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Rujukan Kami: JUPEM 18/7/2.148 Jld. 3 ( 17 ) Tarikh: 25 Mei 2009
Semua Pengarah Ukur dan Pemetaan Negeri
PEKELILING KETUA PENGARAH UKUR DAN PEMETAAN BILANGAN 1 TAHUN 2009
GARIS PANDUAN MENGENAI SISTEM RUJUKAN KOORDINAT DI DALAM PENGGUNAAN GLOBAL NAVIGATION SATELLITE SYSTEM (GNSS) BAGI TUJUAN UKUR DAN PEMETAAN
Pekeliling ini bertujuan untuk memberikan garis panduan mengenai sistem rujukan koordinat dalam kontek penggunaan Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) bagi kerja-kerja ukur dan pemetaan di Malaysia.
Sistem rujukan koordinat Malayan Revised Triangulation 1948 (MRT48) dengan Bukit Kertau sebagai titik asalan (origin) telah digunakan bagi aktiviti pemetaan dan ukur kadaster sejak tahun 1948 di Semenanjung Malaysia. Datum rujukan geodetik bagi sistem ini adalah Datum Kertau yang menggunakan elipsoid Modified Everest (Kertau). Bagi Sabah, Sarawak dan Labuan pula, aktiviti ukur dan pemetaan telah dijalankan dengan
menggunakan sistem rujukan koordinat Borneo Triangulation 1968 (BT68) dengan Bukit Timbalai sebagai titik asalan. Datum rujukan geodetik bagi BT68 adalah Datum Timbalai yang menggunakan elipsoid Modified Everest (Timbalai).
Penggunaan teknologi GNSS bagi kerja-kerja ukur dan pemetaan di Malaysia telah bermula sejak tahun 1989. Dalam hal ini, Jabatan Ukur dan Pemetaan Malaysia (JUPEM) telah dengan
menggunakan teknik Global Positioning System (GPS), iaitu Peninsular Malaysia Geodetic Scientific Network (PMGSN94) pada tahun 1994, diikuti dengan East Malaysia Geodetic Scientific Network (EMGSN97) pada tahun 1997. Seterusnya
dalam tahun 2003, kerangka rujukan geodetik GPS pasif tersebut telah diperkukuhkan bagi menghasilkan Malaysia Primary
Geodetic Network (MPGN2000).
Dalam pada itu, antara tahun 1998 dan 2008, JUPEM telah membangunkan rangkaian-rangkaian GPS/GNSS aktif, iaitu Malaysia Active GPS System (MASS) antara tahun 1998 dan 2001 dan diikuti dengan penubuhan Malaysia Real-Time Kinematic GNSS Network (MyRTKnet) antara tahun 2002 dan 2008.
Bagi memenuhi tuntutan semasa yang menjurus kepada penggunaan datum rujukan global yang bersifat geosentrik, JUPEM telah selanjutnya melancarkan datum rujukan geodetik baru yang seragam bagi kerja-kerja ukur dan pemetaan di Malaysia pada 26 Ogos 2003. Datum ini dikenali dengan nama Geocentric Datum of Malaysia (GDM2000), di mana elipsoid rujukan adalah Geodetic Reference System 1980 (GRS80). Titik asalan bagi sistem-sistem rujukan koordinat yang berasaskan GDM2000 ini adalah di pusat jisim bumi (geosentrik).
Intisari kandungan garis panduan tersebut adalah seperti berikut: 3 . GARIS PANDUAN PENGGUNAAN SISTEM RUJUKAN KOORDINAT Penerangan lebih lanjut tentang amalan penggunaan sistem rujukan koordinat terkandung di dalam dokumen Technical Guide to the Coordinate Reference Systems seperti di Lampiran ‘A’ yang disertakan. 2.5 Pada tahun 2004 dan 2005 telah berlaku gempa bumi besar. siri set koordinat baru yang dikenali sebagai GDM2000 (2009) bagi rangkaian-rangkaian GNSS/GPS aktif dan pasif telah diterbitkan oleh JUPEM.2. Indonesia dan kejadian ini telah menyebabkan anjakan yang signifikan terhadap sistem koordinat GDM2000. Sehubungan itu. masing-masingnya bermagnitud 9. terutamanya bagi kerja-kerja pengukuran yang memerlukan penggunaan sistem rujukan koordinat yang berkejituan tinggi seperti di dalam bidang geodesi dan geodinamik. Analisis mendapati bahawa sistem-sistem rujukan koordinat yang berasaskan GDM2000 perlu disemak dan dihitung semula.7 pada skala Ritcher di Sumatra. 3.6 Hasil daripada semakan dan hitungan semula tersebut yang menggunakan produk data GPS bermula 1 Januari 2006 hingga 30 April 2009.2 dan 8. pemantauan anjakan keatas sistem-sistem rujukan koordinat telah dilakukan oleh JUPEM secara berterusan melalui analisis anjakan ke atas stesen-stesen MyRTKnet.
