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Zehnder - your partner of choice

for ventilation in Passive House and

low energy housing

Heating Cooling Fresh Air Clean Air

In 2006 the zero carbon target for new Reference to the Passive House
homes was announced and, since then, standard has often been made during
discussion over how to accomplish this these discussions. The standard sets
has been extensive. A number of methods extremely exacting energy performance
have been tried and tested which has led requirements for design and construction
to a broad agreement that, to achieve the and Passive House has now become a
target, the approach needs to be twofold: generic term for a low energy building;
although energy efficiency was initially a
1. The fabric of the dwelling should be by-product of the original concept which
of a high specification was to find a long-term, sustainable
2. Close attention needs to be paid construction solution which offered
on-site to the detail, materials used unparalleled comfort to occupants.
and construction methods
There are no regulations driving the
expansion of the Passive House
Use of Allowable Solutions
movement, yet over the last two decades
to compensate for carbon
emissions reductions that are the popularity of the standard has gained
difficult to achieve on-site
Allowable rapidly across an increasing range of
climates. According to 2013 estimates,
over 50,000 buildings are now certified
On-Site Low Carbon
Heat and Power with thousands more low energy
Introduction p3 developments inspired by the model.
Passive House at a glance p4
Fabric Energy Efficiency Zehnder’s experienced staff understands
Passive House – a comfort standard p6
inherently what high performance housing
So, what’s passive about a Passive House? p7 is all about and how to design units
Passive House requirements p8 The three parts of the government stepped
which ensure that the house of tomorrow
Comparison with UK standard p10
policy approach to zero carbon homes is a reality for today. We are members
of Minergie, the AECB (Association of
Passive House key benefits p12
Environmentally Conscious Builders),
Balanced ventilation p13 are founding members of the Passivhaus
Meeting the EnerPHit standard p15 Trust and have a range of Passive House
Zehnder and Passivhaus Trust p16 accredited MVHR units.

Continued Professional Development p16

With the final steps towards zero carbon
Zehnder Comfosystems p17 new homes throughout the UK now being
ComfoAir 160 p18 taken, this brochure aims to explain how
ComfoAir 180 p19 specifying Zehnder’s Passive House
accredited units will give you confidence
ComfoAir 200 p20
in your low energy construction projects.
ComfoAir 350 p21
ComfoAir 550 p22
Ancillaries and controls p23
Glossary p24 Leading the way
Zehnder - your Passive House partner p27 The first certified Passive House
A Passive House case study p28 buildings in the UK were completed
in Machynlleth, Powys, Wales
References p32
in 2009.
Summary p33

Passive House at a glance

Passive House is a construction concept, The Passive House standard was “The heat losses of the
not a brand name. It stands for a conceived when Professor Bo Adamson
building standard that is energy efficient, of Lund University, Sweden, and Dr. building are reduced so
comfortable and affordable. It provides Wolfgang Feist of the Institute for much that it hardly needs
paramount thermal comfort with very low Housing and the Environment, Germany,
heating demand. collaborated in 1988. The very first any heating at all. Passive
pilot project (the Kranichstein Passive heat sources like the sun,
The precise definition, as given by the House in Darmstadt, Germany in 1990)
Passive House Institute is: was Europe’s first inhabited multi-family human occupants, household
home to achieve a recorded heating appliances and the heat from
“A Passive House is a building in which energy consumption of below 12kWh/
thermal comfort can be provided solely (m2a) – just 10% that of the standard the extract air cover a large
by post-heating or post-cooling of house at the time. This consumption part of the heating demand.
the fresh air flow which is required for level was confirmed via years of detailed
good indoor air quality – without using monitoring. The remaining heat can be
recirculated air in addition.” provided by the supply air if
The Passive House Institute (PHI) is an
This is a purely functional definition independent research organisation that the maximum heating load
without any numerical values and is valid was founded in 1996 to promote and is less that 10W per square
across all climates. From this definition control the standard and has played a
it is clear that Passive House is a crucial role in the development of the metre of living space. If such
fundamental concept and not a randomly Passive House concept. supply-air heating suffices
set standard.
The ground-breaking products that as the only heat source, we
were used in the Darmstadt pilot home, call the building a Passive
including high-efficiency MVHR systems,
made way for a new line in Passive House House.”
compliant components.
Univ. Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Feist

15 - The ma gic nu mber

Passive House buildings need
roughly 15kWh/m2/yr of heat
which is generally met by using a
duct mounted post-heater or
a small boiler.

4 5
Passive House – a comfort standard So, what’s passive about a Passive House?

In short, the heating system. A Passive Of course, minor intervention is inevitable

House doesn’t need to be actively heated which means that these applications are
because it uses passive heat gains to not strictly ‘passive’ in the true sense of
heat itself. Consequently, only a minimal the term. Rather than simply allowing it to
amount of additional heating needs to happen, processes are controlled in such
be supplied. The concept is based on a way that the required goals are met with
excellent thermal insulation and a highly minimum effort, as if it were happening all
efficient heat recovery system. The heat by itself.
stays indoors and, therefore, doesn’t
need to be provided by an active system.

The ‘passive’ principle is well known in

engineering. Passive security, passive
filters, passive cooling and Passive
House are examples of successful
implementations of this principle.

But, doesn’t a house need to breathe?

Air infiltration, or draughts, isn’t the best

way to ensure a comfortable indoor
climate. It is, therefore, essential to
No draughts No condensation or mould No hot or cold radiant discomfort No summer overheating ventilate the dwelling. Traditionally this
(stratification) would have been achieved by opening

However, in a Passive House, the heat

recovery ventilation system provides
sufficient fresh air to all habitable rooms
whilst exhausting stale, used
air outside. An airtight structure prevents
moist indoor air from leaking through the
Fresh air all year round Whole house warmth Fuel poverty eliminated
fabric of the building.

Cracks and joints allow surfaces to cool

All by si mply which then causes the humidity in the
i mproving air to condense. This increases the risk
of mould growth and puts the home at
the build risk. This would not happen in a Passive
qu ality! House!

