) framework to compensate its insufficiency related to the Chines
culture. The long-term orientation contrasts long-term oriented societ-
ies valuing the future (i.e., patience and perseverance) with short-term
oriented societies that emphasize more on the present (Hofstede, 2001).
Teaching and learning in long-term oriented societies may emphasize
more on abstraction, whereas short-term oriented societies may focus
more on concrete experiences.

Locally Informed Pedagogy

I use the term locally informed pedagogy (LIP) in reference to a teach-
ing and learning process that accounts for the cultural dimensions of
individual societies and cultural factors associated with individual learn-
ing styles. Hofstede’s cultural dimension classification is one of the
most popular frameworks that exists to address cultural differences in
cross-cultural communications or interactions from people of different
Hofstede’s model represents a valid framework to assess cultural dif-
ferences in teaching and learning processes (Wang, 2007). For example,
some studies reported that teaching and learning in Western cultures
tend to offer an interactive classroom environment where students are
encouraged to challenge the teacher as part of the self-development pro-
cess (Robinson, 1999). On the other hand, in Eastern societies the teach-
ing and learning processes are teacher centered or teacher dominated, and
heavily focused on tests and individual competition (Zhang, 2007), and
students are not expected to challenge the teacher (Watkins and Biggs,
1996). For example, studies comparing Chinese students with American
students found that, contrary to American counterparts, Chinese par-
ticipants were less willing to challenge the views of their instructors
(Thompson and Ku, 2005; Zhao and McDougall, 2008).
Kim and Bonk (2002) conducted a study about the interactions of
Korean students in an online learning program, and found evidence of
collectivism and uncertainty avoidance. The students showed clear cul-
tural inclination for emphasizing relationships over tasks. Similarly, Ku
and Lohr (2003) found that Chinese and Taiwanese students were very
excited about the idea of building an online community among their
peers and instructors.
Given the cultural differences among societies, glocal higher edu-
cation projects or programs should cater to the cultural perspectives
of the diverse learning stakeholders in curriculum, course syllabi, and
G L O C A L LY I N F O R M E D P E DAG O G Y 131

instructional practices. LIP will prioritize curricula and instructional

strategies that are responsive to the cultural differences of students.
It is important to underline that Hofstede’s model has been chal-
lenged for its external validity (Shattuck, 2005), and for failing to address
the f luidity of cultural differences among societies (Goodfellow and
Hewling, 2005).

Glocally Informed Pedagogy

As Figure 10.1 indicates, glocally informed pedagogy (GIP) is the inte-
gration of locally informed pedagogy (LIP) principles and practices into a
GIC to accommodate a transformative learning experience of the learner,
which may contribute to glocal awareness, glocal knowledge, and glocal

Transformative Learning
The concept transformative learning was introduced in the literature of
adult education by Mezirow, referring to a process:

[Whereby] we transform our taken-for-granted frames of reference (mean-

ing perspectives, habits of mind, mind-sets) to make them more inclusive,
discriminating, open [changeable], and ref lective so that they may generate
beliefs and opinions that will prove more true or justified to guide action.
(Mezirow, 2000, pp. 5–8)

_d\ehc[Z =beYWb
f[ZW]e]oB?F WmWh[d[ii

JhWdi\ehcWj_l[ =beYWb
b[Whd_d] ademb[Z][


Figure 10.1 Glocally Informed Pedagogy (GIP).

132 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

Mezirow (1991) previously indicated that critical ref lection of personal

experience can change “the beliefs, attitudes, and emotional reactions”
(p. 167) of the learner. Mezirow (2000) asserted that transformative learn-
ing occurs through ten phases (Box 10.2). It starts with a (1) disorienting
dilemma (internal or external personal crises). Then, it evolves through
(2) self-examination (feelings of fear, anger, guilt, or shame), (3) criti-
cal assessment of assumptions, (4) recognition that one’s discontent and
the process of transformation are shared, (5) exploration of alternatives
(options for new roles, relationships, and actions), (6) course of action
planning, (7) acquisition of new knowledge, (8) trying of new roles,
(9) competence building and self-confidence, and (10) reintegration.
Feinstein (2004) argued that ref lexive discourse and critical ref lec-
tion are two major catalysts of the transformative learning experience.
It is important to underscore that transformative learning has evolved
beyond Mezirow’s conceptual framework (Cranton, 2006; Taylor,
2007). For example, King (2005) introduced the transformative learn-
ing opportunities model, which provides a non-Western-based perspec-
tive of one’s transformative learning experience through life changing
events. Duffy (2006) found that some instructional strategies (group dis-
cussion, role playing, journaling) foster transformative learning. Freire
(2000) has developed a sociocultural perspective of transformative learn-
ing. According to Freire (2000), transformative learning is a process of
empowerment and social transformation. Rather than using the concept

Box 10.2 Mezirow’s Ten Phases of Transformative Learning

Phases Description
Phase 1 Disorienting dilemma
Phase 2 Self-examination
Phase 3 Critical assessment of assumptions
Phase 4 Recognition that one’s discontents and transformation were
experienced by others
Phase 5 Exploration of opportunities
Phase 6 Action planning
Phase 7 Knowledge and skills acquisition
Phase 8 Attempting new roles
Phase 9 Competence building
Phase 10 Reintegration
G L O C A L LY I N F O R M E D P E DAG O G Y 133

of critical ref lection suggested by Mezirow (2000), Freire (2000) referred

to that of conscientization as catalyst for transformational learning. The
reality is, both critical ref lection and conscientization involve problem
posing and dialogue with others as part of the process that helps an indi-
vidual or a learner develop awareness of long-held assumptions, beliefs,
and values. This increased awareness leads to a transformational expe-
rience (Freire, 2000; Mezirow, 2000). In that context, Taylor (2007)
presented the transformational learning experience as a developmental
process in five dimensions, encompassing (1) knowing as a dialogical
process, (2) dialogical relationship with one-self, (3) continuing learn-
ing, (4) self-agency and authorship, and (5) connections with others.
Merriam, Cafarella, and Baumgartner (2007) have summarized transfor-
mative learning in three broad phases: (1) experience, (2) critical ref lec-
tion, and (3) development. This broad summary will be used for the
thematic analysis in the proposed study. This framework is appropriate
because Mezirow’s ten steps of transformative learning are included in
the three broad phases: (1) experience (disorienting dilemma), (2) critical
ref lection (self-examination, critical assessment of assumptions, recogni-
tion that one’s discontent and the process of transformation are shared,
exploration of alternatives), and (3) development (course of action plan-
ning, acquisition of new knowledge, trying of new roles, competence
building and self-confidence, and reintegration).

Glocal Awareness, Glocal Knowledge, and Glocal Competence

Jean Francois and Young (2012) conducted a study on the transformative
learning experience of Haitian-Americans after a devastating earthquake
that hit Haiti in January 12, 2010, and found that transformative learning
experience contributes to:

M critical ref lection through one’s challenge of own assumptions and

beliefs, spirituality, and personal identity, a facilitation of personal
self-ref lection, virtual ref lection, and community-based ref lec-
tion; and
M transformation through increased appreciation for humanity,
increased resilience and spirituality, liberation from conspiracy the-
ories, enhanced national identity, and development of advocacy

Critical ref lection linked to one’s challenge of own assumptions and

beliefs, which is combined with an increased appreciation for humanity,
134 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

may not only contribute to glocal awareness (self-awareness and other-

nessness), but also enhance glocal curiosity that may help acquire glocal
knowledge, and potentially lead to a lived experience abroad and the
development of glocal competence in culture-specific context.

Key Aspects of GIP

Jean Francois and Young (2012) argued that cross-culturally responsive
teaching and learning activities may contribute to transformative learn-
ing experience, and suggest that instructors intentionally allow time
to ref lect on “cross-cultural beliefs, assumptions, and values” (p. 255),
through the utilization of facilitative questions, such as “What if beliefs,
assumptions of______about_____(issue, topic) are not completely accu-
rate or misleading”; “How would you deal with your beliefs, assumptions
about____(issue, topic) if their fundamentals are misleading or no longer
relevant?”; “Did you consider_________(alternative ideas) questions?”;
and “What do you think about_____(fact, evidence, information) ques-
tions?” (p. 255). These questions, if properly customized, may facilitate
critical self-ref lection to nurture glocal awareness, which is a great place
to start a journey toward glocal competence. Given the glocal symbiosis
that should occur in a glocal higher education program or in a GIC, GIP
should be inspired by:

1. defining paracontextuality,
2. defining metaidentity,
3. operationalizing multipurposefulness,
4. assessing and integrating transworldiness,
5. empowering intersectional synergies through transculturality,
6. creating and facilitating alternative spaces, and
7. assessing and evaluating locally valued outcomes.

Defining Paracontextuality
In a glocal education program the context of teaching and learning is
neither entirely global nor local. Therefore, the paracontextuality must
be defined in operational terms. The paracontextuality can be operation-
alized by taking into account the glocal purpose that serves the philo-
sophical basis for a GIC, the cultural dimensions most likely related to
participant teaching and learning styles, the motivation of the learners,
and the local resources that are available for an instructional process.
G L O C A L LY I N F O R M E D P E DAG O G Y 135

Defining the paracontext that surrounds a glocal teaching and learning

process will help determine approaches and strategies that match learner’s
learning styles, motivation, and cultural environment, to obtain the
anticipated glocal learning outcomes.

Defining Metaidentity
The identities involved in a GIC must be defined to ensure that they are
taken into account into the teaching and learning process. Mejai’s (2012)
suggestion of “blending outsider and insider perspectives” (p. 18) can
help account for the multiple identities involved in a GIC. As Avoseh
(2012) further argued,

Presenting ideas from a holistic worldview within a linear context provides

an excellent opportunity for ideas from the periphery to be included in
mainstream dialogues especially in paradigm changes and efforts aimed at
ensuring that students learn with comfort and understanding. (p. 18)

The acknowledgment of metaidentity should be an acknowledgment of

individual identity, group identity, and metaidentity resulting from inter-
actions inside a glocal learning context.

Operationalizing Multipurposefulness
A glocal education should have a glocal symbiosis that blends the purposes
of both the global and the local partners. These purposes should inform
the development of the curriculum for teaching and learning in a GIC.
The operationalization of multipurposefulness will provide information
that enables to calculate glocal symbiosis and adjusted glocal symbiosis
ratios, if needed, which can help determine intersectional synergy in a
glocal higher education program.

Assessment and Integration of Transworldiness

Participants in a GIC bring their own worldviews that are slightly altered
by the cross-cultural interactions to create a transworldiness environ-
ment. However, the worldviews of global and local partners are still pres-
ent in the intercultural communications and interpersonal interactions.
An assessment of partners’ worldview is necessary and should inform cur-
ricular and instructional practices, in order to nurture an environment
that is tolerant and responsive to diversity.
136 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

Empowering Intersectional Synergies through

Transcultural Integration
Intersectional synergies are defined through common challenges, goals,
objectives, and outcomes that led to the development of a glocal part-
nership. Jean Francois (2012) suggested the dimensions of transcultural
integration that can serve as a practical framework to foster the empower-
ment of intersectional synergies. The dimensions of or facets of transcul-
tural integration suggested by Jean Francois (2012, p. 11) are transcultural
uniqueness (What do we have as unique?), sameness (What do we have
as similarity?), uniquesameness (What do we have as unique, but with
similarity), and sameniqueness (What do we have as similarity, but with

Creating and Facilitating Alternative Spaces

Alternative space creation is in my view a key strategy to foster transcul-
tural integration ( Jean Francois, 2012). As I argued, alternative spaces are
opportunities that provide an environment where “it is safe to celebrate
and respectfully question all cultural facets in an effort to manage mis-
understanding, prevent avoidable conf licts, and achieve higher purposes”
( Jean Francois, 2012, p. 10).

Assessment and Evaluation of Locally Valued Outcomes

In most cases, a glocal partnership strives to deliver specific outcomes.
Some outcomes are valuable for the global partner, and other outcomes
are valuable mainly for the local partners. The existence of locally
valued outcomes is essential to nurture the commitment of the locals
in a glocal partnership. Consequently, the assessment and evaluation of
such outcomes must be integrated into the curriculum and instructional

GIP as Transcultural Teaching and Learning

GIP can be used within the context of a glocal higher education to
ensure intersectional synergy when teachers and learners interact with
and inf luence each other in a GIC. There is a mutual inf luence when
various cultural dimensions participate in interactions among individu-
als with global and local orientations. The teacher or instructor inf lu-
ences the learner, and vice versa. Further, GIP can be used as within
G L O C A L LY I N F O R M E D P E DAG O G Y 137

the context of implementation of an internationalizing plan adopted

by a postsecondary institution. Therefore, GIP can be a customizable
approach in a global, local, or glocal context that aims to foster self-
awareness and othernessness. There is a variety of teaching strategies
that can be used in the context of a GIP related to a glocal education
program. The following paragraphs will list some examples, but the list-
ing is not exhaustive. GIP can make use of learning by teaching (LBT),
teachers as instructor (TAI), learning by organizing (LBO), research
informed teaching (RIT), learning through networks (LTN), learning
through cases (LTC), learning via virtual hangouts (LVH), and learning
through immersion (LTI).

Learning by Teaching
Jean Francois (2012) defined LBT as a strategy whereby “the instructor
plans and implements instructional activities that empower the learner to
learn by being a co-instructor (e.g., co-designs syllabus, develops lesson
plan, teaches a sequence, and contributes to course assessment) and by
teaching other learners” (p. 93). In a glocal teaching and learning con-
text, LBT would transform the learner into a partner who can not only
add individual inputs, but also contribute intangibles such as perceptions
and ways of knowing from a dual perspective (the perspective of the
learner and the teacher).

Teachers as Instructor
In a GIC, TAI refers to a strategy of teaching a limited number of instruc-
tors through immersion in other cultures overseas, and transforming such
teacher who lived and studied abroad as instructors to help increase the
glocal awareness and knowledge of the peer teachers. Such strategy can
be used by teacher education programs that need to infuse contents for
glocal awareness in their curriculum and instructional practices.

Learning by Organizing
LBO consists of involving learners in the planning and organizing of
international service learning and study abroad programs while being
participants, assistants, and observers in an immersion abroad program or
activity. LBO can be an effective strategy for instructors who teach com-
parative education, international education, global education, transna-
tional education, intercultural communication, or transcultural studies.
138 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

Research Informed Teaching

According to Jean Francois (2012), RIT involves an instructional strategy
through which “the instructor empowers the learner to learn through
inquiry-based activities (e.g., literature review, empirical data collection,
research synthesis, and reporting)” (p. 93). RIT is a generic strategy that
can be used in any context, but will always be insightful in a GIC or for
a glocal higher education program.

Learning through Networks

LTN is a strategy of connecting students with networks in transcul-
tural communities and transnational partners as resources for learning
project and self-directed learning. LTN provides opportunities for vari-
ous intercultural communications and interactions that can help develop
glocal awareness and glocal knowledge. LTN can be combined with self-
directed learning or project-based learning strategies to ensure guidance
by a sense of purpose.

Learning through Cases

LTC consists of developing targeted case studies on glocal issues, and
uses them in instructional practices to help learners sharpen their critical
thinking abilities on glocal practices, concepts, and theories. LTC can be
used to facilitate the development of alternative space for critical ref lec-
tions on one’s own long-held assumptions, beliefs, and values in relations
to other cultural frames of reference.

Learning via Virtual Hangouts

Glocal higher education programs can use virtual hangouts to connect
learners or participants with counterparts in other countries for the pur-
pose of exchange, working on collective projects, and mutually contribute
uniqueness and othernessness to the learning experience of learners
beyond one’s national borders. Progress in information and communica-
tion technology (ICT) offers rich opportunities for valuable virtual (e.g.,
wiki, live video chatting, and teleconferencing) communications, which
can be used as learning tools in a structured instructional context.

