# Distillation Problem

Materials and Energy Balance on Distillation Column
Print out a copy of this (by using the Print command of your browser) and keep this handy when you are watching the slide shows. You will also need Tables B1 and B2 from your textbook, copies of which are also available through the Tables link of distillation web page. Write down the calculations and the answers to each part of this problem in appropriate places while watching the slide show. Later, do the calculations by yourself to check whether you are getting the same answers or not; and then verify them with the results given in the Answers link

Problem Statement:
A mixture that contains 65 mol% benzene and rest toluene is separated in a continuous distillation column at 1 atmospheric pressure. A flow chart of the operation is given below. The feed enters the distillation column at 25oC and at 1000 mol/h. The column overhead is a mixture of benzene at 1250 mol/h and toluene at 80 mol/h. Half of the condensate is withdrawn as the overhead product, and the remainder is refluxed back to the column. The liquid leaving the bottom of the column goes into a steam-heated reboiler, in which it is partially vaporized. The vapor is returned to the column at 100oC, and the residual liquid, also at 100oC, constitutes the bottoms product. All the physical properties of the components can be found in the Tables link, except for liquid toluene. The heat capacity of liquid toluene within the experimental temperature range should be calculated using the following equation: Cp (J/mol·oC) = 148.8 + 0.324 T( oC)

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and The required heat input to the reboiler. 2. 3. Construct an energy balance table with an appropriate reference temperature for parts (b) and (c). mol/h mol% Bottoms Rate Comp. Qr in kW Solution Steps: 1.e. mol/h mol% . Calculate parts (b). i.e. Gather all thermodynamic data from Tables B1 and B2 from your textbook or from the Tables link.. Now. toluene flow rate in the inlet stream is ___________ mol/h. The net heat requirement for the process (neglect heat of mixing) in kW.. The heat removal from the condenser.e. 4. and T = _____________________ mol% toluene. Qc in kW. Therefore. ______ mol% benzene. 5. Answers to Part (a): Component Benzene Toluene Page 2 of 4 Feed Rate mol/h Feed Comp. when we do an overall material balance on the distillation column. answer question (a) and complete the flow chart with the flow rates of the components for the product streams. we find the flow rate of the bottoms: B = ________ mol/h and T = ___________ mol/h The compositions of the product streams are as follows: Condensate or distillate: B =________________.Distillation Problem Calculate the followings: (a) (b) (c) (d) The flow rates and compositions of the product streams. _____ mol% toluene. i. (c) and (d) Part (a): Material Balance The condensate stream flow rates for each of the components are: B = _______________ mol/h T = _______________ mol/h The inlet stream to the distillation column has a flow rate of 1000 mol/h with 65 mol% benzene. Bottoms: B = ______________ mol% benzene. mol% Condensate Rate Comp. and T = ____________. i. Fill up all the unknowns in the above table. _______________ mol/h of benzene. Do the material balance first.

kJ/mol Component nin.l.Distillation Problem Table 1: Thermodynamic Data required for Calculations Component Benzene State of Boiling aggregation Point. 75oC) Benzene (l. oC Liquid Vapor Toluene Liquid Vapor Heat capacities ∆Hv. kJ/mol 310 12. 100oC) nout.25o C = = H T.7 Calculations for Hout (s): H B. 75oC) Toluene (l. kJ/mol [Units] Part (b): Overall Heat Requirement Table 2: Energy Balance Table for Part (b) Reference: Benzene and Toluene liquids at 250C Hin. mol/h Hout. mol/h Benzene (l. 100oC) Toluene (l. 100o C = = = H T. 25oC) Toluene (l. 25oC) Benzene (l.25o C = = H B. Tb. l.l. l.100o C = Page 3 of 4 .

⇒ Qr = Q – Qc = Page 4 of 4 . the open system energy balance equation reduces to: Qc = ∆H = ∑ n H − ∑ n H i i i i out in Part (d): Heat Input to the Reboiler Q = Qc + Qr .Distillation Problem = The open-system energy balance equation is given as follows: ∆H + ∆E k + ∆E p = Q + Ws Since kinetic energy. v.62 ∫C p .v dT Both outlet enthalpies are zero because the output is in our reference phase and temperature. kJ/mol Benzene (v. 75oC.v. mol/h Hin.85o C = = In a similar way. 85oC) Benzene (l.l dT + ∆H v + 110.85o C = = 75 ∫C 85 p . mol/h Hout. 75oC) Toluene (l. 75oC) H B. at liquid. i. potential energy and the work done are negligible. Q = ∆H = ∑ ni H i − ∑ ni H i out in = Part (c): Heat Removal for the Condenser Table 3: Energy Balance Table for Part (c) Reference: Benzene and Toluene liquids at 750C Component nin.e. kJ/mol H T. Once again.62 nout. calculate the enthalpy of toluene vapor at 85oC: 110. 85oC) Toluene (v.