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Concepcion, Joey Brianne C.

3Biology9

ABDOMINAL WALL

Muscle Description Origin Insertion Action


External Oblique Outermost layer of Lumbodorsal fascia and Extensive neurosis Constrictor of abdomen
abdominal wall; fibers posterior ribs which passes through
pass obliquely linea alba
downward and
backward
Internal Oblique Lies below external Second sheet of Linea alba by extensive Compressor of
oblique and just above lumbodorsal fascia; aponeurosis abdomen
the transverse Border of pelvic girdle
abdominis
Transverse Abdominis Fibers are directed
ventrally and slightly
posteriorly
Rectus Abdominis Long slender muscle on Anterior end of pubic Sternum and costal Retracts ribs and
each side of linea alba symphysis cartilages sternum;
Compressor of
abdomen

CHEST

Muscle Description Origin Insertion Action


Pectoantibrachialis Anterior and most Manubrium Flat tendon on fascia of Draws the arm towards
superficial chest muscle forearm the chest; adductor of
Pectoralis Major Posterior to Sternum Humerus forearm
pectoantibrachialis;
Keeps forearm attached
to trunk
Pectoralis Minor Thicker than posterior
major
Xiphihumeralis Thin, flat long muscle Xiphoid process of
sternum
Concepcion, Joey Brianne C.
3Biology9

NECK AND THROAT

Muscle Description Origin Insertion Action


Sternomastoid Superficial muscle of Median raphe of Mastoid process by a Singly turn the head;
ventral side of neck; manubrium of sternum thick tendon depress head on neck
sternohyoid Long muscle in median First costal cartilage Body of hyoid bone Retract hyoid posteriorly
of neck
Cleidomastoid Long muscle passing Clavicle or Mastoid process of temporal Pulls clavicle crandiad
from the head to the and turns head;
upper arm Retract head to neck
Clavotrapezius/ Long muscle on the side Clavicle and fibers of the Ulna Flexor of forearm
Clavobrachial of the neck passing over clavotrapezius
ventral surface of
shoulder to the forearm
Masseter Great thick muscle Zygomatic arch Posterior half of lateral Elevator of lower jaw
covering the angle of the surface of mandible
jaws
Temporal Occupies the termporal Posterior nuchal line to Coronoid process of
fossa of the skull zymogatic process; part mandible
of zygomatic arch
Digastric Muscle lying along Jugular and mastoid Mandible Depressor of mandible
medial surface of each processes of skull
half of the mandible
Mylohyoid Thin transverse sheet Mandible Median raphe Elevates floor of mouth;
betweet two digastrics Brings hyoid forward
Geniohyoid Pair of long slender Mandible near Body of hyoid Draws hyoid forward
muscles symphysis
Sternothyroid Located on each side of Sternum Thyroid cartilage of Pulls larynx posteriorly
the trachea, dorsal to larynx
sternohyoid
Thyrohyoid Short narrow muscle on Thyroid cartilage Posterior horn of hyoid Raises larynx
each side of thyroid
cartilage
Concepcion, Joey Brianne C.
3Biology9

UPPER BACK, SHOULDER, AND BACK OF THE NECK

Muscle Description Origin Insertion Action


Latissimus dorsi large flat muscle Neural spine of last thoracic Tendon on medial Abducts forelimb
extending obliquely and most lumbar; surface of humerus dorsally and caudally
forward from the middle Lumbodorsal fascia
of the back to the
forelimb
Trapezius Spinotrapezius Flat, thin muscles Spines of thoracic Fascia of scapula Retracts scapula
Muscles (posterior) covering the upper back vertebrae dorsally and caudally
Clavotrapezius and back of neck anterior Superior nuchal line; Clavicle Retracts clavicle
(anterior) to latissimus dorsi Median dorsal line of neck dorsally and cranially
Acromiotrapezius Anterior the Neural spines of cervical Metacromion process Retracts scapula
(middle) spinotrapezius and first thoracic and scapular spine; dorsally;
Fascia of Holds scapula
clavotrapezius together
Levator scapulae ventralis Flat, band-like muscle Transverse process of atlas Metacromoin process Draws scapula
which passes anteriorly and occipital bone and neighborin fascia cranially
tge acromiotrapezius
Rhomboideus Large thick muscle Neural spine of vertebrae Scapula Draws scapula
extending from vertebral and adjacent ligaments dorsally
border of scapula to
middorsal line
Splenius Large sheet of muscle Middorsal line and fascia Superior nuchal line Raises and turns the
covering the back of the head
neck in front of the
rhomboideus
Supraspinatus Stout muscle occupying Whole surface of Greater tuberosity of Extends the
the supraspinous fossa supraspinous fossa humerus humerus
of the scapula
Rhomboideus capitis Slender bandlike muscle Lamboidal ridge Scapula Pulls scapula
lies in cotact with inner anteriorly
surface of rhomboideus
Acromiodeltoid Short thick muscle Acromoin of scapula Surface of other Raises and rotates
passing ventrall the deltoids the humerus
acromion process
Concepcion, Joey Brianne C.
3Biology9

