You are on page 1of 23

KISS Resources for NSW Syllabuses & Australian Curriculum.

® KEEP IT SIMPLE SCIENCE
keep it simple science PhotoMaster Format
Biology Module 2

Organisation of Living Things
Topic
Organisation of
Outline
Living Things

5. Internal
1. Organisation Transport in Animals
of Cells Structure & function of human
circulatory system
Unicellular, colonial & multicellular
Changes during circulation
Cell differentiation
Open & closed systems
Tissues, organs, systems

2. Structure & 3. Digestion
Function in Plants in a Mammal
Structure & function of a leaf Physical & Chem.digestion 4. Gas Exchange
More about photosynthesis Structure & function of dig.system in Animals
Vascular systems Enzymes Absorption Mammal Respiratory System;
Gas exchange structures structure & function
Autotroph & heterotroph requirements Gas exchange in other animals

What is this topic about?
To keep it as simple as possible, (K.I.S.S. Principle) this topic covers:
1. Organisation of Cells
Unicellular, colonial & multicellular life-forms.
How multicellularity is organised: differentiated cells, tissues, organs & systems. Why this works.

2. Structure & Function in Plants
Structure & function of a Leaf. Stomates. More on photosynthesis. Vascular systems; xylem & phloem.
Gas exchange. Comparison: what autotrophs & heterotrophs need.

3. Digestion in a Mammal
Physical & chemical digestion, absorption, elimination. Structure of mammalian Digestive System.
Details of enzymes. Details of absorption.

4. Gas Exchange in Animals
Mammalian Respiratory System, structure & function. Gas exchange in frogs, insects, fish.

5. Internal Transport in Animals
What is carried in blood. Blood cells. Veins, arteries & capillaries. Structure & function of the heart.
Changes to the blood during circulation. Open & closed circulatory systems.
Biology Module 2 “Org.of Living Things” PhotoMaster Page 1 Usage & copying is permitted according
copyright © 2005-17 KEEP IT SIMPLE SCIENCE to the SITE LICENCE CONDITIONS only
www.keepitsimplescience.com.au

KISS Resources for NSW Syllabuses & Australian Curriculum.

®

keep it simple science
1. Organisation of Cells
In the previous module you covered aspects of cell structure & function, including the main organelles,
functioning of the membranes, the basics of cell chemicals, chemical processes & control by enzymes.
You also covered the differences between eukaryotic & prokaryotic cells.
We begin this module with more about cells, but with an emphasis on the differences between:
Unicellular, Colonial & Multicellular Life-Forms
Unicellular Living Things Multicellular Living Things
Most of the individual living things on Earth are It is often a survival advantage for a living thing to
composed of a single, living cell. To survive as be large. Larger organisms can gather more food
a single-celled organism, the cell must be (or other resources) from the environment. Large
capable of carrying out ALL the functions organisms deter predators, or can overwhelm their
necessary... feeding, moving about, prey. They can dominate their “herd” and mate
reproducing, etc. more often to produce more offspring... in many
cases, BIG is good.
A classic example of a unicellular life-form is
the common water-living Paramecium. It However, (as you found out in Module 1) a large
swims strongly using tiny beating hairs called single cell has a smaller SA:Vol. ratio. A single cell
cilia. It is a voracious predator in its much bigger than a Paramecium cannot feed itself
microscopic world, feeding on smaller efficiently.
organisms, then growing rapidly &
reproducing by dividing in two (asexual). It The solution to this conundrum was taken by our
can also exchange genetic material with a evolutionary ancestors at least 600 million years
compatible ago... they became multicellular.
partner in a
primitive Paramecium All familiar plants and animals are multicellular...
version of they are made up of trillions of small cells.
sexual
reproduction. The cells are all
pretty much the
You should be same size. For
able to example, the
recognise cells in a
from the mouse are
diagram that exactly the
Paramecium is eukaryotic. The cell is packed same size as
with membrane-based organelles. Each has the cells in an
its own function which contributes to the elephant... the elephant simply has a lot more
overall capabilities of the organism. cells.

Despite the millions of Paramecia which might The single cell of a unicellular life-form must be
inhabit a pond, they are actually far able to do everything.
outnumbered by the trillions of much smaller
Bacteria & Archaea cells. These prokaryotes In a multi-cellular creature, however, each part of
lack true organelles, but have cell stuctures the body is specialised to do a particular job,
(eg a flagellum, or whip-like “tail”, for moving) and usually has many different specialist cells.
& different “regions” within the cell. This For example, muscle cells are different to nerve
allows each cell to carry out the necessary cells, and blood cells are different again. Before
life-functions. Being very small gives them a we take this idea further, there will be a slight
high SA:Vol. ratio, which gives maximum digression to consider the “in-between” stage
efficiency. between unicellular & multicellular life...

Biology Module 2 “Org.of Living Things” PhotoMaster Page 2 Usage & copying is permitted according
copyright © 2005-17 KEEP IT SIMPLE SCIENCE to the SITE LICENCE CONDITIONS only
www.keepitsimplescience.com.au

around the environment at an amazing speed of up again and the cells disperse into the soil to about 5 mm per day. has 2 distinct cell types with cells is an individual which lives independently & is separate functions and (somehow) has the ability not part of an organised larger organism. these cells live individually in moist soil. often secreting a mucus or jelly-like slime for protection of the colony.000 cells form a hollow sphere. WA. living sponge. Some body systems comparable to our digestive or cells sacrifice themselves to die & form rigid spikes respiratory systems.com. KISS Resources for NSW Syllabuses & Australian Curriculum. therefore. or larger. individual cells are capable of reassembling themselves into a new. so specialist reproductive cells which cause obviously this simple colonial way of life is very production of “daughter colonies” inside the ancient. the “body” may split. Also embedded in the sphere are world-wide. Later.0 form stromatolites. towards multicellularity. like these in Shark Up to 50. then (eukaryotic. undisturbed in a tank of sea water. as ameoba-like protozoans grinder.of Living Things” PhotoMaster Page 3 Usage & copying is permitted according copyright © 2005-17 KEEP IT SIMPLE SCIENCE to the SITE LICENCE CONDITIONS only www. Mats & Biofilms Many unicellular life-forms (in aquatic environments) live in thin mats & sheets of millions of cells. Now pulverised they are classified through a meat among the Protista. a new layer may grow over them.Volvox things which are somewhere in-between the A green alga (photosynthetic eukaryote) called unicellular & multicellular states. no nerves or muscles and certainly no co-ordinated so the mass slowly moves as one. As cells die. These spikes protrude above the main “body” & They are capable of co-ordinating some of their release spores which drift away to germinate new activities and some species can even “walk” single-celled individuals. ® Colonial Life-Forms keep it simple science There are a variety of (generally unrelated) living A Colonial Alga .au . animal-like cells). they Frank Fox. can grow taller to CCA-SA 3. the cells have specialised functions. However. of dead cells with living reproductive cells at the tip. Their movements become no organs. Biology Module 2 “Org.keepitsimplescience. critters were thought to belong to the If a sponge is Fungi kingdom. this is NOT multicellular life. single-celled. multicellular. the surviving feeding on bacteria. Over time. Fossils of identical structures has a flagellum pointed outwards & the colony is dating back to over able to co-ordinate the beating of the flagella to 3 billion years ago swim towards light which is needed for food have been found production. become unicellular individuals once more. they simply live together. sphere. Particles of sand & silt may be trapped in the mucus forming a solid matrix with the living mat of cells on Image by top. when certain conditions occur the cells give off chemicals which cause other cells of their species Sponges consist of several types of specialised to come together and merge into a mass as large as cells (each with a particular function) but there are your fingernail. They might “Volvox” is an example of a colonial life-form perhaps give us a glimpse of some possible which has taken a few steps towards true evolutionary pathways from being unicellular multicellularity. However. For a long time such but only just. Each of the Volvox. Sponges Slime Moulds These simple This little cutey is animals are known as the “Dog’s undoubtably Vomit Slime Mould”. None of to co-ordinate its activities. Each cell Bay. Most of placed the time.

