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# Ministry Of Higher Education

## And Scientific Research

University Of Anbar
Department Of Electrical Engineering

## Senior Project Report Submitted to the Department of

Electrical Engineering in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Bachelor Degree of Science in Electrical
Engineering

By

## 3-Mustafa Othman Hameed

Supervised by

Yasir A.AhmeD
List of Contents
Subject page

List of Contents I

## Chapter One: General introduction

1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Aim of work 2
1.3 Outline of thesis 2

2.1 Introduction 4
2.2 Material 4
2.3 Types of Electrical Insulator 8
2.4 Potential Distribution over Suspension Insulator String 12
2.5 String Efficiency 13

## Chapter Three: Result and Calculation

3.1 Introduction 16
3.2 Equivalent Circuit 18
3.3 Result 20
3.4 Conclusions 22
3.5 Experiment 23

References 27

I
‫اعوذ باهلل السميع العليم من الشيطان الرجيم‬

## ‫(يرفع هللا الذين آمنوا منكم‬

‫والذين أوتوا العلم درجات‬
‫وهللا بما تعملون خبير)‬
‫المجادلة ‪11‬‬
Acknowledgements
Thanks to Allah for his bless we could
complete our research. My supervisor , Yasir
A.Ahmed, thank you for given us opportunity
to complete my thesis your continuous passion
and desire to guide us throughout the year in
this Final Year project are highly appreciated.
Lastly, a special thanks to all our family
members, especially father and mother for
their encouragement and support which had
given us. Not forgotten our brothers and
strength to finish up the Final Year Project
successfully.

Thank you
Abstract

## Insulators are used in overhead transmission lines to achieve two

purposes: the first is to carry the electrical conductors. This requires a
mechanical force to ensure this and the second for the purpose of securing
a safe electrical insulation between the electrical conductors and the high
pressure towers. The design and selection of the required insulators
require special calculations after the completion of the electrical circuit
equivalent to the required insulation and then the way to improve the
efficiency of these insulators. In this work, a training board was designed
for the students of the Department of Electrical Engineering to train them
to complete the electrical circuit equivalent to the insulators and study
their properties and measuring voltages on each part of it and calculate
efficiency in any way. This will help the students to stand up to all these
procedures in practice. A practical experiment has been developed for
laboratory testing

‫تستعمل العوازل في خطوط الضغط العالي لتحقيق غرضين هما االول حمل الموصالت‬
‫الكهربائية وهذا يتطلب قوة ميكانيكية تكفل ذلك والثاني لغرض تامين عزل كهربائي آمن بين‬
‫ ان تصميم واختيار العوازل الالزمة تتطلب‬.‫الموصالت الكهربائية وابراج الضغط العالي‬
‫حسابات خاصة بعد انجاز الدائرة الكهربائية المكافئة للعازل المطلوب ومن ثم طريق تحسين‬
‫ في هذا العمل تم تصميم وتجميع لوحة تدريبية لطلبة قسم الهندسة الكهربائية‬.‫كفاءة هذه العوازل‬
‫لتدريبهم على انجاز الدائرة الكهربائية المكافئة للعوازل ودراسة خواصها وقياس الفولتيات على‬
‫ وهذا مم سيساعد الطلبة على للوقوف‬. ‫كل جزء من اجزاءها وحساب الكفاءة عند اي طريقة‬
‫ كما تم اعداد تجربة عملية لغرض اجراء التجربة مختبريا‬.‫عمليا على جميع هذه االجراءات‬
Chapter One
General Introduction
1.1 Introduction
An electrical insulator is a material whose internal electric charges do not
flow freely, and therefore make it nearly impossible to conduct an electric
current under the influence of an electric field. This contrasts with other
materials, semiconductors and conductors, which conduct electric current
more easily. The property that distinguishes an insulator is its resistivity;
insulators have higher resistivity than semiconductors or conductors.A
perfect insulator does not exist, because even insulators contain small
numbers of mobile charges (charge carriers) which can carry current. In
addition, all insulators become electrically conductive when a sufficiently
large voltage is applied that the electric field tears electrons away from
the atoms. This is known as the breakdown voltage of an insulator. Some
materials such as glass, paper and Teflon, which have high resistivity, are
very good electrical insulators. A much larger class of materials, even
though they may have lower bulk resistivity, are still good enough to
prevent significant current from flowing at normally used voltages, and
thus are employed as insulation for electrical wiring and cables Examples
include rubber-like polymers and most plastics. Insulators are used in
electrical equipment to support and separate electrical conductors without
allowing current through themselves. An insulating material used in bulk
to wrap electrical cables or other equipment is called insulation. The term
insulator is also used more specifically to refer to insulating supports used
to attach electric power distribution or transmission lines to utility poles
and transmission towers. They support the weight of the suspended wires
without allowing the current to flow through the tower to ground
.Insulator strings are widely used in power systems for the dual task of
mechanically supporting and electrically isolating the live phase
conductors from the support tower. This is due to their high mechanical
strength, easy installation and operation, and low cost. The number of
units of an insulator string depends on several factors such as operation
voltage, mechanical strength, sea level (of alignment), lightning strength,
and contamination level of the environment. Due to the coupling
capacitance between disc insulators and conductors around them, the