6 7
Passive House requirements 5. Ventilation with heat recovery

For a building to be considered a Passive

House, it must meet the following criteria:

The Space Heating Energy Demand is not

to exceed 15kWh per square metre of living

space (treated floor area) per year or 10W per JOINS

square metre peak demand. 1. Airtight

In climates where active cooling is required,
the Space Cooling Energy Demand
requirement roughly matches the heat
supply air
demand requirements with a slight additional SO
allowance for dehumidification. EA

The Primary Energy Demand, the

1 e
total energy to be used for all domestic 2. Superior
applications (heating, hot water and domestic
electricity), must not exceed 120kWh per
square metre of treated floor area.
supply air
In terms of Airtightness, a maximum of
0.6 air changes per hour at 50 Pascals of
exhaust air
pressure (ach50), as verified on-site with 3
a pressure test in both pressurised and
depressurised states.
Thermal comfort must be met for all living 3. Quality insulation extract air
intake air
areas during winter as well as in summer, with
not more than 10% of the hours in a given
extract air
year over 25°C.

Each of these conditions is

achieved through intelligent 4. Thermal bridge CA350
free design
design and implementation
of the five key Passive House

Supply air Exhaust air

Airtightness 0.6 ach @ 50 Pa

Surface temperature of windows >17°C Extract air Intake air

Summer overheating Maximum of 10% >25°C

Ventilation ~30m3/hr/person

Heating and cooling 15kWh/m2yr @ 20°C

Primary energy 120kWh/m2yr

10 ti mes the energ y
When MVHR systems are properly installed, the ratio of electricity required to heat loss prevented is 1:10 or better. This means
that the ventilation system saves more than 10 times the energy than it requires for operation!

8 9
So, how does this Passive House UK new-build
compare to the UK standard common practice

All components of the exterior shell are insulated

The mainstream building sector has Compact form and good to achieve a U-Value that does not exceed
to meet minimum energy standards insulation 0.15 W/m2/K. Limiting U-values of approximately 0.25-0.35 W/m2/K.
defined in Part L of the Building
Regulations. The social housing sector
must also ensure that they build to
meet tougher standards in the Code for
Some consideration is given with regard to north/
Sustainable Homes (CSH), which covers
Passive use of solar energy is a significant factor south orientation, but the improved energy savings
energy, water use, etc.
Southern orientation and shade in Passive House design with shading used where resulting from passive site design are often
considerations overheating is foreseen as a potential issue. overlooked.
It is difficult to compare CSH and the
Passive House standard as CSH defines
energy performance in terms of carbon
emissions, rather than energy used. The
U-values not exceeding 0.80 W/m²/K for both
CSH has led the effort to achieve zero
glazing and frames. Solar Heat Gain Co-efficient
carbon homes but these buildings still
Energy-efficient window or “g-value” through the glazing should be at
use sizeable amounts of energy due to
glazing and frames least 50%[2]. U-values of 1.8-2.2 W/m2/K typically.
poor performing fabric still in use. To
compensate, they are often covered
in photovoltaic panels and heated via
bulky, expensive biomass fuelled boilers
Air leakage (n50) through unwanted gaps and
to reach the target.
cracks in the building fabric must be less than 0.6 Design air permeability of 5 to 10 m2/hr/m3 @ 50 Pa.
times the house volume per hour under negative Research shows air permeability values for completed
The following table from BRE[1]
Building envelope airtightness and positive pressurisation. dwellings frequently exceed these limits.
summarises the key differences
between Passive House and typical UK
new builds:

Fresh air may be brought into the house through

underground ducts that exchange heat with the
The majority of new build dwellings do not achieve
soil. This preheats fresh air to a temperature above
good enough air permeability values to warrant the
Passive pre-heating of fresh air 5°C, even on cold winter days.
incorporation of a whole house ventilation system -
thus trickle vents, extractor fans and/or passive stack
ventilation is more commonly used.
Some like it hot
In the UK, the average annual Heat from the extract air is transferred to the
energy expenditure is £1195.48 Highly efficient heat recovery incoming filtered fresh air (heat recovery rate must
per household. from extract air be above 75%).

People in grass houses

In the Middle Ages in Iceland, Dedicated low-energy lights are provided in a number
people started to build turf houses Low energy refrigerators, cookers, freezers, lamps, of rooms in a new dwelling - if appliances are supplied
after wood became scarce. These Energy-saving household washing machines, etc. are essential in a Passive they will be generally C-rated or 'Energy Saving
were Passive Houses, although appliances House. Recommended'.
they didn’t have adequate windows
or sufficient ventilation.

Space heating/cooling energy

demand Less than 15 kWh/m2/yr. A minimum of 55 kWh/m2/yr is the norm.

[1] Building Research Establishment -

[2] The Solar Heat Gain Co-efficient (SHGC) or “g-value” is provided as a guide, it can be adjusted for glazing on different façades.

10 11
Passive House key benefits Balanced ventilation

Comfortable and healthy Low energy High quality Efficient, balanced ventilation, with the added
benefit of heat recovery, is key, allowing for
ƒƒSummer and winter comfort ƒƒMinimal heating ƒƒRobust and long lasting
good indoor air quality and saving energy. In
ƒƒNo draughts ƒƒEfficient services, lighting and ƒƒReal performance matching
Passive Houses, a minimum of 75% of the
ƒƒNo cold surfaces or downdraughts appliances predictions
heat from the exhaust air is transferred into the
ƒƒGood indoor air quality ƒƒAddresses energy security ƒƒCertified designers and products
fresh air again by means of a heat exchanger.
ƒƒQuiet ventilation
Passive House certified heat recovery
ventilation systems must provide the following
Affordable Environmental Meets policy requirements
ƒƒCan be achieved for capital costs ƒƒFocus on minimising energy ƒƒPerforms better than current building
comparable with standard build consumption regulations ƒƒFresh air at all times of the day
ƒƒLower running costs ƒƒCan incorporate other ƒƒWill help to meet the 2016 Zero ƒƒClean air thanks to ultra-fine filters –
ƒƒAlleviates fuel poverty environmentally friendly features Carbon target invaluable for allergy sufferers
ƒƒHelps raise awareness of general ƒƒMeasured performance meets the ƒƒSupply air at a comfortable temperature
environmental issues new ‘as-built’ proposals ƒƒAir in habitable rooms untainted by odour or
contaminants from wet rooms
ƒƒA constant supply of fresh air ensuring low
levels of velocity with no draughts, cold