Learning through Immersion

LTI occurs through various international service learning and study
abroad programs. LTI has the potential to help one develop greater
G L O C A L LY I N F O R M E D P E DAG O G Y 139

glocal awareness and glocal knowledge, as well as glocal competence in

culture-specific contexts. With LTI, the learner has the ability to make
personal connections, learn verbal and nonverbal communications, wit-
ness the bright and dark sides of a local environment, understand sources
of conf licts and systems of conf licts resolution, appreciate symbols and
sources of pride, understand the meanings of patterns of perceptions,
behaviors, and motivations through personal experience and not based
on second-hand accounts.

Questions and Activities

1. Discuss the concept GIC. How would you define it in your own
2. To what extent do you think Hofstede’s cultural dimensions are
relevant for learning style preferences?
3. Discuss the concept LIP. How would you define it in your own
4. Discuss the concept GIP. How would you define it in your own
5. What other teaching strategies do you think may contribute to nurture
glocal awareness, glocal knowledge, or glocal competence? Why?


Global Competence in a Global World

Advances in communication and information technologies, the signatures
of new trade agreements (e.g., Association of Southeast Asian Nations,
European Union, North American Free Trade Agreement, and the
Andean Pact), and the emergence of multinational corporations have
not only reduced or eliminated certain barriers among countries, but
also made the world significantly more interdependent. Ferraro (2006)
reported that lots of US corporations make more than 50% of their total
sales in foreign markets, citing the example of Coca-Cola, which sells
more of its products in Japan than in the United States (p. 2). Work places
in the global market are located almost everywhere, putting workers in
situations to interact in settings that involve culturally diverse workforce
or in foreign countries with different cultural beliefs systems, interper-
sonal relations, and ways of life. This resulted in the development of new
paradigms regarding the preparation of global competent workers for a
global market. The Commission on International Education (as cited in
Hunter et al., 2006) emphasized that:

America’s future depends upon our ability to develop a citizen base that is
globally competent . . . The United States needs more people who under-
stand how other people think, how other cultures work, and how other
societies are likely to respond to American action. (p. 272)

Employer and Global Competence

Caligiuri and Di Santo (2001) indicate that the availability of global
competent managers is essential to the future success of multinational
142 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

companies. Some global companies have developed various strategies

such as short-term assignments (Forster, 2000) and expatriation (Brake,
1997) as means to develop global competent managers. One of the rea-
sons for such strategies is that being a global manager means having a
global competent mindset, which is a state of readiness to engage and
interact with others from their own perspective (Rhinesmith, 1996). In
fact, Archer and Davison (2008) argued that “employers value gradu-
ates who have a global perspective” (p. 5). Similarly, Brooks and Waters
(2011) asserted that “there is substantial evidence that, in certain coun-
tries at least, an overseas qualification does often lead to substantial labour
market rewards” (p. 11). In other words, many employers seem to value
the international experience of potential employees. A study conducted
by Diamond, Walkley, and Scott-Davies (2011) in the United Kingdom
seem to make a case for employers’ preference for students with intercul-
tural competence. The study included 12 leading companies that employ
about 3,500 graduates annually in the United Kingdom. In order of
importance, the employers list the following skills that they believed are
linked to intercultural or global competence:

1. Ability to work collaboratively with teams of people from a range

of backgrounds and countries;
2. Excellent communication skills: both speaking and listening;
3. High degree of drive and resilience;
4. Ability to embrace multiple perspectives and challenge thinking;
5. Capacity to develop new skills and behaviors according to role
6. High degree of self-awareness;
7. Ability to negotiate and inf luence clients across the globe from
different cultures;
8. Ability to form professional, global networks;
9. Openness to and respect of a range of perspectives from around the
10. Multicultural learning agility (e.g., ability to learn in any culture
or environment);
11. Multilingualism;
12. Knowledge of foreign economies and own industry area overseas;
13. Understanding of one’s position and role within a global context
or economy; and
14. Willingness to play an active role in society at a local, national, and
international level.

Many employers seem to translate international experience as inter-

cultural competence or potential for intercultural or global competence.
Obviously, leaving or studying overseas provides an individual an oppor-
tunity to develop a different prospective about another culture or coun-
try or society, contrary to someone who did not. In fact, the ability to
interact with people from different cultural backgrounds or to perform
with effectiveness in multicultural settings seems especially important
for companies who conduct business on a regular basis with stakehold-
ers from various countries in the world. Fielden (2007) confirmed that
“multinational employers now look for graduates with a wide range of life
skills that include awareness of other cultures. They now seek employees
that are able to work throughout the world as required” (p. 26).

Higher Education and Global Competence

Many institutions of higher education around the world, including the
United States, want to prepare graduates who can successfully compete
in the interconnected world. Green and Olson (2005) argue that students
should be internationally aware and knowledgeable, because globalization
has transformed the world into a global village. Bourn (2010) suggested that
“there is clear evidence from around the world that more and more students
wish to have a greater sense of global connectedness” (p. 27). However,
several studies revealed that American universities, for example, fall short
of using the opportunities offered by the international and intercultural
diversity of their campuses (Montgomery, 2010; Thom, 2010). Scholars
have advocated for the internationalizing of curriculum, instruction, and
processes in postsecondary education institutions as a means to prepare
students to enter the global workplace (Green, 2003; Hill and Green, 2008;
National Association of Foreign Student Advisers, 2003). The American
Council on Education (ACE) has worked with several US postsecondary
institutions to develop “Global Learning for All,” which includes specific
outcomes pertaining to global learning. The Association of Colleges and
Universities (ACU) has developed intercultural competence rubrics based
on frameworks suggested by Bennett (1993) and Deardorff (2006).

What Is Global Competence?

Defining global competence from a scholarly standpoint can be very diffi-
cult, because many terms are used interchangeably to signify global com-
petence. Fantini (2009) has provided thus far the best classic illustration
144 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

regarding the challenge to conceptualize the term global competence by

listing all the various concepts used interchangeably, such as intercul-
tural competence, global citizenship, cross-cultural capability, cultural
competence, cross-cultural awareness, multicultural competence, inter-
cultural sensitivity, cultural intelligence, intercultural communicative
competence, and cultural f luency. In an earlier study, Killick (1997) has
challenged the utilization of the term competence that he considered to
be f lawed, because such term suggests an implicit completion of a learn-
ing process. Obviously, I disagree with such challenge, because any of the
terms used as an equivalent for global competence can be learned from
formal and informal interactions. I see competence as situated within
the continuum of a lifelong learning process, thus involving a gradual
informal, nonformal, or formal learning. Curran (2003) defined global
competence is an

appreciation of other cultures and the ability to interact with people from
foreign lands. It is the ability to become familiar with an environment, not
causing a rift while experiencing something new, and ref lection upon the
experience at its completion. (p. 10)

The Curran’s definition clearly emphasizes the opportunity to acquire

global competence from interactions with people of different nationalities
or cultural backgrounds. For Green and Olson (2003), global competence
involves knowledge, attitudes, and skills that are compatible with the
new reality of globalization (Green and Olson, 2003). Similarly, Deardoff
(2004) asserted that global competence implies the ability to communi-
cate and interact effectively and appropriately in intercultural situations
based on an individual’s cross-cultural knowledge, skills, and attitudes,
which can be acquired through study abroad programs and international
education. International situation may be the key concept in that context,
because such context allows for nationals from two different countries
or national backgrounds to interact and learn from each other. As per
Spencer-Oatey and Franklin (2009), intercultural situation relates to a
context “in which the cultural distance between the participants is sig-
nificant enough to have an effect on interaction/communication that is
noticeable to at least one of the parties” (p. 3).

Global Competence as Intercultural Competence

Deardorff (2009) defined intercultural competence as “effective and
appropriate behaviors and communication in intercultural situations”

(p. 33), and categorized it into attitudes (i.e., respect, openness, curiosity,
and discovery), knowledge (i.e., respect, openness, curiosity, and discov-
ery), skills (i.e., observation, listening, evaluating, analyzing, interpret-
ing, and relating), and internal outcomes (i.e., f lexibility, adaptability,
ethnorelative perspective, and empathy), and external outcomes (i.e.,
effective communication and behavior). According to Kuada (2004), “the
intensity of globalization in recent years has brought intercultural com-
petence acquisition studies back to the center stage” (p. 10). Intercultural
competence is valued not only for individuals who want to work abroad,
but also for people looking for employment in their home countries.
Intercultural competence has become a mainstream skill. As Fielden
(2007) asserted, intercultural competence skills are essential to “oper-
ate effectively as a global citizen . . . also help achieve social cohesion in a
multi-cultural society” (p. 23). Intercultural seems strongly connected to
awareness of individual identity (Magala, 2005). For Kim (2002), inter-
cultural competence is more than just awareness. It is the ability of an
individual to adapt to different cultural situations. More specifically, Kim
(2002) defined adaptability as

the individual’s capacity to suspend or modify some of the old cultural ways,
and learn and accommodate some of the new cultural ways, and creatively
find ways to manage the dynamics of cultural difference/unfamiliarity,
intergroup posture, and the accompanying stress. (p. 377)

In Bennett’s (1993) intercultural sensitivity model, the degree of inter-

cultural competence of an individual exists in relation to one’s response
to cultural differences. The challenge to response appropriately to cul-
tural difference requires self-awareness, because I believe that one should
understand self before being able to understand others, although Alfred,
Byram, and Fleming (2003) argued that openness to otherness can con-
tribute to self-discovery or self-understanding.
The Internationalization at Home movement argues that students
can acquire intercultural competence through regular formal and non-
formal curricula (Beelen, 2007), especially through diverse student and
staff body (Leask et al., 2006). Coleman (1999), as well as Caruana and
Hanstock (2008) argue that study abroad is less beneficial for interna-
tionalization. Alfred et al. (2003) made a similar claim, arguing that
study abroad may reinforce “a stronger sense of the rightness of one’s
own nationality and cultural identity” (p. 118). Coleman (1997) con-
ducted a study on language undergraduate students who studied abroad,
and found that they not only were poorly prepared, but also returned
146 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

with increased ethnocentrism, prejudice, and stereotypes. Findings like

this one can undoubtedly have negative implications for participation in
study abroad programs. However, internationalization is not just about
study abroad. In fact, study abroad is just one activity or strategy among
many other options in a process of internationalization at a postsecond-
ary education institution. It would be even misleading to confuse study
abroad with internationalization. I do not underestimate the value of
internationalization at home, because I know interactions with people
from diverse backgrounds can foster significant cross-cultural awareness.
Killick (2010) suggested that “universities need to be devoting energies to
integrating the home student to the university as an international/multicultural
community, rather than focusing so exclusively upon integrating the inter-
national student into an Anglo-centric community” (p. 256, his italics).
Internationalization at home can serve as an alternative to students, staff,
or faculty who do not intend to travel abroad or do not have the financial
means to do so. However, I do believe that cross-cultural competence
requires more than just interactions. A lived experience is indispensable
to acquire meaningful cross-cultural competence. I believe that ethno-
graphic approaches revealed to be more effective at fostering intercul-
tural communication of students through study abroad ( Jackson, 2008;
Weber-Bosley, 2010). Faculty-led programs have greatly benefited from
ethnographic approaches (Russell and Vallade, 2010). Jackson (2008)
found that ethnographic writing skills and ref lection help foster intercul-
tural communication.

Toward Glocal Competence in Context

The term global competence and other concepts used interchangeably are
interpreted as if variations within cultures do not exist. It is probably not
the intention of the scholars and practitioners in global competence to be
patronizing, but this is what they seem to convey when prescribing how
to prepare graduates who are globally competent. Obviously, there are
some realities in global competence or intercultural competence models
in terms of how one can acquire intercultural skills. The utilization of the
term global is not inappropriate, considering that information and com-
munication technology (ICT), the English language, and the role of the
US dollar in international financial transactions have inf luenced politics,
cultures, economies, and societies across the globe. However, the gen-
eralizations about national cultures and local societies obscure the com-
plexities of cultural diversities among countries in various geographic
regions of the world and within individual societies ( Jean Francois, 2012).

I am not alone in that camp. Moosmueller and Schoenhuth (2009) argued

that “the discourse on intercultural competence is multifaceted and often
considered confusing” (p. 209).
Given the multiplicity and complexities of world cultures and societ-
ies, I argue that global competence is an ultimate goal that nobody can
achieve. Of course, one can develop a high level of understanding of
diversity, tolerance for otherness, and intercultural sensitivity within the
limits of one’s intercultural experiences. I will emphasize “within the
limitations of one’s intercultural experiences.” Beyond the limitations of
one’s intercultural experiences, there is always a risk to get trapped into
generalizations that can be misconstrued, misleading, and disappointing.
In other words, it is possible to develop some form of global competence
within the context of specific local intercultural interactions. In that
case, it would be more appropriate to talk about glocal competence in
context. I say glocal competence to signify an ever-partial global com-
petence that is valid mainly in the context of specific local intercultural

About Glocal Competence

The Merriam Webster defines competence as “the ability to do some-
thing well, the quality or state of being competent.” In other words,
competence is about being effective and efficient. In order to be effective
or efficient, one must possess some attributes (Figure 11.1):

M attitude oriented toward effectiveness and efficiency (values): Being;

M knowledge or information or fact or data (empirical, theoretical):
M skills or know how (cognitive, physical, emotional): Doing; and
M comprehension or know why (cognitive, emotional): Understanding.

The interactions among these four factors (knowledge, skills, com-

prehension, and attitude) are in alignment with the medical context of
judging competence, which is the quality or state of being function-
ally adequate to perform an activity (Mosby’s Medical Dictionary, 2014).
Therefore, competence is an individual faculty related to knowledge,
skills, comprehension, and attitudes about one’s realities or environments.
The term “realities” or “environments” is used in a plural form to include
all aspects of societies that can be subject to human competence.
Competence or competency can be assessed through outcomes (what
an individual was able to produce), doing (what an individual shows that
148 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

8[_d] Adem_d]
7jj_jkZ[ Ademb[Z][

KdZ[hijWdZ_d] :e_d]
9ecfh[^[di_ed Ia_bbi

Figure 11.1 Competence.

he/she knows, comprehends, or able to do), or being (how an individual

behaves or able to adapt in various situations). Competence is a learned
ability that grows through experience. Therefore, an individual can be
trained through immersion in culture-specific situations that would
inf luence one’s ability to become glocally competent or show the posses-
sion of glocal knowledge, skills, comprehension, and attitudes.
Glocal competence is the knowledge, skills, comprehension, and atti-
tudes that one acquires through the interwoven of previous global abili-
ties with the curiosity, personal interactions, and immersion in a specific
society. Mays, de Leon Siantz, and Viehweg (2002) argued that compe-
tence implies “a capacity to function within the context of a culture’s
integrated pattern of behavior as defined by a group” (p. 140). Therefore,
competence exists in the context of the culture of a society, community,
group, organization, or institution.

