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2nd International Conference on Economy, Management and Education Technology (ICEMET 2016)

The Female Identity and "Connection" Theme in Foster’s Works — Take

"Howards End" as the Main Illustration
Liping Dong1, a
Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, Zhengzhou, Henan, China, 450000

Keywords: Sound "Connection" View, New Woman, Demeter

Abstract. In the novel "Howards End", the female identity is an important carrier "connect" theme.
Existing criticism discuss Foster's stance when women also tend to unity or contradiction between
the female characters and the "link" between the themes equivalent to Foster different female
identity appreciation or criticism. Combining creative thought process and the overall situation
Foster clarify "link" View of the intention and meaning, pointing out its contradictions individual
level and social level, the situation between the ideal and reality coexist, and then from the
correspondence between the themes and characters analyzes the female characters and the
"Connection" and a combination of reasons, manner, purpose and meaning, and then by means of
social background and intention of the author's novels reveal Foster "link" between seemingly
unified view and sex positions, the real odds the true relationship.

In the 1970s, with the rise and prosperity of feminist criticism, "as Foster Female Writers in"
"Foster described the type of women" (Goldman, 2007: 127-132) and female readers Foster
acceptance of feminist issues and other novels, Foster became one of the hot research. Novel
"Howards End," but also because of a variety of female consciousness, the living conditions of
female identity and women show became the main critic analysis and cited object. Most of the
existing criticism around the "Connection" and to analyze to Schlegel sisters mainly of more than
female image, combined with Foster's misogyny and his views on women's literature to infer his
own on women's issues position. In SP Rosenbaum (SP Rosenbaum) represented, many critics
believe, "" Howards End "is the most novel of all Foster feminism one, not only because the two
main characters of the novel is support suffragette movement two sisters (suffragist sisters) but
because other female characters are either positive or anti reflect various aspects of "Feminist
Thought. (Rosenbaum, 1994: 455) in Rosenbaum's view, "liberal, feminist and anti-colonialism
constitute the" Howards End, "the three main themes," and Forster also by hosting "link" View
Margaret Schlegel and Ruth Wilcox of appreciation to express his ideas and recognition of women's
rights. Rosenbaum and other critics with different views, Barbara Colin Ross Sri Lanka (Barbara
Rosecrance) and David • Bradshaw (David Bradshaw) two scholars, although Foster in "Howards
End" are portrayed, including the Schlegel sisters so "liberated women" (emancipated woman) a
variety of images, including a female, but he refused or lack of "coupling" of female characters,
especially for the "new woman" (New Women) typical of Helen Schlegel, as well as in class and
gender oppression under the double Jackie Buster not friendly, even holding condemnation and
Overall, academia when discussing "Howards End" in the female identity adopted two major
interpretation modes: one from the perspective of sexual and gender identity, combined with unity
or contradiction between the characters and the "link" between Outlook to explore them each
represents a gender perspective and value system, the Foster "links" are identical to the appreciation
of his affirmation of female consciousness. Another closely, "Connection", when discussing the
relationship between the female characters carrying the theme taken to sex / gender of the
characters - namely, the basic process aside and gender identity and characteristics of people,
focusing on their respective reflect Ideological and moral Attitudes, the figures as "link" symbol or

© 2016. The authors - Published by Atlantis Press 1624

counter-examples to look at. The latter mode of interpretation in the interpretation of Margaret and
Ruth, and two advocates seeking to "join" the female character was particularly prominent. Many
critics believe that Margaret and Ruth Foster pen androgynous goddess Demeter incarnation
(androgynous Demeter figure), their personality is coupled, the perfect embodiment of balance and
coordination, and this "beyond Personality in sex over "is the" Connection "and the praise and
respected. (Finkelstein, 1975: 101-102) from a gender perspective criticism, the second
interpretation mold seemingly neutral, but in fact fall into the trap designed to Foster, failed to see
the androgynous nature of the "link" is preached female identity and female consciousness
obliterated and replaced. In view of the female identity and the "link" the close relationship between
the topic, it is necessary to explore and interpret the image of female sex positions before Foster's
first clarify "link" within the meaning and intention, combined with Edwardian Britain Gender
relations and the status of women in society to analyze the cause and manner of female characters
and "link" in the novel concept of combining to reveal between Foster's seemingly unified
"connect" with the concept of sex positions, the substance of the relationship between real odds.

