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4th Anatomy Exam Study Guide

1. What 3 types of nerves do we have?

Cranial nerves, Spinal nerves, Autonomic nerves
2. What system are the 3 types of nerves part of?
Peripheral nervous system
3. What are autonomic nerves controlled by?
4. When is the sympathetic nervous system used?
In emergencies/ stress
5. When is the parasympathetic nervous system used?
For day to day activities
6. In what type of system do both of these nervous systems work together during a vital
The heart/ blood pressure
7. What part of the nervous system deals with unconscious/ automatic function?
Autonomic Nervous system
8. What does the Autonomic nervous system consist of?
Both sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems
9. When nerve cells live outside of the CNS they’re called what?
Ganglion/ Ganglia
10. What is the worst disease that affects the nerves in the face? (victims often become
Trigeminal Neuralgia
11. What is a Ganglion/ Ganglia?
Collection of nerve cell bodies located outside the CNS.
12. What part of the nervous system maintains homeostasis?
Autonomic nervous system
13. What do Sensory (afferent) neurons do?
Transmit from sensory receptors to the central nervous system
14. Where are most of the sensors of the human body located?
Retina of the eye
15. Where are most of your afferent pathways? Where do they end up?
Parietal, occipital, temporal. End up in lobes.
16. What follows brain damage and causes the patient to fail to be aware of items to one
side of space? What causes it?
Hemi spatial Neglect. Damaged Hemisphere
17. Where is the Cerebral Cortex located?
Outmost ½ cm thickness of the cerebral hemisphere
18. What is the most sophisticated part of the brain?
Cerebral Cortex
19. What is the final processing location for all afferent processes in the body?
Cerebral cortex
20. What is gray matter made up of?
Collection of nerve cell bodies and dendrites
21. What is a sensor that senses pain, vibration, touch, proprioception etc?
22. What means being aware of the relative position of your own body parts?
23. What type of nerve ending is so refined that it gets destroyed in diabetics? What does it
Lamellar Corpuscles (or Pacinian Corpuscles). Detects vibration.
24. What are branched extensions off of a cell that receive impulses?
25. What is the nerve cell body?
Where the nucleus is located.
26. What is highly granulated and why?
Nerve cell body. It’s loaded with ribosomes
27. Where is the Nissl Body found?
Where the nerve cell body is. Large granular body.
28. What is the action of Glycine in the brain?
Inhibits things
29. What does Serotonin effect?
Mood, anxiety, happiness
30. What is the primary contribution of Nissl substance, what do they produce?
31. What is white matter made up of?
Collection of Myelinated Axons
32. What do myelinated axons do?
Carry and electrical current (action potential)
33. What is Arm-like?
34. What is the structure of the Myelin Sheath?
In gaps called “Nodes of Ranvier”
35. At what location only does membrane permeability change?
Myelin Sheath
36. What is the way Action potential moves around in Myelinated axons?
Like a kangaroo in the gaps (nodes of Ranvier)
37. What is the #1 cause of Peripheral neuropathy (impairs sensation)?
Spinal Cord

38. What is the construction of the spinal cord?

It has a central H-shaped gray matter
39. What is the distribution of the white matter?
It surrounds the entire gray matter completely
40. What has motor neurons that regulate muscle contraction?
Ventral Horn
41. ??? What is the functional complexity of grey and white matter?
Ventral Horn
42. What are the 2 types of motor neurons? Where are they located?
Upper motor neurons (Cerebral cortex/ brain stem) and Lower motor neurons
(Brain stem and spinal cord- facial)
43. What has motor neurons that regulate muscle contraction?
Anterior/ventral horn
44. What neurons cause spastic paralysis?
Upper motor neurons
45. What neurons cause flaccid paralysis?
Lower motor neurons
46. What kind of pathway is skeletal muscle contraction?
2 neuron pathway consisting of upper and lower motor neurons
47. What is Leu Gehrig’s disease? What does it cause?
A motor neuron disease. Causes muscle weakness and atrophy; involves upper
and lower motor neurons
48. What is the most common cause of food poisoning in the U.S? What does it cause?
Campylobacter Jejuni. Causes flaccid paralysis (Guillain-Barre Syndrome),
49. What is the root of a typical spinal nerve that originates from the anterior ventral horn?
Anterior or ventral root of a typical spinal nerve
50. What type of fibers is the root of a typical spinal nerve that originates from anterior
ventral horn carrying?
