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TP = SP + VP

36 x 40 36 x 40

12 x 12

B C
A D

FAN
4005 CFM

SP = -1.50” SP = +1.50”
VP = ______ VP = ______
SP = ______ TP = ______ TP = ______ SP = ______
VP = ______ VP = ______
TP = ______ FAN TP = ______ TP = ______
FAN SP = ______
Loss: A to B = 0.25” Loss: C to D = 0.25”
TP = SP + VP
36 x 40 36 x 40
10 Ft2 10 Ft2
12 x 12 1 Ft2
400.5 FPM 400.5 FPM
B C
A D
4005 FPM
FAN
4005 CFM

SP = -1.50” SP = +1.50”
VP = +1.00”
______ VP = +1.00”
______
-0.26”
SP = ______ TP = ______
-0.50” TP = +2.50”
______ +2.24”
SP = ______
+0.01”
VP = ______ +0.01”
VP = ______
-0.25”
TP = ______ 3.00”
FAN TP = ______ +2.25”
TP = ______
2.00”
FAN SP = ______
Loss: A to B = 0.25” Loss: C to D = 0.25”
TP = SP + VP
30” x 48”
12” x 24”
5000 CFM

0” -0.25” -0.75” -1.25” SP +1.25”


+ VP
TP

Fan TP =________

External SP = ________ Fan SP = ________


TP = SP + VP
30” x 48” 10 Ft2
12” x 24” 2 Ft2
500 FPM
5000 CFM
+0.016” VPs 2500 FPM
+0.39” VPd

0” -0.25” -0.75” -1.25” SP +1.25”


+0.016” +0.016” +0.016” +0.016” + VP +0.39”
+0.016” -0.234” -0.734” -1.234” TP +1.64”

Ext. SP out = 1.25” Fan TP = 2.874” Fan SPd = 1.250”


- Ext. SP in = 0” - Fan VPd = 0.390” - Fan TPs = - 1.234”
OR
External SP = 1.25” Fan SP = 2.484” Fan SP = 2.484”
Temperature Vapor Pressure
F PSI FT
40 0.1217 0.281
50 0.1781 0.4115
60 0.2563 0.592
70 0.3631 0.815
80 0.5069 1.17
90 0.6982 1.612
100 0.9492 2.191
110 1.275 2.942
120 1.692 3.91
130 2.223 5.145
140 2.889 6.675
150 3.718 8.56
160 4.741 10.95
170 5.992 13.84
180 7.51 17.35
190 9.339 21.55
200 11.5 26.65
212 14.7 33.96
Duct Class 1_w in., 1 in., 2 in. wg 3 in. wg 4 in., 6 in., 10 in. wg
Seal Class C B A
Sealing Applicable Transverse Joints Only Transverse Joints and Joints, Seams and all
Seams Applicable Wall Penet­
rations
Leakage Class
Rectangular Metal 16 8 4
Round Metal 8 4 2
Table 5−1 Applicable Leakage Classes
NOTES: :
a. Leakage classes in Table 5­1 apply when the designer does not designate other limits and has specified Seal
Class C for 1_w in. and 1 in. wg. See text on sealing in the HVAC Duct Construction Standards, 3rd., 2005 manu­
al.

b. Unsealed rectangular metal duct may follow Leakage Class 48.

c. Fibrous glass duct may follow Leakage Class 6 (at 2 in. wg or less).

d. Unsealed flexible duct leakage average is estimated to be Class 30. Sealed nonmetal flexible duct is an aver­
age of Class 12.

e. See SMACNA HVAC Systems Duct Design, 4th ed., 2006 manual Table 5­1 for longitudinal seam leakage
rates.

f. Although Seal Class A or B might be assigned for lower pressures, the leakage class may not conform to those
associated with the higher pressure. Other construction details influence results.

g. Leakage Class(C L) is defined as being the leakage rate (cfm/100 sf) divided by P 0.65 where P is the static
pressure (in. wg). When P is numerically equal to 1 the leakage rate is C L. See Figure 5­1.