. glands such as the thyroid or pancreas. This is a long thin cell transfer of O2 in/out of the cell by diffusion.au . • having many “dendrites”. this the job of forming a is nerve tissue. Module 1) Firstly. such as skin. Plants and animals are made of many cells. • having a rounded “donut shape” is ideal for the rough Image by & tumble of flowing in the blood stream. • being quite small.keepitsimplescience. Mind you. they Bruce Blaus don’t survive for long and your body replaces many CCA 3.of Living Things” PhotoMaster Page 4 Usage & copying is permitted according copyright © 2005-17 KEEP IT SIMPLE SCIENCE to the SITE LICENCE CONDITIONS only www. shape. connected in a epithelium tissue has network. They are differentiated into many shapes and sizes. Biology Module 2 “Org. KISS Resources for NSW Syllabuses & Australian Curriculum. They also carry signals in the the way their bodies are built. projection to carry a nerve signal over a distance. signals. network of cells within your brain which make thinking. haemoglobin. a coating or a lining for part of the Other types of tissues include muscle body. At right is a Image by microscopic UC Regents Tissues view of part of Davis campus CCA 3. barrier. These are signal They achieve all this by: receivers. Every specialist cell type in a multicellular organism has features (size. not all the cells in a multicellular organism are the happen. other & other body parts such as muscles.. Each cell type does a different “job” in the body. to • they must survive being bashed around in the heart & prevent the signal crossing into the wrong pathway. The neuron needs a lot of energy to run the Na-K Pump almost constantly. There is always an organised structure to bodily functions. Signals from other neurons are received & • being completely packed full of the O2 carrier passed on along the axon. and has How does their structure suit their function? the shape.com. they have sacrificed most of their own cell organelles (no nucleus!) • having many mitochondria. the neuron must “re-charge” by pumping ions across the membrane again. etc.0 A tissue is a collection of cells of the same type which an animal grow to form a layer. organelles. (See Na-K Pump. but it’s more than just specialist cells. The things looking They work together to like plant roots carry out a particular are neurons function. consider what they have to do: They achieve all this by: • carry maximum oxygen. or tube. arteries.. bone tissue and connective tissue. brain. This gives them a high SA:Vol. To fit more in. For Neurons need to carry signals and connect to each example.0 millions of them every day. ratio for rapid diffusion of O2 in or out across their cell membrane. This requires How does their structure suit function? energy. emotions & personality all Firstly. the lining of the mouth as well as specialist tissue in secretory & airways. etc) which suit its function. The axon is insulated like an electrical wire. size and ability to match that function. ® Multicellularity keep it simple science Cell Differentiation Nerve Cells (Neurons) These are the basic units of your Nervous System. or network. In-between around your body.. or tissue. In the brain they need to make many connections to form Red Blood Cells (Erithrocytes) networks. For example. with fast • having at least 1 “axon”. memory. Their size also suits the body’s smallest capillaries perfectly. In every multicellular organism each cell type occurs in aggregations called “tissues”. but each They are responsible for sending signals around the organism is not just a jumble of cells living and growing body to control & co-ordinate your movements & in a big lump.. same. A nerve signal involves the movement of The red blood cells are responsible for carrying oxygen K+ and Na+ ions across a membrane..

your eyes locate it. You are a co-ordinated. because your muscles and bones can do all the jumping. Your eye is and transporting them around so that excellent for seeing things. the largest internal Organism organ in the body of most mammals. it would have a very low ability. ® Organisation of Multicellularity (cont. water and oxygen your body can do each task very well. The photo shows the liver. talk. multicellular organism.. Biology Module 2 “Org. every cell gets what it needs.. then it will all work best if the 2 tasks are co-ordinated. They any one thing very well. Finally. but useless for jumping. the organ carries systems mentioned are the subject of the out a particular function. are combined to all connect to form the circulatory form an organ. tissues. For example. water. The major body systems carry out the By having specialised tissues. a number of each other to carry out an overall tissues. e. such as a system which distributes heart.com. Organs & Systems? Every Cell Needs Things Specialisation = Better Performance Every living cell needs food. A healty human shows her Co-ordination = Efficiency skill & co-ordination.. corresponding systems in plants. organs and systems. each cell would it is carried to them. If you need food.keepitsimplescience. by weight? (answer given later. a kidney. connective & epithelium the respiratory system and so on. By itself. all the organ systems fuctioning efficiently in a co-ordinated manner form the Challenge Question: What is the largest human complete multicellular life-form. particular shapes. along with the blood. if every cell had to see. your muscles and bones move to get it. In a multicellular organism most of the jump and think then each cell would not be able to do cells are deep inside the body. the heart. tasks of getting food. nerve. not see much. the heart pumps remainder of this topic. the eye senses light. Specialised cells. somewhere) Why Have Tissues. The 3 tissues all working together. Each cell must be able to get rid function for itself. oxygen) around the body. veins and capillary organs patterns. water or oxygen unless all-trades. organs & systems give you many amazing capabilities. or an eye.g. organ. Each cell would be a “jack-of- cannot get food. breathe. arranged in task. layers & arteries. so it can see where to jump. of its waste products. Other systems include the digestive system. Once a living thing has the capability (for example) to see things and to jump. your digestive system absorbs it into the blood. With muscle. nor jump very far. water and If every cell in your body had to carry out every oxygen. master of none”. and your heart and blood vessels transport it to all your cells. That’s OK. a shin bone substances (food. an organism. Try Worksheet 1 Multicellular organisms have specialised systems to co-ordinate all their body functions. For example.of Living Things” PhotoMaster Page 5 Usage & copying is permitted according copyright © 2005-17 KEEP IT SIMPLE SCIENCE to the SITE LICENCE CONDITIONS only www.. KISS Resources for NSW Syllabuses & Australian Curriculum.au . which you carry out with great efficiency.) keep it simple science Organs Organ Systems At the next level of A number of organs work with organisation.

Here we will concentrate on “Angiosperms”. the flowering plants which include most familiar examples. hydrogen extracted from that the cells in a plant leaf become packed with the water. To act as conduits for the transport of water (“transpiration”) & food (“translocation”) around the plant. Now. we look at plants as multicellular organisms & study some important body systems & structures.” Stem. Note: There are at least 5 major “types” of plants. This system of leaves is not only the main site of food production by photosynthesis. • absorbing water & minerals from the soil. 6H2O + 6CO2 C6H12O6 + 6O2 Glucose is a monosaccharide sugar. which take place in different parts of the chloroplast. each of which has its own cell type. joined in pairs There are 2 main stages. or flowers. It is easy for a plant to Summarising photosynthesis with this brief equation convert glucose into other types of carbohydrate. (Yes. The root systems of some plants have other Challenge Question: Answer specialised functions. a cycle of reactions The oxygen builds glucose from CO2 and the In fact.. 10 tio chlorophyll ligh 00 n) t ’s absorbs light energy and uses it to split water STARCH molecules CELLULOSE for storage of into for building new Phase 2 food hydrogen cell walls and oxygen. Each leaf contains a variety of tissues. starch grains when it is photosynthesising.au . skin is an organ!) Research “legumes” to learn more.. In the stroma. Other Notable Structures Roots Flowers: reproductive organs. The Skin. More About Photosynthesis Here is a quick reminder of some information covered in Module 1. Structure & Functioning of a Plant In Module 1 you revised some details of photosynthesis and the chloroplasts in plant cells where it occurs. is very deceptive.com. • anchoring the plant in the soil. Trunk & Branch The stem system of a plant has 2 main functions: 1. roots. The root system is responsible for: Buds: growth points for new leaves.of Living Things” PhotoMaster Page 6 Usage & copying is permitted according copyright © 2005-17 KEEP IT SIMPLE SCIENCE to the SITE LICENCE CONDITIONS only www. plants convert glucose to STARCH so rapidly is released. as summarised below. Average weight of human skin = 8 kg approx. PHOTOSYNTHESIS in the CHLOROPLAST jo oly (p in m ed er Phase 1 in isa In the grana. such as in tubers (eg potato). Photosynthesis actually occurs as GLUCOSE Disaccharide sugars. KISS Resources for NSW Syllabuses & Australian Curriculum. a complex series of chemical steps inside the molecules such as sucrose chloroplast. ® keep it simple science 2. but is involved with and connected to the systems responsible for “transpiration” & “translocation. To support the plant & hold leaves up in the light.keepitsimplescience. Main Systems & Structures in a Plant Leaves A leaf may be considered as an organ within the “photosynthesis system”. Biology Module 2 “Org. 2. • food storage. a member of the carbohydrate group.