E.N.G.A.G.E. for Glocal Competence in Context

Glocal competence is based on an awareness of global realities and specific
local realities in both local and global contexts. Glocal competence is not
an outcome, but an attitude, a continuing state of being. Glocal compe-
tence is the full ability to E.N.G.A.G.E. with efficiency and effective-
ness in local settings or contexts that involve an endogenous adaptation

of global approaches or framework. The acronym E.N.G.A.G.E., which

I amusedly coined, stands for:

M Explore self-awareness and othernessness: This is a knowledge-based

faculty related to an awareness of (a) self as member of a culture,
(b) othernessness in a diverse or multicultural world, and (c) the
existence of global and local realities that are interrelated.
M Nurture risk taking: This is the willingness to challenge one’s own fear
of othernessness or unknown cultural beliefs, values, and practices.
M Grant access to vulnerability: This is an attitude of open-mindedness
and curiosity about other cultural beliefs, values, and practices, with-
out necessarily or blindly endorsing any belief, values, and practices,
while accepting that such experience can be exciting or be disap-
pointing, but transformative nonetheless.
M Acknowledge and respect, and value diversity: This is an attitude of
showing respect, valuing, and withholding premature judgment for
other cultures or otherness.
M Grow through critical ethnographic understanding of culture-specific
intercultural interactions and communications, history, processes,
and systems: This refers to awareness, knowledge, and understand-
ing of specific societies with respect to (a) history and cultural pride,
symbols, rituals, beliefs, and dominant religious practices; (b) socio-
economic groups, interests, struggles, and agendas; (c) sociopolitical
groups, constituents, and power relations; (d) formal and informal
education systems; and (e) second language acquisition.
M Exhibit the ability to serve with efficiency and effectiveness in mul-
ticultural or local contexts that involve an adaptation of a global
approach or framework: This results from the interactions among
global and culture-specific knowledge, skills, comprehension, and
attitudes, which foster the ability to adapt oneself to multicultural
settings and adapt global approaches or frameworks in local contexts
in ways that are responsive to endogenous practices and patterns of

Social Construction of Glocal Identity

Glocal identity is one’s identification to global citizenship (i.e., citizen
of the world) in relation to the abilities to perform, behave, and under-
stand with effectiveness and efficiency in a culture-specific context other
than one’s own native culture. Unlike for cultural identity, which is
acquired through the socialization of individuals as members of a society,
150 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

the development of glocal identity is a social construction that emerges

from the interactions between one’s cultural competence in the context
of a global worldview and personal cultural experience with the empiri-
cal realities of another society. The social construction of glocal identity
occurs through factors such as (Figure 11.2):

M global competence,
M cross-cultural interactions,
M living abroad,
M the stranger experience, and
M second language acquisition.

The factors contributing to the social construction of glocal identity

are not intended to be exhaustive, but to make the case for an outcome
that could result from the glocal symbiosis of a glocal collaboration. No
single factor is synonym of glocal identity. However, each factor and the
interactions among them may contribute to socially construct one’s glocal
identity or claims of glocal identity.

Global Competence
Global competence is an awareness and possession of knowledge about
global issues, as well as the abilities to use approaches and frameworks that

=beXWb ?dj[hYkbjkhWb
Yecf[j[dY[ _dj[hWYj_edi



Figure 11.2 Social Construction of Glocal Identity.


are designed for worldwide application, regardless of cultural particulari-

ties. Although global competence may sound patronizing, it participates
to nurture one’s glocal identity.

Cross-Cultural Interactions
Cross-cultural interactions participate in the development of glocal com-
petence. With cross-cultural interactions, one can increase a more complex
self-awareness and some basic understanding of othernessness. However,
cross-cultural interactions alone are not enough to make one glocally com-
petent. One of the reasons is because cross-cultural interactions can occur
at home without leaving one’s own country, society, or cultural comfort. At
home cross-cultural interactions may most likely to be filtered by nation-
als of other countries living abroad, who themselves have to assimilate or
adapt to the culture, norms, traditions, and other practices of their country
of residence or adoption. Nevertheless, at home cross-cultural interactions
can contribute to one’s glocal awareness and knowledge.

Living Abroad
The lived experience in another country is indispensable for glocal com-
petence in context. Glocal competence does not apply to every context,
but to the context of specific cultures. Therefore, prior immersion into
that other culture at some point is necessary. Obviously, glocal com-
petence in one context can enable one to develop quick adaptability to
another cultural context. Additionally, culture-specific knowledge or
skills acquired in one country can be transferred to another country with
similar cultural backgrounds.

The Stranger Experience

Jean Francois (2011) conducted a pre- and post-study abroad research on
the transformative learning of students who studied abroad, and found
that some students went through a “stranger experience” while living in
a foreign country. The “stranger experience” refers basically to the chal-
lenges of adaptation, dealing with assumptions about one’s culture, and
abilities to conform to local norms and traditions that an individual may
face while adjusting to the reality of living overseas or abroad. Not every
individual living in a foreign may go through the “stranger experience”
with an intensity that makes one feel stressed or relatively unwelcomed.
The “stranger experience” helps one better appreciate the challenges that
152 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

may exist to live in another country. Obviously, aspects of “the stranger

experience” may simply be the result of an isolated bad experience that
is not a fair representation of what it would mean to live as foreigner in
a particular country. On the other hand, a “stranger experience” may be
rooted in larger patterns of behaviors regarding a culture or society. In
that case, the stranger experience would represent valuable experiential
knowledge, which may contribute to glocal identity.

Second Language Acquisition

The acquisition of a second language, especially through immersion or
opportunities to interact with native speakers, provides an opportunity
to learn about not only the oral and written means of communication
related to another culture, but also aspects of history, beliefs, values, and
other patterns of behaviors related to the society in which such language
is spoken. The acquisition of a second language is a form of cultural
assimilation, which carries facets of cultural identity.

Questions and Activities

1. How would you define global competence?
2. Do you think there is a difference between global competence or
intercultural competence or cross-cultural competence or transcul-
tural competence? Why?
3. Your friend Marc said, “Intercultural competence is not relevant
to me, because I do not intend to work abroad.” Do you agree or
disagree with that statement? Why?
4. Think about your classroom or your workplace for a moment! What
are some examples of differences do you notice (e.g., race, ethnic-
ity, gender, personality, sexual orientation, nationality, and others)?
Would these differences suggest you to communicate differently
with each category of differences that you notice if you were to
market them a service? Why?
5. Search the last employer survey for your country of residence. Do
you think global competence matters for employers in your country
of residence? Explain Why or why not!
6. Plan to spend some time with someone from a culture different
from your own. Write down some questions that you would like to
ask that person? Write a justification for each question (i.e., Why
do you think such question is relevant?). Write your own personal
report after that interaction to express what you have learned and
your overall ref lection about such experience.

7. Is intercultural competence relevant for colleges and universities?

8. How would you define glocal competence?
9. The author defined competence in terms of being, knowing,
doing, and understanding. Do you agree or disagree? Explain!
10. Do you agree or disagree with the terms glocal competence and
glocal identity?
11. What you could contribute to the social construction of glocal


Scientific Inquiry and Ways of Knowing

Scientific inquiry is essential for the relevance and advancement of any
field of study, occupation, or domain of activity. For example, a superin-
tendent may notice that more than 90% of the schools in his/her school
district obtained failing grades from standardized tests during the last two
quarters or semesters. This is obviously a problem that brings into ques-
tion the relevance of the schools in the district and the quality of teaching
and learning. One may guess what happens, but will always fall short of a
convincing explanation without a scientific inquiry, which involves col-
lecting and analyzing data or information from students, teachers, school
principals, parents, and any other possible sources. A scientific inquiry
may help explain the issue of failing schools and make decisions that can
contribute to solve that problem. Solving such issue of failing schools not
only will make the schools relevant in the eyes of the stakeholders, but
also may contribute to knowledge in teaching, school leadership, and
Another example to illustrate the role of scientific inquiry could be the
situation of a unit (i.e., department, division, center, or institute) of inter-
national education in a college or university that is observing significant
decline in student participation in international service and study abroad
programs that are readily available to them. One may try to explain the
situation based on common sense or personal experience, but will always
provide a convincing explanation that could inspire the confidence of
administrators to make decisions about such programs. The best possible
way is to engage in a scientific inquiry through the collection of data
from students, faculty, or even parents, or other sources, and analysis
156 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

of these data. A scientific inquiry can help understand whether other

colleges and universities are dealing with similar challenges, the percep-
tions of students, faculty, and parents about participation in international
service learning and study abroad, and the factors that deter or inf luence
student’s decision to participate. An understanding through scientific
inquiry can not only help make decision that will contribute to increase
participation in international service learning and study abroad, but also
contribute new knowledge to scholars who are searching in the field of
international education.
In both examples, there is a clear sense that scientific inquiry can not
only provide relevance to fields of study or disciplines or programs, but
also contribute to the advancement of knowledge. As you may notice
by now, the term scientific inquiry is used to signify the systematic col-
lection of data and analysis through the scholarship of a discipline in
order to describe, evaluate, explain, or predict a situation, reality, issue,
or problem. Scientific inquiry or research can be conducted to under-
stand behaviors, without any interest in immediate benefits, and is called
basic or pure research. On the other hand, scientific inquiry or research
can be conducted in order to understand a problem and make recom-
mendations or suggestions for solutions that can help solve such problem
(e.g., policy, program, project, process, or service). This is called applied
research. Sometimes, a research not only can contribute new theoreti-
cal knowledge (basic research), but also points to practical applications
(applied research).
Scientific inquiry is not the only way to describe, explain, or predict
a situation, but is the most reliable way. For example, people in some
societies use their intuition as their primary way of knowing. They feed
their knowledge based on some beliefs that they would not abandon
even in the face of strong evidence advising to turn away from such
beliefs. In other circumstances, people acquire their knowledge from
authority figures such as parents, community public or religious leaders of
opinion. Sometimes, people use either their logic or personal experience to
learn about how to behave or develop an understanding of a phenome-
non. Ways of knowing through intuition, authority, and logic or experi-
ence offer subjective knowledge that is very difficult or even impossible
to generalize. However, scientific method provides a systematic way of
knowing through empirical observation that leads to objective know-
ledge. Scientific research results from a systematic process. Therefore, all
aspects of a scientific endeavor are carefully planned. This provides an
opportunity to replicate the process, and generalize findings or results.
On a cautionary note, not all scientific finding is generalizable, but all
G L O C A L I N Q U I RY 157

scientific finding contributes to the advancement of knowledge in one

way or the other. Scientific research provides knowledge that is based
on collection of data, thus based on facts. This factual aspect of scientific
research makes it different from philosophical speculation. Contrary to
knowledge acquired from authority or intuition, scientific knowledge
invites scholarly scrutiny and critique, which provides opportunities for
accumulation of new knowledge. The accumulation of knowledge helps
observe causations and tendency regularities that lead to the develop-
ment of conceptual frameworks and theories to explain and interpret
natural phenomena.

Goals of Scientific Inquiry

As you may realize in that definition, a scientific inquiry may aim to
describe a reality, and is called descriptive research. For example, an inquiry
to find out the destinations of students studying abroad, and cultural facts
and stories about their countries of destination would be a descriptive
research. A scientific inquiry may be conducted to monitor a program,
plan a new program, or assess the effectiveness of a program. The inquiry
process in that case is called an evaluation research. For example, a study to
understand the effectiveness of a study abroad program in increasing the
cross-cultural sensitivity of participating students would be an example
of evaluation research. Further, a scientific inquiry can attempt to explain
a situation, reality, or problem. This type of inquiry is an explanatory
research. The example about the school district with failing school would
be an example of explanatory research. Finally, a research can be con-
ducted to predict what may happen in the future if a trend continues.
This is called a predictive research. For example, a director of international
education at a college or university may notice that students, who par-
ticipate in study abroad programs in countries located in a certain region
of the world, express very low satisfaction about their experiences when
they returned from abroad. Someone may want to study what will study
abroad at that particular college or university will look like within the
next five years, if the trends continue. This would be an example of
predictive research.

Process of Scientific Inquiry

The process of scientific inquiry is a representation of the steps concerned
by the systematic planning and investigation of an issue, problem, situ-
ation, or reality from the formulation of a problem, the collection and
158 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N








Figure 12.1 The Research Process.

analysis of data, to the findings and dissemination. More specifically, as

indicated in Figure 12.1, the research process includes:

M problem formulation,
M theoretical/conceptual framework,
M research design,
M data collection,
M data analysis,
M conclusion, and
M dissemination.

Problem Formulation
Problem formulation constitutes the point of entry for a scientific inquiry
process. A research problem is a condition, area of concern, dissatisfaction,
troubling question, topic, phenomenon, challenge, or any gap in theory
or practice that requires initial or additional investigation. A research
problem can emerge from a gap in practice or theory, but also from per-
sonal interest of the researcher to acquire better understanding regarding
a topic. Fraenkel and Wallen (2006) asserted that a problem

can be anything that a person finds unsatisfactory or unsetting, a difficulty

of some sort, a state of affairs that needs to be changed, anything that is not
G L O C A L I N Q U I RY 159

working as well as it might. Problems involve areas of concern to research-

ers, conditions they want to improve, difficulties they want to eliminate,
questions for which they seek answers. (p. 27)

The formulation of a research problem requires a description and analysis

or justification of the problem under investigation, a synthesized purpose
statement, a definition of the research question(s) or hypothesis(es) that
will guide the investigation. A research question is an interrogation about
the core variables or concepts concerned by the topic of a research prob-
lem. A hypothesis is a statement that establishes a relationship between
two variables, which will be tested. In other words, a hypothesis is a ten-
tative answer to a research question, which must be tested.

Theoretical/Conceptual Framework
The theoretical/conceptual framework is the phase of a research process
that situates a scientific inquiry within the context of a particular orien-
tation of the world, which can be a theory, a conceptual framework, or
a model. Kerlinger (1979) defined a theory as “a set of interrelated con-
structs (variables), definitions, and propositions that presents a systematic
view of phenomena by specifying relations among variables, with the
purpose of explaining natural phenomena” (p. 64). Therefore, a theory
not only explains a phenomenon, but also serves as a guide for prac-
tice and future research. A theoretical or conceptual framework helps
structure a scientific inquiry within the context of existing explanation
and current literature. Therefore, a theoretical or conceptual framework
must be linked to a review of existing literature about the topic or issue
under investigation. This is essential for the principle of accumulation
of knowledge in scientific inquiry. In other words, when conducting a
scientific research, the research must familiarize herself/himself with the
current state of knowledge related to the research problem. According
to Merriam and Simpson (2000), the literature review helps: (a) build a
foundation for future knowledge, (b) show how a study advances existing
findings, (c) conceptualize the study, (d) provide cues for research design
and instrumentation, and (e) provide a reference point for interpreting
upcoming findings.

Research Design
The research design is simply a plan that outlines the procedures of obser-
vation during a research inquiry. The research design can be quantitative,
160 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

qualitative, or mixed methods. According to Creswell (2009), qualitative

research focuses on meaning that individuals or groups attribute to a
problem or an issue, and

involves emerging questions and procedures, data typically collected in the

participant’s setting, data analysis inductively building from particulars to
general themes, and the researcher making interpretation of the meaning
of the data. (p. 4)

On the other hand, Creswell (2009) defined quantitative research as

“a means for testing objective theories by examining the relationship
among variables” (p. 4). Obviously, mixed methods research is a com-
bination of qualitative and quantitative research methods. The research
design includes the definition of the population under investigation, the
sample and sampling procedures, and the instruments of data collection.
The research design should also account for the integrity or ethical prin-
ciples that are required to follow when engaging in a scientific inquiry

Data Collection
The data collection phase collects information upon which conclusions
will be drawn. The data collection stage is the phase of observation of a
phenomenon through survey, interview, and other forms of data gathering
and recording.

Data Analysis
Data analysis consists of entering the data into a system, organizing them,
identifying trends, themes, relationships, causality, and transforming
them into information that provides new meanings and understanding.
There are a variety of softwares (quantitative and qualitative) and statisti-
cal tools (for quantitative research) that enable to conduct data analysis in
an expedited manner.

The conclusion provides a descriptive, explanatory, evaluative, or pre-
dictive statement based on the data analysis, as well as clarification of
new knowledge and implications regarding an issue, situation, or prob-
lem. In other words, the conclusion answers the research question(s) or
G L O C A L I N Q U I RY 161

confirm/rejects the hypothesis(es), and describes the implications of the

findings from a research inquiry for future research and practice.

The dissemination consists of using various forms of communication
(i.e., report, article, book, or oral presentation) to publicly share the
findings and implications of a research study for theory and practice.