h. The duct pressure classification is not the fan static pressure nor the external static pressure (on an HVAC
unit) unless the system designer has made such an assignment in the contract documents. Unless construction
class is otherwise specified it means a static pressure classification in the SMACNA HVAC Duct Construction
Standards, 3rd., 2005. Those classifications pertain to maximum operating pressure in the duct as follows:

0.5 in. wg maximum

0.6 in. to 1 in. wg maximum

1.1 in. to 2 in. wg maximum

2.1 in. to 3 in. wg maximum

3.1 in. to 4 in. wg maximum

4.1 in. to 6 in. wg maximum

6.1 in. to 10 in. wg maximum

HVAC Air Duct Leakage Manual • Second Edition 5.3


APPENDIX E

Pressure Leakage Class (CL ) Unsealed


(P) P0.65
in. wg Class 2 Class 4 Class 8 Class 16 Class 48
0.05 0.143 0.3 0.6 1.1 2.3 6.8
0.1 0.224 0.4 0.9 1.8 3.6 10.7
0.2 0.351 0.7 1.4 2.8 5.6 16.9
0.3 0.457 0.9 1.8 3.7 7.3 21.9
0.4 0.551 1.1 2.2 4.4 8.8 26.5
0.5 0.637 1.3 2.5 5.1 10.2 30.6
0.6 0.717 1.4 2.9 5.7 11.5 34.4
0.7 0.793 1.6 3.2 6.3 12.7 38.1
0.8 0.865 1.7 3.5 6.9 13.8 41.5
0.9 0.934 1.9 3.7 7.5 14.9 44.8
1.0 1.00 2.0 4.0 8.0 16.0 48.0
1.5 1.30 2.6 5.2 10.4 20.8 62.5
2.0 1.57 3.1 6.3 12.6 25.1 75.3
2.5 1.81 3.6 7.3 14.5 29.0 87.1
3.0 2.04 4.1 8.2 16.3 32.7 98.0
3.5 2.26 4.5 9.0 18.1 36.1 108.4
4.0 2.46 4.9 9.8
4.5 2.66 5.3 10.6
5.0 2.85 5.7 11.4
5.5 3.03 6.1 12.1
6.0 3.20 6.4 12.8
F = CL (P0.65)
7.0 3.54 7.1 14.2
8.0 3.86 7.7 15.5
9.0 4.17 8.3 16.7
10.0 4.47 8.9 17.9
11.0 4.75 9.5 19.0

Table E−1 Leakage Factor F Expressed As cfm/100ft2 of Duct Surface Area

These factors can be read from Figure 5­1.

See Table 5­1 for Seal Class and Pressure Class

HVAC Air Duct Leakage Manual • Second Edition E.1


THE CHEAT SHEET II 
Tim Perry 2005 (Rev. 11/05)

RPM 2 CFM 2 CFM 2 RPM 2


= RPM 2 = RPM 1 × CFM 2 = CFM 1 ×
RPM 1 CFM 1 CFM 1 RPM 1

2 2
SP2  CFM 2   CFM 2  SP2
=  SP2 = SP1 ×   CFM 2 = CFM 1 ×
SP1  CFM 1   CFM 1  SP1

3 3
BHP2  CFM 2   CFM 2  BHP2
=  BHP2 = BHP1 ×   CFM 2 = CFM 1 × 3
BHP1  CFM 1   CFM 1  BHP1

CFM × SP CFM × SP GPM × TDH GPM × TDH


FanBHP = FanSE = PumpBHP = PumpEff =
6356 × SE 6356 × BHP 3960 × Eff 3960 × BHP

For Standard Air (70F @ 29.92"): For Other Than Standard Air:
2
 V  VP 530 BAR
VP =   V = 1096.7 × Den = 0.075 × ×
V = 4005 × VP  4005  Den 460 + T 29.92

BTUH = M × sp.ht . × ∆T M=Mass Flow Rate in Lbs. per Hour. sp.ht .= Specific Heat in BTU/Lb. per Degree F.