Spinodeltoid Posterior the Spine of scapula Deltoid ridge of


acromiotrapezius and humerus
levator scapulae ventralis
Clavodeltoid Sometimes called Clavicle and fibers of Ulna
clavobrachialis clavotrapezius
Infraspinatus Two large muscles whole surface of Greater tuberosity of Rotates the humerus
infraspinous fossa humerus
Teres major Stout muscle Axillary border of scapula; Tendon on muscle Rotates and lowers
immediately behind the Fascia of neighboring surface of humerus the humerus
infraspinatus muscles
Teres minor Covered by the posterior Greater tuberosity Assists the
border of infraspinatus infraspinatus
Subscapularis Found under anterior Subscapular fossa Lesser tuberosity of Pulls humerus
border of the scapula humerus medially
Serratus ventralis Large, fan-shaped Slips from first 9-10 ribs; Scapula near Draws scapula
muscle Transverse process of last vertebral border cranially;
5 cervical Ventral and against
thoracic wall
Serratus dorsalis Arises by a number of Aponeurosis from median Last ribs Draws ribs forward
fleshy slips from the ribs dorsal line
Scalenes Long muscles in the Ribs Transverse process Draws ribs forward;
chest wall of cervical Bends the neck
Intercostals External Fibers run obliquely Posterior margin of rib Anterior margin of Draws ribs forward
Intercostals forward and downward; adjacent posterior
Lacks nearthe median
ventral line
Internal Exposed by cutting the Anterior margin of the rib Posterior margin of
Intercostals scalenes adjacent posterior rib
Epaxial Semispinalis Transverse
muscles of dorsi processes of the
the thorax (dorsal) vertebrae in contact
Longissimus Transverse process of with origin of
(median) vertebrae longissimus capitis
Iliocostalis a number of separate Ribs
(ventral bundles with prominent
tendons in between
Concepcion, Joey Brianne C.
3Biology9

UPPER ARM

Muscle Description Origin Insertion Action


Triceps brachii small triangular muscle Distal end of the Lateral surface of ulna Rotates the ulna
(anconeus) at the elbow joint humerus
Epitrochlearis (extensor Thin sheet found on Latissimus dorsi Olecranon (elbow joint)
antibranchii) medial side of the long
head
Biceps brachii Visible only after cutting Glenoid fossa Radius Flexor of forearm
the insertions of the
pectoral muscles
Brachialis Lateral to the biceps and Lateral surface of ulna
in contact with the humerus
lateral head of triceps

FOREARM

Muscle Description Origin Insertion Action


Extensor carpi ulnaris Begin on the outer Lateral epicondyle of Second and third Extends fifth digit and
surface of the forearm humerus; metacarpals ulnar side of wrist
next to the ulna Semilunar notch of ulna
Extensor digitorum Next to the extensor Lateral surface of Extends 3 or 4 digits
communis digitorum lateralis humerus above lateral
Extensor digitorum Next to the extensor epicondyle Radius
lateralis carpi ulnaris
Branchioradialis Loose and standing Middle of humerus Lower end of radius and Rotates hand to supine
(supinator longus) away from the adjacent ligaments position
underlying extensor;
next to EDC
Extensor carpi radialis Underlies the Humerus Second and third Extends hand
brachioradialis and metacarpals
extends onto the
inner/medial surface of
the arm
Concepcion, Joey Brianne C.
3Biology9