Comfort and heat input spots or discomfort

ƒƒLow levels of sound emission
ƒƒEnergy savings of between 75% and 90%

Heating energy in kWh/(m2yr)

Average UK house

Heating energy
savings of

20,000 kWh £700 Cold and expensive over 75%


Go for comfort
Low energy house Passive House

40,000 kWh £1,400 Warm but VERY expensive
22°C Simply using Passive House components does
not necessarily equal a Passive House

A Passive House is far more than the sum of its

Add insulation and draught-proofing
parts: precise planning is required in order to

ensure that components work together to acheive
the desired result.

20,000 kWh £700 Warm but expensive
22°C The Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) is
the key design tool used and serves as the basis
of verification for the Passive House standard.
The PHPP’s high level of accuracy and detail
Passive House
sets it apart from any other design tool: energy

balances can be calculated with the PHPP to an
accuracy of +/- 0.5kWh!

2,000 kWh £70 Just right!

20°C Largely based around European averages,
the PHPP makes use of numerous tested and
SAP ratings since 1970 approved calculations to yield a building’s
All temperatures averaged throughout a typical year.
heating, cooling and primary energy demand,
Cost of fuel based on gas @ 3.5 pence per kWh.
As an indication of how much the energy efficiency of UK homes
Assumed average external winter temperature of 7°C. as well as the likelihood of overheating in the
5K lift from gains in row one, hence 5K heating lift required. Row two is 10K lift meaning double fuel cost. has already improved, average SAP ratings have increased year on
warmer months.
Final row based on 88m2 TFA, 15 kWh/m2 demand, gas boiler 80%, rounded up.
year from just 17.6 in 1970 to 56.7 in 2012.

12 13
Meeting the EnerPHit standard

The Passive House standard can be EnerPHit is a slightly relaxed standard for Fixed aspects include:
applied to any new build or refurbishment refurbishment programmes where fixed Existing architecture
project, providing a robust method to aspects of the existing buildings mean Existing occupants
help the industry achieve the carbon that meeting the Passive House standard Planning and conservation issues
reductions required as we head towards is not feasible. Fixed form
zero carbon. Through improving building Fixed orientation
fabric and services, Passive House can
achieve real energy demand reductions
below the level proposed for Building

“Quality-Approved Energy Retrofit with Passive House Components”

The goal was to create a standard for an economically and ecologically optimal energy retrofit,
for old buildings that cannot achieve Passive House Standard with reasonable effort. (PHI)

The table below shows the criteria for achieving EnerPHit compared to the Passive House standard:

Criteria Passive House EnerPHit

Specific Heat Demand ≤ 15 kWh/m².yr ≤ 25 kWh/m².yr

Primary Energy Demand ≤ 120 kWh/m².yr ≤ 120 kWh/m².yr + ((SHD - 15 kWh/ m².yr)
x 1.2)
Limiting Value ƞ50 ≤0.6-1 ƞ50 ≤1.0-1

Water activity of interior surfaces aw N/A Max. 80%

Certification options

The Passive House certification options ’’ As with new build projects, the energy
for domestic refurbishment are: balance of the refurbished building
must be verified using the Passive
Dra u ght-free living 1. Certification as “Quality-Approved House Planning Package (PHPP)
The standard target of 0.6 Passive House” based on exactly the ’’ EnerPHit certification is given only
ach is due to the prevention same criteria as new buildings, if modernisation to Passive House
of draughts and discomfort standards would not have been
rather than energy loss, or practicable or cost effective
which is more commonly ’’ Only buildings in cool and moderate
assumed. 2. Certification as “Quality-Approved central European climates are covered
Energy Retrofit with Passive House by the EnerPHit standard at the
Components” – EnerPHit moment
Mind the ga p
Cavity walls were introduced
to the UK in the 1920s – but
cavity wall insulation didn’t
make an appearance until
the 70s!

14 15
Zehnder and Passivhaus Trust Zehnder Comfosystems - your Passive House system of choice