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potential distribution of insulator string is uneven greatly. The voltage
and electric field on the insulators near wires is three to five times greater
than others, which may easily lead to corona, insulators’ surface
deterioration and even flashover. And these problems will seriously affect
the operation safety of transmission lines. So the calculation of the
electric field and voltage distribution in and around high voltage
insulators is a very important factor in the design of the insulators.
Furthermore, the knowledge of the electric field is useful for the detection
of defects in insulators.The overhead line conductors should be supported
on the poles or towers in such a way that currents from conductors do not
flow to earth through supports i.e., line conductors must be properly
insulated from supports .This is achieved by securing line conductors to
supports with the help of insulators. [1][2][3]
The insulators provide necessary insulation between line conductors and
supports and thus prevent any leakage current from conductors to earth.
*The function of the insulators are:
1- Insulate the conductors from each other and from the towers under
highest voltage and under bad air estimate circumstance
2-Carry the conductors under the bad estimate mechanical stresses
1.2 Aim Of Work
The main aim of the project included at several points:
1. Designing a laboratory panel to use in electrical power lab, for it
doesn't exist in the university laboratories.
2. Training the students on this device to simulate the electrical insulator

## 1.3 Outline Of Thesis

Our project included a number of chapters and each of the separation
contains a number of concepts.
Chapter One: it contains a general introduction of the insulators as well as
it ensures the basic objective of the project and an Outline of thesis
Chapter two: one of the most important chapters dealing with the topics
of basic insulation and illusions are substances that insulators and the
importance of every kind made of them by article made of them, as well
as the general classification Insulation Insulation according to where they
are used. Turning this chapter to how the distribution of voltages on
insulators and efficient manner and methods of calculating happen
improve time through this chapter shows that it is possible

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representation insulators for power transmission lines in the form of
capacitors to facilitate study.

Chapter three: Contains the contents and details of each part in the
laboratory board. Experimenting a practical experience to calculate the
efficiency of the insulators and compare them with the actual values in
the case of the presence and non-use of the guard ring insulator

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Chapter Two

2.1 Introduction
Insulator strings are widely used in power systems for the dual task of
mechanically supporting and electrically isolating the live phase
conductors from the support tower. This is due to their high mechanical
strength, easy installation and operation, and low cost. The number of
units of an insulator string depends on several factors such as operation
voltage, mechanical strength, sea level (of alignment), lightning strength,
and contamination level of the environment. [7]
Due to the coupling capacitance between disc insulators and conductors
around them, the potential distribution of insulator string is uneven
greatly. The voltage and electric field on the insulators near wires is three
to five times greater than others, which may easily lead to corona,
insulators’ surface deterioration and even flashover. And these problems
will seriously affect the operation safety of transmission lines. So the
calculation of the electric field and voltage distribution in and around
high voltage insulators is a very important factor in the design of the
insulators. Furthermore, the knowledge of the electric field is useful for
the detection of defects in insulators. [1]