Glocal Inquiry
A glocal inquiry is an approach to cross-national research study that
is responsive to an adaptation of global research frameworks to a local
culture-specific context. A glocal inquiry involves cross-societal stake-
holders within the context of a glocal partnership. As Figure 12.2 illustrates,
a glocal inquiry framework includes:

M cross-societal stakeholders,
M glocal problem statement,
M cross-societal construct,
M language, translation, and back translation,
M cross-cultural research design,
M intersectional analysis, and
M multipurpose dissemination.

9heii#ieY_[jWbijWa[^ebZ[hi =beYWbfheXb[cijWj[c[dj






Figure 12.2 Glocal Inquiry.

162 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

Cross-Societal Stakeholders (Outsiders and Insiders)

Glocal inquiries involve multiple stakeholders, and at least one outsider
and one insider, collaborating in a research process. The outsider–insider
dynamic of a glocal inquiry makes it different from other approaches that
involve cross-societal or cross-national comparisons. For example, in a
global research approach, one or a group of outsiders conduct a global
study to find global trends among several countries or regions in the
world regarding an issue or problem. The planning, design, and conduct
of the inquiry process are done from the perspective of the outsider iden-
tity, worldview, and other patterns of behaviors related to a global world-
view. In a cross-national or cross-cultural comparative study, researcher(s)
may use one country or culture as frame of reference to compare another
society or culture in relation to an issue or problem, mostly from the
outsider(s)’ viewpoints. In a glocal inquiry prospective, the outsider and
insider challenge each other frameworks to develop an indigenous adap-
tation of a global approach to the local context. Through a balanced
glocal symbiosis, outsider and insider contribute to design, plan, and con-
duct the inquiry process in a collaborative manner, and disseminate the
findings in multiple ways that serve both the purpose of the outsider and
the insider. In a glocal inquiry, the insider is not a simple contributor to
translate materials into the local language or facilitate access to the local
target population. The insider is a collaborator that contributes local per-
spectives to the deliberation on conceptual frameworks, research design,
instruments of data collection, and other similar tasks. Obviously, like
any collaboration, partners contribute to the extent of their interest and
areas of expertise, but within an equal standing status.

Glocal Problem Statement

There is a transnational field involved when conducting glocal inquiries.
Therefore, the problem statement will most likely to be glocal in nature.
A glocal problem statement may be based on a global issue that is prob-
lematic in a local context, the insider context. A glocal problem state-
ment may also involve a local issue (the insider context) that may have
unknown global implication (the outsider context). In a glocal inquiry,
the problem statement should be relevant to both the global and the local
partners, in other for the inquiry process to be successful. In other words,
it may be better to conduct a global research approach as opposed to
a glocal inquiry if the issue or problem under consideration is not of
interest to an insider partner. It may appear ironical, but not all research
G L O C A L I N Q U I RY 163

collaborations are conducted based on the scholarship interests of all par-

ties involved. For example, a glocal inquiry initiative may emerge from
a glocal collaboration that did not involve a research purpose. It may be
that one partner notices an area with potential for breakthrough findings,
and suggests expanding the collaboration to a research ground as well.
In that case, there may or may not be a relevant research interest for an
insider. It is important to understand that research interests can be very
subjective; thus, what is of interest for one scholar may not be as attractive
for another scholar. If there is no interest to develop a problem statement
that is glocal in nature, there will not be glocal inquiry. There is potential
to conduct a collaborative study that will fall short of its expectations.

Cross-Societal Construct
A glocal inquiry is a cross-societal construct that may involve global and
local conceptual and theoretical frameworks. Scholars with global world-
views may carry the ideologies of dominant discourses in their conceptual
and theoretical frameworks. Just because one is not aware of a framework
in the local context that can help interpret a global issue does not mean
that such framework does not exist. This is similar to the history books
that disseminated for a long time that Christopher Columbus discovered
America, without realizing that he was just not aware of a continent that
existed. To the extent that it is possible, a glocal inquiry should include
conceptual and theoretical frameworks or literature reviews that account
for both the global and local contexts. The literature cannot be a listing
of articles or a two-section text with one part for the global aspect and
another part for the local aspect. The literature review should be based on
a glocal theme that tells a glocal story or narrative that ref lects the inter-
woven between the global and the local, in relation to the conceptual/
theoretical framework, and the research questions or the hypotheses
guiding the study.

Language, Translation, and Back Translation, and

Linguistic Adaptation
Unless the societies involved in a glocal collaboration share a common
language, there will be a need for translation and back translation in a
glocal inquiry endeavor. A glocal inquiry is cross-societal and is con-
ducted in at least two different national sites. Therefore, it is possible that
participants in a same study speak two different languages. If an instru-
ment is in a language other than the language of the participant, it must
164 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

be translated. However, even with well-qualified translators, translations

do not always ref lect the spirit of a text because of linguistic particulari-
ties that may exist for one of the languages. One of the strategies that
is often used to address such situation is called back translation. As the
term implies, a document is translated into another language. Then, the
translated version is translated by another translator into the original lan-
guage of the document. This helps compare and validate the accuracy of
the translation. Translation–back translation can be an effective strategy
for glocal inquiry. However, there may be situations where translation–
back translation is not enough for the local adaptation of a global instru-
ment of data collection, for example. In that case, the insider and outsider
may decide on a cultural adaptation of the document in the language of
the participant. A culturally adapted version of an instrument must go
through a pilot testing before being used for data collection.

Cross-Cultural Research Design

Cross-cultural research design can use quantitative, qualitative, or mix
method research methods. There are various specific research approaches
or strategy options to conduct glocal inquiry, including, but are not lim-
ited to, comparative methods, cross-cultural comparisons, transcultural
integration as a tool for comparative analysis, community-based partici-
patory research (CBPR), participatory research appraisal, action research,
case-oriented comparative method, phenomenology, and critical incident
research. A cross-cultural design aims to adapt globally utilized research
procedures in ways that are responsive to the values, beliefs, language,
assumptions, patterns of behaviors, as well as the economic and political
realities of the local context. Outsider and insider should collaboratively
answer questions, such as:

M What are the research approaches that constitute the best fit to
address the research questions or hypotheses?
M How to operationalize the variables, so that consensus is developed
around common meanings?
M What types of data will help best measure the variables?
M What are the instruments that are most reliable and adaptable to
collect the necessary data?
M What is the best way to ensure the validation of instruments?
M What types of sampling procedures and samples (size, character-
istics) would provide the best representation possible of the target
G L O C A L I N Q U I RY 165

M Are there specific ethical considerations that should be accounted for

in the local context?
M What types of incentives will most likely encourage the participa-
tion of the local population?
M What are the assumptions or concerns of the target population that
must be proactively addressed?
M Who are the key community stakeholders (leaders) that must be
involved for support and access to the target population?
M Any other questions that must be addressed to ensure that the target
population feel appreciated, valued, and respected while being asked
to contribute to a research study.

Intersectional Data Collection and Analysis

Intersectional analysis is based on: (a) structures of differences (global
and local differences), (b) extent/size of differences (small, medium,
and large), and (c) directionality (positive, negative, mix). Intersectional
analysis can also be based on the transcultural integration framework
around the concepts of transcultural uniqueness (What do we have as
unique?), sameness (What do we have as similarity?), uniquesameness
(What do we have as unique, but with similarity), and sameniqueness
(What do we have as similarity, but with particularity?), suggested by
Jean Francois (2012, p. 11).

Multipurpose Dissemination
Findings from glocal inquiry always serve multipurpose, at least the pur-
pose of the insider, the outsider, and the glocal collaboration itself. For
example, a glocal inquiry may provide findings for local or global schol-
arly consumptions or inspire conceptual frameworks for social or com-
munity interventions. The findings from a glocal inquiry may be used in
ways that are different from the global and the local partners.

Characteristics of Glocal Inquiry

Glocal inquiry is not intended to be a new method of research. It is
conceived to inform research activities in the context of a glocal col-
laboration. The use of glocal inquiry in a study pertaining to a glocal
collaboration will certainly enhance the balance of the glocal s ymbiosis.
In fact, glocal symbiosis and adjusted glocal symbiosis ratios can be
166 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

calculated for a glocal inquiry. A glocal inquiry encompasses the fol-

lowing characteristics:

M Comparative observation: Glocal inquiry is inherently comparative.

The comparison involves the investigation of a global issue in a local
M Significance: A glocal inquiry should involve a topic, issue, or problem
that is worth researching. A topic worth researching has potential to
provide relevant findings, with implications for the global and the
M Transcultural: A glocal inquiry should be transcultural. It should go
beyond single cultural realities, but articulated around the interac-
tions between global and local worldviews.
M Globalmindedness: A glocal inquiry should be responsive to global
mindedness. The global is ever present in the glocal. Therefore, a
global framework helps contribute to the significance of a glocal
M Local centeredness: A glocal inquiry is rooted in a local context through
an endogenous adaptation of a global framework.
M Collaborative inquiry: A glocal inquiry is a collaborative enterprise
between at least an insider and an outsider.
M Glocal transferapplicability: The findings from a glocal inquiry should
be transferable and applicable to both global and local contexts. The
approach of glocal inquiry is as important as its findings. The global
adaptation of a global framework into a local context may generate
new methodological procedures as well as relevant findings.

Questions and Activities

1. How would you define scientific inquiry?
2. Peruse a scholarly search engine, and identify at least two articles
that you can consider as resulting from basic or pure research and
two other articles that you consider as based from an applied research
perspective. What do you think differentiate the articles that are
pure research from the ones that are applied research?
3. Based on the goal of scientific, provide an example of research
topic related to descriptive, evaluation, explanatory, and predictive
4. Select an issue of interest for yourself. Describe the issue, and explain
why it is important to know more about such an issue, and what
problem a better understanding of such an issue can help solve!
G L O C A L I N Q U I RY 167

5. From the issue that you previously selected, identify a theory that
may provide a possible explanation to such issue. Describe the the-
ory that you identified, and explain why you think it is relevant to
such topic!
6. Select a research article from a scholarly source. Do you think the
research designed used to conduct such study was appropriate to
help address the research questions or hypotheses? Explain!
7. How would you define the term glocal inquiry?
8. Discuss the facets of glocal inquiry suggested in this chapter by
expressing the extent to which you agree or disagree with them!
9. In what context do you see a research use a glocal inquiry perspective?



What Is Strategic Planning?

Strategic planning consists of assessing the current situation of an organi-
zation or institution, setting/resetting the vision and mission statements,
and defining strategic goals, objectives, and deliberating on programmatic
priorities that will enable to achieve such strategic goals and objectives.

Importance of Strategic Planning

Strategic planning is a common practice in higher education, because
colleges and universities have to be responsive to their internal and exter-
nal stakeholders, as well as the trends in their surrounding social, cul-
tural, economic, and political environments. With strategic planning,
postsecondary education institutions can make a sense of where they are
fulfilling their mission within the larger purpose of higher education for
a given nation-state. Strategic planning can help colleges and universi-
ties envision the future with a more positive attitude after every cycle of
In the new environment inf luenced by globalization, strategic plan-
ning has become even more important, because many institutions of
higher education are faced with the challenges to plan based on new
funding mechanisms (i.e., multiple source of nongovernment income).
As a result, they have to plan for growth, not particularly in academic
terms, but in the light of financial sustainability. For example, it has
become an imperative for colleges and universities to develop the ability
to plan for reaching students from places that did not use to be traditional
170 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

Box 13.1 Benefits of Strategic Planning for Higher Education


M Assess the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats

M Refocus vision and mission
M Adopt core programmatic areas
M Ensure organization is responsive to its stakeholders
M Help shape its own destiny
M Foster stability
M Enable efficient utilization of resources
M Bring clarity about strategic direction
M Serve as justification to gather social, political, and financial

targets for recruitment (i.e., overseas), as an alternative way of generating

more income. Similarly, some postsecondary institutions have set ambi-
tious goals that they can achieve only through partnership with local or
international institutions through joint initiatives and funding inquiries.
On the other hand, a strategic plan provides a college or a university a
target that is in itself an incentive for growth.
The strategic plan of a higher education institution tends to be inspired
not only by the vision of leaders and administrators, but also by feedback
received from Board of trustees, employers, faculty, and even students.
The incorporation of stakeholders’ feedback into a strategic plan helps
facilitate a climate that mobilizes people around institutional vision and
mission. Consequently, stakeholders may most likely to increase their
commitment to a postsecondary institution. With the development of a
strategic plan, a college or university makes a proactive statement pertain-
ing to the control of its own destiny. Strategic planning helps also create
a stable institution that inspires and boasts confidence in its stakeholders.
It is better for people to know that a college or a university is going a cer-
tain strategic direction regardless of change in administration. It is reas-
suring for both internal and external stakeholders. Box 13.1 summarizes
selective key benefits that a strategic plan provides for a higher education

Strategic Planning Approaches and Process

The strategic planning process may chart different courses from one col-
lege or university to the next. Factors such as location, size, organizational
G L O C A L H IG H E R E D U C AT IO N 171

culture, world orientation (global or local), and other similar factors may
inf luence how a strategic plan is developed. Kriemadis and Theakou
(2007) identified basic, issue-based, alignment, scenario, and organic stra-
tegic planning as models most used by nonprofit organizations, including
colleges and universities considered as not-for-profit entities.
Basic strategic planning: This is a basic top-down process, which con-
sists of:

M identifying organizational or institutional purpose (i.e., vision and

mission statements);
M selecting strategic goals;
M identifying specific strategies and approaches to achieve the goals;
M identifying specific action plans or strategic programs; and
M monitoring and updating the implementation of the strategic plan.

Issue-based strategic planning: As the name implies, this model involves:

M conducting a SWOT analysis to identify the strengths, weaknesses,

opportunities, and threats;
M strategic analysis;
M adopting key programmatic areas;
M reviewing and revising vision, mission, and values statements;
M designing action or implementation plans;
M developing annual operating plan;
M developing and authorizing annual budgets; and
M monitoring, reviewing, evaluating, and adjusting the strategic plan.

Alignment model: This is a fine-tuned strategic planning approach, which


M creation of a planning group to revise mission, programs, resources,

and support;
M identification of success and opportunities for improvement;
M adoption of strategies for possible adjustments; and
M integration of adjustments into the existing strategic plan.

Scenario planning: This is a supplemental framework to other strategic

planning models, and basically consists of:

M assessment factors and trends with potential to affect the future of an

organization or institution;
172 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

M identification of at least three scenarios (best, acceptable, and worst)

for each factor or trend to the extent they can affect the future of an
M definition of possible actions that can be taken based on each scenario;
M definition of strategies to address possible changes;
M deliberation on external factor that is more likely to affect the

Organic planning: This is a continuing and self-ref lection process.

Through strategies such as story boarding techniques and dialogues,
strategic planners clarify and articulate the value system guiding the
actions of an organization or institution.

The Generic Strategic Planning Process

Jean Francois (2014) argued that a generic strategic planning process
involves three main phases (Figure 13.1):

M assessing,
M visioning, and
M strategizing.

Assessing consists of a comprehensive auditing of internal and external
environments of an organization or institution, through surveys, needs

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G L O C A L H IG H E R E D U C AT IO N 173

assessment, literature search, asset mapping, strengths, weaknesses, oppor-

tunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis, and other appropriate tools.

Visioning is the phase of a strategic planning process during which vision,
mission, and values are defined, revised, or redefined based on finding
from a situational assessment. For example, a college or university that
engages itself in strategic planning for glocal higher education should not
only revise its vision and mission statements to include a glocal dimen-
sion, but also define a clear statement for glocal higher education.

During the strategizing phase, strategic planners deliberate on strate-
gic goals, objectives, strategies, and action plans for implementation.
Strategizing allows envisioning the big picture, clarifying overall direc-
tion, and deciding on benchmarks that would enable to achieve some
larger goals.