1 PENINSULAR MALAYSIA GEODETIC SCIENTIFIC NETWORK 1994 (PMGSN94) 3.2 4.2 EAST MALAYSIA GEODETIC SCIENTIFIC NETWORK 1997 (PMGSN97) 4. 2.Perenggan 1.1 Sistem-sistem rujukan koordinat yang dinyatakan di dalam pekeliling ini hendaklah digunakan berdasarkan tarikh-tarikh tertentu seperti yang dinyatakan dalam Jadual 1 dan Jadual 2 di bawah: 4 . CONCLUSION 4. GPS-BASED NETWORKS 3.1 MAJOR SUMATRAN EARTHQUAKES IN 2004.2 MALAYAN REVISED TRIANGULATION 1968 (MRT68) BORNEO TRIANGULATION 1968 (BT68) 3. GEOCENTRIC DATUM OF MALAYSIA (GDM2000) 4.3 INTRODUCTION MALAYSIA ACTIVE GPS SYSTEM (MASS) MALAYSIA PRIMARY GEODETIC NETWORK 2000 (MPGN2000) 4. PEMAKAIAN 4.1 2. Perkara INTRODUCTION OLD TRIANGULATION NETWORKS 2. 2005 AND 2007 5.1 4.4 MALAYSIA REAL-TIME KINEMATIC GNSS NETWORK (MyRTKnet) 5. REVISION OF GDM2000 5.2 5.3 MyRTKnet IN GDM2000 (2009) MPGN200 IN GDM2000 (2009) 6.
0 Mulai 1 Mei 2009 Jadual 2 : Jaringan GPS/GNSS Aktif Malaysia Sistem Rujukan Koordinat Bil Sistem Koordinat Malaysia Active GPS System (MASS) Datum Geodetik GDM2000 1 Datum: GRS80 Reference Frame: ITRF2000 Epoch: 2000.Jadual 1 : Jaringan GPS/GNSS Pasif Malaysia Sistem Rujukan Koordinat Bil Sistem Koordinat Peninsular Malaysia Geodetic Scientific Network 1994 (PMGSN94) East Malaysia Geodetic Scientific Network 1997 (EMGSN97) Datum Geodetik WGS84 Ellipsoid: WGS84 Reference Frame: WGS84 Epoch: 1987.2 Bagi pengguna-pengguna yang terlibat di dalam kerja-kerja ukur yang memerlukan ketepatan dan kejituan yang tinggi.0 Tarikh Penggunaan 1 Januari 1994 hingga 22 Ogos 2003 1 Januari 1997 hingga 22 Ogos 2003 23 Ogos 2003 hingga 30 April 2009 1 WGS84 Ellipsoid: WGS84 Reference Frame: WGS84 (G783) Epoch: 1997.0 2 GDM2000 Malaysia Primary Geodetic Network 2000 (MPGN2000) Ellipsoid: GRS80 Reference Frame: ITRF2000 Epoch: 2000. khususnya bidang geodesi dan geodinamik. tarikh penggunaan sistem- 5 .0 3 GDM2000 (2009) Ellipsoid: GRS80 Reference Frame: ITRF2000 Epoch: 2000.0 2 GDM2000 (2009) Datum: GRS80 Reference Frame: ITRF2000 Epoch: 2000.0 Tarikh Penggunaan 1 Januari 1999 hingga 30 April 2009 12 Mei 2004 hingga 30 April 2009 Mulai 1 Mei 2009 GDM2000 Malaysia Real-Time Kinematic GNSS Network (MyRTKnet) Datum: GRS80 Reference Frame: ITRF2000 Epoch: 2000.0 4.
Kuala Lumpur atau dengan melayari Laman Web JUPEM. terima kasih.jupem.my. TARIKH BERKUATKUASA Pekeliling ini adalah berkuatkuasa mulai tarikh ianya dikeluarkan. Selain itu. Sekian. “BERKHIDMAT UNTUK NEGARA” ( DATUK HAMID BIN ALI ) Ketua Pengarah Ukur dan Pemetaan Malaysia 6 . manakala tarikh penggunaan sistem-sistem rujukan koordinat berasaskan GDM2000 (2009) adalah mulai 1 Januari 2006. 4. 5.gov. JUPEM juga turut menyediakan maklumat dan perkhidmatan penukaran koordinat dan transformasi datum bagi semua sistem rujukan koordinat serta unjuran peta kepada para pengguna. iaitu http://www.sistem rujukan koordinat berasaskan GDM2000 adalah sehingga 31 Disember 2005.3 Pengguna-pengguna boleh mendapatkan nilai-nilai koordinat dan maklumat lokasi bagi setiap stesen trigonometri dan stesen GPS/GNSS dengan menghubungi Ibu Pejabat JUPEM.
Salinan kepada: Timbalan Ketua Pengarah Ukur dan Pemetaan Pengarah Ukur Bahagian (Pemetaan) Pengarah Ukur Bahagian (Kadaster) Pengarah Bahagian Geospatial Pertahanan Setiausaha Bahagian (Tanah. Cawangan Pengkalan Udara dan Maritim Ibu Pejabat Jabatan Kerja Raya Malaysia Penolong Pengarah Unit Ukur Tanah. Ukur dan Pemetaan) Kementerian Sumber Asli dan Alam Sekitar Pengarah Institut Tanah dan Ukur Negara (INSTUN) Kementerian Sumber Asli dan Alam Sekitar Pengarah Pusat Infrastuktur Data Geospatial Negara (MaCGDI) Kementerian Sumber Asli dan Alam Sekitar Ketua Penolong Pengarah Unit Ukur Tanah. Bahagian Kejuruteraan Awam Ibu Pejabat Jabatan Perumahan Negara Setiausaha Lembaga Jurukur Tanah Semenanjung Malaysia Setiausaha Lembaga Jurukur Tanah Sabah Setiausaha Lembaga Jurukur Tanah Sarawak 7 .
Lampiran ‘A’ Technical Guide to the Coordinate Reference Systems JABATAN UKUR DAN PEMETAAN MALAYSIA 2009 .