Zehnder is proud to be a Founder Zehnder is one of a group of forward- As Europe’s leading provider of energy
Member of Passivhaus Trust – the UK thinking companies who are leading efficient indoor climate solutions, we
Passive House organisation. the delivery of Passive House in the offer a complete range of ComfoAir
No one knows our products and their capabilities better than our own technical
UK. Zehnder has helped to establish domestic heat recovery ventilation units
specialists. We are ideally placed, not only to design installations so that they
Passivhaus Trust is an independent, Passivhaus Trust as the Passive House in the UK that have all been certified by
meet both the Building Regulations and the needs of the homeowner, but also
not-for-profit organisation that provides standard body for the UK and signed the Passive House Institute.
to offer training and support throughout any project.
leadership in the UK for the adoption up as a Founder Member to show full
ƒƒPlanning support for the installer
of the Passive House standard and support. Meeting stringent Passive House
ƒƒTraining of partners via RIBA approved CPDs (see opposite page)
methodology. Its aim is to promote the objectives for performance and efficiency,
ƒƒCompliance with regulations
principles of Passive House as a highly Passivhaus Trust is affiliated to the our ComfoAir range ensures excellent
ƒƒIndividual designs tailored to customer requirements
effective way of reducing energy use and Passive House Institute (PHI) through ventilation and heat recovery, with the
carbon emissions from buildings in the the International Passive House provision of superb air quality, for low
UK, as well as providing high standards of Association (iPHA). energy, comfortable housing.
comfort and building health.
Because we design and manufacture many of the elements of our systems,
Comprising five products to service
components are designed to fit together. This integrated functionality allows for
buildings from 50m2 up to 210m2, there
a more rapid system installation saving both time and money for the installer
is a Zehnder ComfoAir product for every
and the end user.
residential application.
ƒƒCoordinated system components
ƒƒSimple, fast and economical installation
We have more than forty years of
ƒƒTechnical support and training for installers via BPEC accredited courses and
experience in the design, development and
on-site ‘Toolbox Talks’
manufacture of ventilation systems. Our
experience and knowledge allows us to
produce intuitive, integrated solutions which
meet all the needs of our customers.
All Zehnder Comfosystems can be simply and effectively controlled to ensure
optimal performance around the clock. A choice of easy to use controls range
from simple switches to fully integrated LCD displays featuring programmable
timers and system status messages.
ƒƒSimple to use
ƒƒComfort temperature can be set by the homeowner
ƒƒControl unit with status messages and timer function available
Continued Professional Development (CPD)
The provision of good air quality is at the heart of everything we do. We have,
therefore, designed in a variety of features meaning the system can be easily
Zehnder is delighted to be able to provide This means that we are eligible to deliver
maintained over its lifecycle so that air quality is never compromised. Our
a RIBA-approved CPD entitled: this RIBA-certified training course
ventilation units contain replaceable, high grade filters on both the supply and
to Architects and other construction
extract air streams.
‘Specifying Heat Recovery Ventilation professionals.
ƒƒSmooth internal coating in both the unit and the ComfoTube ducting
in the Design of Domestic High Code Zehnder’s high quality
prevents dirt from settling
Level and Passive House Properties.’ The hour long seminar covers the
products are designed ƒƒSimple replacement of filters in the device and the air vents
following topics:
ƒƒHeat exchangers that can be easily cleaned
to service the low energy

1 Understand the key principles

of heat recovery ventilation and
how it works
4 Recognise the necessary
features to achieve compliance
with High Code Levels or Passive
house of tomorrow.
Depending on the size and Maintenance
At Zehnder we have designed our units so that they require as little maintenance
House standards type of system you are as possible. Beyond checking the filters and heat exchanger periodically, there

2 Learn about what constitutes

a High Code Level and Passive
5 Be aware of best practice
looking for, we can offer is little else to do to ensure the longevity and effectiveness of your system.
ƒƒLow maintenance units
House dwelling when specifying heat recovery a ComfoAir heat recovery ƒƒLong-lasting effectiveness and efficiency
ventilation for domestic ƒƒInspections/servicing by specialists
unit to suit for balanced
3 Understand how to identify the
correct heat recovery system for
ventilation and reduced heat
ƒƒEasy to replace components

the project
loss in an airtight home.

Contact us for more information on 01903 771333 or email your enquiry to

16 17
Zehnder ComfoAir 160 Luxe PH Zehnder ComfoAir 180 Luxe PH

Physical specification 268 Physical specification

Weight: 670
Weight: 558 280
28kg 27kg
Ducting: Ducting:
External Ø - 125mm 2 x 220x60mm spigots
Internal Ø - 100mm 2 x 220x115mm spigots
Condensate connection: 1 x Ø125mm optional supply
32mm air connector
ƒƒDesigned specifically for flats Materials: ƒƒDesigned specifically for flats Condensate connection:
Internal body - EPP 20mm
and apartments up to 100m2 and apartments up to 105m2


Unit housing - coated steel Materials:
(2010 Building Regulations) Fans: (2010 Building Regulations) Internal body - EPP/PA
ƒƒLow energy consumption thanks EC constant volume ƒƒLow energy consumption thanks Unit housing - coated steel
Heat exchanger material: Fans: EC
to EC motors to highly efficient EC motors
Polystyrene Heat exchanger material:
ƒƒAutomatic 100% filtered bypass Orientation: ƒƒAutomatic 100% filtered bypass Polystyrene
ƒƒConstant volume motors Wall or ceiling mounting ƒƒCompact dimensions making Orientation:
Installation: Wall mounting
ensure guaranteed installed CA180 ideal for installation in a
Dual handed Installation:
performance (GIP) kitchen or bathroom cupboard Dual handed
ƒƒCan be mounted on either walls ƒƒThe unit can be left or right
or ceilings handed
ƒƒHas a 100% variable air volume Passive House certified performance data - ƒƒDesigned for use with the unique Passive House certified performance data -
setting with standard heat exchanger (HRV) ComfoPipe Plus Twin Duct with standard heat exchanger (HRV)
ƒƒDual-handed unit system
’’ Air flow rates of 73 – 109m3/h ’’ Air flow rates of 90 – 143m3/h
ƒƒOffers particular benefits for
’’ Heat recovery efficiency of 89% ’’ Heat recovery efficiency of 83%
’’ Power consumption at 100Pa of 0.36 Wh/m3 refurbishment projects ’’ Power consumption at 100Pa of 0.27 Wh/m3
’’ Maximum power consumption with pre-heater of 797W ƒƒFeatures an additional supply ’’ Maximum power consumption with pre-heater of 1250W
’’ Airtightness and insulation
air connection at the bottom of ’’ Air tightness and insulation
• Internal leakage at 2.37% • Internal leakage at 1.00%
• External leakage at 1.49% the unit for added installation • External leakage at 1.10%
Acoustic data Acoustic data
The following sound power levels were determined at an air flow rate of 113m3/h The following sound power levels were determined at an air flow rate of 142m3/h

dB(A) at unit dB(A) at intake dB(A) at supply dB(A) at extract dB(A) at exhaust dB(A) at unit dB(A) at intake dB(A) at supply dB(A) at extract dB(A) at exhaust

52.9 33.3 61.1 39.1 59.7 43.0 41.2 52.4 53.1 43.7

Performance graph Performance graph

Passive House certified performance data -
with optional Enthalpy Exchanger (ERV) 350

