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Sheet Pile Walls

By
Dr. Ashraf Kamal Hussein
Professor of Geotechnical Engineering and Foundations
Faculty of Engineering - Cairo University

2012
1. Introduction
- Same purpose as retaining walls.
- Commonly used as:
● Temporary structures to facilitate excavation and dewatering of limited
area.
● Water front structures.

Faculty of Engineering Sheet Pile Walls


Cairo University
2. Types of Sheet Pile Walls
● Cantilever
● Anchored
● Strutted

Cantilever SPW Anchored SPW Strutted SPW

Faculty of Engineering Sheet Pile Walls


Cairo University
2. Types of Sheet Pile Walls
Materials:
● Timber: (shallow excavations)

● Precast reinforced concrete


● Steel

Faculty of Engineering Sheet Pile Walls


Cairo University
2. Types of Sheet Pile Walls
- Steel SPW is the most common type since:
● it resists high driving stresses.
● it is of relatively light weight.
● it can be reused several times.
● it is more durable.
● it is easy to increase its length by welding or bolting.

Typical Shapes:

Faculty of Engineering Sheet Pile Walls


Cairo University
3. Cantilever Sheet Pile Walls
Stability:
- from passive resistance.
H

Excavation Height:
- H<7m
t

Design Steps:
● determine forces acting on SPW.
● determine penetration depth (t).
● determine Mmax and section modulus.

Faculty of Engineering Sheet Pile Walls


Cairo University
3. Cantilever Sheet Pile Walls
Design:

- Forces

- Simplification

H H

Ea Ea
Ep Ep
t C t
O O Ep
M Ea

Faculty of Engineering Sheet Pile Walls


Cairo University
3. Cantilever Sheet Pile Walls
Design: Cohesionless Soils

- Penetration Depth γ
H φ

- ∑Mo = 0 Ea
D
Ep
neglect ∆M  Ea ya – Ep yp = 0 t
O C
 get D ∆M

 t = 1.2D

Faculty of Engineering Sheet Pile Walls


Cairo University
3. Cantilever Sheet Pile Walls
Design: Cohesionless Soils

- Maximum Moment γ
φ
H

- Mmax @ pt of zero shear (n) Eay

y Epy
 Eay = Epy Mmax
t n
 get y

 M at pt (n) = Mmax

Sec. Modulus: Z = Mmax/σy

Faculty of Engineering Sheet Pile Walls


Cairo University
3. Cantilever Sheet Pile Walls
Design: Cohesionless Soils
Net Earth Pressure γ
H φ
- Penetration Depth Ea1

- at distance u: zero pressure Ea2


u
 eau = epu t x
Ep
O O C
γ Ka (H + u) = γ Kp u  get u epn
∆M
- epn = γ x (Kp – Ka)
- ∑Mo = 0
neglect ∆M  ∑Ea ya – Ep yp = 0
 get x
 t = 1.2(u + x)
Faculty of Engineering Sheet Pile Walls
Cairo University
3. Cantilever Sheet Pile Walls
Design: Cohesionless Soils
γ
Net Earth Pressure H φ
Ea1
- Maximum Moment Ea2

- Mmax @ pt of zero shear (n) Epy


y Mmax
t n
O
 ∑Ea = Epy epn

 get y

 M at pt (n) = Mmax

Sec. Modulus: Z = Mmax/σy

Faculty of Engineering Sheet Pile Walls


Cairo University
3. Cantilever Sheet Pile Walls
Design: Cohesionless Soils

- Effect of GWT γ
φ GWT
H
Ew1
GWT
Ea
Ew2
D Ep
t
O C
∆M

Faculty of Engineering Sheet Pile Walls


Cairo University
3. Cantilever Sheet Pile Walls
Design: Cohesive Soils
Short Term Analysis  cu, φ = 0 zo
γ
H cu
- ea = γ H – 2cu Ea

ea
- epn = 4cu – γ H D Ep
t
O O
Limiting Height: epn

- HL < (4cu – q)/γ

Faculty of Engineering Sheet Pile Walls


Cairo University
4. Anchored Sheet Pile Walls
Stability:
- from passive resistance and
tension in anchor rods.
H

Effect of Anchors:
● reduces lateral deflection.
● reduces penetration depth. t

● reduces bending moments.

Methods of Design:
● free earth support.
● fixed earth support.