Veins also act as reinforcing. but is waterproof to of cells is transparent CROSS SECTION an orderly row immediately prevent excessive water loss. some diffuses into the with lots of spaces cells for photosynthesis. There are phloem tubes as well. Each cell contains many chloroplasts. or close it up to minimise water loss in dry conditions. or deflate and shrivel (pore closed). Phase-contrast Microscope photo of guard cells forming a stomate.. light. • O2 to diffuse out of the leaf into the air. This is Veins run throughout each the “engine room” for leaf. called manufactured in the leaf “stomates”. like a window. water and minerals from the roots and release them into The Spongy Layer has the spongy layer.com. leaf deployed to catch maximum light. for maximum support the flimsy leaf.5 Generic Licence) Pore Each stomate pore is an opening formed between two special “guard cells”. Photo by Alex Costa (used under Creative Commons Attribution opening 2. in shape and positioned to catch maximum light. water to easily move around by diffusion. flat and The “veins” contain xylem tubes for thin. magnified and rotated to able to photosynthesise. and keep it photosynthesis. A typical leaf is built so that every part of its design is suited to the achievement of that one objective. carrying manufactured food away. around them. KISS Resources for NSW Syllabuses & Australian Curriculum. These cells can change shape to open the pore. helping to keep the flimsy A magnified surface view of a stomate is shown. This gives it maximum carrying water and minerals up from surface area for absorbing light the roots. to let THROUGH A under the top epidermis light through to the LEAF where there is maximum cells underneath. The cuticle is a layer of clear. which collect the food The lower leaf surface has many openings. the veins also cells within. It is a classic case of Structure matches Function. From very loosely packed cells.of Living Things” PhotoMaster Page 7 Usage & copying is permitted according copyright © 2005-17 KEEP IT SIMPLE SCIENCE to the SITE LICENCE CONDITIONS only www. there. ® The Structure of the Leaf keep it simple science A plant leaf is a factory for photosynthesis. making food. and phloem tubes for and carbon dioxide from the air. • water to evaporate from the leaf (Transpiration). OF A STOMATE on a tomato leaf. The guard cells Electron microscope view change shape by using osmosis to SURFACE VIEW of a single stomate either pump-up full of water (pore open). A leaf is thin enough that light Being specially reinforced with penetrates to reach each layer of tough “lignin”. A leaf is generally broad.au .. These allow: cells and carry it away to feed other parts of the plant. This allows while the rest evaporates gases (CO2 & O2) and through the stomates. such as roots. The Palisade Layer of waxy material. stem and This ensures that water and minerals continue to flowers which might not be be “sucked up” from the roots. The xylem tubes bring photosynthesis. surface view • CO2 to diffuse into the leaf for photosynthesis. Try Worksheet 2 Biology Module 2 “Org. It allows light The epidermis layer MICROSCOPIC cells are tightly packed in through.keepitsimplescience.

carbon-14 is radio-active and can be identified by the radiation it emits. 6p+ 6n0 8n0 This is an extremely simple example of how the “tracer method” can be used to study chemical 12 pathways in living cells. thousands of chemical reactions are constantly occurring. Later still. The difference is the number of neutrons of a different isotope of oxygen. the roots will be found to contain radioactive starch in the storage cells or tubers. Biology Module 2 “Org. “Carbon-12” “Carbon-14” Therefore. each Photosynthesis in plants: one controlled by enzymes with a precise shape to “grab” chemicals and either ram them together. then “hand them on” to the next dioxide step. Tracing the Movements of Sugars & Starch If a plant is exposed to light and to CO2 containing some radioactive C-14. Some time later. if a plant is exposed to H2O containing some atoms of the different isotope of oxygen. here is a simple question about this process: does NOT get you very far. ® A question that may have occurred to you is. How have we been able to unravel such CO2 + H2O glucose + O2 complexity occurring within a pin-point-sized bag of life? Traditional.com. However. Where does the oxygen (O2) come from? Is it the Isotopes oxygen originally in the CO2 or is it from the H2O? You should already be aware that all chemical elements occur in 2 or more variant forms called If a plant is exposed to CO2 containing some atoms isotopes. test-tube chemical analysis Now. unstable & may spontaneously emit various radiations. that isotope will be in the nucleus of each atom.. However.au .of Living Things” PhotoMaster Page 8 Usage & copying is permitted according copyright © 2005-17 KEEP IT SIMPLE SCIENCE to the SITE LICENCE CONDITIONS only www.. a leaf sample will be found to contain radioactive glucose & starch almost immediately. KISS Resources for NSW Syllabuses & Australian Curriculum. Some isotopes are later detected entirely in the glucose. or carbon + water glucose + oxygen tear them apart. Many processes involve a sequence or chain of Example of the “Tracer” Method reactions which need to occur in strict order. 6 C 14 6 C Since they have the same number of electrons. the One of the best known examples concerns 2 of the isotope will be later detected entirely in the oxygen isotopes of carbon: gas released from the plant. they are “radioactive”. “how do scientists know the details of complex chemistry in living things?” This page (mostly reprinted from Module 1) will keep it simple science remind you of the technology used to unravel such things. a sample from the veins in the stem will be found to contain radioactive sucrose (or other similar sugar). This gives clues about what the plant is doing to convert its carbohydrates into different forms AND how this is linked to the movements of food chemicals throughout the plant. This experiment has “traced” the pathway of oxygen 6p+ atoms through the process. these atoms are chemically identical and react the same way. Isotopic Tracers Within each microscopic living cell.keepitsimplescience. all the oxygen gas in our atmosphere (which has been released from photosynthesising plants) was originally in water molecules. Movement of materials through a plant is studied in more detail next.