’’ Air flow rates of 73 – 115 m3/h
300 ’’ Heat recovery efficiency of 85%
’’ Average moisture recovery ƞx=0.64 250

250 ’’ Power consumption at 100Pa of 0.33 Wh/m3

’’ Maximum power consumption with pre-heater of 797W 200
200 ’’ Airtightness and insulation Pa

• Internal leakage at 1.92% 150

150 90% • External leakage at 1.45%
60% 100 90%
Acoustic data 70%

30% The following sound power levels were determined at an air flow rate of 115 m3/h 60%
50 50%
dB(A) at unit dB(A) at intake dB(A) at supply dB(A) at extract dB(A) at exhaust
0 0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 53.8 35.9 61.4 40.6 57.2 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300
m3/h m3/h

18 19
Zehnder ComfoAir 200 Luxe PH There she blows! Zehnder ComfoAir 350 Luxe PH
In 2012 wind turbines in the UK
generated more than 16 TWh – enough
electricity for around 4 million homes.

Physical specification 535 315

Physical specification
Weight: Weight:
30kg 35kg
Ducting: Ducting:
External a Ø150mm External Ø180mm
External b Ø160mm ƒƒDesigned specifically for Internal a Ø150mm
Internal Ø125mm residential dwellings up to 150m2 Internal b Ø160mm
Condensate connection: (2010 Building Regulations) Condensate connection:


20mm 32mm
ƒƒLow energy consumption thanks


ƒƒDesigned specifically for flats Materials: Materials:
Internal body - EPP to EC motors Internal body – EPP / PA
and apartments up to 110m2 Unit housing - coated steel Unit housing – coated steel /
ƒƒAutomatic 100% filtered bypass
(2010 Building Regulations) Fans: ABS
EC ƒƒThe insulating, sound-absorbing Fans:
ƒƒLow energy consumption thanks
Heat exchanger material: ducting connections can be EC
to EC motors Polystyrene Heat exchanger material:
rotated individually to simplify 625
ƒƒAutomatic 100% filtered bypass Orientation: Polystyrene
Wall or ceiling mounting
the installation Orientation:
ƒƒCan be mounted on either walls
ƒƒHigh specification PCB featuring Wall mounting or free-standing
or ceilings (with optional assembly base)
4 x 10v inputs for greater system
ƒƒIntegrates simply and flexibly
into building services
Passive House certified performance data - ƒƒCan be mounted either on the Passive House certified performance data -
with standard heat exchanger (HRV) wall or free-standing on the with standard heat exchanger (HRV)
optional assembly base
’’ Air flow rates of 60 – 150m3/h ƒƒSuitable for use with the optional ’’ Air flow rates of 71 – 293m3/h
’’ Heat recovery efficiency of 92% ’’ Heat recovery efficiency of 84%
’’ Electric power consumption at 100Pa of 0.42 Wh/m3
ComfoFond-L Eco sub-soil heat ’’ Electric power consumption at 100Pa of 0.29 Wh/m3
’’ Maximum power consumption with pre-heater of 951W exchanger or ComfoCool custom ’’ Maximum power consumption with pre-heater of 1051W
’’ Airtightness and insulation designed cooling unit ’’ Airtightness and insulation
• Internal leakage at 2.84% • Internal leakage at 1.5%
• External leakage at 0.80%
ƒƒInput available for the • External leakage at 1.9%
connection of a post-heater
Acoustic data which can be activated without Acoustic data
The following sound power levels were determined at an air flow rate of 150m3/h the need for a separate controller The following sound power levels were determined at an air flow rate of 290m3/h

dB(A) at unit dB(A) at intake dB(A) at supply dB(A) at extract dB(A) at exhaust dB(A) at unit dB(A) at intake dB(A) at supply dB(A) at extract dB(A) at exhaust

49.0 64.7 57.2 54.1 67.1 54.1 50.1 63.8 50.2 61.4

Performance graph Performance graph

500 1000

450 900

400 800

350 700

300 600

Pa Pa
250 500

200 90% 400 90%

150 300 70%
70% 60%

100 200 50%

60% 40%
50% 30%
50 40% 20%
20% 0
0 60 120 180 240 300 360 420 480 540 600
0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270

20 21
Zehnder ComfoAir 550 Luxe PH Ancillaries and controls

Zehnder ComfoFond-L Eco earth brine sub-soil heat Zehnder Comfosystems

exchanger uses the relatively constant annual temperature of the

earth at a depth of one to one and a half metres. This ‘passive Heating Cooling Fresh Air Clean Air

store’ of energy remains at a temperature of 8-12°C all year round

and can be used to pre-temper incoming supply air in winter and
summer months, improving the efficiency of the heat recovery
unit, saving energy and providing an optimised indoor climate.

ComfoFond-L Eco 350

ComfoFond-L Eco Datasheet

Physical specification Zehnder ComfoCool is a custom designed cooling unit for Zehnder ComfoCool
To optimise year round comfort
725 569
use with Zehnder ComfoAir 350 and 550 Luxe units. It is capable within the home

47kg of reducing the indoor temperature by up to 5°C and the relative
Ducting: humidity of an entire home by up to 20%, thereby creating a
External Ø200mm pleasant indoor climate. Request the brochure to discover how
ƒƒDesigned specifically for large Internal Ø180mm
ComfoCool differs from air conditioning.
residential dwellings up to 210m2 Condensate connection:

(2010 Building Regulations) ComfoCool
ƒƒLow energy consumption thanks Internal body – EPP
to EC motors Unit housing – coated steel /
ABS Heat recovery is a system – the unit and the ducting –
ƒƒAutomatic 100% filtered bypass Fans:
High performance, semi-rigid

and it is the combination of these two elements that deliver

air distribution system

ƒƒHigh specification PCB featuring EC

ventilation into the home. Zehnder ComfoTube and Flat 51 – our
4 x 10v inputs for greater control
Heating Cooling Fresh Air Clean Air