Faculty of Engineering Sheet Pile Walls


Cairo University
4. Anchored Sheet Pile Walls
Conditions of Free and Fixed Earth Support

H H

Mmax
Mmax

t t

Free Fixed

Faculty of Engineering Sheet Pile Walls


Cairo University
4. Anchored Sheet Pile Walls
Conditions of Free and Fixed Earth Support

Free Fixed

- Soil type compressible soil (loose sand, clay) strong soil (φ > 32o)

- Penetration depth relatively short greater depth

- Section relatively stiff flexible

Faculty of Engineering Sheet Pile Walls


Cairo University
4. Anchored Sheet Pile Walls

Design Steps:
● determine forces acting on SPW. H
● determine penetration depth (t).
● determine forces in anchor rod.
● determine Mmax and section modulus. t

● design anchor rod and anchor plate.

Faculty of Engineering Sheet Pile Walls


Cairo University
4. Anchored Sheet Pile Walls
Free Earth Support:
Design: Cohesionless Soils

1- Forces

a a
γ γ
H φ H φ
Ea1

Ea2
Ea u
t Ep t
x Ep O

epn

Net Earth Pressure

Faculty of Engineering Sheet Pile Walls


Cairo University
4. Anchored Sheet Pile Walls
Free Earth Support:
Design: Cohesionless Soils a γ
H φ

2- Penetration Depth
Ea
- ∑Ma = 0  Ea ya – Ep yp = 0 t Ep

 get D

t=D

Faculty of Engineering Sheet Pile Walls


Cairo University
4. Anchored Sheet Pile Walls
Free Earth Support:
Design: Cohesionless Soils a
γ
H φ
Ea1
Net Earth Pressure
Ea2
u
2- Penetration Depth
t
x Ep O
- ∑Ma = 0  ∑Ea ya – Ep yp = 0
epn

 get x Net Earth Pressure

t=u+x

Faculty of Engineering Sheet Pile Walls


Cairo University
4. Anchored Sheet Pile Walls
Free Earth Support:
Design: Cohesionless Soils a
A
γ
H φ

3- Force in Tie Rod


Ea
- ∑X = 0  A = Ea – Ep t/m t Ep

force in each tie rod:

T = A.S ton

as S = spacing between rods (2 to 4 m)

Faculty of Engineering Sheet Pile Walls


Cairo University
4. Anchored Sheet Pile Walls
Free Earth Support:
A
Design: Cohesionless Soils
H y
Eay
4- Maximum Moment
n Mmax

- Mmax @ pt of zero shear (n)


t
(n) lies above L.G.L.

 A = Eay  get y

 M at pt (n) = Mmax

Sec. Modulus: Z = Mmax/σy

Faculty of Engineering Sheet Pile Walls


Cairo University
4. Anchored Sheet Pile Walls
Fixed Earth Support:
Design: Cohesionless Soils

1- Forces

H
Ea1

Ea Ea Ea2
Ep Ep
t Ep
Ep
C C
O O
Ea ∆M ∆M
Net Earth Pressure

Faculty of Engineering Sheet Pile Walls


Cairo University
4. Anchored Sheet Pile Walls
Fixed Earth Support:
Design: Cohesionless Soils
1- Forces
Assumptions:
● Point of zero B.M. (N) is point of zero loading (b).
● Virtual hinge is at point of zero loading (b).

H
Ea1
Mmax

Ea2
u
t Ep b N
x
C
O
∆M
Faculty of Engineering Sheet Pile Walls
Cairo University
4. Anchored Sheet Pile Walls
Fixed Earth Support: d A
a
Design: Cohesionless Soils
H
2- Penetration Depth Ea1
- For upper beam:
Ea2
at distance u: zero pressure u
b R
 eau = epu b R
x Ep
γ Ka (H + u) = γ Kp u  get u
epn O 2R
∑Ma = 0
 ∑Ea ya – R( H + u – d) = 0  get R
- For lower beam:
for equilibrium with Ep
 reaction at O should be 2R
3R = Ep = γ x2 (Kp– Ka)/2  get x
 t = u + 1.2x
Faculty of Engineering Sheet Pile Walls
Cairo University
4. Anchored Sheet Pile Walls
Fixed Earth Support: A
a

Design: Cohesionless Soils H


Ea1

3- Force in Tie Rod Ea2


u
b R
- For upper beam:

∑X = 0  A = ∑Ea – R t/m

force in each tie rod:

T = A.S ton

as S = spacing between rods (2 to 4 m)

Faculty of Engineering Sheet Pile Walls


Cairo University
4. Anchored Sheet Pile Walls
Fixed Earth Support:
A
Design: Cohesionless Soils a
y
H Eay
4- Maximum Moment n
Mmax

Ea2
- For upper beam: u
b R
- Mmax @ pt of zero shear (n)

(n) lies above L.G.L.