joined end-to-end forming a continuous tube from root to leaf. in a plant.keepitsimplescience. The xylem tubes transport water (and dissolved minerals).wikipedia. Image by McKDandy at en. You have learnt about the stomates which allow CO2 to enter the leaves by simple diffusion. water diffuses from cell to cell Each root hair is part of one. Hollow. In a land plant.0 the plant constantly allowing water vapour to LONGITUDINAL TRANSVERSE evaporate from each leaf (“Transpiration”). especially down to the roots. and spirals of lignin Biology Module 2 “Org.au . The constant upward flow of water carries the dissolved minerals needed. Water diffuses into the cell (due to osmosis) through • Plants need a steady supply of soil minerals to the cell membrane of the root hair cells. There is no circulation like our blood. Root hairs help absorption of water by tubes which carry the greatly increasing the surface area of the root in water (and dissolved contact with the soil. These are two separate. Most of it simply The actual absorption of water is achieved by evaporates from the stomates into the atmosphere. minerals) upwards to the photo by leaves. very elongated towards the central xylem cell. hollow cells. KISS Resources for NSW Syllabuses & Australian Curriculum.com. But first. than the water solution in the soil. manufacture proteins. ROOT HAIRS Outgrowths from Epidermis epidermis cells layer Only about 2-3% of the water carried up from the roots is used for photosynthesis. Photo at left: SEM image of plant stem showing hollow xylem tubes. plants must collect water and carbon dioxide. joined end-to-end Xylem Tubes Carry Water forming a tube Xylem tubes are dead.. Phloem tubes Alongside the xylem tubes are the phloem tubes which carry food from the leaves to any part of the plant which cannot photosynthesise. like XYLEM TUBES drinking through a straw. water is collected by the roots from the soil and travels up to the leaves through tubes called xylem.. ® The Vascular System (Veins) of a Plant keep it simple science In order to photosynthesise. dead cells. This SECTION SECTION creates a “suction” at the top of the xylem tube. how does the water get into the roots? Transverse Section of Root Plants Absorb Water through special Once absorbed into the outgrowths on the roots called “root hairs”. Together the xylem and phloem tubes form the “veins”. one-way-flow systems. Cell walls re-inforced with rings CCA-SA 3.0 unported licence. This upward Truthlobby MICROSCOPIC VIEW NEAR A ROOT TIP flow is achieved by CCA-SA 3. or Vascular System. So what’s the point? osmosis. Now their • Evaporation from the leaves keeps the plant cool in a cytoplasm has a higher solute concentration hot climate.of Living Things” PhotoMaster Page 9 Usage & copying is permitted according copyright © 2005-17 KEEP IT SIMPLE SCIENCE to the SITE LICENCE CONDITIONS only www. root hair cells. The cells actively transport soil minerals inside themselves.

sucked into the plastic tube. 2. the capillary needle. syringe filled with water 3. of the capillary. To measure the transpiration rate you 2.) keep it simple science How do xylem tubes lift water upwards against the force of gravity? “Transpiration” Cohesion & Adhesion is the evaporation of water from the leaves. So water is pulled because of adhesion. Possible Experiments.. force.au . This happens This flow is called the “transpiration stream”. (or. Measure rates of transpiration with the Potometer in moves in (say) mm per minute. Each molecule pulls others upward and so In very narrow tubes (“capillaries”) the the entire column of water in a xylem tube moves upwards water will climb upwards against gravity to replace the water lost by transpiration. Measure again while a fan blows air over the leaves lift the capillary tube end out of the water & line it up (to simulate windy weather). You can measure how fast the air bubble 4. Insert a laboratory capillary tube (30-40 cm) tightly clamp into one end of your plastic tubing (about 50 cm) hypodermic needle & forming an air-tight connection. Ensure an air-tight seal with a blob of graduated pipette petroleum jelly generously smeared around the joint. Immerse the tubes in a tub of water & ensure both are air bubble filled with water.. filled 4. Potometer To Make Your Potometer. This happens and tend to cling tightly together. re-set you may need to give the plant time to “recover” and by injecting water into the plastic tube with a hypodermic return to normal. During this waiting period.keepitsimplescience. beside a ruler. creating called “capillarity” or the “capillary effect”.. a tension.. When the bubble gets close to filling the capillary. also to some other substances such as glass or the inside of a xylem tube. When you change the conditions the plant is subjected to. 1. Measure & calculate the rate of transpiration of your plant cutting to find a “baseline” value. Keep your plant cutting in water until cutting ready to assemble. and drag more upwards by a combination of transpiration and cohesion. (attach to capillary with rubber bands) capillary tube end underwater until ready to begin measuring. or “pull” in the remaining water in the leaves. little blobs of water that cling together. water can constantly evaporate. Try using a fan heater (NOT TOO CLOSE) to simulate a hot wind.. each water molecule pulls on those behind it because of the cohesion. If you know the diameter dim light compared to bright light (at same temperature). Clamp the plant cutting upright. This So. As the plant transpires. 1. This force is called because water molecules are not only “cohesion” and is the reason that water tends to form attracted to each other (“cohesion”) but droplets.of Living Things” PhotoMaster Page 10 Usage & copying is permitted according copyright © 2005-17 KEEP IT SIMPLE SCIENCE to the SITE LICENCE CONDITIONS only www. This model explaining xylem function is known as the “Transpiration-Cohesion-Tension Theory” Experimenting with Transpiration The piece of equipment involved is called a “potometer”. This is the way that water can “climb up” the walls of a container forming a meniscus Water molecules are quite strongly attracted to each other in a test tube. KISS Resources for NSW Syllabuses & Australian Curriculum. As the plant sucks water. with no air bubbles.. when water evaporates from leaves and creates a “pull” attraction is called “adhesion”. an air bubble will now be drawn in at the end. in xylem and helps lift water upwards. clear plastic tubing. molecules along by cohesion.com. it will suck water from the plastic tube and capillary. When the Another factor which helps the process is stomates are open. but keep the with water ruler. ® Plant Vacular System (cont. Holding everything glass sucked in at underwater. water being transpired in mm3 per min. Cut a leafy branch from a healthy shrub so that the Leafy end of the cut stem is about the same diameter as your plant clear plastic tubing. High-tech equipment is available. you can calculate the actual volume of Results could be analysed with appropriate graphs. How It Works. insert the plant cutting in the other end of the capillary tube or end of tube plastic tubing. use rubber bands to strap ruler & capillary together) 3. but the diagram suggests a simple A home-made home-made version which works just as well. This will force the air out of the capillary so you needs to be immersed in water so that air bubbles are not can take more measurements.. for example. Biology Module 2 “Org..

with both xylem AND phloem. flowing from one end to the other.of Living Things” PhotoMaster Page 11 Usage & copying is permitted according copyright © 2005-17 KEEP IT SIMPLE SCIENCE to the SITE LICENCE CONDITIONS only www. LO how it works EM Tra Sugar solution TU flows due to n BE slo pressure The flow of nutrients through the phloem is caused S ca differential by pressure differences between the “Source” tissues tio and the “Destination”.. without “drooping”. The transportation of nutrients through the Sieve plate Phloem Tubes is called “Translocation”.keepitsimplescience. the phloem are living cells joined end-to-end. transport in the phloem is an “active transport” This “cytoplasmic system. Biology Module 2 “Org. Water flows out of DESTINATION generated by active transport of sugars causing water cells due to osmosis. Although photosynthesis produces glucose initially. the phloem will carry sugar to have many storage sites in roots or stem. then the ATP to the phloem will carry sugars back from the storage sites to feed the phloem cells leaf cells. requiring SOURCE energy. starch molecules are too large to be transported by many strong fibres which add strength and cytoplasm flows. lowering the pressure. PH Translocation.com. cells. KISS Resources for NSW Syllabuses & Australian Curriculum. Active & Passive Transport Under a microscope. it is “passive” transport. sugar).au .. the phloem system can carry food (especially sugars) in either direction. or supply a growing flower or fruit. n Sugar is removed by active transport. it is rapidly converted to starch to avoid The “veins” in a leaf are bundles of tubes osmotic pressure problems due to the dissolved sugar. The starch is converted to sucrose (or help keep the leaf in shape so it gathers light similar) for transport. then back to starch at its destination. Translocation Works 2-Ways While the xylem is a one-way flow system. energy. or out of cells. Water flows in due to Higher Pressure osmosis. passing food molecules through the The sugar (or other nutrients) carried in the phloem is “sieve plate” into the often a disaccharide sugar such as sucrose (table next cell. Lower Pressure to flow into. cycle around within each cell. PHLOEM CELL Sugars are actively alive and filled with cytoplasm. mitochondria to provide If photosynthesis is not possible for an extended time.. The ends of each cell are perforated (“sieve plates”) so each cell is open into the next and they form a continuous tube. There are also However. the cell cyoplasm in Note that the flow of water in the xylem costs the plant nothing each cell can be seen in energy terms. raising the pressure. In contrast. the plant must constantly supply energy to make streaming” seems to it happen.. transported in the flow Flow of cytoplasm carries sugars of cytoplasm within the through each cell.. “Companion cells” If a lot of photosynthesis is occurring. What Makes the “Sap” Flow? Sugar is carried into cells by active transport. between cells. ® Phloem Tubes Carry Food Nutrients keep it simple science While the xylem tubes are formed from dead cells. requiring The pressure difference is osmosic pressure..