Strategic Planning Process for Glocal Higher Education

Planning for glocal higher education is an alternative approach to plan-
ning for internationalization of a college or university. It is an alternative
because it would emphasize more on glocal partnership, glocal education
programs, and glocal development as a strategic orientation to interna-
tionalizing in research, teaching, and service functions of a postsecondary
institution. In that context, a glocal planning process should be coherent
and comprehensive, and include goals, objectives, and outcomes related
to teaching, research, and academic support.
A coherent and comprehensive process will define outcomes for broad
institutional policies, academic support or administration, curriculum
and instruction, students, and faculty. A generic glocal planning process
should involve:

M institutional commitment,
M formation of a strategic planning group and steering committees,
M contextual assessment,
M development of a strategic plan,
M validation, and
M adoption and celebration.
174 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

Institutional Commitment
A glocal planning process requires the commitment of the leadership of a
postsecondary institution to ensure that it is not a showcase exercise with-
out any willingness to invest the appropriate financial and nonfinancial
resources that will be necessary for implementation. Institutional com-
mitment is expressed not by leadership speech, but by the adoption of an
institutional policy to develop a strategic plan for glocal higher educa-
tion, the formation of a strategic planning committee, and the allocation
of financial and logistic resources for such committee to complete its

Formation of a Strategic Planning Group or Taskforce and

Steering Committees
An effective strategic planning process should be conducted by a man-
dated strategic planning group or taskforce that is representative of vari-
ous groups and major units of a college or university. A mandate and
evidence of representativeness are very important for a strategic planning
taskforce to succeed. These two factors alone do not guarantee success,
but they will contribute greatly by providing confidence to the members
of an institution and ease their willingness to cooperate with the task-
force. Ideally, an institution-wide strategic planning group or taskforce
should be supported by various subcommittees that can lead sectional
strategic planning processes to contribute to the broader process. The
formation of subcommittees may help ensure that almost everyone finds
opportunities to contribute to a strategic plan, by creating a sense of
ownership and buy-in from all units within a postsecondary institution.
It is important to stress that partial or complete internationalization of a
college or a university implicitly carries an emotional component that is
similar to cultural or organizational change. Internationalization requires
change in mind-set, in curriculum, teaching practices, perspectives on
research and service, and in campus climate. Change never occurs with-
out some form of implicit or explicit resistance from the status quo that
would be at least altered or completely transformed. Therefore, the pro-
cess of change through internationalization is as important as the inputs,
outputs, and outcomes. The strategic planning process for internation-
alization should involve a facilitation structure and incremental transpar-
ent and participative decision making framework that are respectful and
responsive to the culture of faculty governance that is at the core of most
postsecondary institutions.
G L O C A L H IG H E R E D U C AT IO N 175

Contextual Assessment
Jean Francois (2012) developed the Motivation for Internationalizing
Curriculum Scale (MICS) to assess faculty intrinsic and extrinsic moti-
vation for internationalizing the curriculum (Box 13.2), and argued that
assessing faculty motivation for internationalizing the curriculum is a

Box 13.2 The Motivation for Internationalizing Curriculum Scale


1. Personal interest.
2. Relevance to your job.
3. Student interest in internationalized curricula.
4. Your international knowledge/expertise.
5. Your ability to develop internationalized curricula.
6. Opportunity to develop new ideas.
7. Opportunity to improve your teaching.
8. Intellectual challenge.
9. Opportunity for scholarly pursuit.
10. Opportunity to enhance personal self-satisfaction.
11. Release time from teaching (or other duties) for you to inter-
nationalize your curriculum.
12. Development and availability of internationalized instruc-
tional materials.
13. Seminars and workshops to assist you in your curriculum
development and internationalization efforts.
14. More funds for participation in international programs, sabbati-
cals, and other related professional development opportunities.
15. More funds to support curriculum development and inter-
nationalization for on-campus courses.
16. More funds to support curriculum development and inter-
nationalization for off-campus courses.
17. Including your participation in internationalization efforts
in your evaluation process (salary increases, tenure, and
18. More funds to support student participation in international-
ized programs.
19. Recognition, support, and encouragement from dean or chair.
20. Expectation by institution that faculty participate in global
education initiatives.
176 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

key component of a strategic planning process, because a comprehensive

strategic plan requires the involvement and commitment of faculty for its
Besides the faculty, a contextual assessment should collect information
about the perceptions of all internal and external stakeholders related
to a postsecondary institution, including potential collaborators for glo-
cal higher education programs. Contextual assessment should also take
into account the global or international demand for higher education.
Appreciative inquiry provides a framework that can contribute to effec-
tive contextual assessment. Simply put, appreciative inquiry is a change
management approach that emphasizes on positive abilities, accomplish-
ments, or assets of individuals, units, organizations, or institutions, in
order to bring transformative solutions to existing challenges (Lewis,
Passmore, and Cantore, 2008; Mohr and Watkins, 2002; Whitney and
Trosten-Bloom, 2010). Mohr and Watkins (2002, p. 5) suggests an appre-
ciative inquiry process emphasizes on (a) choosing the positive as the
focus of inquiry, (b) inquiring into exceptionally positive moments,
(c) sharing stories and identifying life-giving forces, (d) creating shared
images of a preferred future, and (e) innovating and improvising ways to
create that future.
Asset mapping through appreciative inquiry and SWOT (Strengths,
weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis are effective tools that
can be used to conduct contextual assessment. An asset mapping will
help make an inventory of what is currently being done that implic-
itly or explicitly contributes to internationalization (i.e., contributes
to diverse or intercultural experiences, transnational worlview). For
example, an institution may have a large pool of international faculty,
staff, and students, offer several study abroad programs or international
service learning activities, or include faculty involved in all kinds of
international activities or collaborations. However, such internal insti-
tutional assets may exist without any form of coordination that would
enable to assess their efficiency and effectiveness. An asset mapping
would help identify what internationalization is already taking place
and provide clues about what to improve and what to change. Further,
an asset mapping helps involve staff and faculty and even students in the
process. On the other hand, information from a SWOT analysis can
help develop strategies to use identified strengths as a means to pursue
matching opportunities, overcome weaknesses, and reduce vulnerability
to external threats.
Finally, a strategic plan with a facet on financial sustainability tends to
receive greater support from those who will be called upon to make the
G L O C A L H IG H E R E D U C AT IO N 177

needed financial investment to implement a future strategic plan for glo-

cal higher education. Therefore, the contextual assessment should include
the identification of sustainable means to finance the implementation of
the strategic plan.

Development of a Strategic Plan

Each unit should conduct its own SWOT analysis, define strategic goals,
objectives, and strategies in relation to the overall purpose of the institu-
tional strategic process. Partial strategic plans developed by subcommittees
should be analyzed, synthesized, and used as a resource document for
drafting an institutional strategic plan. A coherent and comprehensive
strategic plan for glocal higher education will include strategic program-
matic priorities, strategic goals, and objectives.
A strategic plan is the ref lection of various choices made about the
future orientation of glocal higher education. The determination of stra-
tegic priorities results from the vision, mission, and values statements,
contextual assessment, and consensus among the internal and external
stakeholders. Strategic goals are long-term statements describing pro-
grammatic conditions that an organization or institution wants to accom-
plish within a certain period of time, usually three, five, seven, or ten
years. Objectives are specific statement of action that must be completed
toward the achievement of strategic goals. For each strategic goal in a
strategic plan, there should be at least two or three objectives, whose
attainment would cumulate to the achievement of the goal.
Overall, a strategic plan for glocal higher education may include goals
and objectives for:

M Internationalization: Integration of global dimensions and contents in

the teaching, research, and service function of a postsecondary insti-
tution ( Jean Francois, 2010). For example that can be translated in
the form of (a) increasing the standing of a college or university based
on objective criteria and benchmark used to categorize world-class
universities, (b) exponentially increasing the ratio of international
faculty and students, (c) increasing the international experience for
undergraduate and graduate students, (d) developing an international
physical presence in various regions of the world, (e) integrating
international contents and perspectives into all majors, (f ) fostering a
diverse campus climate that encourages, recognizes, appreciates, and
rewards international engagement in teaching, research and scholar-
ship, and service, (g) and other similar goals or objectives.
178 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

M Glocal competence: Integration of glocal competence goals, objectives,

and outcomes into the strategic plan. This can be in the form of
exponentially increasing the international service learning and study
abroad opportunities for students through reviews of administrative
policies and curriculum reform, so that students can have as much
international immersion experience as possible.
M Glocal teaching and learning: Integration of glocal teaching and learn-
ing goals, objectives, and outcomes into the strategic plan. For
example, an institution might initiate major curriculum revision
(in collaboration with its accrediting agencies) to ensure that glocal
dimensions are infused throughout the curriculum and instruction
processes, as opposed to one course or seminar on international or
cultural studies.
M Glocal education programs: Integration of goals, objectives, and out-
comes for glocal education programs into the strategic plan. Intention
for glocal education programs may be expressed through proactive
identification of institutions in other countries to develop and imple-
ment glocal collaborative degree programs (e.g., dual degree, double
M Glocal partnership: Integration of goals, objectives, and outcomes for
glocal partnership into the strategic plan. An institution may want
to encourage a culture of glocal partnership not just for glocal col-
laborative programs, but also for all kinds of collaboration among
individuals, on projects, research, and consultancy to international
M Glocal inquiry: Integration of goals, objectives, and outcomes for glo-
cal inquiry into the strategic plan. In glocal inquiry, the focus will
be particularly on glocal research collaborations with scholars from
institutions of higher education based in another country.
M Glocal development: Integration of goals, objectives, and outcomes for
glocal development into the strategic plan. A college or university may
want to make a large imprint on global issues by tackling them in
local communities overseas through various partnerships with other
postsecondary institutions and international nongovernment organiza-
tions. Human trafficking or modern-day slavery, poverty, or endoge-
nous development could be examples of glocal development issues that
a postsecondary institution may have a strategic choice to address.

Further, a strategic plan for glocal higher education should encompass

the inputs or outputs, outcomes, and strategies for implementation. The
inputs define specific areas or items for institutional commitment. The
G L O C A L H IG H E R E D U C AT IO N 179

inclusion of inputs in a strategic plan for glocal higher education will make
stakeholders think twice before they commit to the investment of specific
resources. The outputs are activities or services, and participants that will
be involved in the implementation of an adopted strategic plan the pro-
gram. The outcomes are short-term (1–4 years), medium-term (5–9 years),
or long-term (10 years and above) results that a strategic plan will produce
for students, faculty, administration, and overall glocal education policy.
Furthermore, the implementation of a strategic plan for glocal purpose
will be challenged through the test of transworldiness and metaidentities
inherent to multiculturalism. Therefore, the strategic planning taskforce
or group strategic planning for glocal higher education should ensure that
the strategic plan includes provisions for proactive glocal collaboration/
partnership, intersectional synergies during the implementation process,
benchmarking related to the outcomes, and some form of parametabolism
linked to a commitment for continuous quality improvement through a
regular revision of strategies and tactics of implementation in ways that
are responsive to a glocal purpose.

Glocal Planning: A 2 × 4 Activity Matrix for

Internationalization at Home and Abroad
Glocal planning in higher education is a systemic strategic planning pro-
cess that aims for the glocal competence of graduates from an institution
of higher education. Glocal planning may involve a 2 × 4 activity matrix,
which would include internationalization at home and abroad through
the adoption of specific policies, guidelines, and activities in teaching and
learning, research and scholarship, service, and climate. Box 13.3 illustrates
the 2 × 4 activity matrix for internationalization at home and abroad. In
such matrix, the “2” stands for internationalization efforts: (1) at home, and
(2) abroad. The term internationalization at home is used to refer to poli-
cies, guidelines, and activities for internationalization in teaching, research
and scholarship, service, and climate that do not require overseas travels or
collaboration with institutions outside one’s country. Examples of activities
for internationalization at home include, but are not limited to,

M conduct an asset mapping to have an inventory of what is currently

being done that contributes to provide international contents or per-
spectives in teaching, research and scholarship, and service;
M conduct a SWOT analysis to analyze the cross-cultural responsive-
ness of current campus climate for international students, faculty, and
staff, as well as support for initiatives related to internationalization;
180 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

M revise existing courses to infuse international contents or perspectives;

M develop new courses with international contents or perspectives;
M plan and organize activities that provide international exposures to
students within the borders of their home country;
M provide support for research on foreign-born citizens and immigrant
communities living within the borders of one’s country; and
M encourage every unit to develop strategies for internationaliza-
tion and include benchmarks for internationalization within their
annual plans.

Internationalization abroad concerns policies, guidelines, and activities

for internationalization in teaching and learning, research and scholar-
ship, service, and climate that involve traveling abroad or collaboration
with at least an institution outside one’s country. Examples of activities
for internationalization abroad could be:

M increase the number of faculty-led study abroad and international

service learning programs;
M offer cross-national dual degree programs or increase the number of
cross-national dual degree programs;
M open branch or satellite campuses overseas in collaboration with
other international postsecondary institutions;
M adopt strategies to enhance the affordability of international service
learning and study abroad programs;
M provide support to faculty to compete for grant opportunities to
conduct research abroad or in collaboration with an institution out-
side one’s own country; and
M encourage students, staff, and faculty to serve in international profes-
sional associations and international nongovernmental organizations.

Box 13.3 Internationalization at Home and Abroad

Internationalization Teaching and Research and Service Climate

learning Scholarship
At home

Source: Author.
G L O C A L H IG H E R E D U C AT IO N 181

Furthermore, the “4” refers to internationalization in: (1) teaching,

(2) research and scholarship, (3) service, and (4) campus climate. In other
words, the goals for internationalization should be defined based on
activities at home and abroad, in four areas of teaching and learning,
research and scholarship, service, and climate. The following are exam-
ples of goals for internationalization in teaching, research and scholarship,
service, and climate:

M Internationalization of teaching and learning: Integrate international

comparative contents and perspectives across the curriculum, teach-
ing practices of faculty, and learning experience of students.
M Internationalization of research and scholarship: Empower faculty
to proactively engage in research and dissemination of scholar-
ship that involve international collaboration or/and cross-national
M Internationalization of service: Promote faculty involvement in interna-
tionally related service activities at home and abroad that contribute
to fulfill the mission of a particular institution.
M Internationalization of climate: Provide a leadership and administrative
campus climate that is culturally responsive to international students
and faculty, as well as initiatives for internationalization in teaching,
scholarship, and service.

It is important that a strategic plan taskforce includes in its calendar of
activities various opportunities (sessions) to return to the contributors,
especially members of the subcommittees and other key engaged internal
and external stakeholders, and asks them to validate the draft of a strategic
plan for glocal higher education prior to final deliberation. Such valida-
tion may help ensure that internal and external stakeholders are comfort-
able with the strategic priorities, goals, objectives, inputs, outputs, and
outcomes that were deliberated from the strategic planning process. This
is an opportunity for people to make valuable additional suggestions and
renew their commitment to the plan.

Adoption and Celebration

The adoption of a strategic plan for glocal higher education should occur
through celebration, and provide the institution, especially all involved
182 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

in the process a sense of achievement. The celebration of the develop-

ment and adoption of a strategic plan can help create momentum for
initial implementation, and set precedent for accountability and continu-
ous quality improvement. In fact, the celebration should include oppor-
tunities not only to remind about the fundamentals of the plan, but also
to reconfirm the various commitments for implementation, especially
commitment for resource allocations.

Questions and Activities

1. What do you think is the role of strategic planning in higher
2. Your task is to lead a SWOT analysis team: Who will you contact?
What types of questions will you ask? What strategies will you use
to ensure that people are evasive in their answers?
3. How would you develop a plan for a glocal higher education program?
What strategic priorities will guide your actions?
4. Do you think there is a difference between planning for interna-
tionalization or global education and planning for glocal higher
education? Explain!
5. Why do you think it is important to conduct an assessment prior to
develop a strategic plan for glocal higher education?