 A = Eay  get y

 M at pt (n) = Mmax

Sec. Modulus: Z = Mmax/σy

Faculty of Engineering Sheet Pile Walls


Cairo University
4. Anchored Sheet Pile Walls
Design: Cohesionless Soils

5- Design of Wales

- Transfer horizontal reaction from S.P.W. to


tie rods.

M = A.S2/10

Two channels:

Sec. Modulus: Z = Mmax/2σy

Faculty of Engineering Sheet Pile Walls


Cairo University
4. Anchored Sheet Pile Walls
Design: Cohesionless Soils

6- Design of Anchor Rod A

- Area of rod:

area = T / σy

as T = A.S

area = π d2/4

Faculty of Engineering Sheet Pile Walls


Cairo University
4. Anchored Sheet Pile Walls
Design: Cohesionless Soils
7- Design of Anchor Plate t2
d
- Continuous Plate: t1
A
t2 < t1/3
ep ea
γ t 12 K p
A possib = Ε p − Ε a == ( − Ka )
2 FS
as FS = 1.5

For equilibrium  d = 2/3 t1  t1 = 1.5 d

Aexist < Apossib if not increase d

Faculty of Engineering Sheet Pile Walls


Cairo University
4. Anchored Sheet Pile Walls
Design: Cohesionless Soils
7- Design of Anchor Plate
- Continuous Plate: d
B
A
for small anchor forces
Kp ed ea
ed = γ d ( − Ka )
FS
A exist
Β=
Kp
γ d( − Ka )
FS
ΑΒ
M max = t.m/m
8
t
Μ
My 6Μ
σy = = 32 = 2 as t = thickness of plate
Ι t t
12
Faculty of Engineering Sheet Pile Walls
Cairo University
4. Anchored Sheet Pile Walls
Design: Cohesionless Soils

7- Design of Anchor Plate

- Isolated Plate:
d
B
T
T
Β.L =
Kp ed ea
γ d( − Ka )
FS

Faculty of Engineering Sheet Pile Walls


Cairo University
4. Anchored Sheet Pile Walls
Design: Cohesionless Soils
45–φ/2
8- Length of Anchor Rod (IV)
H (II)
(I)
- Zone I  active zone  dangerous (III)
φ

t
45+φ/2

- Zone II  transition zone  capacity reduced

- Zone III  transition zone  capacity reduced

- Zone IV  passive zone  full capacity

Faculty of Engineering Sheet Pile Walls


Cairo University
5. Strutted Sheet Pile Walls
Types:

● Soldier Beams:
- Soldier beams: vertical steel or
timber beams driven into
ground before excavation.
- Laggings: horizontal timber
planks are placed between
soldier beams as excavation
proceeds.
- Wales and Struts: horizontal
steel beams are installed when
excavation reaches desired
depth.

Faculty of Engineering Sheet Pile Walls


Cairo University
5. Strutted Sheet Pile Walls
Types:

● Sheet Piles:
- Sheet piles: (steel, concrete, or
timber) driven into ground
before excavation.
- Wales and Struts: inserted
immediately after excavation
reaches desired depth.

Faculty of Engineering Sheet Pile Walls


Cairo University
5. Strutted Sheet Pile Walls
Types:

- timber lagging, steel


wales, and timber

Faculty of Engineering Sheet Pile Walls


Cairo University
5. Strutted Sheet Pile Walls
Lateral Earth Pressure:

- Braced cut shows different type of


wall yielding where deformation of
wall gradually increases with depth.

- Deformation depends on:


● type of soil. Retaining Wall Strutted SPW
● depth of excavation.
● workmanship.
● strutting configuration.
● construction sequence.
● relative flexibility of wall.