The Development and Inherent Contradictions of "Connection" View

Foster previously relatively novel, the role of female characters, the development of the hero and
the "link" within the meaning of the "Howards End" is changed. Although the "Room with a View"
as the hero with the girl, Lucy, and aired by its growth of self-consciousness and independence
nature, but in addition to "Howards End" and "A Passage to India," the female characters in the big
Most of Forster novels, especially his early works tend to act as a male protagonist impede
achieve breakthroughs awareness and identity building of negative factors, advocating on behalf of
the Foster's "link" View and free - Humanism in opposing intolerance and the concept of
consciousness fragmented. But in "Howards End", although there are also similar to the female role,
but Margaret, Ruth and Miss Avery has become a "link" practitioners, community emerged "links"
included mind, temperament and natural factors. Ways and direction from the point of view of the
characters grow, "Howards End" have taken the initiative before the hero bid farewell to the
established social identity and traditional ideas, in the self "other" social group consisting of a
spin-off from social conventions and is mainly composed of the same time abandoned "link."
Instead, Margaret has experienced a drop of self-seeking "link" in the reverse process. On the
surface, Foster "link" view changed from negative to positive change, but get to the bottom "links"
within the meaning found: Foster's attitude did not change and contradictions; but at different stages
"links" to emphasize different aspects, and accordingly reflect the themes and characters in the
novel body. "Howards End" Before the main emphasis of the novel is self-centered "links" --- is to
achieve the independence and integrity of the self-consciousness and pursuing links between art and
life, between Sense and Sensibility; to achieve this a coupling body of mostly middle-class men;
and the result is the character junction self improvement and self-isolated social groups and of
origin. And "Howards End," emphasized is based on "social relations" as the center of the "link" ---
is the link between ideal and reality, ends and means in order to achieve social integration and
coexistence among individuals seeking between; realization the coupling body borne by the
traditional female; the result is the coupling of female consciousness desalination and female
identity to the traditional social role of closer.
Ideological State Investigation Foster creation of "Howards End" can be found before and after,
he started at the beginning of 1908 has been constantly struggling to reconcile "rebellious passions"
and "the pursuit of intellectual balance" between, (Furbank, 1977: 160 ) and this is the "link" View
from the emphasis on self-consciousness shift towards the underlying causes of social harmony. A
lot of self-reflection and with a strong sense of self-discipline show that Foster was clearly aware of:
To trend and achieve the "link" can only comply with "all sorts of traditionalist values" rather than
to maintain "the artist's rebellion." As the establishment of a public or respect for others ideas and
value systems based on understanding, reflection and compromise "link" is the pursuit of an ideal
state Foster, is a kind of opposition to its contrary nature. Such coexistence and conflict between the
pursuit of a rational nature and tend to reflect Novels Forster became pen three types of characters ":
I (Forster) think I'm that kind of person, so I enraged and I want to be that kind of person. " (Forster,
1959: 11) in "Howards End", the Margaret and Ruth Foster belongs to the kind of people you want
to be, they symbolize the ideal "connect" state, those opposed to the traditional, active identity and
compliance with the "values of the various conformism" and "others"; and its response to the family
and the traditional "female deep instinct" is also relative to men in terms of further ensuring "link"
advantage. Instead, Helen Forster belong to the same class of people, they stressed the inherent
self-awareness coupled essentially to external social "links" skeptical and exclusion attitude. The
difference is that Helen female identity leading to "join" the destruction of self-consciousness has
both social risks and threats, is a social "links" must suppress and eliminate the curse. This
difference caused by different gender identities exposed the "link" View inherent sexism and