This table from Module 1 summarises the comparison. high energy carbohydrates or (or lipids & proteins which can be NUTRIENTS converted) made by other organisms H2O & CO2 (photosynthesis) H 2O SIMPLE O2 (cellular resp. and spreads to other root cells by further diffusion. Try Worksheets 3 & 4 Comparison: what Autotrophs & Heterotrophs Need In this section of the syllabus the “Inquiry Question” is about the differences between the nutrient & gas requirements of autotrophs compared to heterotrophs. ® Gas Exchange in a Plant keep it simple science Each part of a plant carries out gas exchange with a different structure. sulfates. if you realise that multicellular life-forms require whatever their cells need. Their trucks of plants which allow gas exchange structure and functioning was covered earlier. root hairs are important for gas exchange as well as water absorption. (What this means calcium. or dissolved in soil water simply diffuses into the root hair cells.of Living Things” PhotoMaster Page 12 Usage & copying is permitted according copyright © 2005-17 KEEP IT SIMPLE SCIENCE to the SITE LICENCE CONDITIONS only www. this question was answered in Module 1.keepitsimplescience.) O2 CHEMICALS A range of simple inorganic A range of “minerals” & “vitamins” “minerals” (ions) including which are generally supplied in a nitrates. MAGNIFIED Tightly packed SURFACE VIEW OF cells in stem. magnesium. Because they increase the surface area of the roots. KISS Resources for NSW Syllabuses & Australian Curriculum. varies from one species to another) Biology Module 2 “Org. Oxygen in soil spaces. to the cells by simple diffusion from the air. A STOMATE Surface cells Lenticel opening Loosely Pore opening packed cells allow gases to diffuse Root Hairs in and out were covered earlier in connection with water absorption. “balanced diet”. phosphates. Stomates Lenticels are simple structures on the stems and Stomates allow gas exchange in a leaf. Requirements Plants Animals eukaryotic autotrophic eukaryotic heterotrophic ENERGY Light for photosynthesis Complex.au . etc. Basically.com.

keepitsimplescience. a polymer of sugar molecules. In this section we will consider only the case of mammals. They must eat energy-rich food made by other organisms. Digestion mainly involves chemically breaking large molecules down into smaller units which can be carried around the body and transported across cell membranes.. fragments of variable length are Later in the digestive process. overall there are 4 processes involved which need to be considered: Physical Digestion is the physical cutting & mashing of the food. each with its own “target” amino acid. Most proteases attack a protein chain only at the location of a specific amino acid. A mixture of “dextrins”.com. Digestion in a Mammal Animals are Heterotrophs. lactose (milk sugar) is attacked by “lactase”. other protease enzymes (called called “peptides” “peptidases”) will attack these peptide fragments and eventually chop them up into individual amino acids. For a lipase enzyme to digest a fat molecule. the fat must first be emulsified into water solution. the fats & oils. ENZYME Starch Sugar molecule molecules Protein ENZYME Amino acid molecule molecules However. Chemical Digestion involves digestive enzymes as suggested by the diagrams above. proteins and fats which must be digested before being absorbed into the body and used by the cells.. and so on. consider an enzyme which breaks the bond These protein to the right of the triangular amino acid in the diagram. the dextrins (variable-length short chains) than shown) Amylase & disaccharide sugars are attacked by specialist enzyme enzymes until everything is broken down into the simplest (monosaccharide) sugar molecules. Nuclease is the general name for enzymes which digest nucleic acids. There are a variety of proteases. sucrose (table sugar) is attacked by “sucrase”. a name ending in “-ase” is generally the name of an enzyme.of Living Things” PhotoMaster Page 13 Usage & copying is permitted according copyright © 2005-17 KEEP IT SIMPLE SCIENCE to the SITE LICENCE CONDITIONS only www. There are several different types of starch. KISS Resources for NSW Syllabuses & Australian Curriculum. Amylase Many foods contain “starch”. Starch molecule. ® keep it simple science 3. Breaking the food into smaller fragments increases the surface area available for chemical attack by enzymes. For example. Digestive Enzymes: Agents of Chemical Digestion You will soon see a pattern here. So (you guessed it!) the digestive enzyme that attacks it is called “amylase”. DNA & RNA. not all animals. Glycerol is a small sugar-like molecule which holds 3 fatty acids together to make a fat molecule. Biology Module 2 “Org. mainly achieved by the chewing of food in the mouth. but the commonest is known as “amylose”. either plants or other animals. The enzyme latches on to its “target” (remember the lock-and-key idea) and breaks the connecting bond between amino acids.au . This is achieved by secretions from the gall bladder. “amylose” disaccharide & (actually much longer monosaccharide sugars Later. More details below.. The food a mammal eats is composed largely of complex carbohydrates. Lipase Lipase enzymes attack lipids.. breaking them into individual “fatty acids” & glycerol. For example. Protease A “protease” is a digestive enzyme which attacks proteins.

Enzymes digest proteins in food. amylase. Pancreas adds a cocktail of enzymes to futher digest food Small Intestine completes digestion with a number of enzymes. Inside. Liver receives and processes digested nutrients after they are absorbed into Stomach blood stream. Chewing breaks food into smaller pieces with greater surface area. This makes them more vulnerable to pepsin attack. digesting starch. the pH changes dramatically to suit the new army of enzymes which attack it. (Note: this organ secretes a chemical which neutralises stomach acid. Chewing the food begins the An enzyme in saliva begins digestion process. These enzymes finish off chemical digestion. Oesophagus carries food to the stomach. it has many folds absorbs water. churns food with acid. ready for absorption. maltase. (Note: the stomach produces acid which causes most proteins to unravel & lose their normal molecular shape. have no special functions in humans Which Organs Produce Which Enzymes? Salivary Glands: amylase Stomach: a powerful protease commonly called “pepsin”. ® Human Digestive System keep it simple science Structure & Function Salivary Glands. Gall bladder adds bile to dissolve fats so enzymes can digest them.keepitsimplescience. pepsin has an “optimum pH” around pH = 2.com. Unusual for an enzyme. vitamins & or “villi” which increase surface minerals into blood stream. sucrase. nuclease. KISS Resources for NSW Syllabuses & Australian Curriculum. lactase.of Living Things” PhotoMaster Page 14 Usage & copying is permitted according copyright © 2005-17 KEEP IT SIMPLE SCIENCE to the SITE LICENCE CONDITIONS only www. so it works really well in stomach acid. then absorbs nutrients into the blood Large Intestine stream. Rectum stores undigested wastes Caecum & Appendix (faeces) for later elimination. lipase. area for absorption. Biology Module 2 “Org. so digestive enzymes can attack it faster.au . so as the partly digested food enters the small intestine.) Pancreas: several proteases & peptidases.) Small Intestine: peptidases.