100% motor fibers
51. What is the posterior Horn (dorsal horn) composed of? What senses are associated with
Composed of 100% sensory neurons. Touch, pain, vision, hearing, taste, etc.
52. What type of fibers are in the root of a typical spinal nerve that originates from the
posterior ventral horn?
100% sensory fibers
53. What is the root of a typical spinal nerve that originates from the Posterior Ventral
Dorsal or posterior root
54. The posterior root is different from the anterior root because why?
It always bears a Ganglion. (collection of nerve cell bodies outside the CNS)
55. What root of a typical spinal root always bears Ganglion?
Posterior root
56. What’s the composition of the typical spinal nerve?
Always mixed
57. What are dorsal columns?
The white matter between dorsal horns
58. What is white matter?
A collection of myelinated axons
59. What makes up the Posterior column/Dorsal column?
Gracile fasciculus and cuneate fasciculus
60. What means degeneration of the spinal cord? What is being destroyed?
Subacute combined degeneration. Vitamin B12
61. What are the 2 most important functions/ sensations being processed by the dorsal
Fine touch and Conscious proprioception
62. What is conscious proprioception?
Awareness of location of your own body parts
63. What causes destruction of the Dorsal column? (Tabesdorsalis). What’s it do?
Syphilis. Makes white matter appear blended with grey matter
64. *Motor= always efferent (going away)
65. What is most of the regulation in our brain?
66. Commissural fibers are?
67. Association fibers are?
68. What do commissural fibers do?
Connect the different parts of the brain to the other
69. What do association fibers do?
Connect the different parts of the brain on the same side
70. What is the biggest collection of commissural fibers that connect one hemisphere of the
brain to the other?
Corpus Callosum
71. What is the biggest collection of Association fiber bundle?
Arcuate Fasciculus
72. What does the Arcuate Fasciculus do?
Connects different parts of the brain together on the same side
73. What is Conduction Aphasia?
Hearing is good, but poor speech repetition
74. What is a nerve?
Collection of Axons
75. What type of nervous system is involved in Homeostasis?
76. What motor neuron is skeletal muscle associated with?
Somatic Motor Neuron
77. For every single neuron there are 10 neurons that support it, called what?
78. Define Neuroglia
Supporting cells
79. What do Astrocytes do? What is this created by?
Create the Blood Brain Barrier. Created by capillaries that supply blood to the
brain. Their lining cells are fused together via tight junctions
80. What do epithelial cells have?
Tight Junctions
81. What neuroglia are shaped like stars?
82. What contributes to the blood/ brain barrier
83. What stores potassium?
84. What are the most abundant cells in the brain?
85. What is Glioblastoma? What are associated with this?
Malignant tumor affecting brain or spine. Astrocyte neuroglia.
86. What type of cells are actually macrophages found in the brain/ spinal cord? (helps
immune system)
Microglial cell
87. What do ventricles contain?
88. What cells line ventricles of the brain and secrete CSF?
Ependymal cells
89. What cells form the Myelin Sheath in the brain and spinal cord?
90. What cell lacks dendrites?
91. What myelinates many different axons?
92. What type of cell forms the Myelin Sheath in peripheral nervous system outside the
Schwann Cells
93. What cell myelinates 1 Axon only?
Schwann cells
94. What act like cement and give strength to a Ganglion? (provide structural support)
Satellite cells
95. What forms a neurotransmitter?
96. What are extensions of the cell body that transmit signals toward the neuron?
97. If in an injury, an axon is cut and destroyed when is recovery possible?
Only in peripheral nerves
98. Motor homunculus is associated with what?
Muscular contraction
99. Sensory homunculus is associated with what?
Feel/ processing sensation
100. What is the construction of the brain?
Grey matter, white matter, then grey matter
101. How thick is grey matter?
½ cm thickness
102. What is the outermost ½ cm thickness in the brain?
Cerebral Cortex
103. What is the most functioning and structurally most complex part of the brain?
Cerebral Cortex
a. What are shallow grooves that invaginate from the surface of the cerebral
hemispheres that are NOT very deep? b. Very deep?