Flexor carpi radialis Lies next to the pronator Medial epicondyle of Flexes second and third
teres humerus metacarpals
Pronator teres Proceeds the medial Radius Rotates radius to prone
surface of the forearm;
Next and under the ECR
longus
Palmaris longus Flat muscle forming Tendons passing Flexor of digits
outer surface of forearm through wrist ligaments
Flexorus carpi ulnaris Consists of two nearly Pisiform bone of wrist Flexes ulnar side of
separate muscles; wrist
Forms ulnar border of
forearm
Flexor profundus Complex muscle lying Ulna and humerus Basal phalanges General flexor of fingers
digitorum under Palmaris longus

THIGH

Muscle Description Origin Insertion Action


Tensor fasciae latae Thick triangular muscle Ilium and neighboring Fascia lata Tightens fascia lata
in the dorsal part of fascia
fascia lata
Biceps femoris Large muscle on the Tuberosity of schium Patella and tibia; Abductor of thigh and
lateral surface of the Fascia of shank FLEXOR of shank
thigh;
Covers more than half of
the thigh
Caudofemoralis Most posterior narrow Transverse processes of Patella Abductor of thigh and
flat muscle 2nd and 3rd caudal EXTENSOR of shank
Gluteus maximus Thin, flat muscle Fascia and transverse Fascia Abductor of thigh
immediately anterior the processes of last sacral
caudofemoralis and 1st caudal
Gluteus medius Very large, triangular Adjacent fascia, crest of Greater trochanter of
muscle immediately in ilium, lateral surface of femur
front of gluteus maximus ilium
Concepcion, Joey Brianne C.
3Biology9

Sartorius Forms the anterior Crest and ventral border Proximal end of the tibia Adductor and rotator of
margin from the lateral of the ilium and patella; thigh;
view of the thigh Fascia and ligaments Extensor of shank
between
Vastus lateralis Large, stout muscle Greater trochanter and Patella and adjacent Extensor of shank
covered by fascia lata surface of femur ligaments
Rectus femoris Stout muscle lying on its Ilium near acetabulum
medial side and
externally covered by
Sartorius
Vastus medialis Medial side of the thigh Femur
posterior to the rectus
femoris; covered
externally by the
Sartorius
Vastus intermedius Separates the rectus Surface of femur
femoris from vastus
lateralis;
Next to the shaft of the
femur
Gracilis Large, flat muscle Ischial and pubic Aponeurosis which Adductor of leg
forming the posterior symphysis passes through tibia
half of the medial
surface of the thigh
Adductor longus Smallest, most anterior Pubis Femur Adductor of thigh
of underlying the gracilis
Adductor femoris Consists of 3muscles
passing from the median
ventral line to the femur
Semimembranosus Large posterior part of Ischium Medial epicondyle of Extensor of thigh
the mass which was femur; proximal end of
covered by the gracilis tibia
Semitendinosus Most posterior muscle of Ischial tuberosity Tibia Flexor of shank
the thigh
Tenuissimus Very narrow, long Transverse process of Fascia of shank Abductor of thigh
muscle 2nd caudal
Concepcion, Joey Brianne C.
3Biology9

SHANK

Muscle Description Origin Insertion Action


Tibialis anterior most ventral muscle Proximal parts of tibia First metatarsal Flexor of foot
whose ventral border is and fibula
in contact with the tibia
Extensor digitorum Dorsal to the tibialis Lateral epicondyle of Tendon inserted in each Extensor of digits
longus anterior preceeding on femur digit
the lateral surface of the
shank
Peroneus dorsal to extensor Fibula Metatarsals and digits Extensor and flexor of
digitorum longus; foot
group of muscles more
or less fused together
Soleus Muscle found internal to Calcaneus (heel bone) Extensor of foot
gastrocnemius
Gastocnemius Large muscle forming Surface fascia
the posterior or caudal
surface of the shank
Plantaris Large muscle found Patella and femur Flexor of digits
inclosed and lying
between the two heads
of gastrocnemius
Flexor digitorum longus Immediately dorsal to Tibia, fibula and Phalanges
the tibia adjacent fascia
1. More lateral in cotact
with perneus muscles
2.Other side
corresponds to flexor
hallucis longus of man
Tibialis posterior Has long tendon Scaphoid and medial Extensor of foot
between two parts of cuneiform
the FDL; ff. the tendon
proximally is the belly of
the muscle