but the body cannot afford to lose so much moisture. including weight control. takes blood to the liver Water soluble nutrients such as amino acids & sugars are carried into the blood stream.au . Eventually. During its passage through the large intestine. but covered with projecting “fingers”. the undigested waste becomes semi-solid to form faeces. The remaining material is very watery. small artery Fatty acids & chemicals such as cholesterol supplies blood are carried to a “lacteal” tube which drains into the Lymphatic System. Elimination of Solid Waste is a fairly obvious process familiar to us all. Notice that the surface is far from flat & smooth. KISS Resources for NSW Syllabuses & Australian Curriculum. seen through a microscope.of Living Things” PhotoMaster Page 15 Usage & copying is permitted according copyright © 2005-17 KEEP IT SIMPLE SCIENCE to the SITE LICENCE CONDITIONS only www. Some nutrients are stored there. This material adds “bulk” to the solid wastes (faeces) which accumulate in the rectum and stimulates the process of elimination on a daily (approx) basis. There is growing evidence that keeping these “gut bacteria” happy improves many aspects of health. the Lymphatic tube drains fluids. ® Absorption of Digested Nutrients keep it simple science Intestinal Villi The photo at right shows a thin section of the inside of a mammal’s small intestine. The surface layer is only one cell thick. most of the useful digested nutrients have been absorbed. These are called “villi” (singular = villus). Soluble minerals & vitamins (including some that are manufactured by gut bacteria) are absorbed along with the water. resistance to disease and general well-being. Diagram of a Villus Blood capillary “Lacteal” connects to the Lymphatic System The structure of a single villus is shown in the simplified diagram at left. This is stored in the rectum until it is passed from the body. circulate around the body. Nutrients absorbed into the blood flow through a vein directly to the liver. Gradually. “lymph” fluid drains into the blood stream Eventually the “lymph” drains into the near the heart so that the fatty nutrients then blood near the heart. while others undergo chemical processing before being passed via the blood flow to feed all the body’s cells. so digested nutrients can be easily absorbed and carried to the blood capillary network small vein inside.com. most of this water is re-absorbed from the gut by osmosis. It is well established that regular elimination & “bowel health” are dependent on consuming a lot of undigestible “fibre”. This “fibre” also provides food for the myriad bacteria which live inside our intestines. Villus surface Schematic layer is only one cell thick. The villi greatly increase the surface area of the intestinal lining available for absorption of the digested nutrients. Try Worksheet 5 Water Absorption in the Large Intestine By the end of the small intestine. Biology Module 2 “Org.keepitsimplescience.

hollow. Carbon Dioxide CO2 Biology Module 2 “Org.. the surface area for gas exchange would be about the size of a sheet of newspaper. (Gases must dissolve in water before Each Alveolus has a wall diffusing.) just 1 cell thick.au . the total surface area inside your lungs is about the same size as a tennis court! The inside surface is always kept moist. gases are exchanged between the air and the blood. fish and insect. Oxygen Breathing O2 When the rib cage moves up and out and the Air in Blood diaphram moves down. This section will compare Bronchiole four different systems. for gases to dissolve and diffuse. The requirements for efficient gas exchange have been met. Lungs in a Mammal Using the human as a typical example: The lung is not just a hollow space like a balloon. ® keep it simple science 4. air is sucked into the Alveoli lungs via the trachea. frog. CO2. but RESPIRATORY The purpose of gas exchange is therefore to sponge-like SYSTEM absorb O2 & excrete CO2. and the internal surface is • close contact between the gas exchange kept moist membrane & the animal’s blood supply. Down in the tiny alveoli air sacs. Each alveolus is in intimate contact with a blood capillary to transport the gases to and from the body cells. bronchi & bronchioles.of Living Things” PhotoMaster Page 16 Usage & copying is permitted according copyright © 2005-17 KEEP IT SIMPLE SCIENCE to the SITE LICENCE CONDITIONS only www. CO2 mammal. By dividing into millions of alveoli. Blood flow (Because diffusion is only efficient over a AIR flows Blood short range.. You are reminded that efficient gas exchange Trachea has 3 requirements: (Windpipe) Each bronchus sub-divides into • a large surface area over which the gases Bronchioles Bronchi can be exchanged between the environment (sing: & the animal’s body..keepitsimplescience. Each bronchiole bronchus) ends in a cluster carry air to of tiny air sacs.. If it was. KISS Resources for NSW Syllabuses & Australian Curriculum.) capillary in and out There are many ways that animals carry out O2 gas exchange. each lung • a moist gas exchange membrane between the Alveoli the environment & the animal’s body.com. Gas Exchange in Animals Animals need oxygen for cellular respiration Lungs are not HUMAN & need to get rid of the toxic product.

area inside your lungs is (main branch) about the same as a tennis court! Bronchioles Alveoli & Blood. Singular Plural 1 Bronchus 2 Bronchi 1 Alveolus many Alveoli Gas Exchange in Other Animals FROG RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Gas Exchange in a Frog Simple Lung Mouth and Amphibians hatch from their egg throat cavity as “tadpoles” which live in water are moist & and breathe with gills. Biology Module 2 “Org. KISS Resources for NSW Syllabuses & Australian Curriculum. exchange surface Doesn’t this mean less surface area and less efficiency? Yes. a frog’s lungs are much simpler than a Moist Skin also acts as a gas mammal’s. Trachea is flexible. the alveoli is always they must first be chest for breathing. So the need for O2 intake is a lot less. Before gases can move blood capillaries. Let’s consider structure and function for some parts of the Human Respiratory System.keepitsimplescience.. like tiny bubbles exchange. This increases the There are millions of surface area for gas alveoli. (smaller branches) Each alveolus has a This allows O2 & CO2 to blood capillary wrapped move quickly and easily around its very thin wall. dissolved in water.. movements help expand the The inside surface of across the membranes. cartilage. between air in the Each bronchiole Diaphram ends in a tiny air sac This is a sheet of muscle alveolus and the blood. Trachea (wind-pipe) Lungs are sponge-like. The total Bronchus within the lungs. It stays open when you (voice box) with rings of move your head and neck. but cannot Larynx flexible tissue “kink”. Also. and don’t have many alveoli. wet with watery fluid. Later they lined with undergo metamorphosis and blood develop into the adult form which breathes with vessels lungs.au .com. but a “cold-blooded” frog doesn’t need to carry out cellular respiration just to make body heat the way mammals do. its mouth and throat cavity and the skin all over its body. the frog doesn’t just do gas exchange in its lungs: The frog makes up for its inefficient lungs by carrying out gas exchange through other body surfaces which are kept moist and are lined with blood vessels. However. Structure How This Helps Function Trachea Made of soft. ® Structure Suits Function keep it simple science It is generally the case in living things that the structure of its organs suit their function. Its Alveoli always moist.of Living Things” PhotoMaster Page 17 Usage & copying is permitted according copyright © 2005-17 KEEP IT SIMPLE SCIENCE to the SITE LICENCE CONDITIONS only www. (alveolus) which is which separates the chest surrounded by from the gut cavity.

Gills have to be highly efficient. keep Blood flow GILL FILAMENTS researching! ACROSS & BETWEEN FILAMENTS Try Worksheet 6 Gas Exchange in an Insect Insects don’t have lungs or gills. Biology Module 2 “Org. This is by no means the full range of animal WATER FLOWS respiratory systems. That’s why there’s no such thing as a really big bug! Hollywood fantasies cannot actually happen. their system relies on diffusion. If interested.of Living Things” PhotoMaster Page 18 Usage & copying is permitted according copyright © 2005-17 KEEP IT SIMPLE SCIENCE to the SITE LICENCE CONDITIONS only www. The network of tubes increases the surface area for gas exchange. Surface Area to Volume Ratio gets smaller.au . ® Gas Exchange in Other Animals (cont.) keep it simple science Gas Exchange in a Fish Land-dwelling. which is only efficient over short distances. KISS Resources for NSW Syllabuses & Australian Curriculum. air-breathing animals always must have their gas exchange organs inside their bodies so the moist membranes won’t dry out. A large animal cannot survive on long-range diffusion of gases. Each spiracle allows air to move into a network of tubes (“trachea”) which infiltrate their whole body. so a fish’s gills are exposed to the water environment.keepitsimplescience. Along the Spiracles sides of their bodies is a series of holes called spiracles. Trachea The trachea tubes are moist This system is quite efficient in a small inside for gas exchange. In water this can’t happen. but shielded by a tough “gill cover” to protect the delicate breathing organs. because the trachea tube. but rapidly becomes inadequate as cells. which are never far from a the animal grows larger. Gases diffuse directly to the body animal. WATER FLOW BLOOD FLOW IN CAPILLARIES The gills are a series of feather-like plates around which the water flows. Each gill plate consists of thousands of tiny “filaments” each one a thin leaf-shaped structure packed with blood capillaries.com. Also. because the level of oxygen dissolved in aquatic environments is much lower than the concentration of oxygen in the air.