Sulcus. Fissure.
104. Where are Gyrus?
In-between neighboring sulcus/ sulci
105. What is related to particular functions (Broddmann’s areas)?
a. What is the most vulnerable part of the brain where injury is sometimes not
picked up?
Cerebral Cortex
106. What requires constant flow of Oxygen and Glucose/is metabolically very active?
Cerebral Cortex
107. What is the 3rd most common cause of death caused by?
Damage to Cerebral Cortex
108. What type of damage to the cerebral cortex is usually not picked up?
Lacunar Stroke (most common type of stroke)
109. What is the middle region of the brain made up of?
White matter
110. What is middle white matter composed of?
Commissural and association fibers
111. What is actually white matter in the middle of brain? What’s it contain?
Corona Radiata. Contains pathways that are motor and sensory.
112. What does bottom grey matter represent?
Basal Nuclei, limbic lobe, diencephalon
113. What is the job of Basal Nuclei?
Fine tuning of motor movements
114. What does destruction to the basal nuclei cause?
Unnecessary movements/ intension tremor
115. What is the role of the limbic lobe?
Basic instincts
116. What basic instinct lets people hate?
Memory in the limbic lobe
117. What type of location is usually destroyed in alcoholics?
Mammillary bodies (part of limbic lobe)
118. What does destruction of mammillary bodies in alcoholics cause? What’s the
name of this condition?
Anterograde and Retrograde amnesia. Wernicke-Korsakoff
119. What are alcoholics deficient in?
Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)
120. What vitamin is required for metabolism of the brain?
Vitamin B 1
121. What part of the brain is primarily affected with alcoholism?
Mammillary bodies
122. What is another part of the brain that stores long term memories?
123. What 2 locations of the brain hold memory?
Hippocampus and Mammillary bodies
124. What part of the brain controls emotions?
125. What does the Amygdala look like, where does it sit?
Shaped like an almond, sits on top of the Hippocampus
126. What are parts of the Diencephalon?
Must have Thalamus. i.e: Epithalamus, Hypothalamus etc
127. What part of the brain is the relay station?
128. What part of the Thalamus is related to vision?
Lateral Geniculate body
129. What part of the Thalamus is related to hearing?
Medial Geniculate body
130. When do the Medial and Lateral geniculate work together in the Thalamus?
For Caloric Reflex test (putting cold water in ears to see if eyes move)
131. What part of the brain is like a Tycoon? (powerful person) What is it?
Hypothalamus. Master Endocrine gland.
132. Where is the headquarter of the autonomic nervous system in the brain?
133. Where is the thermostat of the body?
134. Where is out satiety center that regulates food intake/ appetite?
135. What part of the brain is the control center of water regulation?
136. How does action potential travel down a myelinated axon?
Saltatory Conduction
137. What is broken at the mode of Ranvier?
Myelin Sheath
138. On what area does sodium move in and out?
Bare/ naked area on an axon
139. What is the biggest commissural fiber bundle found in the brain?
Corpus Callosum (white matter)
140. What is the biggest association fiber bundle in the brain?
Arcuate Fasciculus
141. What is Dementia associated with in the brain? What does this mean?
Hydrocephalus ex Vacuo. Enlargement of ventricles
142. What do Nodes of Ranvier mean?
143. Where does myelination of axons happen only?
Only in CNS
144. Where is regeneration of a cut axon more prevalent? Why?
In PNS, because of Schwann cells
145. What guides the regenerating axon?
Regeneration Tubes
146. What type of fusion is at Synapse? What does this allow?
Zero fusion. Allows neurotransmitter to actually penetrate the space.