2005 AND 2007 19 6.3 MyRTKnet IN GDM2000 (2009) MPGN2000 IN GDM2000 (2009) MAJOR SUMATRAN EARTHQUAKES IN 2004.TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. GPS-BASED NETWORKS 4. OLD TRIANGULATION NETWORKS 2. GEOCENTRIC DATUM OF MALAYSIA (GDM2000) 4.1 4.1 2.1 3.1 5. REVISON OF GDM2000 5.2 MALAYAN REVISED TRIANGULATION 1968 (MRT68) BORNEO TRIANGULATION 1968 (BT68) PENINSULAR MALAYSIA GEODETIC SCIENTIFIC NETWORK 1994 (PMGSN94) EAST MALAYSIA GEODETIC SCIENTIFIC NETWORK 1997 (EMGSN97) INTRODUCTION MALAYSIA ACTIVE GPS NETWORK (MASS) MALAYSIA PRIMARY GEODETIC NETWORK 2000 (MPGN2000) MALAYSIA REAL-TIME KINEMATIC GNSS NETWORK (MyRTKnet) 1 2 2 5 7 7 10 12 12 12 14 17 19 24 25 26 27 3.2 3. INTRODUCTION 2.4 5. CONCLUSION REFERENCES i .2 5.2 4.3 4.
1 Coordinate reference systems have been established in many regions around the world by national mapping authorities since the 19th century. JUPEM itself has embraced in the early 1990s the Global Positioning System (GPS) technology with the eventual objective of adopting a global unified datum for Peninsular Malaysia. JUPEM established the permanent GPS tracking stations known as Malaysia Active GPS System (MASS) at the end of 1998. This is also the case with Malaysia where it has in place two old/classical triangulation networks. Sabah and Sarawak. 1 . comprising of 238 stations and 171 stations respectively.2002). fit to limited areas to satisfy national mapping requirements. these coordinates represent the basis for the determination of the Geocentric Datum of Malaysia (GDM2000). using conventional surveying techniques and procedures. which was launched on 26 August 2003.3 Subsequently. the coordinates of MASS stations were derived from 4years of continuous GPS data (1999 . This later led to the establishment of the Peninsular Malaysia GPS Scientific Network 1994 (PMGSN94) and East Malaysia GPS Scientific Network 1997 (EMGSN97). Collectively.2 With the recent advances in space-based positioning technology. In relation to this. Most of them use local datums that are confined to small areas of the globe. 1. namely the Malayan Revised Triangulation 1968 (MRT68) for Peninsular Malaysia and the Borneo Triangulation 1968 (BT68) for Sabah and Sarawak. 1. Coupled with the GPS data obtained from the International Global Navigational Satellite System (GNSS) Service (IGS) stations. INTRODUCTION 1. with eighteen (18) stations making up the whole MASS infrastructure.1. many countries have begun to implement and subsequently adopted a global geocentric coordinate reference system.
1. 2. there were significant displacements of positions of the aforementioned Malaysian geodetic infrastructure as a result of two major Indonesian earthquakes that occurred in 2004 and 2005. The new MyRTKnet system is able to provide real-time positioning services at centimeter-level accuracy to users in the field.6 This technical guide then is produced to give an overview of the coordinate reference systems that are available in Malaysia and to assist users in understanding the concept. The 1880s marked an important phase with the commencement of widespread trigonometrical works in various parts of Malaya. 2.1.2 The trigonometrical survey in Perak together with the Penang and Province Wellesley triangulations as well as Malacca Triangulation 2 . strategies and procedures involved in the move towards the adoption of GDM2000 in 2003 and its subsequent revision carried out in 2009. JUPEM further developed a modern active GNSS network with the latest state-of-the-art technology to establish the Malaysia Real-Time Kinematic GNSS Network or MyRTKnet.1 MALAYAN REVISED TRIANGULATION 1968 (MRT68) 2. including a triangulation survey in Penang in 1832.5 However.4 Between 2002 and 2008. OLD TRIANGULATION NETWORKS 2. The resultant coordinates obtained through this endeavour are known as GDM2000 (2009).1 JUPEM could trace its origin to way back in 1885. JUPEM has taken further steps to revise the coordinate reference systems.1. using GPS data from the years 2006 to 2008 of MyRTKnet and IGS stations. due to the relatively stable conditions that followed in the past four years (albeit still quite unpredictable). Nevertheless. 1. 1.
5 The MRT68 network consists of 77 geodetic. The reference ellipsoid used for MRT68 is in Table 1 below. This was subsequently followed by a lengthy process of additional measurements and re-computation until 1968. 2. Table 2 tabulates the parameters for map projection used in Peninsular Malaysia. 2.3 However.1888) laid the foundation for the existing control framework. This triangulation scheme in Peninsular Malaysia which was completed in 1916 is known as the Primary or Repsold Triangulation.4 The Primary or Repsold Triangulation was later replaced by a new system known as the Malayan Revised Triangulation 1948 (MRT48). 2.1. 240 primary.1. The map projection used for mapping in Peninsular Malaysia is Rectified Skew Orthomorphic (RSO) and Cassini Soldner for cadastral surveying. 837 secondary and 51 tertiary stations.(1886 . which eventually resulted in a system referred to as MRT68. the early works were so inconsistent and of questionable quality that it was decided to re-observe the principal triangles of the general triangulation with the object of bringing it up to modern standards of that time. The MRT68 has been adopted as a result of the recomputations of the earlier network together with the Primary or Repsold Triangulation (Figure 1) carried out between 1913 and 1916. 3 .1. This was followed by the commencement of other trigonometrical surveys in various parts of the country that included Selangor and Negeri Sembilan. It is based on conventional observations with many of the triangulation points dated as far back as 1885.