2.2 Material
Insulators used for high-voltage power transmission are made from glass,
porcelain or composite polymer materials. Porcelain insulators are made
from clay, quartz or alumina and feldspar, and are covered with a smooth
glaze to shed water. Insulators made from porcelain rich in alumina are
used where high mechanical strength is a criterion. Porcelain has a
dielectric strength of about 4–10 kV/mm.[1] Glass has a higher dielectric
strength, but it attracts condensation and the thick irregular shapes needed
for insulators are difficult to cast without internal strains.[2] Some
insulator manufacturers stopped making glass insulators in the late 1960s,
switching to ceramic materials. Recently, some electric utilities have
begun converting to polymer composite materials for some types of

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insulators. These are typically composed of a central rod made of fibre
reinforced plastic and an outer weather shed made of silicone rubber or
ethylene propylene diene monomer rubber (EPDM). Composite insulators
are less costly, lighter in weight, and have excellent hydrophobic
capability. This combination makes them ideal for service in polluted
areas. However, these materials do not yet have the long-term proven
service life of glass and porcelain. [13]

## 2.2.1 Properties of Insulating Material

The materials generally used for insulating purpose is called insulating
material. For successful utilization, this material should have some
specific properties as listed below [12]

## 1. It must be mechanically strong enough to carry tension and weight of

conductors.
2. It must have very high dielectric strength to withstand the voltage
stresses in High Voltage system.
3. It must possesses high Insulation Resistance to prevent leakage current
to the earth.
4. The insulating material must be free from unwanted impurities.
5. It should not be porous.
6. There must not be any entrance on the surface of electrical insulator so
that the moisture or gases can enter in it.
7. There physical as well as electrical properties must be less effected by
8. changing temperature.[4][10]
2.2.2 Sections insulators for the material, which makes them
2.2.2.1 Porcelain Insulator

## Fig (2.1) Porcelain Insulator

porcelain in most commonly used material for overhead insulator in
present days. The porcelain is aluminum silicate. The aluminum silicate is
mixed with plastic kaolin, feldspar and quartz to obtain final hard and

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glazed porcelain insulator material. The surface of the insulator should be
glazed enough so that water should not be traced on it. Porcelain also
should be free from porosity since porosity is the main cause of
deterioration of its dielectric property. It must also be free from any
impurity and air bubble inside the material which may affect the insulator
properties. [6]

## Table (2.2) Properties of Porcelain Insulator

Property Value(Approximate)

Dielectric Straight 60 KV / cm

## 2.2.2.2 Glass Insulator

Now day's glass insulator has become popular in transmission and
distribution system. Annealed tough glass is used for insulating purpose.
Glass insulator has numbers of advantages over conventional porcelain
insulator. [3]

## Fig (2.2) Glass Insulator

1. It has very high dielectric strength compared to porcelain.
Its resistivity is also very high.
2. It has low coefficient of thermal expansion.
3. It has higher tensile strength compared to porcelain insulator.

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4. As it is transparent in nature theis not heated up in sunlight as
porcelain.
5. The impurities and air bubble can be easily detected inside the glass
insulator body because of its transparency.
6. Glass has very long service life as because mechanical and electrical
properties of glass do not be affected by ageing.
8. After all, glass is cheaper than porcelain.

1. Moisture can easily condensed on glass surface and hence air dust will
be deposited on the wed glass surface which will provide path to the
leakage current of the system.
2. For higher voltage glass can not be cast in irregular shapes since due to
irregular cooling internal cooling internal strains are caused.