147. What are the components of the brain stem?
Pons, medulla oblongata, mid brain
148. What passes through the mid brain?
Cerebral aqueduct/aqueduct of Silvius
149. What can happen as a result of damage to the midbrain from Tuberculosis?
Permanent damage to the cerebral aqueduct
150. What is a VP shunt?
Used to treat hydrocephalus (when excess CSF collects in brains ventricles)
151. What is the part of the midbrain anterior to the cerebral aqueduct?
152. What is the part of the midbrain posterior to the cerebral aqueduct?
153. What makes up the Tectum?
Superior colliculus and inferior colliculus
154. What is the midbrain famous for?
Duret Hemorrhages, high mortality
155. In the Tectum, what is the globular structure above?
Superior colliculus
156. What is the superior colliculus associated with?
157. What is the inferior colliculus associated with?
158. What nucleus in the midbrain degenerates when someone has Parkinson’s
Substantia nigra
159. What is a substantis nigra?
A basal ganglia structure located in the mid brain
160. What neurotransmitter is produced by the neurons of the substantia nigra and is
lost in Parkinson’s disease?
161. What does excess dopamine cause? Low dopamine?
Schizophrenia. Parkinson’s disease.
162. What red nucleus exists in the mid brain?
Red nucleus
163. What does the red nucleus have in more quantity?
164. What ventricle is behind the pons and the medulla oblongata?
4 ventricle
165. What is demonstrating of rapidly repeated movements (what part of the brain?).
What is it called when you have issues doing these movements? Can’t do them at all?
Cerebellum. Dysdiadochokinesia. A-dysdiadochokinesia
166. What tumor affects the cerebellum?
Cerebellopontine angle tumors
167. What is the only location that CSF can escape out of the ventricular system and
flow on the surface of the brain?
4th ventricle
168. What is a structural defect of the cerebellum causing CSF to accumulate in the
Arnold Chiari malformation
169. What is the classic finding in pontine hemorrhages?
Pinpoint pupils
170. What nervous system of the autonomic nervous system makes pupils pin-point?
Parasympathetic Nervous System
171. What nervous system makes pupils dilate?
Sympathetic nervous system
172. What type of drug causes pupils to dilate?
173. What separates the anterior horns of the left and right ventricles of the brain?
Septum pellucidum
174. What does the brain stem contain/control?
Cardiogenic and respiratory centers
175. What is the minimum part of the brain we need to live?
Brain stem
176. What are the brain and spinal cord wrapped in?
3 membranes called Meninges
177. What is the outermost layer (meninge)?
Dura mater
178. What is the innermost layer (meninge)?
Pia mater
179. What is the middle layer (meninge)?
Arachnoid matter
180. Where is CSF found on the surface of the brain and spinal cord?
Subarachnoid Space
181. If a spinal tap comes back bloody, what is wrong? What’s the name for this?
The blood-brain barrier has been breached. Subarachnoid hemorrhage.
182. Define Neural Pores:
Neural tube openings
183. What is the most essential thing for brain development?
Closing of the neural tubes
184. What vitamin is needed for closure of the neural tubes?
Folic Acid
185. At what time after conception does the Posterior Neuropore close?
Around day 27
186. At what time of pregnancy is it maximum susceptibility?
Week 3-8
187. What sulcus divides the Frontal lobe from the Parietal lobe?
Central Sulcus
188. What fissure is separating the temporal lobe from the frontal and parietal lobe?
Sylvian Fissure (Lateral fissure)
189. What is primarily a visual are of the Brodman’s areas?
190. What is primarily a sensory are of the Brodman’s areas?
191. What is primarily the motor area of Brodman’s areas?
192. What is the major co-relate of human intelligence and personality of Brodman’s
193. What is primarily the auditory area of Brodman’s areas?
41 & 42
194. What is the auditory association (Wernickes area) area of Brodman’s areas?
195. What is the motor speech area of Brodman’s areas?
196. What is related to fine tuning of refined motor movements?
Basal Ganglia
197. What part of the Basal Ganglia is also a component of the limbic lobe?
Amygdaloid nucleus
198. What part of the Basal nuclei degenerates in Parkinson’s disease?
Substantia Nigra