00 G052 G055 G065 G068 G038 G020 G066 G012 G039 2.50 G027 G013 G050 G060 G072 G053 G008 G022 G024 G069 G076 G019 G021 G017 G063 G048 G026 G016 5.50 102.50 103.556 6 356 097.50 101.00 G025 G057 G040 G032 G033 G047 G031 G030 G044 G054 G003 G077 G042 G059 5.50 G004 Latitude 4.8017 BT68 Modified Everest Timbalai.50 100.00 101.50 G043 G084 P075 G045 G018 G064 G056 P4 1.00 Longitude Figure 1: Malayan Revised Triangulation 1968 (MRT68) 4 .50 G011 G015 3. 5. Labuan 6 377 298.50 G071 G058 G028 G035 G023 G029 6.50 104.00 99.550 1/300. Reference Ellipsoids for MRT68 and BT68 Parameter MRT68 Modified Everest Kertau.00 G002 G014 G049 G062 1.063 6 356 103.00 102.00 103.00 G041 G001 G070 G075 G074 G007 G061 G073 G036 G009 3. 1. 2.00 100. 4. Pahang 6 377 304.00 G034 G037 G067 G005 4.8017 Reference Ellipsoid Origin Semi-major axis ( a ) Semi-Minor Axis ( b ) Flattening ( f ) 6.Table 1 No.50 G010 G051 G046 2.039 1/300. 3.
5 The BT68 network consists of the Borneo West Coast Triangulation of Brunei and Sabah (1930-1942).2. In around 1935.4 The combined geodetic networks in Sabah and Sarawak. This geodetic network is shown in Figure 2 with the reference ellipsoid used given in Table 1. known as the Borneo Triangulation 1968 (BT68). The adjusted results for the Primary Triangulation of Borneo 1948 were then published in terms of Timbalai Datum and Modified Everest ellipsoid.2. The map projection employed for mapping and cadastral surveys is RSO and Table 2 shows the various parameters used.1 Sabah started its primary triangulation work in a project known as the Borneo West Coast Triangulation between 1930 and 1942. 2. 2.2 BORNEO TRIANGULATION 1968 (BT68) 2. was established with the station at Bukit Timbalai (in the island of Labuan) as the origin.2. 5 . Borneo East Coast Triangulation of Sarawak and extension of the West Coast Triangulation in Sabah (1955-1960) as well as some new points surveyed between 1961 and 19220.127.116.11 The East Coast Triangulation was later introduced and initiated by DOS and observations were carried out in the year 1955 to 1960. BT68 consequently resulted from the readjustment of the primary control of East Malaysia (Sabah. 2. Sarawak and Brunei) made by the DOS. EDM traversings were also carried out in 1961 to 1968 to supplement the work.2 The Directorate of Overseas Survey (DOS) undertook the task of readjusting the whole primary triangulation of Borneo. Sarawak and Brunei also began their primary triangulation projects. The aim of this triangulation was to extend the Primary Triangulation of Borneo to the eastern side of Sabah.2. 2.
Parameter Projection Name Datum Conversion Factor Origin of Projection Scale Factor (Origin) Peninsular Malaysia Malayan RSO Kertau Sabah & Sarawak Borneo RSO Timbalai 1 chain= 20. E 102° 15’ 0. 3. 1.0 SARAWAK INDONESIA 2.0 1. E 115° 00’ 0.0 113. 1896) 1927) N 4° 00’ . 2. Jolly & Johnson.0 SOUTH CHINA SEA SABAH Latitude 4.0 112. 7.0 114.0 118. (Chaney & Benoit.0 110.Table 2: Map Projections for Peninsular Malaysia.0 5.0 115.0 Longitude Figure 2: Borneo Triangulation 1968 (BT68) 6 .99 984 4.99 984 N 4° 00’ .0 3.0 111. Sabah and Sarawak No.0 6.11678249m (Sears.11676512m 1 chain = 20.0 119.0 116. 5.0 117.
Pahang.3 In an effort to harness the full prowess of the space-based technology. which is maintained by the United States Department of Defense for GPS-based positioning. held fixed.3.1 As stated earlier.2 The World Geodetic System of 1984 or WGS84 is one such system. The main objectives of setting up PMGSN94 are to establish a new geodetic network based on GPS observations and to analyse the existing geodetic network. as in Figure 3. old triangulation networks such as MRT68 and BT68 are regional in nature and are thus not aligned with global geocentric coordinate frames.1. 3. Another is the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) and it is reported to be compatible with WGS84 at the centimeter level.1. a minimally constrained adjustment was made with Kertau. The network has been observed using four Ashtech LX II dual frequency GPS receivers and the acquired data was processed and adjusted in 1994.4 In the network adjustment. The Ashtech GPS Post-Processing 7 . This was made possible over the last decade or so because the space-based positioning satellites revolve around the center of mass of the earth and are therefore related to an earth-centered or geocentric datum.1 PENINSULAR MALAYSIA GEODETIC SCIENTIFIC NETWORK 1994 (PMGSN94) 3.not until the recent development of space-based positioning systems. GPS-BASED NETWORKS 3. On the other hand.1. JUPEM has established a GPS network of 238 stations in Peninsular Malaysia. 3. The coordinates of Kertau are in approximate WGS84 and derived from Doppler coordinates of NSWC 9Z-2 reference frame. 3. earth-centered geocentric system is difficult to define .1. called the Peninsular Malaysia Geodetic Scientific Network 1994 (PMGSN94).