## Table (2.2) Properties of Glass Insulator

Property Value(Approximate)

## Fig (2.3) Polymer Insulator

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In a polymer insulator has two parts, one is glass fiber reinforced epoxy
resin rod shaped core and other is silicone rubber or EPDM (Ethylene
Propylene Diane Monomer) made weather sheds. Rod shaped core is
covered by weather sheds. Weather sheds protect the insulator core from
outside environment. As it is made of two parts, core and weather sheds,
polymer insulator is also called composite insulator. The rod shaped core
is fixed with Hop dip galvanized cast steel made end fittings in both
sides. [6]

1. It is very light weight compared to porcelain and glass insulator.
2. As the composite insulator is flexible the chance of breakage becomes
minimum.
3. Because of lighter in weight and smaller in size, this insulator has lower
installation cost.
4. It has higher tensile strength compared to porcelain insulator.
5. Its performance is better particularly in polluted areas.
6. Due to lighter weight polymer insulator imposes less load to the
supporting structure.
7. Less cleaning is required due to hydrophobic nature of the insulator.

1. Moisture may enter in the core if there is any unwanted gap between
core and weather sheds. This may cause electrical failure of the
insulator.
2. Over crimping in end fittings may result to cracks in the core which
leads to mechanical failure of polymer insulator.
2.3 Types of Electrical Insulator
The successful operation of an overhead line depends to a considerable
extent upon the proper selection of insulators. There are several types of
insulators but the most commonly used are pin type, suspension type,
Strain insulator and shackle insulator.

## 2.3.1 Pin Type Insulators

The part section of a pin type insulator is shown in Fig (2.4) as the
Name suggests, the pin type insulator is secured to the cross-arm on the
pole. There is a groove on the upper end of the insulator for housing the
conductor. The conductor passes through this groove and is bound by the
annealed wire of the same material as the conductor See Fig (2.4)
Pin type insulators are used for transmission and distribution of electric
power at voltages up to 33 kV. Beyond operating voltage of 33 kV, the

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pin type insulators become too bulky and hence uneconomical as in fig
(2.5)

Fig (2.4) Pin type insulators Fig (2.5) Pin type insulators

## 2.3.2. Suspension Insulator.

The cost of pin type insulator increases rapidly as the working voltage is
increased. Therefore, this type of insulator is not economical beyond 33
kV. For high voltages (>33 kV), it is a usual practice to use suspension
type insulators shown in Fig(2.6) They consist of a number of porcelain
discs connected in series by metal links in the form of a string. The
conductor is suspended at the bottom end of this string while the other
end of the string is secured to the cross-arm of the tower. Each unit or
disc is designed for low voltage, say 11 kV. The number of discs in series
would obviously depend upon the working voltage. For instance, if the
working voltage is 66 kV, then six discs in series will be provided on the
string. [12][7]

1. Suspension type insulators are cheaper than pin type insulators for
voltages beyond 33 kV.
2. Each unit or disc of suspension type insulator is designed for low
voltage, usually 11 kV.Depending upon the working voltage, the desired
number of discs can be connected in series.
3. If anyone disc is damaged, the whole string does not become useless
because the damaged disc can be replaced by the sound one.
4. The suspension arrangement provides greater flexibility to the line. The
connection at the cross arm is such that insulator string is free to swing in
any direction and can take up the position where mechanical stresses are
minimum.

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5. In case of increased demand on the transmission line, it is found more
satisfactory to supply the greater demand by raising the line voltage than
to provide another set of conductors. The additional insulation required
for the raised voltage can be easily obtained in the suspension
arrangement by adding the desired number of discs.
6. The suspension type insulators are generally used with steel towers. As
the conductors run below the earthed cross-arm of the tower, therefore,
this arrangement provides partial protection from lightning.[9]