Water: sp.ht.=1.0 8.34 lbs.=1 gal. 8.34 lbs. x 60 min. = 500 lbs per hour x 1.0 sp.ht. = 500 BTUH / GPM

Air: sp.ht=0.24 0.075 lbs.=1 cu.ft. .075 lbs. x 60 min. = 4.5 lbs per hour x 0.24 sp.ht. = 1.08 BTUH / CFM

Den BTUH ( Sensible) BTUH


BTUH ( Sensible) = CFM × 1.08 × ∆T ( DB ) × CFM = ∆T =
0.075 1.08 × ∆T ( DryBulb) 1.08 × CFM

Den BTUH
BTUH (Total ) = CFM × ∆h × 4.5 × MBH =
0.075 h = Enthalpy in BTU per Lb. 1000

BTUH BTUH
GPM = ∆T =
BTUH = GPM × 500 × ∆T 500 × ∆T (Water ) 500 × GPM

CFM × 60 AirChanges / Hr
AirChanges / Hr. = CFM = RoomVolume ×
RoomVolume 60
%OA =
(RAT − MAT ) × 100 (%OA × OAT ) + (% RA × RAT )
MAT =
(RAT − OAT ) 100

OAT =
(MAT × 100) − (% RA × RAT ) RAT =
(MAT × 100) − (%OA × OAT )
%OA % RA

Circ.(in.) Ts ( FPM ) × 12 Ts ( FPM ) × 12


FanTipSpeedFPM = RPM × Circ.(in.) = RPM =
12 RPM Circ.(in.)

BL=Belt Length (in.) C=Distance between shaft centers (in.) D= Fan sheave dia. (in.) d=Motor Sheave dia. (in.)
2
BL = 2C + (1.57 × (D + d )) +
(D − d ) FanRPM = MotorRPM ×
d
MotorRPM = FanRPM ×
D
4C D d

V=Volts A=Amperes R=Ohms P=Watts PF=Power Factor (Motor) Eff=Efficiency (Motor) HP=Horsepower
BHP=Brake Horsepower (Motor) r=running np=nameplate SF= Service Factor (SF x npHP @ Continuous Duty)

V V % Load =
(rA − 0.5npA)× rV
R= A=
Ohm's Law: V = A× R A R 0.5npA × npV
LF (Load Factor)
V × A × Eff × PF Motor Load Load Load
BHP =
P = V × A × PF 746 HP 50% 75% 100%
Single Phase:
1 0.710 0.885 1.0
1.5 0.715 0.890 1.0
V × A × Eff × PF × 1.73 2 0.780 0.935 1.0
BHP =
3 Phase: P = V × A× PF ×1.73 746 3 0.795 0.940 1.0
5 0.835 0.950 1.0
7.5 0.875 0.970 1.0
rV × rA × LF ( FromTable) 10 0.890 0.975 1.0
Estimated BHP = npHP × 15 - 30 0.910 0.980 1.0
npV × npA
40 - 125 0.940 0.990 1.0
2
GPM ∆P( feet )  GPM 
Cv = GPM = CV × ∆P =  
GPM = CV × ∆P( psi ) ∆P ( psi ) 2.31  CV 

NPSHA = Net Positive Suction Head Available = Inlet psig + Inlet Vp (psi) + 14.7 psi – Vapor Pressure (psi)

BTUH Cooling Tower Approach = LWT - EATWB


Coefficient Of Performance =
Watts × 3.41 Cooling Tower Range = EWT - LWT

Equivalents: 1 psi = 2.31ft. H2O = 27.72 in. H2O = 2.04 in. Hg


1 in. Hg = 0.491 psi = 1.13 ft. H2O = 13.6 in. H2O
0 psig at sea level = 14.7 psia = 29.92 in. Hg = 33.9 ft. H2O = 407 in. H2O
1 gal H2O = 8.34 lbs. 1 lb. H2O = 0.12 Gal. 1 cu.ft. H2O = 7.48 gal. = 62.428 lbs.
1 Watt = 3.41 BTUH 1 HP = 746 Watts = 2546 BTUH
1 Ton Refrigeration = 12,000 BTUH 1 Ton Cooling Tower = 15,000 BTUH
1 gal Heating Oil = 140,000 BTU (Typ.) 1 cu.Ft. Natural Gas = 1000 BTU (Typ.)
Tim Perry  2005 (Rev. 11/05)