00 5.50 Latitude P101 4.50 P299 TG38 P298 DOP5 P296 P297 TG56 P304 P249 P295TG35 P305 K350 P289 P290 P292 P288 P291 P287 P285 P286 P311 P276 P280 P279 P278 P275 P272 P273 P274 P270 P214 P209 P204 P205 P102 P207 P202 S290 P211 P210 P203 TG58 P213 TG57 P351 TG59 P212 P352 P269 P268 P500 P219 P218 P216 P217 P215 P201 GP28 GP81 GP79 GP32 GP33 GP94 GP05 GP06 TG18 GP24 GP86 GP23 GP17 149B DOP1 GP08 GP19 GP20 TG01 GP18 GP09 GP10 GP89 TG20 GP14 TG05 GP41 GP42 GP43 GP44 TG04 M331 TG03 GP16 GP15 GP48 GP85 GP84 GP59 GP60 GP90 GP54 GP91 13DJ GP53 TG07 GP47 GP57 TG09 GP56 GP87 GP21 GP88 GP99 TG11 GP40 GP98 TG06 GP39 TG15 GP95 GP38 GP25 GP22 DOP3 GP80 GP36 GP37 TG14 GP34 GP45 GP31 GP35 T200 GP07 T190 GP30 GP26 GP27 TG25 GP29 P260 P259 TG13 TG24 P261 P257 P227 P258 P226 P255 P256 P228 P313 P264 P221 P271 P263 P220 P267 P105 P254 P229 P265 P083 P223 TG42 P310 P277 P222 P224 P293 P808 P306 P307 P809 P308 P309 P246 P248 TG27 P247 P250 DOP4 P243 P242 P244 P245 TG31 P225 TG61 P239 TG28 P240 P241 P238 P236 P235 P107 P251 P106 P237 P232 P234 T283 P233 P231 P252 P253 P230 S136 6.50 101.50 TG19 DOP2 TD01 J416 TG10 GP52 99.00 101.Software (GPPS) with broadcast ephemeris was used for the determination of the baseline solutions.50 102.50 GP11 GP12 GP13 GP61 GP58 GP55 2.00 2.50 103. The relative accuracy of the network is between 1-2 ppm for the horizontal coordinates and between 3-5 ppm for the vertical coordinates.00 TG26 4.50 105.00 3.00 99. The summary of the results of the network adjustment using Geolab network adjustment software is tabulated in Table 3.00 Longitude 102.00 104.50 100.50 104.00 6.00 100.00 Figure 3: Peninsular Malaysia GPS Scientific Network 1994 (PMGSN94) 8 .00 GP02 GP82 G003 GP04 251.50 G100 3.00 GP49 GP50 GP51 1.50 P314 TG36 P283 P282 TG33 P281 5. 7.00 103.
011 – 0.094 Vert: 0.031 Vert: 0.038 – 0.030 Hort: < 1. of Observations Redundancy Weights Used Variance Factor Used Chi-Square Test Station Error Ellipses Relative Error Ellipses Average Baseline Accuracies Geolab Network Adjustment Kertau.9952 Passed Hort: 0.0 ppm 9 .032 – 0.5 ppm σE = 5mm ± 0.7 ppm σU = 7mm ± 1.1 ppm 0.080 Hort: 0.013 – 0.Table 3: Results of Minimally Constrained Adjustment for PMGSN94 Network Adjustment Software Used Fixed Point in 3D Approximate Positions Number of Parameters No. Pahang 237 711 3594 2883 σN = 5mm ± 0.5 ppm Vert: < 2.
3. T121 T122 D006 A102 M204 M203 T123 T120 M201 M202 M104 M301 M311 M307 M310 M305 T125 M302 M304 M303 M306 T127 T128 M313M314 M317 M416 M406 M415 M414 M315 M316 M419 M422 M417 T109 M418 M420 M423 M312 6.00 117.2 EAST MALAYSIA GEODETIC SCIENTIFIC NETWORK 1997 (EMGSN97) 3. The summary of the results of the network adjustment using Geolab network adjustment software is tabulated in Table 4.50 T001 M509 M403 M408M409 T106 D004 Latitude T105 4044 4242 8045 3.00 112. GPS observations were made using Trimble 4000SSE L1/L2 receivers to establish the East Malaysia Geodetic Scientific Network 1997 (EMGSN97) that comprises a total of 171 GPS stations as shown in Figure 4. JUPEM began making plans to establish a similar type of GPS-derived geodetic network in Sabah and Sarawak. a constrained adjustment was made with coordinates from the Special Technical Royal Engineer (STRE) GPS campaign fixed.00 118.2.00 114.1 Following the successful completion of PMGSN94 in Peninsular Malaysia. Broadcast ephemeris was used for the baseline determinations.50 M424 M421 T006 5101 M413 T108 M404 M401 T104 M405 M402 M407 M412 M411 M410 T107 4.50 0. For this purpose.00 119.50 110.50 T119 D005 T118 M103 T117 T116 A101 T124 T114 M102 T113 T115 M101 T003 T101 T100 T111 T004 M501 M503 M502 T102 M511 T005 M504 M505 M506 T103 M508 M507 T007 D002 T010 4122 T008 T009 T110 T002 D001 M510 T112 M105 5.2.3.00 116.00 111.2 In the network adjustment.00 Longitude Figure 4: East Malaysia Geodetic Scientific Network 1997 (EMSGN97) 10 . The relative accuracy of the network is found to be better than 1 ppm for the horizontal coordinates and 2-3 ppm for the vertical coordinates.00 115.00 113.50 6008 3010 3021 T038 7083 T019T018 T036 T035 1009 1019 T034 T030 T031 T029 R027 T025 9900 T026 2005 2038 2011 2015 J01 T032 T022 2200 T021 T020 6047 6052 7086 7085 T045 D003 7084 7082 T037 T040 7079 T039 7080 1.50 T012 8028 3074 T015 3046 8048 8047 4118 T043 4119 4127 T042 T041 4120 T013 4114 T016 T014 T017 3032 2.