Faculty of Engineering Sheet Pile Walls


Cairo University
5. Strutted Sheet Pile Walls
Lateral Earth Pressure:
- at top  very little wall yielding 
close to at rest E.P.
- at bottom larger yielding  much
lower than Rankine active E.P.

Retaining Wall Strutted SPW


 Distribution of E.P. in strutted SPW varies substantially
compared to the linear distribution in R.W.

- Field measurements show that E.P. does not follow same laws
(Rankine or Coulomb).

 E.P. distribution cannot be predicted from theory.


 Apparent E.P. Envelopes
Faculty of Engineering Sheet Pile Walls
Cairo University
5. Strutted Sheet Pile Walls
Lateral Earth Pressure:
0.2H
Cohesionless Soils:
H
0.8H
Loose: φ < 32o

ea ew
ea = 0.8 (γ H + q) Ka
as Ka = Rankine active E.P. coefficient

 Ea = 1.44 Ea(Rankine)
as Ea(Rankine) = γ H2Ka/2

In case of GWT:
- take hydrostatic water pressure (triangular distribution), E.P. with γsub

Faculty of Engineering Sheet Pile Walls


Cairo University
5. Strutted Sheet Pile Walls
Lateral Earth Pressure:
0.2H
Cohesionless Soils:
H 0.6H
Dense:
0.2H
ea
ew
ea = 0.8 (γ H + q) Ka
as Ka = Rankine active E.P. coefficient

 Ea = 1.28 Ea(Rankine)
as Ea(Rankine) = γ H2Ka/2

In case of GWT:
- take hydrostatic water pressure (triangular distribution), E.P. with γsub

Faculty of Engineering Sheet Pile Walls


Cairo University
5. Strutted Sheet Pile Walls
Lateral Earth Pressure:
0.25H
Cohesive Soils:
H
0.75H
Short Term Analysis  cu, φ = 0

Soft to Medium Stiff Clay: ea

Ns = γ Η / cu > 4

ea = (γ H + q) – m (4cu)
m depends on soil below F.L.
m = 1.0 if stiff layer below F.L.
m = 0.4 if no stiff layer below F.L.

Faculty of Engineering Sheet Pile Walls


Cairo University
5. Strutted Sheet Pile Walls
Lateral Earth Pressure:
0.25H
Cohesive Soils:
H 0.5H
Short Term Analysis  cu, φ = 0
0.25H
Stiff Clay: ea

Ns = γ Η / cu < 4

ea = α (γ H + q)
α: 0.2 to 0.4 for long construction period.

Faculty of Engineering Sheet Pile Walls


Cairo University
5. Strutted Sheet Pile Walls
Lateral Earth Pressure:
Cohesive Soils:
Short Term Analysis  cu, φ = 0

Multiple layers

- when several clay layers are encountered in the cut:


cu(avg) = (cu1 H1 + cu2 H2 + cu3 H3 + …) / H

γ(avg) = (γ1 H1 + γ2 H2 + γ3 H3 + …) / H

Faculty of Engineering Sheet Pile Walls


Cairo University
5. Strutted Sheet Pile Walls
Design of Struts:

- min vertical spacing of 2.75 m. H


- subjected to compression forces  buckling
 provide vertical & horizontal supports at
ea
intermediate points
- depth of 1st strut < depth of tension crack zo = 2cu/γ

Faculty of Engineering Sheet Pile Walls


Cairo University
5. Strutted Sheet Pile Walls
Design of Struts:
A A
Forces in Struts
B B1 B2
H C C1 C2

D D

ea
- TA = A.S
- Assume intermediate hinges at
- TB = (B1 + B2) S struts (B) and (C)

- TC = (C1 + C2) S

- TD = D.S

as S = spacing between struts


Faculty of Engineering Sheet Pile Walls
Cairo University
5. Strutted Sheet Pile Walls
Design of Sheet Pile:
A A
B B1 B2
H C C1 C2

D D

ea

- for each beam, determine maximum moment.

- determine absolute Mmax.

- Sec. Modulus: Z = Mmax/σy.

Faculty of Engineering Sheet Pile Walls


Cairo University
5. Strutted Sheet Pile Walls
Design of Wales:
A A
B B1 B2
H C C1 C2

D D

ea

- Continuous horizontal beams.

- Mmax = A.S2/10.

- Sec. Modulus: Z = Mmax/σy.