## Rated System Voltage Number of disc insulator used in

suspension insulator string
33kv 3
66kv 4
132kv 8
220kv 14

## 2.3.3 Strain insulators

When there is a dead end of the line or there is corner or sharp curve, the
line is subjected to greater tension. In order to relieve the line of
excessive tension, strain insulators are used. For low voltage lines (<
11 kV), shackle insulators are used as strain insulators. However,
for high voltage transmission lines, strain insulator consists of an
assembly of suspension insulators as shown in Fig(2.7) The discs of strain
insulators are used in the vertical plane. When the tension in
lines is exceedingly high, as at long river spans, two or more strings are
used in parallel. [12]

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Fig (2.7) Strain insulators

## Table (2.4) Properties of Strain insulators

Rated System Voltage Number of disc insulator used in
strain type tension insulator string
33kv 3
66kv 5
132kv 9
220kv 15

## 2.3.4 Shackle insulators

In early days, the shackle insulators were used as strain insulators as in
fig (2.8). But now a days, they are frequently used for low voltage
distribution lines. Such insulators can be used either in a horizontal
position or in a vertical position. They can be directly fixed to the pole
with a bolt or to the cross arm. Fig (8.9) shows a shackle insulator fixed
to the pole. The conductor in the groove is fixed with a soft binding wire.
[1][5]

## Fig 2.8 Strain insulators

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2.4 Potential Distribution Over Suspension Insulator String.
A string of suspension insulators consists of a number of porcelain discs
connected in series through metallic links. Fig. 1.8(i) shows 3-disc string
of suspension insulators. The porcelain portion of each disc is in between
two metal links. Therefore, each disc forms a capacitor C as shown in
Fig.1.8 (ii). This is known as mutual capacitance or self-capacitance. If
there were mutual capacitance alone, then charging current would have
been the same through all the discs and consequently voltage across each
unit would have been the same i.e., V/3 as shown in Fig. 1.8 (ii).
However, in actual practice, capacitance also exists between metal fitting
of each disc and tower or earth. This is known as shunt capacitance C1.
Due to shunt capacitance, charging current is not the same through all the
discs of the string See Fig 2.9(iii). Therefore, voltage across each disc
will be different. Obviously,
the disc nearest to the line conductor will have the maximum* voltage.
Thus referring to Fig.2.9 (iii), V3 will be much more than V2 or V1.

## The following points may be noted regarding the potential distribution

over a string of suspension insulators:
1. The voltage impressed on a string of suspension insulators does not
distribute itself uniformly
across the individual discs due to the presence of shunt capacitance.

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2. The disc nearest to the conductor has maximum voltage across it. As
we move towards the cross-arm, the voltage across each disc goes on
decreasing.
3. The unit nearest to the conductor is under maximum electrical stress
and is likely to be punctured. Therefore, means must be provided to
equalise the potential across each unit.
4. If the voltage impressed across the string were d.c then voltage across
each unit would be the same. It is because insulator capacitances are
ineffective for d.c.

## 2.5 String Efficiency

As stated above, the voltage applied across the string of suspension
insulators is not uniformly distributed across various units or discs. The
disc nearest to the conductor has much higher potential than the other
discs. This unequal potential distribution is undesirable and is usually
expressed in terms of string efficiency .The ratio of voltage across the
whole string to the product of number of discs and the voltage across the
disc nearest to the conductor is known as string efficiency i.e.
Voltage across the string
String efficiency(𝜂) =
𝑛 × Voltage across disc nearest to conductor
where n = number of discs in the string.
String efficiency is an important consideration since it decides the
potential distribution along the string. The greater the string efficiency,
the more uniform is the voltage distribution. Thus 100%
string efficiency is an ideal case for which the voltage across each disc
will be exactly the same. Although it is impossible to achieve 100%
string efficiency, yet efforts should be made to improve it as close to this
value as possible.

## 2.5.1 Methods Of Improving String Efficiency

It has been seen above that potential distribution in a string of suspension
insulators is not uniform. The maximum voltage appears across the
insulator nearest to the line conductor and decreases progressively as the
cross arm is approached. If the insulation of the highest stressed insulator
(i.e. nearest to conductor) breaks down or flash over takes place, the
breakdown of other units will take place in succession. This necessitates

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to equalize the potential across the various units of the string i.e. to
improve the string efficiency.