008 – 0.010 – 0.Table 4: Results of Constrained Adjustment for EMGSN97 Network Adjustment Software Used Fixed Points in 3D Approximate Positions Number of Parameters No.044 Vert: 0.040 Vert: 0.007 – 0.9600 Passed Hort: 0.8 ppm 11 .2 ppm σU = 2.2 ppm σE = 2mm ± 0.5mm ± 0.5 ppm 0. of Observations Redundancy Weights used Variance Factor Used Chi-Square Test Station Error Ellipses Relative Error Ellipses Average Baseline Accuracies Geolab Network Adjustment Five (5) Stations from STRE GPS Campaign 166 498 1218 720 σN = 2mm ± 0.055 Hort: 0.009 – 0.052 Hort: 0.6 ppm Vert: 0.
1.1 Malaysia Active GPS Network or MASS is a permanent network of active GPS stations that was established in 1999 and formed a homogeneous and coherent geodetic infrastructure. 4.2 GPS data from seventeen (17) MASS stations (Figure 5) and eleven (11) IGS stations (Figure 6) from 1999 to 2002 have been processed to establish the zero-order geodetic network.1 The Geocentric Datum of Malaysia or GDM2000 is the new national geodetic datum for Malaysia and it replaces the old datum of MRT48 and BT68. the MASS network is replaced by another network of active GNSS stations known as the Malaysia Real-Time Kinematic GNSS Network or MyRTKnet.2 MALAYSIA ACTIVE GPS NETWORK (MASS) 4. 12 .2. The eleven (11) permanent GPS tracking stations of the IGS world-wide network in ITRF2000 Epoch 1997 were used as fiducial points in the processing to obtain the MASS set of station coordinates. GEOCENTRIC DATUM OF MALAYSIA (GDM2000) 4. This was followed by the establishment of the Malaysia Primary Geodetic Network 2000 or MPGN2000 by strengthening the PMGSN94 and EMGSN97 networks via a GPS observation campaign performed at selected stations to form a connection to the MASS network. The MASS station’s GPS data were used along with those from the International GNSS Service (IGS) stations for the realization of the zero-order geodetic network for Malaysia.4. covering the whole of Malaysia. It was officially launched nationwide on 26 August 2003.2 The development of GDM2000 began firstly by the establishment of the zero-order network of permanent GPS stations known as the Malaysia Active GPS System (MASS). Subsequently.1 INTRODUCTION 4. 4.2. 4.1.
8 Arau 6 Geti Kual Miri Kuan Ktpk Sega Bint Kina Labu Sand Usmp Ipoh Latitude Tawa 4 Sibu Utmj Kuch 2 0 98 100 102 104 106 108 110 112 114 116 118 120 Longitude Figure 5: Distribution of MASS stations LHAS SHAO KUNM WUHN PIMO GUAM NTUS IISC BAKO COCO KARR Figure 6: IGS stations used to derive MASS coordinates in ITRF2000 13 .
These new set of coordinates are known as the Geocentric Datum of Malaysia or GDM2000 and was officially adopted on 26 August 2003.3 The reference IGS station coordinates which are in ITRF2000 at epoch 1997. Thus.3. Both networks formed the new Malaysia Primary Geodetic Network 2000 (MPGN2000) and were strengthened by connecting them to the MASS network. i.0 is between 9 to 15 mm in the horizontal component and between 12 to 19 mm in vertical component. The outcome defines a new Malaysia Primary Geodetic Network 2000 (MPGN2000) for the whole of Malaysia (Figure 9) based on the GDM2000 reference frame. 4. JUPEM carried out further efforts to transform the PMGSN94 and EMGSN97 networks into the newly adopted datum.0 were transformed to the same epoch as the adjusted MASS station coordinates. This was achieved by carrying out GPS campaigns to re-observe thirty-six (36) stations of PMGSN94 in 2000 and thirty (30) stations of EMGSN in 2002 for a period of 48 hours to form the strengthening network (Figures 7 and 8).2.4 In the heavily constrained adjustment.1 Following the availability of MASS network in GDM2000 coordinates. From the free network adjustment.4. the coordinates of the heavily constrained adjustment was adopted as the final coordinates in ITRF2000 at epoch 2 January 2000. 14 . a specific reference frame in ITRF2000 was adopted and results indicated that the accuracy of station coordinates is between 3 to 16 mm in the horizontal component and between 8 to 13 mm for the vertical component. 4. ITRF 2000 at epoch 2000.2. the resulting accuracy of the MASS stations with respect to the ITRF2000 reference frame at epoch 2000.3 MALAYSIAN PRIMARY GEODETIC NETWORK 2000 (MPGN2000) 4.00.e.
50 GP06 KTPK GP24 GP21 GP98 GP36 GP37 3.50 Figure 7: Link Stations Distribution in Peninsular Malaysia 15 .50 GP50 UTMJ GP52 103.50 GP47 Mass Station 2.4.00 M331 GP84 GP58 GP54 Main Station 1.00 GP02 3.00 P297 P247 P310 KUAL P244 P238 5. referred to the ITRF2000 Epoch 1 Jan 2000.50 Check Station 100.00 100.50 P219 P258 GP28 GP32 KUAN 4.00 103.00 P281 P263 P274 P213 P102 IPOH P221 P229 P255 4.00 99.00 101.50 P299 P298 GETI 6.00 102. ARAU 6.50 104.00 GP18 GP43 2.50 P290 USMP 5. The accuracy of stations in horizontal and vertical components is less than 14 mm. which conform to GDM2000.3.50 102. The adjustment of the MPGN2000 using the old vectors has eventually achieved the primary target of obtaining 3 cm accuracy station coordinate.50 101.2 Heavily constrained adjustment with MASS stations held fixed was made to adjust the observed baseline vectors and obtain the link station’s coordinates.