About a Glocal Education Program

A program is a set of activities with quantifiable goals and objectives
designed to achieve an institutional, organizational, community, or social
purpose. An institutional or organizational program is designed within
the vision and mission of such institution or organization. A community
program is designed to make change or contribute to changes in a tar-
geted community. A social program aims to contribute to social, politi-
cal, economic, or cultural change in a specific society.
On the one hand, an institution or organization may design a program
to achieve a global purpose with the involvement of stakeholders located
in different countries and societies. This would be a global program. On
the other hand, an organizational, institutional, community, or social
program that targets local community(ies) or society within the border
of a single country would be a local program. In that context, a national
program without the ambition to reach constituents beyond the borders
of a nation-state is considered a local program, in contrast to a global
However, sometimes, institutions or organizations from one country
may decide to develop a program with a global purpose in partnership
with a local or national partner. Therefore, the planning, implementa-
tion, and evaluation of such program will involve a partner with a global
purpose and at least another partner primarily with a local perspective
or expertise for such program. This would be a glocal program. In other
words, a glocal program is a set of activities with a global purpose, and
specific goals and objectives in partnership with one or several local
184 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

partners that contribute a local perspective in the planning, implementa-

tion, evaluation, and potential continuing quality improvement.

Glocal Higher Education Programs and Common Types

A glocal higher education program is one initiated by a postsecondary
institution or an authorized person associated with a postsecondary educa-
tion institution to serve a research, teaching, learning, or other educational
purposes. Most of the glocal higher education programs are interpersonal,
consultative, inter-institutional, multipartite, transnational, or involve
special arrangements.

An interpersonal glocal higher education program is a partnership between
partners from institutions located in two different countries in order to
achieve a program with a global purpose, using a local perspective. For
example, researcher from one university desiring to conduct international
or comparative research may partner with another researcher or a person
contact at a university in a different country, to conduct research on a
target population in such country. The researcher with an international
or comparative research agenda is the global partner. The researcher or
person contact who will contribute a local perspective to the study is the
local partner. This cooperation requires a set of activities with a global
purpose, specific goals, objectives, outcomes, through a local perspective,
thus constituting a glocal higher education program. This is an interper-
sonal glocal higher education program. It is interpersonal, because such
program involves primarily the two people or partners collaborating,
with little to no institutional involvement (i.e., administrative procedures
for travel, research, funding, report). An interpersonal glocal higher edu-
cation program can involve two partners from two different countries
to contribute their local perspectives to implement a project or program
or conduct a research study with a global purpose. In that context, the
globalness is in the purpose of the program or the collaboration. The
localness resides in each partner who will provide a local perspective.
Although an interpersonal glocal higher education program needs to fol-
low appropriate institutional administrative policies or procedures (i.e.,
funding, travel, ethical research standards, and reports), such program is
interpersonal, because the purpose, goal, objectives, agendas, and evalua-
tion are set exclusively by the two people involved.
M A N AG I N G G L O C A L E D U C AT I O N P RO G R A M S 185

A glocal higher education consultative program is a collaboration based
on a consultancy initiated by a local or a global partner in order for one
partner to receive a compensated or rewarded educational or support ser-
vice from the other. It is important to underline the term consultancy,
which means that one partner possesses an education-based or education-
related expertise that the other partner requests. The consultancy is in
the form of a collaboration that includes a “global” partner and a “local”
partner. The global partner will be the expert who have developed a
global or international recognition and will be providing an outsider
expertise to a local or national university. Therefore, the global is not
justified in the country of citizenship or residence of the expert, but in
the globalness of the expertise. The local resides in the partner that will
contribute the local perspective.
A university located in one country (local partner) may request the
expertise of scholars from another university (global partner) in a differ-
ent country to develop a new graduate program in a specific discipline
that would be an example of glocal consultancy. This consultation will be
based on a cooperative or consultative agreement to provide an education-
based or education-related service. This would be a glocal higher educa-
tion consultative program.
A college or university, organizing a study abroad or international
service learning program, using in exchange for a reward or compensa-
tion the facilities, staff, faculty, and other resources of an educational
institution in another country is another example of a consultative glo-
cal higher education program. The college or university organizing the
study abroad or international service learning program is the global partner.
The educational institution in another country is the local partner. In
that case, the expertise contributed is in the form of logistic and academic
support. In that collaboration, the global partner cannot effectively plan
and implement such study abroad or international service learning with-
out the local perspective of the local partner.

An interinstitutional glocal higher education program involves a program
planned and implemented through a partnership between an institution
with a global purpose and another institution that would provide a local
perspective. Two universities from two different countries offering a dual
or a joint degree program would be an example of an interinstitutional
186 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

glocal higher education program. One of the institutions may provide the
global perspective (i.e., global scholars, recognition, internationalization
agenda, etc.) and the other institution may provide the local perspective
(i.e., local participants or beneficiaries, local setting, local agenda).

A multipartite glocal higher education program involves a program
planned and implemented through a consortium of more than two part-
ners with a combination of global and local perspectives. An example of
a multipartite glocal higher education program could be a consortium
of two or more postsecondary education institutions funded by a grant
maker agency (e.g., USAID, African Union, Asian Development bank,
OECD, OAS, UNESCO, UNICEF) to implement an educational pro-
gram in a country different from the country of at least one of the other
postsecondary institutions involved in the partnership.

A transnational glocal higher education program is a set of purposeful
teaching and learning activities for students located in a country different
from the country of a global institution that planned and implemented
such a program. A transnational glocal higher education program uses
a local perspective in philosophy, delivery, curriculum, and instruction
that involve such program, without necessarily partnering with a local
organizational or institutional third party. The development of a branch
campus abroad is an example of a transnational glocal higher education

Special Arrangements
Some glocal higher education programs may fall into more than one
types described above, and can be considered as special arrangement glo-
cal higher education programs. For example, an interpersonal partnership
may involve a scholar affiliated with a postsecondary education institu-
tion from one country and another independent scholar from a different
country, without an institutional affiliation. A study abroad program may
be offered by a third party that is multinational, but maintains on-site
staff that can provide local perspective to a study abroad or international
service learning program. A scholar may provide an independent con-
sultancy without any involvement of his/her institution of affiliation.
M A N AG I N G G L O C A L E D U C AT I O N P RO G R A M S 187

In other words, the categories of interpersonal, consultative, interinsti-

tutional, multipartite, and transnational are not the only types, thus a
special arrangement category.

Management is simply the process and practice of planning, organizing,
coordinating, controlling, and making decision about the implementa-
tion of activities, projects, and programs that enable an organization or
institution to achieve its goals and objectives through available resources.
As this definition suggests, management carries the function of planning
(i.e., setting direction, priorities, and performance targets), organizing
(i.e., designing of tasks, task assignment), coordinating (i.e., reporting
relationships, patterns of interaction), controlling (i.e., staffing, motivat-
ing, performance assessment), and making decisions (i.e., balancing alter-
natives and context to make decisions). Management plays a key role in
the success of the failure of a program. As Finkelstein, Hambrick, and
Cannella (2009) argued, “The small group of people at the top of an
organization can dramatically affect organizational outcomes. Executives
make big and small decisions. They shape the framework by which their
organizations hire, mobilize, and inspire others to make decisions. They
represent their organizations in dealings with external constituencies
(p. 3).” Effective management is central to the success of a glocal higher
education program. The management of a glocal higher education should
be based on intentional global and local perspectives inspired by cross-
cultural management.

Financial Management
Financial management is a set of strategies and practices that help you
manage the revenues and expenses related to an institution, an organiza-
tion, a program, or a project. Financial management includes all aspects of
budgeting, bookkeeping and banking, cash f low, balance sheet, purchase,
credit, taxes, and financial statements. Every institution of higher educa-
tion would have adopted accounting policies and procedures, in order to
ensure that assets are safeguarded, financial statement are in compliance
with generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) or other account-
ing tools or frameworks, and that finances are managed with appropriate
and effective stewardship. Usually, the management of a glocal higher
education program involves other intrainstitutional units that specialize
themselves in various aspects of the finance of a program or a project,
188 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

especially if an overseas party is involved. Managers of glocal higher edu-

cation programs should ensure that they follow appropriate institutional
guidelines at all time, document issues that can hinder the effectiveness of
the program, and address them promptly with authorized administrators
who have the ability to make decisions. Financial issues related to a glocal
partner should be addressed with the context of the cultural dimensions
that are more relevant to such partner, in a manner that is respectful and
without the assumptions that a partner from another country “should
know better than that.” In a nutshell, financial management of a glocal
higher education should be responsive to the social, political, economic,
and legal contexts of each partner.

Cross-Cultural Management
Cross-cultural management is the management process and practices
that in a cross-cultural environment or a cross-cultural context. In a
glocal higher education program, the context or environment of cross-
cultural management can be physical or/and virtual. In a glocal higher
education, there will be stakeholders from different national and cultural
backgrounds. Therefore, there will always be a physical or a virtual cross-
cultural group work or team. Whether it is an interpersonal, consultative,
interinstitutional, multipartite, transnational, or special arrangement
program, the planning, organizing, coordinating, supervising, and con-
trolling of activities may involve face-to-face and virtual interactions
through emails, telephone, and videos. Therefore, the principles of
cross-cultural management will apply to most facets of a glocal higher
education program. Cabrera and Bowen (2005) assert that cross-cultural
management implies an ability to “expand scale, network or knowledge
economies beyond local markets, (to devise) business models that exploit
economic inefficiencies across national lines” (p. 799). In other words,
cross-cultural management requires an ability to manage complexities
beyond one’s national physical and cultural borders, because a cross-cultural
manager must develop an understanding of one’s culture in comparison
to other cultures (i.e., differences and similarities), especially the cultures
that participate in the makeup of a cross-cultural team. Johnson (2011)
put it best when describing cross-cultural managers as “change agents,
ethical, decisive, confident, proactive, critical thinkers, versatile, process-
focused, open-minded, and accountable” (p. 30). Management in a glocal
context is very challenging, because such context puts a manager in a
continuing struggle to decide between global requirements or standards
and the needs for local f lexibility or adaptation.
M A N AG I N G G L O C A L E D U C AT I O N P RO G R A M S 189

Hofstede (2001) provides a framework of cultural dimensions that is

very relevant to cross-cultural management. The framework suggests
four, then (later added) five major dimensions of cultural dimensions
prevalent to national cultures:

M individualism-collectivism,
M power distance,
M uncertainty avoidance,
M masculinity-femininity, and
M Confucian dynamism, or long-term orientation.

Individualism-collectivism measures the degree by which individuals seek

to protect their own interests over the interest of the group. In indi-
vidualistic societies the self has priority the common goal, whereas in
collectivistic societies the common good comes before the interests of
the individual. In individualistic society, employees are given freedom
and autonomy, thus creating opportunities for creativity and innovation.
In collectivistic societies, pressures are put on individual workers to con-
form to the norms, with less f lexibility to go outside of the box.
Power distance relates to the distribution of power in society and the
extent by which people accept inequality. Power is equally distributed
in societies with low power distance, and management tends to be par-
ticipative. In societies with high power distance, power is concentrated
in the hands of an elite, and the decisions of managers are received as
instructions to follow accurately, and cannot be challenged.
Uncertainty avoidance gauges the degree to which people feel threaten
when dealing with uncertainty or unknown factors. In low uncertainty
avoidance, people are willing to take risks and show f lexibility regarding
decision-making process in the workplace. In high uncertainty avoidance
societies, people favor rigid decision-making process, in order to avoid
taking too much risk.
Masculinity-femininity refers to the fact that masculine-oriented societ-
ies are performance or achievement driven, and employees are motivated
by rewards and prestige. In feminine-oriented societies, focus on equal-
ity for both gender strives more for consensus, and employees prioritize
quality of life over money or social status.
Long/short-term orientation also known as the “Confucian dynamism” is
the extent by which societies have long-term or short-term orientation.
Societies with long-term orientation are focused on the future, and employ-
ees are patient in the face of slow results. In short-term-oriented societies,
there is a focus on traditions, and employees strive for quick results.
190 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

Hofstede’s (2001) framework has been used in lots of studies and serves
as benchmark in various disciplines or fields of study (Kirkman and Law,
2005). However, the framework has been subject to some criticisms.
Maznevski, Nason, and Distefano (1997) said that two dimensions in
Hofstede framework are separate without justification, and some items
seemed unrelated. McSweeney (2002) argued that the samples for some
of the cultures in Hofstede analysis were too small to lead to broad gen-
eralization of such cultures.

Paracontextual Decision Making and Problem Solving

In a glocal higher education program with stakeholders from different
nationalities and cultural backgrounds, problem solving requires a sys-
tematic process that should be paracontextual, and which may include
the following (Figure 14.1):

M Assessment and problem formulation

M Objectives and outcomes
M Formulation of alternatives
M Evaluation of alternatives
M Deliberation and application
M Ref lection
M Transition








Figure 14.1 Steps in Paracontextual Problem Solving.

M A N AG I N G G L O C A L E D U C AT I O N P RO G R A M S 191

Assessment and Problem Formulation

Human interactions in any aspect of life constitute an inherent source of
conf licts and issues that are part of healthy living. Life is about challenges
and the ability to overcome challenges, and learn from them to grow
and mature. Therefore, it is an expectation that a glocal higher educa-
tion program will provide some issues or challenges to deal with. This is
especially true because glocal higher education programs comprise mul-
ticultural and multinational stakeholders or partners. An awareness and
understanding about the nature of a problem, its explicit and implicit
(root) causes is essential to maintain a healthy glocal partnership that
includes a glocal higher education program. A good understanding of
a problem or issue or challenge can be acquired only through an assess-
ment and formulation of the problem. Such assessment should be inspired
by the paracontextual nature of a glocal program. In other words, the
assessment must account for both the global and local context. The global
context means the environment of the partner with a global purpose in a
glocal program. The local context implies the environment or situation
of the partners with a local perspective in a program. To the extent that
is possible, the assessment and problem formulation should answer the

M What? What is the problem identified? What is/are the explicit cause(s)
of the problem? What is/are the root cause(s) of the problem?
M Where? Where was the problem identified?
M When? When did the problem first occur? Has there been a pattern?
M Who? Who identified the problem? Who will be affected by the
problem, if not solved? Who can benefit from the problem, if not
solved? Who can suffer collateral damage, if the solution applied to
the problem is ineffective?
M Why? Why should the problem be a concern for the current and
potential operations and success of the program?

Objectives and Outcomes

Defining objectives and outcomes is very important for an effective
problem-solving process. There is nothing more frustrating than having
to deal with the same problem every time, trying in vain to solve it, and
not knowing why the solutions adopted failed to solve such a problem.
The objective should be defined in terms of a solution to address the prob-
lem. Such as “Action verb + action/activity . . . in order to . . . anticipated
192 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

result. . . . ” An example of objective could be “Organize (action verb) a

post-travel workshop (action, activity) to reduce the percentage of stu-
dents experiencing depression associated with reverse cultural shock from
a study abroad program (anticipated result).” The outcome is the evidence
or the proof that the problem was solved. In the context of the objective
provided as an illustration, the outcome would be change in percentage
of students who experienced depression associated with reverse cultural
shock from a study abroad program, before and after the decision was
made to organize a post-travel workshop.

Formulation of Alternatives
One of the most common temptations that managers are attracted to
is to select the most obvious solution for a problem without thinking
about other possible solutions that may require more work and more
time. Sometimes, the most obvious solution works if one is lucky. Most
of the time, the obvious solution offers a temporary fix, until the same
problem reemerges. The best route for effective solution to a problem is
to identify all options possible, to ensure that the best solution was not
left behind. Formulation of alternatives or options can be done through
brainstorming with the involvement of all stakeholders with an interest
to solve the problem. In a glocal higher education program, both global
and local stakeholders must be involved in formulation of alternatives.
A stakeholder may not have a solution to offer but, if left behind, may not
feel a sense of ownership when a solution is applied, even if it is the best
solution. This is one type of malaise that is avoidable when managing a
glocal higher education program.