Faculty of Engineering Sheet Pile Walls


Cairo University
5. Strutted Sheet Pile Walls
Base Stability:
Cohesive Soils:
Short Term Analysis  cu, φ = 0

Deep Excavation: Η / Β > 1

cu Nc
FS = ≥ 1.5
γ H+q

as cu = undrained strength below base


Nc = bearing capacity factor (see chart)

Faculty of Engineering Sheet Pile Walls


Cairo University
5. Strutted Sheet Pile Walls
Base Stability:
Cohesive Soils:
Short Term Analysis  cu, φ = 0

Shallow Excavation: Η / Β < 1


- load = 0.7B (γ H + q) – cu H
- resistance = 0.7B (cu Nc)

cu Nc D
FS = ≥ 1.5
cu Η
γ H+q−
0.7Β
as cu = undrained strength below base
Nc = bearing capacity factor (see chart)
if depth to firm layer D < 0.7 B take D instead of 0.7 B
Faculty of Engineering Sheet Pile Walls
Cairo University
5. Strutted Sheet Pile Walls
Base Stability:
Cohesive Soils:
Short Term Analysis  cu, φ = 0

Faculty of Engineering Sheet Pile Walls


Cairo University
5. Strutted Sheet Pile Walls
Base Stability:
Cohesive Soils:
Short Term Analysis  cu, φ = 0 H

If FS < 1.5
 Sheet pile should be driven deeper t

cu Nc
FS = ≥ 1.5
2c t
γ H+q− a
Β
as ca = soil adhesion = α cu
α = 0.35 to 1.0 (soft)

Faculty of Engineering Sheet Pile Walls


Cairo University
5. Strutted Sheet Pile Walls
Base Stability:
Cohesionless Soils:
- Base heave due to B.C. failure is not critical.
- Base heave is more critical due to upward seepage.
i crit
FS = ≥2
i exit
γ sub
as i crit =
γw
iexit from flow analysis or see chart

If FS against piping < 2


1-Sheet pile should be driven
deeper to limit iexit
Faculty of Engineering Sheet Pile Walls
Cairo University
5. Strutted Sheet Pile Walls
Base Stability:
Cohesionless Soils:

iexit from chart

Faculty of Engineering Sheet Pile Walls


Cairo University
5. Strutted Sheet Pile Walls
Base Stability:
Cohesionless Soils: GWT
H
2- Cutoff penetrates into Sand

impermeable layer
hw
d1 γ1 t
γ1d1 + γ 2 d 2
FS = ≥ 1.1 d2 γ2 Clay
γw hw
γwhw Sand

Faculty of Engineering Sheet Pile Walls


Cairo University
5. Strutted Sheet Pile Walls
Base Stability:
Cohesionless Soils: GWT
H
3- Cutoff by means of grout plug Sand

hw
d γ1 t
γ1d γwhw
FS = ≥ 1.1
γw hw

 get d = depth of grout plug

Faculty of Engineering Sheet Pile Walls


Cairo University
5. Strutted Sheet Pile Walls
Settlement adjacent to Strutted Excavation
depends on:
- wall height.
- soil type below bottom of cut.
- elapsed time between excavation and placement of
wales and struts.
- stiffness of wall.

- lateral yielding will cause ground surface to settle.


- sheet pile is driven to a certain depth below bottom
of excavation to reduce lateral yielding of wall (δh).

Faculty of Engineering Sheet Pile Walls


Cairo University
5. Strutted Sheet Pile Walls
Settlement adjacent to Strutted Excavation
- Lateral yield (δh) induces ground settlement (δv).
- Prediction of ground settlement in various types of
soil (see Figure).

δv(max) = 0.5  1.0 δh(max)

Faculty of Engineering Sheet Pile Walls


Cairo University
5. Strutted Sheet Pile Walls
Settlement adjacent to Strutted Excavation
For Cohesionless Soils:
δh(max) = 0.2% H
if bracings are installed as soon as support levels are reached.

Means of Reducing Movements:


- unsupported depth of wall between supports can be decreased by using more levels of
bracings.
- top braces should be placed as high as possible
- vertical spacing of 2.5 m between strut levels is minimum with 4 to 5 m being max.
- unsupported depth of wall can be reduced by use of soil berms.
- if stiff layer lies below clay layer, wall should be embedded in the stiff layer. This will
greatly reduce lateral yield.
Faculty of Engineering Sheet Pile Walls
Cairo University