7.00 T021 1009 Kuch 2011 9900 7080 7086 1.00 D006 M202 D005 6.00 114.00 116.00 T006 Latitude Miri T001 MASS Station 4.00 111.00 3046 Bint T041 4114 7083 2.00 Longitude Figure 8: Link Stations Distribution in East Malaysia 6 Latitude 4 2 100 102 104 106 108 110 112 114 116 118 120 Longitude Figure 9: MPGN2000 Stations in Peninsular Malaysia.00 119.00 118.00 Kina M111 T112 M309 M305 M302 Sand M424 M416 Labu T 004 M503 5.00 115.00 113. Sabah & Sarawak 16 .00 112.00 117.00 M509 M405 M410 Tawa Main Station 4242 T008 4119 Check Station 3.00 110.00 109.00 120.
17 .2 By the end of 2008.3 The central facility at JUPEM headquarters in Kuala Lumpur continuously gathers the information from GPS receivers at all MyRTKnet stations and creates a living database of regional area corrections. situated at JUPEM headquarters in Kuala Lumpur (Figures 11 and 12).1 Beginning 2002.4 MALAYSIA REAL-TIME KINEMATIC GNSS NETWORK (MyRTKnet) 4. 4. apart from fourteen (14) stations each covering Sabah and Sarawak.4. antenna.4. With MyRTKnet. Malaysia has seventy-eight (78) RTK reference stations for the network with fifty (50) stations covering the whole Peninsular Malaysia.4. It also models the spatial errors that limit GPS accuracy through a network solution and in turn generates corrections for the roving GPS users to be positioned anywhere inside the network with an accuracy better than a few centimetres to a few decimetres in real-time. The spacing between stations ranges from 30 to 100 km. A web site is also available to enable downloading of GPS data for postprocessing solutions. 4. MyRTKnet is based on a network of GPS reference stations continuously connected via tele-communication network to the control centre.4. power supply and modem to communicate with the central facility via Internet Protocol Virtual Private Network (IPVPN) communication infrastructure. Each station is equipped with either a Trimble 5700 or a NetR5 GPS receiver. a virtual reference station will be established for any single roving GPS user near the survey area. JUPEM has established a network known as the Malaysia Real-Time Kinematic GNSS Network or MyRTKnet that uses a new generation of RTK solution known as Virtual Reference Station (VRS).
50 UUMK ARAU LGKW TOKA GETI PASP KRAI SETI KUAL TERI LASA GMUS MUKH 6.00 104.00 MIRI LAWS TENM DATU TAWA SEMP Latitude MRDI 4.00 100.00 117.00 119.00 110.50 105.00 MUKH SIB1 2.00 7.7.00 SIK1 SGPT USMP BABH GRIK AYER 5.00 109.00 111.00 113.00 118.00 SERA KAPI BELA NIAH 0.00 102.00 SAND 5.00 MERU UPMSKLAW BANT BAHA PDIC SEG1 JUML MUAD KROM MERS GAJA PRTS SPGR JHJY TGRH 2.50 2.50 PUPK 4.50 101.00 Longitude Figure 11: MyRTKnet Stations in Peninsular Malaysia 8.00 SEMA UMAS AMAN TEBE 1.00 Longitude Figure 12: MyRTKnet Stations in East Malaysia 18 .50 TGPG 104.00 BIN1 3.00 112.00 114.00 1.50 102.50 3.00 99.00 115.50 100.50 5.00 KUKP 103.00 Latitude 4.00 101.00 KUDA MRDU BELU UMSS RANA TMBN LAB1 BEAU KENI 6.00 116.00 6.00 120.50 99.00 PUSI CAME LIPI JRNT BEHR BENT TLOH SRIJ PEKN CENE TLKI SBKB 3.50 103.
the results from 2005 and 2007 earthquakes indicate displacements of between 1. occurring predominantly in the south-west direction. 5.0 to 6. REVISION OF GDM2000 5.1. Similarly.0 to 3 cm respectively. 14 and 15 show the displacements of MyRTKnet stations associated with the co-seismic motions from the 26 December 2004. 5.9 on the Richter scale respectively. Results indicate that the displacement of MyRTKnet stations due to the co-seismic motion from the 2004 earthquake in Sumatra was between 1.1.7 and 7. also in the south-west direction.1 On 26 December 2004. 5. When these natural catastrophes occurred. Indonesia with magnitude 9. The post-seismic motion is the most difficult to model and the task can only be made after the velocity and the rotating pole of the motion have been determined.4 Figures 13.5 to 17 cm. 8. 2005 AND 2007 5.1 MAJOR SUMATRAN EARTHQUAKES IN 2004.5. 19 . 28 March 2005 and 12 September 2007 Sumatran earthquakes respectively. c) Post-seismic motion: earth movement after the earthquake.2. three major earthquakes occurred in Sumatra.5 cm and 1.1.1. 28 March 2005 and 12 September 2007.3 The co-seismic motion was deduced by comparing the coordinates of MyRTKnet stations computed using GPS data during the first week before the earthquake with those during the second week after the event. earth movement at the time of earthquake.2 The earlier two aforementioned earthquakes have generated motions and caused significant displacements to the geodetic infrastructures in Malaysia which need to be modelled. three types of motions were generated: a) Pre-seismic motion: b) Co-seismic motion: earth movement before the earthquake.