Substances Carried in the Blood Oxygen O2 Lipids (Fats) is carried in the red blood cells by haemoglobin. The walls of a the high pressure in the capillary are only one cell thick. Some veins contain valves to prevent squashed by surrounding muscles but not back the other. Nitrogenous Wastes Salts. ® 5. Red Cells White Cell much larger White Blood Cells Shaped like a than red cells come in a huge variety of types. Thick. plasma. is carried as the liquid solvent of blood plasma. Internal Transport in Animals keep it simple science For most animals. These wastes are carried away System. carried dissolved in the blood plasma. such as in your wrist or throat. This means that. back-flow of the blood.of Living Things” PhotoMaster Page 19 Usage & copying is permitted according copyright © 2005-17 KEEP IT SIMPLE SCIENCE to the SITE LICENCE CONDITIONS only www. Blood Cells RED You will have examined blood under a microscope and seen something like this: BLOOD CELLS Sketch of Blood Cells There are about 600 red Red Blood Cells cells to 1 white cell contain the red pigment haemoglobin. The blood here is under lower pressure and the walls of a vein are relatively thin. The walls of throughout the tissues so that an artery are relatively thick every living cell is close to the and muscular to withstand blood supply. they expand outwards and then contract again. but all are donut with the involved with defence against disease. absorbed from the digestive system are “packaged” in a protein coat which makes the fat molecule Carbon Dioxide CO2 miscible in water. KISS Resources for NSW Syllabuses & Australian Curriculum. Artery walls are very elastic. arteries and capillaries. irregular nucleus This is covered in a later topic. but most of it is carried in the blood and carried without joining together into droplets of fat and separating from the water. Blood Vessels Arteries carry blood Capillaries are the tiny blood from the heart out to the vessels which form a network body tissues. while not fully is partly carried by the haemoglobin in red dissolved.keepitsimplescience. are water soluble and carried dissolved These are nutrients absorbed from the Digestive in the blood plasma. muscular walls blood to cells (or cells to blood) is easily achieved. The inside of a capillary is so helping to push the blood along. This rhythmic expanding and small that red blood cells often contracting is what you can feel as your “pulse” wherever an artery is travel through it in single file. This is no covered in more detail nucleus later. close to the skin. heart and blood vessels. They are generally water soluble and are to be excreted in urine from the kidneys. Biology Module 2 “Org. which carries oxygen. the blood..au .. the molecules can be dispersed in water blood cells. blood when the heart so diffusion of substances from pumps. in the form of bicarbonate ions (HCO3-) In this form they are carried dispersed in the blood Water plasma. VEIN Veins carry blood back from the Cross-Section body tissues to the heart. hole closed over large. and when a pulse of high pressure blood passes through. With blood little pressure to push blood forward.com. flow it is the contraction of the surrounding muscles which helps push the blood Side view of VEIN showing a along.Blood can flow one way. veins. internal transport is carried out by the Circulatory System. Relatively thin walls are often valve. Sugars & Amino Acids such as urea.

with a Most of the sound of your heartbeat is the noise & right sides network of nerve-like of the valves snapping shut. the top chambers contract. both ventricles contract forcing the blood upwards into the arteries leaving the heart. The blood vessels & valves have been As the heart relaxes after the beat. Heart Muscle Note the thickness of muscle in the various parts. it’s time for more detail.of Living Things” PhotoMaster Page 20 Usage & copying is permitted according copyright © 2005-17 KEEP IT SIMPLE SCIENCE to the SITE LICENCE CONDITIONS only www. ® Structure & Function of the Heart keep it simple science A good way to get an understanding of the parts Artery of the heart & how they function is to begin by to lungs studying a simple. Valve lower body Valve Then. From the left ventricle the blood (which has Once you have a basic grasp of heart structure & just returned from the lungs) enters the Aorta which function. Only the last 20% is forced in by the atrial contraction. does NOT mix. If not kept equal. (In fact. Blood in the left muscle. The left ventricle is especially powerful to propel blood up to the head. branches off all over the body. Note: The Syllabus is vague about whether study blood could begin to “pool” in either the lungs or parts of of the heart should be included.au . This blood is depleted in O2.keepitsimplescience.. We think it the body (eg lower legs) leading to severe health necessary for better understanding. Although the ventricles look to be different sizes in the diagram. 80% of each “charge” of blood flows into the ventricle without help.) RIGHT from SIDE lungs • into the Left Atrium from the lungs. The atria (plural of atrium) have quite thin walls because they only have to push blood down into the ventricles. re-oxygenated. Right Left Ventricle Ventricle Valves Prevent Back-Flow The opening from atrium to ventricle is controlled by a set of skin-like flaps which act as valves. problems. so are made of strong blood cannot go back to the atrium.. etc. artery close to prevent back-flow Check with your teacher as to the detail required to be learnt. This blood is high in O2. The diagram (left) is much more life-like. Arteries FROM the Heart Blood from the right ventricle flows out to the lungs to be More Details.) In contrast. As Walls of the heart each ventricle contracts.) Atrium Atrium Both sides Beat Together LEFT Next. the ventricle walls are thick & powerful to pump blood great distances under pressure. low in CO2 Right Left (Dotted arrows in diag. schematic diagram. in fact they pump exactly the same volume of blood (about 35mL each) with each beat. Blood first Valve enters the top chambers of the heart: Valve • into the Right Atrium from the body. (KISS Vein from Principle!) upper body Aorta (main artery Veins TO the Heart to body) Blood flows into the heart from a vein. high in CO2 Veins (solid arrows in diag. This often happens following a “heart attack” which damages only one side of the heart. valves at the base of each given their technical names. which forces SIDE Vein from the blood into the ventricles below.com. Biology Module 2 “Org. fibres throughout. although still More Valves rather stylised. the valve snaps shut. KISS Resources for NSW Syllabuses & Australian Curriculum.