Combined with the Female Identity and "Connect" Theme

In addition to self-projection factors, Foster women choose to carry the theme of the novel as well
as consider their story architecture. In view of "Howards End" is intended to explore a "British
situation" and "who will inherit the Kingdom" and national identity issues of social fiction,
involving sex, gender, marriage and female fertility problem is undoubtedly the most direct and
convenient "join" link. (Hynes, 1968: 172) with the change of Female Awareness and the social
status of women choose single "odd female / queer woman" (Odd Woman) and advocate of an
independent "new woman" have become the late 19th century, 20th century First female British
representative new image. These two women are not only in thought and behavior challenges
Victorian binary oppositions of gender identity system, and will be related to the UK's future
children born out of wedlock child and not as a problem to get rid of male domination and an
important way to push home-bound gender roles controversy centers. At the same time, the
outbreak in 1905 of women to vote and the motion further highlights intensified pent women's
issues, and promote its Edwardian eventually became inevitable a major social crisis. In such a
social environment, a large number of Britain appeared to reflect and discuss women's issues and
marital status of literature. From the selection and gender perspective, "Howards End" can also be
considered one of them. But taking into account the wider novel "junction" bearing relationship
themes, and female characters and the "link" between the selection and utilization of Foster female
subjects showed a strong motivation to ambiguity.
In "Howards End", the Schlegel sisters to "liberated woman" identity debut, the original may
become "odd Female / strange woman"; but as the story progresses, but they were toward new and
traditional women female direction continues, and eventually his wife and the mother's identity
attributed to "join." Given Foster's "link" is essentially a disposable with different requirements of
social behavior, is a popular belief and tradition of the Statute of acceptance and compromise, so
that when the female characters are given "coupling" of the task, female identity It is placed in order
to comply with the demands of tradition and patriarchy as a fundamental "links" under the object,
and even became the realization of "links" must eliminate obstacles. From the overall image of the
female characters in the novel and the development trend of view, look at women's issues Foster's
attitude is quite conservative. He deliberately chose Schlegel sisters so "liberated women" and
"New Women" as a "link" is a symbol of the opposite, in order to highlight the "link" to the fierce
female consciousness has the calm and desalination function. By Schlegel sisters seeking or
resisting "links" course made all the reflection, Foster cleverly make women self thought and
behavior were re-examine and critique, emphasizing the "connect" with female "deep instinct
consistent relationship "between.
Henry had just been married, Margaret thought with the change of outlook on life and their
social roles and dramatic change occurred. Women in the various transition blamed "some deep
instinct" at the same time, the narrator will "to the theater and to participate in the discussion," such
typical feminist social and cultural activities is defined as a "stimulus" and "rhetoric" and " stay
together with their husbands "as" solid work. " To illustrate women's "deep instinct", the narrator
deliberately uses free indirect speech, so Margaret's mental activity and comments on the narrator
together, as if to confirm the identity of the narrator of the female character and role inherent
expectations and positioning. In fact, the narrator throughout the novel are not Margaret premarital
feminist identity and ideology direct judgment, but by the representatives of the mouth of Ruth and
Margaret traditional women own marriage
This ingenious arrangement on the one hand to cover up the nature of the involvement of male
vision, on the other hand by first confrontation between Margaret and Ruth, after inheriting the
traditional female relations, clear consciousness of the correctness and dominance.
In the quest to achieve harmony and "link" in the name, not only Margaret Foster had this
"liberated women" to redefine them in marriage, but also to reflect on the coupling means of
"effectiveness." Leonard Buster for a job search in Henry's company, Margaret did not like Helen
directly crusade Henry, but the use of female-specific "means" and "scheming" to the good offices
of Henry. In the process, she is well aware that in order to achieve social integration and
coexistence between individuals in a multi-acceptable situation, the effectiveness of joint way in
women who embodied obedience to patriarchal family system, the traditional gender status
acceptance and try to figure out the psychology of men and appropriate use. By Margaret's
reflection, not only the narrator compares the traditional role of women and women's political
participation in the success of molecules affect the male decision-making, more women will be split
into two mutually negative internal and competing groups, in order to draw in and certainly the
former Location identity and behavior, at the same time isolated and criticized the latter.
Margaret relative terms, Helen Foster will be more in touch with literature and the arts together,
through music, debates and other activities to highlight the reading she represents a radical feminist
ideology, and anxiety, impulsive and aggressive performance with defined as a pursuit of spiritual
life because of excessive emphasis on self-awareness and generated hysteria. People from the will
and action results, Helen Foster deliberately highlights
Leonard tried to help with the representative of the social underclass in good faith and passion,
but also the story in a series arrangement counterproductive consequences, and, ultimately, by the
hand of Helen Leonard indirectly to the death. Thus, by the contrast between subjective desire and
the actual results, and further to Helen Foster trans examples show the contradictions between
feminist ideology and the effectiveness of joint way, and thus also of the new women's presence and
hazards questioned.
Investigation of the 19th century to the early 20th century literary works can be found Helen
represents the "new woman" image than Margaret represents moderate, prefer the traditional
"liberated woman" image is more common and typical. Many of these women writers, including
Foster image is included deliberately exaggerating and strengthen, as a threat to the established
social order and gender relations risks to be criticized. As Elaine Showalter (Elaine Showalter) has
pointed out, both the new women and one late Victorian Edwardian be analyzed and criticized the
reality of the image, but also to create a fictional literary image. This image has undergone an
one-sided, extreme distortion and demonization process of being examined in public and doctors,
sociologists, writers and other professionals, and describe the process of evaluation. Nervous and
mental disorders living in the community are seen as dominant male lesions result of these new
women blame Helen and inevitable. But from the standpoint of the new female identity anxiety
hysteria both a sober realize the established social system created, which is a kind of tradition
against oppression, reflecting the expression of self-consciousness. In the course of this struggle,
some women may be the same as Margaret change identity in order to see
Like coupling, in a balanced way into society; others may be because women are desperate and
move towards self-mutilation, madness or death in a fierce attitude completely rejects "connect" or
"link." In "Howards End", the Helen Foster once made along the new path of development of
women continues, and has come to the edge of the second outcome. By Henry Charles and
psychiatrists and other representatives of the authority of male eyes, Helen is described as a mad
woman, men need to rely on reason and decisively to force it to accept the diagnosis and treatment.
But Helen seemingly moribund when Foster offered her two diametrically opposite way: a typical
feminist and self-imposed exile, that lived in Germany since then, and a news report by a living