Figure 13: Co-seismic motion during the 26 December 2004 earthquake Figure 14: Co-seismic motion during the 28 March 2005 earthquake 20 .
thus indicating a possible return to the effect of tectonic plate motion.6 Further computation of MyRTKnet station coordinates for the years 2006.5 Consecutively. 2007. Results indicate that the MyRTKnet stations had experienced post-seismic motion from the two earlier Sumatran earthquakes and moving at a rate of about 8 cm/year in the south-west direction.1. the rate of the post-seismic motion was also deduced. 2008 and 2009 show that their displacement vectors from the post-seismic motions continuously demonstrate an anticlockwise rotation.Figure 15: Co-seismic motion during the 12 September 2007 earthquake 5. 17 and 18. 5.1. This was carried out by comparing the GDM2000 coordinates of MyRTKnet stations with those computed after the 2005 earthquake using GPS data from April to December 2005. 21 . These yearly post-seismic motions for the years 2006 to 2008 are illustrated in Figures 16.
Figure 16: Post-seismic motion in 2006 Figure 17: Post-seismic motion in 2007 (January to August) 22 .
2005 and 2007 Sumatran earthquakes.8 cm. were significant. their GDM2000 coordinates cannot be further utilised for high precision survey and that they need to be revised.7 The accumulated displacement of MyRTKnet stations from 26 December 2004 until 30 April 2009 is shown in Figure 19. it can be concluded that the resultant displacement of MyRTKnet stations.Figure 18: Post-seismic motion in 2008 5.8 From the magnitude of the displacements. which range from 1. the GDM2000 coordinates of MyRTKnet stations in Sabah and Sarawak were held fixed. Consequently. as the displacement of the coordinates in Sabah and Sarawak were found to be very minimal.1.0 to 25. as a result of the co-seismic and post-seismic motions associated with the 2004. 5. In carrying out data adjustments. 23 .1.
5. Comparison with the original GDM2000 coordinates was then carried out using three parameter Helmert 24 .00 using published velocity models. These IGS stations which are in ITRF2005 at epoch 2007.67 were then brought to ITRF2000 at epoch 2000.2.2 MyRTKnet IN GDM2000 (2009) 5.1 GPS data from seventy-eight (78) MyRTKnet stations and fifty-six (56) IGS stations in ITRF2005 from 1 January 2006 to 30 April 2009 as well as GPS data from an observation campaign conducted in January 2009 on three (3) MASS stations (KUCH.2 Subsequently. only thirty-three (33) IGS stations were used as fiducial points in the processing to obtain the MyRTKnet set of station coordinates. the combined adjustment for the aforementioned data was fixed at epoch 1 January 2000 and the resulting coordinates named as GDM2000 (2009). BINT and KINA) were used in the data processing to re-establish the zero order geodetic network. in the case of Sabah and Sarawak.2. However.Figure 19: Accumulated displacement of MyRTKnet stations from 26 December 2004 to 30 April 2009 5.
it is necessary to firstly ascertain the thirty-six (36) link stations between PMGSN94 and MASS (refer to Section 4. the next step taken is to perform the adjustment using the GPS vectors of the remaining PMGSN94 stations. KINA and MIRI) were less than one (1) cm in the north and east as well as in the height components. the displacements also differ from one station to another. BINT. used the 2009 data and employed the original GDM2000 reference frame as the reference by holding the coordinates of the four (4) aforementioned reference stations fixed.3 The final combined adjustment. 5. With the link stations in GDM2000 (2009).transformation process and results indicate that the RMS fitting for the coordinates of four (4) reference stations (KUCH. 5. In order to establish MPGN2000 with GDM2000 (2009) coordinates. In addition. With this adjustment. the resulting coordinates of the MyRTKnet stations were obtained and are labelled as GDM2000 (2009). Thus. involving MyRTKnet and MASS stations only.2). by fixing them to the GDM2000 (2009) coordinates of the MASS stations.3.3 MPGN2000 IN GDM2000 (2009) 5.1 Apart from producing MyRTKnet stations in GDM2000 (2009) coordinates. any type of modelling of the actual displacement 25 .2. similar efforts were also made for the MPGN2000 stations. Similar process is carried out for EMGSN97 using thirty (30) link stations (refer to Section 4. Other stations saw large displacements which were possibly caused by the earthquakes or seasonal environmental effects. 5.2 Results indicate that the coordinate displacement of the MPGN2000 network in Peninsular Malaysia is not linear and displays elastic properties.3.1) in GDM2000 (2009). This approach requires adjustment to be performed using the October to November 2000 GPS vectors of those link stations and ten (10) MASS stations.3.3.
2 The GDM2000 supersedes the classical geodetic datums in Malaysia and has been established with respect to a geocentric reference frame defined in ITRF system at ITRF2000 epoch 2 January 2000 at an accuracy of 1 cm. In order to validate the accuracy of the multiple regression model. 26 . On the other hand. These new networks will facilitate the development and enhancement of various surveying and mapping activities and meet the requirements of all types of users. This new GDM2000 (2009) would be continuously maintained and managed through the use of MyRTKnet permanent tracking stations to ensure the availability of a highly accurate. 6. As an alternative. ranging from the novice to the scientists. homogeneous and up-to-date datum for Malaysia. CONCLUSION 6. GPS observations were carried out at selected MPGN2000 stations and results showed that the coordinates of MPGN2000 in GDM2000 (2009) stations are at cm-level accuracy. a multiple regression model was subsequently produced to provide a relationship between the MPGN2000 in GDM2000 and MPGN2000 in GDM2000 (2009). the new GDM2000 (2009) coordinates have taken into account the displacements and movements resulting from the Sumatran earthquakes in 2004.needs a long period of monitoring in order to produce precise parameters. 2005 and 2007. 6.1 JUPEM has successfully established both active and passive GNSS networks to replace the old triangulation networks in Malaysia. with the reference frame and epoch maintained.
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