of Living Things” PhotoMaster Page 21 Usage & copying is permitted according copyright © 2005-17 KEEP IT SIMPLE SCIENCE to the SITE LICENCE CONDITIONS only www. you will H2CO3 H+ + HCO3- have measured any change in the pH of the water. Carbon dioxide doesn’t just dissolve in water. Converted into a graph of voltage against time. they are a muscle in the body.5 pH unit or more. It’s the hydrogen ions that create problems. This wave spreads rapidly along nerve-like fibres within the heart muscle. KISS Resources for NSW Syllabuses & Australian Curriculum. ® Heartbeats Note: Information on this half-page is almost certainly beyond syllabus requirements. This would be disastrous for cell metabolism. pushing blood into the ventricles. it all means something to an before the entire sequence begins again. nerve nexus. throughout the ventricular walls causing them to “T” is the recovery. each “spike” of an ECG is described by 5 prominent The signals also reach another bumps. simply named as shown.. This causes both atria temperature. It has a built-in P “P” is due to de-polarisation of the atria. the hydrogen ions could easily lower the pH of the cytoplasm by 0. In all other muscles. beating. Using a pH meter. delay of a few milliseconds. We just think it’s really interesting! keep it simple science ECG The Natural Pacemaker Although we describe nerve signals as “electrical” in nature. where the muscle is Q S contract. R Looked at individually. its length. expert. makes water This is how most CO2 is i. but it could be life-threatening. the water became more acidic. a nerve signal from your If sensitive electrodes are attached to the chest. it reacts to form an acid. rhythm. the SA node fires off a time nerve-like electrical signal The ECG has become a major diagnostic tool for health care which spreads rapidly AV node specialists who can figure out all manner of heart abnormalities in through fibres within the heart conjunction with looking for other symptoms such as body walls.. Heart muscle is quite different to every other they are not like electrical currents in a wire. pounding heart beats) but differences in voltage can be detected in the skin caused by this normally the heart itself commands the regular de-polarisation.. Remember that enzymes are very sensitive to pH changes and quickly change shape and lose their catalytic activity.. to contract. of the muscles. SA node voltage In the heart wall at the top of the right atrium is a nerve bundle called the sinoatrial node (“SA node”). This might not sound like much. (eg if you get a fright.keepitsimplescience. Every second or so. There is also a critical need to remove CO2. fluid swellings. CO2 + H2O H2CO3 Carbonic acid is a weak acid which partly ionises You might have bubbled some CO2 through water. The AV-node delay is vital to correct beat re-polarising for the next beat.. Every aspect of the shape of the ECG can be used for The “wave” of signals & contractions die down and diagnosis: the height of each bump. CO2 is carried away in the blood as rapidly as it is produced in the cells. Prac Work: CO2 and Acidity Explanation and Chemistry CO2 reacts with water to form carbonic acid You may have carried out an experiment to see the effect of dissolved CO2 on the pH of water. Hydrogen ions are acids and can lower the carbonic hydrogen bicarbonate acid ion ion pH of a cell or the blood. the atrioventricular T node (AV node).com. Hydrogen ion Bicarbonate ion. blood chemistry. etc. then The “QRS complex” is due to fires off another wave of signals de-polarisation of the ventricles. The Need to Remove Carbon Dioxide Transporting a gas in the blood is not just about carrying oxygen. the duration of the heart muscle relaxes for a fraction of a second. or Universal Indicator. You would have found that the pH went down.e. wave of “de-polarisations” which occur as sodium & potassium contraction occurs when a nerve signal is sent from ions flood across the cell membranes. slight brain triggers fast. At the concentrations produced by a typical cell. the gaps between each part. triggering the contraction the brain (or spinal chord reflex arc) to the muscle. CO2 + H2O H2CO3 H+ + HCO3. this produces an electrocardiogram or ECG. breathing rates. Rather.au . To avoid this problem. more acidic carried in blood Biology Module 2 “Org.. Heart muscle can be “given orders” from the brain.

lipids are first absorbed into the lymphatic “drains” and enter the blood much later) This blood from the gut is collected in a vein which takes it Heart Arteries directly to the liver. Blood flow in Lungs Nutrients & Nitrogenous Wastes As the blood flows through capillaries in the digestive system it picks up sugars. glucose is into storage extracted from the blood and polymerised to form glycogen for Wastes into storage in the liver). lipids). Here some of the nutrients may be absorbed Some Nutrients from the blood for storage or chemical processing (e. O2 CO2 Blood flow in Body tissues Carbon dioxide Lungs Nutrients move from blood into cells Oxygen Blood Air Air Blood Respiratory Gases O2 & CO2 Gas exchange and transport is essential for delivering oxygen to cells and removing CO2.keepitsimplescience. Body tissues When the blood gets to the lungs the opposite occurs. Also in the liver. so it diffuses from the cells into the blood.of Living Things” PhotoMaster Page 22 Usage & copying is permitted according copyright © 2005-17 KEEP IT SIMPLE SCIENCE to the SITE LICENCE CONDITIONS only www. salts. amino acids.. Biology Module 2 “Org.au .g. vitamins. etc that have been absorbed from the gut.com. Heart Arteries CHANGES IN As blood passes through capillaries OXYGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE in body tissues. oxygen diffuses into the CO2 blood. Inside the alveoli (air sacs of the lungs) the air has a Oxygen Carbon dioxide very high concentration of oxygen and is very Blood Cells Cells Blood low in CO2. move Liver into blood Later. There is always a concentration gradient favouring this because the cells are constantly using up oxygen for cellular respiration. (However. oxygen is released AS THE BLOOD CIRCULATES from the haemoglobin molecules and diffuses along the Veins concentration gradient into the body cells. as blood flows through capillaries in body tissues such as muscle or bone. large amounts of the waste blood Veins chemical urea are added to the blood to be carried away for Digested Nutrients excretion. water. every bit of blood flows through the kidneys Kidneys which extract the urea and excess salts and water for excretion as urine.. KISS Resources for NSW Syllabuses & Australian Curriculum. ® Changes to the Blood as it Circulates keep it simple science As the blood circulates around the body its chemical composition undergoes a number of changes. while carbon dioxide diffuses from the O2 blood into the air. Excreted in urine. Sooner or later. Wastes and excess water & salts leave blood. Meanwhile. nutrients are absorbed from the blood into the cells which need energy (glucose) and new chemical building Gut blocks (amino acids. the concentration of carbon dioxide is high because of its constant production by cellular respiration. Therefore.

pumps blood OPEN CIRCULATION IN AN INSECT Arteries Circulatory fluid flows out of blood vessels Capillary network in body Heart pumps “blood” Body cells receive O2 & nutrients. 9 this is obviously quite adequate. guaranteeing a steady flow of Artery nutrients. and the freed have a great attraction for oxygen molecules and quickly haemoglobin molecules can pick up some of the CO2 “grab” O2 molecules. ® Different Internal Transport Systems keep it simple science We have used the human body as the model to study the Circulatory System. iron. amphibians. 8. insects are the most numerous animals on the planet! The Importance of Haemoglobin Blood is red because of the many red cells.au . Here we make only a broad comparison between two general types of system. and get rid of CO2 fluid Blood fluid flows & other wastes directly among Open Circulation Systems body cells Invertebrate animals (including insects.of Living Things” PhotoMaster Page 23 Usage & copying is permitted according copyright © 2005-17 KEEP IT SIMPLE SCIENCE to the SITE LICENCE CONDITIONS only www. pumped around by the (air sacs) network in heart. Biology Module 2 “Org. and if that’s all release the oxygen molecules.. The high concentration of dissolved CO2 diffuses into the blood and dissolves in the plasma. in lungs Lungs CO2 O2 This system is highly efficient because the blood can be kept Vein flowing within the vessels. This efficiency allows vertebrates to grow very large and still function perfectly despite the poor SA/Vol ratio of a large body. reptiles. vessels as in a closed system.. but in all cases the system HEART Veins is “closed”. Haemoglobin molecules The oxygen diffuses into the cells. more oxygen than would be possible by simply dissolving containing. However.. oxygen in the blood plasma. In the lungs. blood is not forced to keep flowing through blood and blood returns to the heart. and red cells are Because of this. Closed Circulation Systems CLOSED CIRCULATION IN A MAMMAL All vertebrate animals (fish. because the Wastes (but not CO2) are taken away for excretion. in a small insect. different types of animals have all sorts of variations. Fluid slowly collects back into veins. gases and wastes between body cells and the outside environment.keepitsimplescience. our blood can carry thousands of times red because they are packed with the red-coloured. with its separate gas Try Worksheets exchange system which is not dependent on blood flow. KISS Resources for NSW Syllabuses & Australian Curriculum.. molecules and carry them back to the lungs. Be aware that fish. there was to the story. the blood is Alveoli Capillary always flowing inside a blood vessel. lowers the pH of the blood slightly. The “open” system is not very efficient. however. However. worms & snails) have much simpler circulatory systems in which the Veins “blood” (or a fluid doing the same job) does not always stay inside a blood vessel. 7. amphibians and most reptiles do not have a Arteries system quite the same as a mammal..com. protein haemoglobin. birds and mammals) have a blood system that is “closed”. When the oxygenated blood gets to the body tissues the some oxygen dissolves in the moisture lining the alveoli then reverse happens. where the oxygen concentration is very high. then our blood could never carry enough oxygen to supply our cells. after all. This causes the haemoglobin proteins to change shape slightly and Oxygen is not very soluble in water.