Heat exchanger material:

Polystyrene high-performance, semi-rigid air distribution systems - offer a
ƒƒInput available for the connection Orientation: whole host of benefits to developers, installers and homeowners
of a post-heater which can be Wall mounting or free-standing
and include many innovative and distinctive features.
controlled without the need for a (with optional assembly base) ComfoTube and Flat 51

separate thermostat
ƒƒCan be mounted either on the wall

Passive House certified performance data -

or free-standing on the optional
with standard heat exchanger (HRV) The Zehnder Enthalpy Exchanger is designed to maintain
assembly base Zehnder Comfosystems

comfortable moisture levels within the home. Too much moisture

ƒƒSuitable for use with the optional ’’ Air flow rates of 110 – 308m3/h* can lead to mould and overheating. Too little causes dry eyes,
ComfoFond-L Eco sub-soil heat ’’ Heat recovery efficiency of 84%
Heating Cooling Fresh Air Clean Air

’’ chapped lips and an environment in which bacteria and viruses

exchanger or ComfoCool custom Electric power consumption of 0.31 Wh/m3
’’ Maximum power consumption with pre-heater of 1158W can thrive. The Zehnder Enthalpy Exchanger recovers both the
designed cooling unit
’’ Airtightness and insulation thermal and the latent energy from the stale air extracted from
• Internal leakage at 1.93%
• External leakage at 2.51% wet rooms around the home. This additional energy, which would
Acoustic data otherwise have been lost, is transferred into the incoming fresh air
The following sound power levels were determined at an air flow rate of 242m3/h Enthalpy Exchanger stream before being supplied to habitable rooms.

dB(A) at unit dB(A) at intake dB(A) at supply dB(A) at extract dB(A) at exhaust
Enthalpy Exchanger Datasheet

48.1 47.6 48.2 47.6



*308 m3/h with additional pre-heater protection Power is nothing without control! Our units can Zehnder Comfosystems

be simply and effectively controlled to ensure optimal

Performance graph performance around the clock. Zehnder controls range from Heating Cooling Fresh Air Clean Air

standard switches to fully integrated LCD displays featuring

programmable timers and system status messages. The
700 controllers can be linked with a variety of proprietary sensors to
enhance comfort and offer total flexibility. By combining Zehnder
units with any of our range of controllers you are ensuring that
500 ComfoSense the system can be truly tailored to become an integral and

autonomous part of the home.
400 90%


300 70%


100 40% Technical data sheets and brochures can be downloaded from our website –
Alternatively, you can download our app for free to your smart device where you will find all of our literature, installation
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 instructions and homeowner guides – the links to the iTunes App Store or the Google Play Store can be found on our website.

22 23
Glossary of ComfoAir Luxe PH features Extra savings
Ecology building society offer special
discounted mortgage rates for homes
built to the Passive House or EnerPHit
Here are some concise explanations of the Zehnder ComfoAir features that are common to the standard.

entire range of LUXE PH models.

Pet Walk!
Heat recovery However, during hot summer days, Pre-heater One of the standout innovations at
Besides ensuring a healthy balance we aim to keep the heat outside whilst The pre-heater gives the added bonus Ecobuild 2014 was a Passive House
between incoming and outgoing air, ventilating to maintain a balanced system that balanced ventilation is intact for certified, automated pet door from
the ComfoAir units also provide the and ensure indoor air quality remains temperatures as low as -15°C meaning Austrian company, Pet Walk!
benefits of heat recovery. Heat recovery high. In this situation, the bypass would that the supply of fresh outside air to the
means that heat from the extracted air stay closed so that the fresh filtered air home won’t be reduced / prevented. The
is transferred to the fresh incoming air enters the home but not the heat pre-heater is activated and deactivated
before being supplied to all habitable (figure 3). automatically based on continual
rooms in the home. monitoring of the temperature of the
This could strictly be referred to as ‘cold intake air.
Bypass recovery’, as the cooler indoor air is
An MVHR has to operate in many different used to temper the hotter incoming air, Post-heater (optional)
conditions. In winter the heat exchanger yet the generally accepted term is still It is possible to fit Zehnder ComfoAir
is working to ensure that heat from the ‘heat recovery’. So, heat recovery does units with a post-heater, ensuring that
dwelling is not lost through extraction not generate heat or cold, but reuses the the supply air is tempered further before
(figure 1). warmth or coolness that would otherwise it reaches any of the living areas of the
In spring and autumn, conditions may have been extracted. dwelling. The main benefit is that the
occur where heat recovery is not required. supply air can be instantly released into
If it is warmer indoors that the preset Chimney Sweep programme the home at the set-comfort temperature
comfort temperature, yet the outside This feature is required in houses that – particularly important for Passive
temperature is lower, the bypass will open have a fireplace to ensure safe use as Houses in colder climates.
automatically so that the cooler outdoor there is a risk of air being sucked back
air bypasses the heat recovery function from the chimney. The Chimney Sweep
and lowers the internal temperature programme works automatically but
(figure 2). The same method also applies requires activation by the installer. Whilst
during cool summer nights, which is why the programme is activated, the supply
the feature is often known as “Summer and exhaust fans cannot be turned off
Bypass”. manually.
What sets Zehnder ComfoAir units apart
is that Summer Bypass does not mean
filter bypass. With ComfoAir, the incoming
air continues to be filtered before it is
supplied to the home when the bypass
is open. This is especially important for
allergy sufferers in the hay fever season!