Italian women as partners --- "this person is known as the Southern aggressive feminist, respected,
but it is at arm's length"; (Foster, 356) and the other is a return to the traditional search for "link" the
That is a symbol of rural life in this traditional Howard an settle down, give up and challenge
previously stressed female self-consciousness of Henry as the representative of the patriarchal
system, peace of mind to play the role of a mother. If Helen is a male figure, that must be the first
choice for the road arranged by Foster. But given the Helen female identity, first by Margaret
Forster mouth feminist critique of the illusory way out, and then appeal by Helen Howards
produced to make active choice and stability return. This kind of living environment and lifestyle
bait was taken into custody as a result of the performance of Foster female self-selection, on the one
hand by the close relationship between natural, housing and other lifestyle factors between female
preference to prove again, "a woman thirty after years live behind closed doors "is its" deep instinct
"due to the necessity, on the other hand also by temperament contrast Helen before and after
pregnancy to illustrate the traditional social role of women is to guide the spirits and appease the
female emotional medicine. If you say that the turning point was married Margaret, and she has
exhibited all kinds of shake and move closer to the traditional female identity on feminist positions
in the marriage; the turning point that Helen is pregnant, although she was pregnant before the New
Woman thinking and behavior to the extreme. Opposite Margaret in the pursuit of "links" in the
process demonstrated initiative and progressive, Helen final "link" is like a hat Foster suddenly
withheld, both are used to imply that the female nature contradiction and dependence, has been used
to strengthen the "link" healing effect and harmonious effect.