Evaluation of Alternatives
The evaluation of alternatives is critical to ensure that the option selected
is objectively the best one possible. In the context of a glocal higher edu-
cation program, each alternative or option identified to solve a problem
should be assessed based on at least three criteria: (a) the data or facts avail-
able to assess the quality or potential efficiency of each option, (b) the
cross-cultural sensitivity positively or negatively related to each option
and strategies to maximize (for positive sensitivity) or address (for nega-
tive sensitivity) them, and (c) the win-winness of each option. By win-
winness, I mean the extent by which each option directly or indirectly
provides a solution that is acceptable for both the global and local partners
while furthering the purpose of the glocal higher education program.
M A N AG I N G G L O C A L E D U C AT I O N P RO G R A M S 193

Deliberation and Application

At the deliberation and application stage, the best-possible solution
is adopted and applied to the problem. The deliberation must include
benchmarks and a timeline to assess the effectiveness of the solution.
The effectiveness will be assessed based on the objectives and outcomes
defined for the problem-solving process.

The problem-solving process should not stop after adopting a solution.
As part of a timeline to monitor the efficiency of a solution, managers
should intentionally create a space for ref lection regarding the impact
of the solution on the operations of a glocal higher education program.
The application of a solution, even the best solution, does not always
guarantee success, because there can be extraneous factors that prevent a
solution from working properly.

Transition is the ultimate stage of a problem-solving process. The tran-
sition should be designed to acknowledge that the problem was solved,
solved partially, or not solved. If the problem was solved, lessons learned
must be documented, and closure recorded. This is the ideal scenario. If
the problem was partly solved, manager should document the gap in the
application of the solution, make the appropriate adjustment to the solution
adopted, reapply the adjusted solution, and set a timeline for ref lection and
transition. If the problem was not solved at all, manager should acknow-
ledge and document the failure of the solution applied to the problem, reas-
sess and reformulate the problem, revise the alternative, identify additional
alternatives, involve additional stakeholders, select a new solution, deliberate/
apply the solution, and set timeline for ref lection and transition.

Developing and Nurturing Cross-Cultural

Groups and Teams
Cross-cultural teams or groups are characterized by their cultural diver-
sity. Members of a multicultural team or group may have different sets of
skills, levels of experiences, beliefs, values, personal ethics, and admin-
istrative experiences. The diversity of a multicultural team can be an
opportunity and a challenge at the same time—an opportunity because a
194 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

diverse group can be a learning team that grows quickly by overcoming

one challenge after another through the matching of the various sets of
skills with specific tasks. A multicultural team or group can accomplish
great things through the smart utilization of diversity as an asset.
On the other hand, the differences in a multicultural team or group
can constitute a continuing source of conf licts that makes working envi-
ronment toxic and hinders the team from being productive. Some people
are more sensitive than others about the lack of appreciation of their cul-
tural uniqueness. Managing a multicultural team requires the following:

M the definition of group purposes that are transcultural,

M the definition of specific outcomes and benchmarks,
M the provision of rewards for innovative, creative, and outstanding
M public recognition of inputs and moments of team spirit,
M celebration of accomplishments,
M providing opportunities for individual team members to feature facets
of their culture that can be beneficial for enhancing team spirit,
M utilization of effective listening,
M making conf lict resolution part of the team culture,
M promptness in making fact-based decisions when disputes risk to
negatively affect working atmosphere,
M the ability to manage talents and match them with benchmarks, and
M creating a safe alternative space where members practice to address
work-related differences in ways that promote withholding judg-
ments about others, tolerance, and appreciation of differences as an
asset for each team member and for the team as a whole.

Risk Management: Legal, Health, and Liabilities Aspects in

Management of Glocal Higher Education Programs
Risk management is the identification of potential risks related to the
operations of an activity and the adoption of reliable policies, procedures,
and strategies to minimize the effect of anticipated and unforeseen risks.
The implementation of a glocal higher education program involves the
movement of people within and across countries, thus carries some risks.
Some countries, like the United States, have very high level of liability
related to the operations of glocal higher education programs. This makes
it mandatory for managers to make every attempt possible to anticipate
all potential legal, liabilities, health, and other risk-related issues that
may arise during the life cycle of a glocal higher education program,
M A N AG I N G G L O C A L E D U C AT I O N P RO G R A M S 195

and determine policies, procedures, and strategies addressing them. Some

countries have less level of liabilities. A partner from a country with a
high level of liability has a responsibility to inform the counterpart from
another country about risks, liabilities, and safety issues, especially per-
taining to sexual harassment/assault, accidental death, personal injury,
motor vehicle and pedestrian accident, lack of due process, and unlawful
discrimination. In other words, short-term or long-term travels overseas
should always account for health and medical care, including repatriation,
and insurance. One should always be informed about the health care sys-
tem in a partner’s country, and plan accordingly.
Glocal higher education programs involve cross-national stakehold-
ers that abide by different laws and regulations related to immigration
and travel, hiring, taxation, currency exchange, and labor relations. For
example, most countries in the world require that someone who will stay
for six months or more secure a work permit. Therefore, it is important
to research the immigration laws of one’s own country and the country
where one maintains a partnership or collaboration. The awareness and
understanding is important whether you are sending people (i.e., faculty,
staff, and student) abroad or receiving visitors (i.e., student, exchange stu-
dents, and visiting scholars). Countries have different regulations related
to visa, work permit, hiring, and taxation. In the case of the United States,
such regulations are set by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) and related
information can be found from the IRS website. Other countries have
their own institutions monitoring employment regulations. This is impor-
tant for example when sending a faculty abroad or receiving a visiting lec-
turer in the context of a glocal higher education program. In some cases,
compensation is required to be paid in a specific currency, although the
US dollar is accepted almost everywhere. When planning a glocal higher
education program, it is important to clarify such details and not let it be
defined by assumptions. Finally, countries have various policies regarding
labor relations, depending on the type union environment that exists. It is
important to learn about conf lict resolution channels in a country where
one maintains collaboration, in order to avoid any surprise.

Questions and Activities

1. What do you think is the role of the management in a glocal higher
education program?
2. You are hired as a consultant to develop a job description for the
manager of a glocal higher education program. What would be the
key specifications in your final document of job description?
196 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

3. What are the factors you should take into consideration when hiring
staff for a glocal higher education program?
4. What are some strategies do you think can help motivate a multi-
cultural team or group work collaborating on a glocal project?
5. How would you assess the overall labor and employment-related
environments in a glocal higher education program? What would
you want to know? Who will ask questions? What types of questions
would you ask? How would you validate the information collected?


About Leadership
Northouse (2004) defined leadership as “the process whereby an individual
inf luences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal” (p. 3).
Leadership is very important for the effectiveness of an organization as
well the success of a project or an activity. With leadership comes guid-
ance, and a sense of direction that inspires a drive for action. Zalenick
(1986) cautioned not to confuse leadership with management, because
they mean two different things. Leadership is the ability to inf luence fol-
lowers, but management oversees and directs subordinates (Martin, 1997;
Blank, 2001). The leader tends to focus on the big picture that affects the
relationship of an organization or institution with its external environ-
ment while the manager pays more attention to enhance the internal
facets. Furthermore, leadership roles stress a lot on matters of strategizing
for the future, defining or revising vision, motivating stakeholders, and
transforming an organization or institution. On the other hand, manage-
ment roles emphasize on staffing and supervising, monitoring utilization
of resources, overseeing and controlling the proper execution of tasks,
and the application of policies and procedures.
According to Zalenick (1986), management implies an impersonal and
even passive attitude toward goals, whereas leadership involves an environ-
ment of personal and active attitudes to accomplish goals. He also argued
that management is a combination, an interaction between people and
ideas for strategic decision making. Leadership is a process of inf luence
through high risk and even danger. According to Kotter (1990), manage-
ment occurs through complexity, planning, rigid organizational design
and structures, and outcomes monitoring, while leadership is about set-
ting vision, direction, and providing inspiration. Bennis and Nanus (1985)
198 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

summed it perfectly when they asserted, “Managers are people who do

things right and leaders are people who do the right thing” (p. 221).
However, it is fair to say that in many cases, there is an overlap between
the roles of leaders and managers with respect to their responsibility and
accountability for the outcomes and impact of an organization or institu-
tion. In addition, there is a continuing negotiational interaction between
the leader and the follower, which is similar to the dynamic between the
manager and the subordinate ( Jean Francois, 2005). This is to say that
followership is an essential component of leadership, because there is no
leader without followers. Therefore, the interaction between the leader
and the followers is at the heart of what constitutes the essence of leader-
ship. Atchison (2003) even argued that followership is indispensable to
effective leadership. I could not agree more. My view is show motivated,
inspired, and committed followership, and I will point you to a leader.
Most definitions of leadership imply a process of social inf luence over
the cognition, affect, and behavior of others to structure the activities
and relationships within a group or an organization (Rauch and Behling,
1984; Bass, 1990). Mc Gregor (1966) noted that:
There are at least four major variables now known to be involved in

M the characteristics of the leader;

M the attitudes, needs, and other characteristics of the follower;
M the characteristics of the organization, such as its purpose, its struc-
ture, the nature of the task to be performed; and
M the social, economic, and political milieu. (p. 73)

Leadership must not be confused with power, although a leader may

exert some power and authority on the follower. However, the leader-
ship is not defined by the power, but the authority accepted by the fol-
lowers and the ability to inf luence the perceptions and behavior of such
followers toward a vision or a larger purpose. Yet people in all positions
of authority exert some type of power and authority on followers. In
other words, there is a difference between inf luencing with power and
inf luencing through leadership. Inf luencing with power is mostly based
on coercion and pressure of punishment or retaliation. However, inf lu-
encing with leadership is rooted in the ability of the leader to persuade
the follower to voluntarily commit to a vision or a purpose. Studies
of leadership may be dated from as early as Plato, especially with his
“The Republic,” which was basically a book about how to be a public
leader. The philosopher king of Plato was in essence a reference to an
educated and visionary leader who could inspire his people. However,

early formal explanations or studies of leadership include the great man

theory, traits, behavioral, contingency, and attribution and charismatic
theories. Other frameworks include, but are not limited to, transactional/
transformational and servant leadership theories.

Great Man Theory

The great man theory was based on the idea that leadership is related to
some masculine characteristics, such as being Caucasian, strong, and tall.
The men with such characteristic were taken for granted to be good fit
to become effective leaders. Consequently, world progresses were con-
sidered to be a result of what such great men were able to accomplish
(Carlyle, 1910). It is evident that such theory did not stand the test of
history due to its explicit sexism and even racial biases. We now know
as a fact that men and women from every race, ethnicity, and physical
characteristic can be effective leaders.

Traits Theories
Traits theories are to a certain extent another way of expressing the great
man theory. The traits theories associated leadership abilities or skills or
effectiveness with some physical, personal, social, and personality traits
considered as inherent to individuals who are leaders (Stogdill, 1974). For
example, Kirkpatrick and Locke (1991) argued that “it is unequivocally
clear that leaders are not like other people” (p. 59), and expanded to assert
that contrary to other people, leaders have the drive, the desire to lead,
honesty and integrity, self-confidence, cognitive ability, and knowledge.
Therefore, one could determine whether a leader can be effective by an
assessment of some individual traits (Gardner, 1989). Box 15.1 describes a
selected list of traits that were associated with leadership in various studies
or publications
There is no doubt that some of these traits could be found in an effec-
tive leader. However, these traits alone do not make an effective leader.
It would be misleading to think that if someone has these characteristics,
she/he will be an effective leader. In other words, while some traits can
be important contributors to one’s leadership abilities, there is no evidence
that possessing these traits alone may make one become an effective leader
(Stogdill, 1974; Yukl and Van Fleet, 1992). In fact, Wright (1996) found
that there were “no difference between leaders and followers with respect
to these characteristics . . . ” (p. 34). In other words, a follower with no
intention of being a leader or with no leadership skills may show the same
traits as someone who is an effective leader.
200 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

Box 15.1 Selected List of Traits Associated with Leadership in

Various Studies or Publications

Author (date) Selected traits

Dubrin (2004) Assertiveness, self-confidence, sense
of humor, warmth, enthusiasm,
trustworthiness, and extroversion
Kirkpatrick and Locke (1991) Drive, motivation, integrity,
confidence, cognitive ability, and
task knowledge
Lord, DeVader, and Aliger (1986) Dominance, intelligence, and
Stogdill (1974) Achievement, cooperativeness,
initiative, persistence, responsibility,
and self-confidence

Behavioral Theories
The behavioral theories looked at leadership based on the behavior of
the leader. They identified patterns of leader behavioral relationships
associated with performance of groups within organization. Behavioral
leadership theories include The Ohio State studies (Stogdill, 1974),
Douglas McGregor’s (1966) theory X and theory Y, Rensis Likert’s
(1967) Michigan studies, Blake and Mouton’s (1978) managerial grid, and
Lewin’s studies (Megginson, Mosley, and Pietri, 1989). The behavioral
leadership theories have made leadership behavior an integrative part of
the leadership process. However, critiques argued that the style approach
lacked consideration for the situational factors that inf luence leadership
interactions between the leader and the followers. In fact, some critiques
were quite severe. For example, Yukl (1994) asserted that studies on style
approach were “mostly contradictory and inconclusive” (p. 75). Further,
Robbins (1996) wrote, “Situations change and leadership styles need to
change with them. Unfortunately, the behavioral approaches don’t rec-
ognize changes in situations” (p. 419). In fairness, one must recognize
that the behavioral theories have contributed to broaden the perspectives
to study leadership by providing an additional framework (behavior) to
look at a leader, besides the personality traits.

Contingency Theories
The contingency theories contributed to expand the explanation and
understanding of leadership by looking at the styles of the leader and
situations within which leadership occurs. Fiedler (1967) argued that the
effectiveness of the leader depends on the leadership style and the degree
to which the situation or the context gives control and inf luence to the
leader. In other words, an effective leader would be the one who can
adapt to a situation, because a different situation will require a different
style of leadership. Consequently, the leadership style will be contingent
on the situation, which is related to the level of followers’ readiness or
maturity (Hersey and Blanchard, 1977). The contingency theories include
other approaches such as the leader-member exchange theory (Duchon,
Green, and Taber, 1986), the path-goal theory (House, 1971), and leader-
participation model (Vroom and Yetton, 1973). Critiques argued that the
contingency or situational theories of leadership have focused mainly on
the relationships between the leader and the immediate followers, and
did not account for demographic characteristics such as age, education,
or experience, which may contribute to the leadership interactions in
context (Vecchio and Boatwright, 2002). In addition, the contingency
theories neglected the structure, politics, or symbols that constitute a
leadership environment (Bolman and Deal, 1997).

Attribution and Charismatic Theories

The attribution theories have associated the performance of an organi-
zation or institution with the effectiveness of the leader (Pfeffer, 1992).
In other words, an organization is considered as effective as its leader.
The charismatic theory views leadership based on the charisma of the
leader to inf luence followers through heroic or extraordinary behaviors
or abilities (House, 1976; Conger and Kanungo, 1998). Although a char-
ismatic leader can be effective, charismatic leader tends to be autocratic
or self-centered up to a level of cult of personality.