0°C 16°C 28°C





Unwanted heat is
BYPASS exhausted whilst
‘coolness’ is recovered






figure 1 Comfort air temperature figure 2 figure 3

of 20°C can be achieved
by a post heater or similar

24 25
Zehnder – your Passive House partner

We offer a fully integrated Consultation and estimates Training

We will begin by having initial discussions We offer a variety of comprehensive
support package to all of our about the requirements for your building training course for our partners,
customers where our aim design. From there we can estimate the installers and specifiers. They cover
approximate costs based on the most theory, specification, installation and
is to partner with you and suitable units and components required commissioning and servicing.
your construction project to meet the needs of your project.
We can also recommend a whole host of
throughout the process. We Design and quote training events that are organised by BRE.
are not just a supplier of We will provide outlined CAD plans in line Their courses vary based on which part
with the Best Practice requirements of of the Passive House process you are
brown boxes to site! your chosen build methodology. At this working in – from the design of a Passive
time we also provide a detailed quote of House to the construction techniques
the system and components required. required. Although qualifications in
Our approach works through When it comes to planning a Passive Passive House construction aren’t
a number of stages so that House standard dwelling, our experienced currently mandatory in the UK, this may
designers will carefully ensure that the become a requirement in the future.
we ensure all elements following requirements are incorporated:
of regulations, whatever On-site support
ƒƒReduction of any potential thermal We have developed in-depth and
standard you are building losses and noise by the appropriate simple to follow installation instructions.
to, are achieved. Above siting of the unit However, we are always available to come
ƒƒDecrease the motor speed and achieve to site and help support the installers to
everything else, we safeguard optimal performance by using a low ensure it gets done right first time.
your particular requirements. velocity ducting approach
ƒƒLimiting cross-talk transmission This includes commissioning the heat
and removing the requirement for recovery system so that it delivers on
cross-talk attenuators by the use of a performance and comfort from the
ComfoFresh ducting system moment it is turned on.
ƒƒUsing coanda effect grilles to improve
the ventilation levels and the occupant After installation support
comfort (none of the draughts If, for any reason, there is a problem
associated with standard grilles) with the whole house ventilation system,
ƒƒDampening any potential noise from we can offer advice and support over
the fans the phone, via email or in person. Each
project that we work on is individual to us
Supply and is tailored to suit.
Following order placement, we will
organise the safe delivery to site of your If you are looking for a partner – that’s us!
systems and ancillaries in line with the You don’t want a supplier of brown boxes.
needs of your build plan and installers. You want a company who can provide
consultation and comfort systems for
your whole project.

Comfort in the Rockies

An extremely well-insulated solar passive house was built in Old Snowmass in Colorado, at an altitude of 2,164 metres.
Tropical vegetation flourished in the winter garden and the stove was seldom used. In 2011, at the International Passive House
conference, this building was awarded the “Passive House Pioneer Award”.

26 27
Knight’s Place in Exeter
Amongst the first multi-residential, certified Passive Houses in the UK
Built to the highest level of energy provision of optimum quality indoor air all Passivhaus Accredited
efficient construction, with MVHR from year round, the CA200 recovers heat from Alongside its superior energy and heat
Zehnder Group UK, Knight’s Place in the warm air extracted from kitchens and exchange performance, the CA200 has
Exeter has set new Passive House bathrooms and transfers it to the fresh been independently certified by the
design standards within the social incoming air supplied to living rooms and Passive House Institute as an accredited
housing sector. bedrooms. The CA200 system provides component, making it suitable for a
both the ventilation and heating needs wide range of highly insulated new
Knight’s Place Passive House Housing is at Knight’s Place - no other heating build developments and a perfect fit
a sustainable social housing development system is required. As the heat loss in for Knight’s Place. “Achieving Passive
of 18 one and two-bedroom apartments, each flat is so minimal, this is met during House certification is still relatively
designed by Gale & Snowden Architects winter extremes via a small air heater unusual in the UK, particularly for this
for Exeter City Council. Built with in the supply air duct just after the heat type of social housing development, but
meticulous attention to detail, the two exchanger. it was a key objective for Knight’s Place,”
blocks have been designed to strict explains Fitzsimmons. “Obviously it made
Passive House standards, which deliver Outstanding Energy Performance sense for us to select a high quality,
high comfort levels for residents via Commenting on the specification of independently accredited MVHR system
a mechanical ventilation system with the products, Principal Mechanical such as Zehnder’s CA200 to help us meet
heat recovery (MVHR). This produces and Renewable Energy Engineer at the strict requirements of certification.
consistent and uniform internal Gale & Snowden, Jason Fitzsimmons Knight’s Place is now one of the first
temperatures and excellent air quality explains, “Generally the key issue for multi-occupancy buildings in the country
whilst minimising energy use for heating passive houses is controlling heat loss to be recognised as achieving true
and cooling, resulting in significantly through the fabric and windows and Passive House standards.”
reduced energy bills. Knight’s Place achieving excellent airtightness levels.
is amongst the first multi-residential, You can insulate well, but in naturally Another key benefit of the CA200 is
certified Passive Houses in the UK. ventilated homes you still have fresh, its filtered bypass, which circumvents
cold air affecting the interior climate so the heat recovery mode during warmer
With MVHR an integral feature of all the use of a MVHR system with a high months. Ventilation is provided
Passive House developments, it was heat exchange efficiency rate is very continuously without warm and humid air
essential that a highly efficient, quality important. While the average unit on entering unnecessarily which can assist in
MVHR system was specified for Knight’s the market stands at between 75 and reducing summertime overheating. Each
Place, enabling the buildings to meet 80 per cent efficiency, Zehnder’s CA200 unit can be provided with grade F7 filters
stringent energy performance criteria. model offers a 92 per cent heat exchange on the supply and extract air, with GU4
Offering excellent rewards in Standard efficiency rate, which is outstanding. filters as standard. Year round filtration of
Assessment Procedure (SAP) through It’s one of the reasons we selected the incoming air is crucial to ensuring a good
the Dwelling Emission Rates calculation, product because, for this type of dwelling, level of indoor air quality at all times and
Zehnder’s ComfoAir 200 whole house there’s no doubt that it’s the most is particularly important in highly insulated
heat recovery system was specified efficient on the market.” dwellings like Knight’s Place.
for each apartment. Guaranteeing the

Knight’s Place
A Passive House Case Study
28 29
“While the average unit on the market stands at around 80 per cent efficiency, Zehnder’s CA200
model offers a 92 per cent MVHR efficiency rate, which is outstanding. This, alongside its
compactness, is one of the reasons we selected the unit because, for this type of dwelling,
there’s no doubt that it’s the most efficient on the market.”