The Social and Historical Context and the Intention of Author

Finally, in order to more fully explain women "link" View inevitably act as a victim of social causes
and authors standpoint, we might explore what health complex Britain gender conflicts of the 20th
century and the turn of Foster's own misogyny. Late 19th and early 20th century, with the gradual
development of women's liberation movement, competition and struggle between women and men
is also deteriorating. In response to the challenges of women while men own sexual and gender
identity has been questioned. To maintain and consolidate the traditional patriarchal family and
social institutions, the late Victorian and Edwardian society in Britain to promote the traditional
women's social status, but also to strengthen the male gender roles and gender identity, in order to
highlight the binary opposition between the sexes and class differences. In such a social and cultural
context, some of the pursuit of innovative or sexually repressed middle-class male intellectuals,
liberals and social reformers, advocates of gay men and other male persons freedom pioneer groups
will Feminist Movement considered to alleviate the burden of gender itself facing a turning point,
and questioned as against traditional patriarchal class limitations, property inheritance system,
heterosexual marriage patterns and other social conventions like feminist. Believe free - thinking
humanist, social and emotional torture suffered homophobia Foster naturally these men in a rebel.
On the one hand, he tries to support feminists in order to promote gender development and progress
of society as a whole from the perspective of the life and literary creation; the other hand, the
potential impact on women and feminism have doubts, tried to the scope and extent of resistance in
the control of male authority can be tolerated and acceptable range. As Elaine Showalter • When on
gender status Edwardian described pointed out, "Men revolt the patriarchy does not necessarily
mean their support for feminism. In fact, the strong anti-patriarchy passion often and misogyny,
homophobia and racial discrimination social mood coexists men thought ". (Showalter: 11) in view
of their gay identity and his suffering in perennial along with mothers pressed on Foster gender
identity It positions as well. When it comes to attitudes held by Foster in 1910 for suffragette
movement, Vladimir Burbank stated, "Overall, Foster is to support women's rights, but only for an
abstract justice, because he believes that women do not vote on the benefits ". Later, when Foster's
misogyny becomes more serious, he had more conservative and negative views on the suffragette

He said a comprehensive discussion of novels, author and social context based on the idea, based on
Foster treat female identity and women's rights issues on both want to unite with them to make it
work for them, and want to limit it to a certain within the range of "female nature" and "link" in the
name to be positioned and the Statute. This contradictory mentality and "link" View own self-level
and the social level, ideal situation and reality intertwined, Foster decided in "Howards End" such a
social novel Inevitable Choice for Women as to achieve " coupling "of the carrier and costs, in order
to make it in the seemingly entrusted with the task process and incentive awards to give up demands
return to tradition.

[1] Barbara Rosecrance. NewYork University, Vol. 6 (1982) No 53, p.25-26
[2] David Bradshaw. Cambridge UP, Vol. 30 (2007) No 19, p.144-145
[3] Elaine Showalter. New York: Viking, Vol. 8 (1980) No 27, p.57-60
[4] E. M. Forster, Listener. Vol. 1 (1959) No 27, p.74-76
[5] Jane Goldman. Cambridge UP, Vol. 29 (2007) No 27, p.21-23
[6] P. N. Furbank. E. M. Forster: Vol. 8 (1978) No 27, p.57-60
[7] Samuel Hynes. London: Pimlico, Vol. 4 (1968) No 27, p. 281—289
[8] S. P. Rosenbaum, Edwardian Bloomsbury. Martin’s Press, Vol. 29 (2008) No 27, p.21-23
[9] Ai. Mo. Forster. Literature Publishing House, Vol. 1 (2009) No 27, p.58-63