Transactional and Transformational Leadership

According to Wofford and Goodwin (1994), transactional leadership
implies the ability to inf luence and motivate toward short-term perfor-
mance and transactional role models. On the other hand, Wright (1996)
argued that transformational leadership involves the ability to inspire and
202 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

motivate the followers toward self-actualization needs, higher organi-

zational goals that neglect self-interest. Bass (1997) asserted that, “since
1980, general findings have been assembled that the best of leaders are
both transactional and transformational” (p. 132). Initially, Burns (1978)
posited transactional and transformational leaderships a comparative
model. Later Bass (1985) referred to the approach as a “Transactional-
transformational model of Leadership.”
In transactional leadership, the leader motivates followers by clarifying
desired outcomes into a contract, defining task requirements, consulting,
monitoring, providing feedback, and rewarding in exchange for successful
performance (Avolio, Bass, and Jung, 1995). While transactional leader-
ship may carry the potential to nurture commitment to tasks and improve
organizational performance, Avolio, Bass, and Jung (1995) argued that
rewarding can negatively affect intrinsic motivation and creativity, and
may fall short of helping followers achieve their full potential.
Bennis and Nanus (1985) describe a transformational leader as one
who “commits people to action, who converts followers into leaders, and
who may convert leaders into agents of change” (p. 3). Transformational
leadership promotes the empowerment of the follower to become a
leader, and empower other followers into leadership position through a
renewing cycle. Transformational leadership inspires the follower a sense
of trust, respect, and empowerment, without a feeling of being controlled
or micro-managed by the leader. According to Avolio, Bass, and Jung
(1995), transformational leadership is a process of inf luence that entails
changes in belief, values, and attitudes of the followers. Transformational
leadership includes behaviors associated with other leadership styles,
especially transactional, but it does offer a dynamic of leader-followers
relationships, and a comprehensive leadership framework (Bass, 1990;
Pawar and Eastman, 1997; Yukl, 2002).
However, Keely (1995) has questioned the ethics of transformational
leadership, stating that it can be exploitative and manipulative by encour-
aging the followers to go beyond their own self-interests to accommo-
date the self-interest of the leader on a primrose path on which they lose
more than they gain. Further, Keely (1995) argued that there is a lack
of check and balance in transformational leadership, because followers
can be transformed against their own self-interests. Carey (1995) asserted
that while transformational leadership can promote the values of equality,
honesty, loyalty, fairness, and justice, it can also be subverted to endorse
evil values such as racial superiority, submission, and social Darwinism.
Gronn (1995) argued that transformational leaders may engage in impres-
sion management by projecting a greater image of confidence, strength,

decisiveness, and mental accomplishments than what their reality is.

In doing so, a transformational leader may present a fantasy picture of
the future and try to be more inspirational to give the followers a false
impression of an ideal leadership (Gronn, 1995).

Servant Leadership
Servant leadership was introduced by Greenleaf (1977), a retiree of AT&T.
Greenleaf (1967), explained that a leader is obligated and responsible for
the moral environment of his group, organization, or society. Therefore,
serving is the first priority of leader. According to Greenleaf (2002) a leader
earns the right to lead only when people’s needs are satisfied. In other
words, servant leadership is based on the premise that the leader is one
to whom serving and the search for serving is a natural component of
the leader (Greenleaf, 1977; Farling, Stone, and Winston, 1999). The ser-
vant leader exemplifies a servant attitude that inspires followers to actions.
Prosser (2007) asserted that servant leadership was promoted a way of lead-
ing others by a desire to serve. Servant leadership is rooted on the virtues of
love, humility, altruism, vision, trust, empowerment, and service (Kaplan,
2000; Veronesi, 2001; Harrison, 2002; Wis, 2002; Patterson, 2003). Spears
(1995) identified ten principles of servant leadership—listening, empa-
thy, healing, awareness, persuasion, conceptualization, foresight, stew-
ardship, commitment to the growth of people, and building community.
Collaboration, integration, bridge building, and earning the trusts of others
are key ingredients for an effective servant leadership practice.
Boje (2003), questioned the consistency of a servant leadership
approach, and argued that “The servant leader is a bureaucratic authority
and at the same time a servant to the social welfare. It is not clear that the
servant leader decentralized authority” (p. 9). Boje (2003) underlined the
fact that servant leadership may involve Machiavellian strategies that may
collapse the entire proposition of servant leadership.
In addition, Boje (2003) argued that servant leadership as a frame-
work is contradictory. However, Greenleaf wanted to train managers to
become servant leaders, while indicating that servant leadership begins
“with the natural feeling that one wants to serve, to serve first. Then
conscious choice brings one to aspire to lead” (Greenleaf, 1991, p. 6).
Servant leadership as presented by Greenleaf (1991) seems more like a
trait that one develops, and not a learned behavior, which is implied
by training managers to become servant leaders. Furthermore, Bradley
(1999) argued that the focus on being a servant can prevent a leader from
fulfilling leadership tasks.
204 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

Despite the criticisms about the lack of well-designed and published

empirical research on servant leadership, theory has received the sup-
port of many (Kaplan, 2000; Veronesi, 2001; Harrison, 2002; Wis, 2002;
Patterson, 2003).

Other Contemporary Leadership Theories

There are various other leadership approaches that have been promoted
lately. On a subjective basis, I will mention emotional intelligence and
negotiational leadership. Emotional intelligence refers to intrapersonal and
interpersonal skills (self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy,
social skills) that are necessary for individuals to adjust in today’s world
(Goleman, 1998). The application of such intrapersonal and interpersonal
skills in leadership contexts helps establish better and healthier relation-
ships with workers or employees.
Negotiational leadership is the ability to develop an empowering
relationship with members of a team, group, organization, institution,
community, or society, through an implicit or explicit negotiation of
interests, in order to positively inf luence their perceptions, motivation,
and commitment to act toward a specific vision or a larger purpose ( Jean
Francois, 2005). The negotiational relationships can be implicit (e.g.,
persuasion, modelling) or explicit (e.g., asking for inputs, contribution,
participation) in other to ensure that followers espouse a vision and make
it their own, based on their own personal or individual interests.

Leadership in Cross-Cultural Contexts:

Hofstede’s Five Cultural Dimensions
Globalization has shrunk the distances among countries in the world
through various networks of communication and exchange enabled by
information and communication technology, but has not eliminated
cultural differences. Therefore, despite increased changes in societies,
cultures remain relevant for interactions with other countries and the
ability to inf luence individual perceptions and behavior in other societies.
Hofstede (1984, 2005) had conducted a study based on data collected
from individuals in various countries, and developed five dimensions that
characterize the distinctiveness and uniqueness of each national culture.
The five dimensions are:

M Power Distance Index or the extent to which members of a society

accept unequal distribution of power,

M Individualism/collectivism or the extent to which members of a

society are individually (self ) or collectively oriented (common pur-
pose before personal interest),
M Masculinity/feminity or the extent to which a society focuses more
on material things (masculinity) than caring for others (feminity),
M Uncertainty Avoidance or the extent to which members of a society
try to avoid ambiguity by relying more on norms than risk taking,
M Long-Term Orientation the extent to which the values of a society
are oriented toward perseverance (long term) or respect for tradition
and social obligations (short term).

The cultural dimensions of Hofstede have been under some scrutiny.

For example, Javidan et al. (2006) criticized Hofstede for not having
enough observation regarding the relationship between national wealth
and culture. Obviously, Hofstede cultural dimensions are generalizations
which may slightly vary in context. However, generalization is a good
place to start and start building relationships. Generalization provides a
starting point to engage in dialogue with followers and find out what is
truly connected to the distinctiveness and uniqueness of one culture and
what is not. Individuals and situations may change, and potentially con-
tradict a cultural dimension. However, the Hofstede’s framework remains
very insightful for leadership across national cultures or in the context of
multicultural teams, group works, or organizations.

The GLOBE Leadership Studies

Hofstede framework was expanded and modified by the GLOBE leader-
ship project. The GLOBE (Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior
Effectiveness Research) was inspired by Hofstede’s (1980) research on
cultural dimensions among countries in the world. The GLOBE project
grouped countries in clusters in nine cultural competencies, as a way
to assess the inf luence of geographic location and climate conditions of
countries on perceptions and behavior ( Javida & Dastmalchian, 2009).
The nine cultural competencies were:

M performance orientation (i.e., encouragement of members for excel-

lence or performance improvement),
M assertiveness orientation (i.e., aggressiveness in social relationship),
future orientation (i.e., planning and investment mindset),
M human orientation (i.e., reward for altruism),
M institutional collectivism (i.e., collective distribution of resources),
206 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

M in-group collectivism (i.e., cohesiveness in social unit such as family),

M gender egalitarianism (i.e., dismissal of gender differences or
M power distance (i.e., acceptance of unequal power sharing), and
M uncertainty avoidance (i.e., conformism to norms, traditions, and
rituals to avoid unpredictability).

Box 15.2 provides a list of the ten clusters and examples of countries
included in each cluster that were involved in the research related to
the implications of these competencies for leadership across cultures
(Grove, 2005).
An understanding about the inf luence of geographic location and cli-
mate conditions on perceptions and behavior can help in decision making

Box 15.2 Lists of Clusters by Alphabetic Order and Selected

Examples of Countries Included

Cluster Selected countries

Anglo cultures Australia, Canada, England, New Zealand,
South Africa (white sample), United States
Arab cultures Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Jordan, Kuwait,
Lebanon, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi
Arabia, Tunisia
Confucian Asia China, Hong Kong, Japan, Singapore, South
Korea, Taiwan, Vietnam
Eastern Europe Albania, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia,
Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia
Germanic Europe Austria, Belgium, Germany, Liechtenstein,
Latin America Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa
Rica, Ecuador, Mexico
Latin Europe France, Italy, Portugal, Spain
Nordic Europe Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden
Southern Asia Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Iran,
Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, Turkey
Sub-Sahara Africa Namibia, Nigeria, South Africa (black
sample), Zambia

related to leadership style in context. As a matter of fact, the study led

to the development of six GLOBE culturally-oriented leadership styles
across countries in the world (House, Javidan, and Dorfman, 2001):

M Charismatic/value based (i.e., demonstration of integrity, inspira-

tional, with a risk for autocratic practices),
M Team oriented (i.e., competence, team cohesion, and integration),
M Self-protective (i.e., self-centeredness and face saving),
M Participative (i.e., Participatory, non-autocratic, supportive behavior),
M Human orientation (i.e., compassion, altruism, modesty), and
M Autonomous (i.e., Absence of constant consultation).

Glocal Leadership
The term glocal leadership is used to suggest an approach to inf luence the
perceptions, motivation, and behavior of people toward glocal purposes
based on an understanding of cultural dimensions among societies in the
world and a focus on culture-specific ways of nurturing followership.
An understanding of cultural dimensions is a proxy for global leadership
principles, based on global mindedness, global leadership competencies,
and leadership facets related to global trends. Culture-specific ways of
nurturing followership is a proxy for local leadership, which is based on
local culture, context, and purpose. Glocal leadership can be developed
through a continuing improvement process related to factors such as:

M Glocal competence
M Facilitation of intersectional synergy
M Monitoring parametabolism
M Empowering insider’s leadership abilities
M Developing and nurturing alternative space
M Using transworldiness and para-contextual motivation
M Setting multi-purpose aims
M Integrating co-benchmarking in program and project implementation
M Fostering glocal rewards and return on investment

Activities and Questions

1. How would you define leadership?
2. How would you differentiate leadership from management?
3. What is your preferred leadership theory, if any? Why?
208 B U I L D I N G G L O B A L E D U C AT IO N

4. Describe your worst experience with an organizational leader!

What makes you consider such experience the worst one? What
have you learned from that experience?
5. Describe your best experience with an organizational leader! What
makes you consider such experience the best one? What have you
learned from that experience?
6. What are the key characteristics would you be looking for in an
effective leader? Why?
7. To what extent, if any, do you think leadership can contribute to
the financial sustainability of a nonprofit organization?

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academic, 52 education, 4–7

adjusted glocal symbiosis ratio, 80–1 employer, 141–3
agreement, 124 endogenous benchmarking, 80
applied research, 156
articulation, 120 fitness, 122
assets, 108–10 funding requirements, 119
assumptions, 62–3
assumptions’ differentiation, 78 Gantt chart, 81
attribution, 201 global, 73–4
authority, 156 global competence, 39–41
global education, 42–5, 58–9
basic research, 156 global higher education, 51–3, 169–82
behavioral theories, 200 global impact, 95
global inquiry, 94, 155–66
closure, 120 global outcomes, 95
collaborative inquiry, 166 global pedagogy, 94–5
commitment, 97, 125 global standardization, 53–6
communication, 98, 125 globalism, 35–7
community, 3, 96–7, 125 globality, 64
comparative observation, 166 globalization, 37–42, 45–6
conf lict resolution, 98, 126 globalmindedness, 166
contingency theories, 201 glocal, 73–5, 87–9
cross-cultural interactions, 151 glocal awareness, 89
cross-cultural research design, 164–5 glocal competence, 90, 133–4, 141–52
cross-societal construct, 163 glocal development, 90–1
cross-societal readiness, 78, 104–9 glocal higher education, 71–2, 85–99
cross-societal stakeholders, 162 glocal identity, 149–50
cultural dimensions, 204 glocal instructional context, 127
culture, 3 glocal knowledge, 89–90, 133–4
glocal leadership, 197–207
data analysis, 165 glocal learning, 114
data collection, 102, 160 glocal performance, 91
dissemination, 161 glocal planning, 93, 179–82
232 IN DE X

glocal problem statement, 162 learning via virtual networks, 138

glocal return on investment, 91 linguistic imperialism, 57–8, 163–4
glocal symbiosis, 73–83, 96 living abroad, 151
glocal symbiosis ratio, 80–3 local accommodation, 68–9, 93–4
glocal validation, 101–10 local centerdness, 166
glocalization, 61–71 local context, 58–9, 103–4
glocally informed pedagogy, 131–8 locally informed pedagogy, 130–1
localness, 65
high performance, 52
higher education, 41–2, 49–53, 143 managing, 183–95
hybridization, 66–7 mandate, 123
marketization, 56–7
insider, 73, 162 mechanics, 123
intercultural competence, 45, 144–6 metacontextuality, 75–6
intergovernmental organizations, 30–1 metaidentities, 77–8
international administrator, 27 MOA, 22–4
international cultural framework, 20 MOU, 22–4
international degree, 28 multipurposefulness, 79
international economic framework, 20 multistakeholderness, 65
international education, 17, 21–8,
31–2, 113 national education, 5
international legal framework, 19–20 nation-states, 47–9
international relations, 18–19 network society, 114–15
international school, 24–5
international students and scholars, objectives, 190, 191–2
25–6 openmindeness, 69–70
internationalization, 44, 53, 175–82 outsider, 73, 162
intersectional synergies, 79 oversight, 124–5

joint and dual degrees, 28 parametabolism, 79

joint programs, 55 partnership, 69, 115–26
joint project, 27–8 philosophy of education, 8–9
justice, 8 planning, 121
purpose of education, 7–8
knowledge society, 52
qualitative perspective, 46
language, 57, 163–4 quality assurance, 28
leadership, 197–9 quantitative perspective, 21
learning by organizing, 137
learning by teaching, 137 ref lection, 190, 193
learning informed teaching, 138 research design, 155–61
learning styles, 127–30
learning through immersion, 138–9 scientific inquiry, 157–61
learning through organizing, 138 second language acquisition, 152
IN DE X 233

seed, 70 transnational, 35, 38

segmented global integration, 67 transnational communities, 111–13
segmented inclusiveness, 66 transnational fields, 107
social mobility, 11–14 transnational organizations, 113
socialization, 10 transworldiness, 76–7
society, 1–4
strategic planning, 169–79 understanding, 52
structuro-functionalism, 9–11 UNESCO, 13, 25, 30, 31
study abroad, 27 United Nations, 19, 30, 31, 51
subnational education, 5–6 university, 6, 24–5, 29, 54
SWOT analysis, 171–3
validation design, 101
taxation, 48 verification, 102
the stranger, 151–2 visiting lecturers and scholars, 43
transcultural, 166
transcultural teaching and wealth, 10
learning, 136–7 work/study abroad, 43
transculturality, 108 workers, 13
transformative learning, 131–3 World Bank, 30
transition, 190, 193 World Trade Organization, 56