Jason Fitzsimmons,
Principal Mechanical and Renewable Energy Engineer at Gale & Snowden Architects.

Key achievements
ƒƒPassive House certified
ƒƒMinimal heating requirements and
greatly reduced carbon emissions
ƒƒDesigned to meet Code 4 of the Code
for Sustainable Homes (CSH)
ƒƒFully compliant with Lifetime Homes
ƒƒDesigned to meet best practice
daylight levels in accordance with the
requirements of the CSH
ƒƒCompliant with Secured by Design
ƒƒIndependently assessed under the
Building for Life Standard with a final
score of 18.5 out of 20
ƒƒConsiderate Constructors Scheme
rating of 37.5 out of 40

Strong technical support the MVHR duct sensors which enabled Two Passive House Myths
Commenting on the choice of MVHR
system for Knight’s Place, Fitzsimmons
us to test in detail the heat exchanger
efficiency and air stream humidity and
1 “You can’t open the windows!”
Windows can be opened in Passive
adds, “Aside from the main energy temperature.” House buildings but, in practice,
benefits of the CA200, one of the deciding most occupants choose to keep
factors for specifying Zehnder’s unit was Two years on from completion, Knight’s them closed as continuous fresh
the expertise and excellent technical Place apartments maintain a comfortable air is provided by mechanical
support available from the dedicated temperature of 21ºC year round for ventilation.
team. We were very happy with the residents, with minimal heating required Windows & glazing MVHR Running costs
service they provided and they even and low running costs. According to the ƒƒHigh performance triple glazed ƒƒMechanical ventilation with high ƒƒAccording to the Standard
Comfort levels are very high and the
supported us through our two year energy SAP Energy Performance Certificate, windows and doors - maximum efficiency heat recovery (MVHR) - Assessment Procedure (SAP) Energy
air quality is excellent. In summer,
efficiency monitoring programme, where some of the dwellings at Knight’s Place U-value 0.85Wm2K. minimises ventilation heat losses Performance Certificate (EPC), the
opening windows at night will help
we examined the energy and comfort can be heated for as little as £18 a year. ƒƒDaylight design is maximised in all through controlled ventilation, flats in Knights Place can be heated
keep the house cool but in winter,
performance of the flats. They provided rooms where possible to reduce ensuring optimum indoor air quality for as little at £18 per year.
doing so may increase fuel costs for
reliance on artificial light and utilise and reduced heating requirements ƒƒThe EPC shows that another £24 and
the resident as heat will be needed
solar gain. Light coloured walls help by retaining heat from exhaust air. £86 might be required for lighting and
to warm the house back up again.
to reflect daylight into the rooms. The MVHR systems provide both hot water per year respectively.
the ventilation and heating needs for ƒƒThis shows that these flats are truly
2 “They don’t have a heating system!”
It’s true, Passive House buildings
Airtightness the flats. No other form of heating is affordable for future tenants.
ƒƒExceptionally high levels of required.
don’t have a traditional central
airtightness <0.6 m3/ ƒƒWarm, ‘dirty’ air is extracted from Wall construction
heating system. Instead, they have
ƒƒCareful detailing throughout to ensure the kitchen and shower room and ƒƒExternally insulated masonry walls
smaller, lower cost heating systems
continuous airtight barrier. exhausted once it has exchanged achieve high insulation levels
which can meet the reduced heat
its heat with the fresh incoming and a U-value of no greater than
air supplied to the living room and 0.13Wm2K.
bedrooms as ‘clean’, tempered air. ƒƒThe inclusion of thermal mass within
On the coldest days, a post-air
internal spaces reduces internal
heater in the ventilation duct is
temperature fluctuations, stores
usually enough to keep the house
winter solar gain and reduces the risk
Images courtesy of Gale and Snowden Architects warm and comfortable.
of overheating in summer.

For more case studies visit our Passive House website at

30 31
References Summary

The UK’s experience with building to the stringent Passive House standard is currently
in its infancy. Nonetheless, experience across Europe proves that Passive House is a viable
way of delivering low energy housing.

However, whether building to the Passive

NHBC Foundation – Lessons from Germany’s Passivhaus experience House model, current UK Building Regulations
NF47 December 2012
or the Code for Sustainable Homes, the fact
International Passive House Association – Active for more comfort: Passive House remains that the UK is heading down a path
Second edition 2014.
to more airtight, zero carbon homes, and
Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) - United Kingdom housing energy fact file 2013 MVHR is expected to become the leading
form of ventilation as a result.

By aligning yourself with a manufacturer and

supplier who knows the ins and outs of the
Passive House regulations, you take a step
towards safeguarding your development
against the possibility of non-compliance.

Choosing Zehnder as your partner of choice

for all of your Passive House and high code
level construction ensures that your project
runs smoothly – great news for you, for the
health of the dwelling, for the comfort of the
occupants and for the environment!

Ca rbon Emissions
Carbon Dioxide emissions
per household have fallen
dramatically over the past four
decades – from 10.4 tonnes in
1970 to 4.5 tonnes in 2011.

32 33
34 35
Beep Design & Media Ltd.
October 2014
Zehnder Group UK Ltd.

© Copyright Zehnder Group UK Ltd. 2014

All information believed to be correct at the time of going to press. E&OE.
All dimensions are in millimetres unless otherwise shown.
Zehnder Group UK Ltd. reserves the right to change specifications without prior notice.

For more information contact:

Zehnder Group UK Ltd.
Unit 4 • Watchmoor Point • Camberley • Surrey • GU15 3AD
T +44 1276 605800

Zehnder Comfosystems
Greenwood House • Brookside Avenue • Rustington • West Sussex • BN16 3LF
T +44 1903 777333 • F +44 1903 782398 •