## 2.4.1.1 By using longer cross-arms.

The value of string efficiency depends upon the value of K as in fig (1.9)
i.e., ratio of shunt capacitance to mutual capacitance. The lesser the value
of K, the greater is the string efficiency and more uniform is the voltage
distribution. The value of K can be decreased by reducing the shunt
capacitance. In order to reduce shunt capacitance, the distance of
conductor from tower must be increased i.e., longer cross-arms should be
used. However, limitations of cost and strength of tower do not allow the
use of very long cross-arms. In practice, K = 0·1 is the limit that can be
achieved by this method.

## 2.5.1.2 By grading the insulators.

In this method, insulators of different dimensions are so chosen that each
has a different capacitance. The insulators are capacitance graded i.e. they
are assembled in the string in such a way that the top unit has the
minimum capacitance, increasing progressively as the bottom unit (i.e.,
nearest to conductor) is reached. Since voltage is inversely proportional to
capacitance, this method tends to equalize the potential distribution across
the units in the string. This method has the disadvantage that a large
number of different-sized insulators are required. However, good results
can be obtained by using standard insulators for most of the string and
larger units for that near to the line conductor.[5]

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2.5.1.3 By Using a Guard Ring.
The potential across each unit in a string can be equalized by using
a guard ring which is a metal ring electrically connected to the conductor
and surrounding the bottom insulator as shown in the Fig (2.10) The
guard ring introduces capacitance be.[9]

## Fig.2.11. guard ring

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Chapter three
Result and Calculation
3.1 Introduction

## A laboratory lab was designed to train students on the specifications of

insulators for power transmission lines, the painting was composed as
follows

3.1.1 BOARD

## The board is made of aluminum material and has the appropriate

measurements as shown below in the form

## Fig (3.1) Board dimensions

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The board contains many of the most important things

3.1.1.1 Capacitors

## This type of electronic component was used to represent the insulators as

each disc of the insulators was represented by one capacitor .Three types
of condoms were used in the project

## 3.1.1.1.1 Self Capacitors

Represents the number of real disks for insulation it was selected with a
scale of 100nf which is represented by the value of c as in figure (3.2)

## 3.1.1.1.2 Shunt Capacitors

The capacitors formed by the earth represent 10% of the value of the
main expansions .Which is equivalent to the value of c1 as in Fig (3.2)

## 3.1.1.1.3 Line Capacitors

They are insulators that are bonded between the main insulator and the
line which is worth 5% of the value of the self capacitors which
represented by the symbol c2 and is as in Fig(3.2)

## Fig (3.2) Types of capacitors use

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3.1.1.2 Transformers

## We have used transformers to obtain different levels of voltages to

determine their effect on insulation efficiency.

## Fig (3.3) Equivalent Circuit

3.2.1 Ideal Circuit

## Fig (3.4) Ideal Circuit

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3.2.2 Shunt circuit

## Fig (3.6) Circuit with Guard Ring

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3.3 Result
When connecting the circuit to four discs of insulator we will observe
actual measurements as well as laboratory measurements
3.3.1 Result With Out Guard Ring
At first we connect the insulator without the guard isolator and calculate
3.3.1.1 Actual Measurements

𝑉1 = 21.3𝑣
𝑉2 = 23.5𝑣
𝑉3 = 28𝑣
𝑉4 = 35.25𝑣

## Fig (3.6) Actual Circuit

𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑡𝑎𝑔𝑒 𝑎𝑐𝑟𝑜𝑠𝑠 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔
𝐸𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑦 𝜂= × 100
𝑛 × 𝑤𝑜𝑟𝑘𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑡𝑎𝑔𝑒 𝑎𝑐𝑟𝑜𝑠𝑠 𝑏𝑜𝑡𝑡𝑜𝑛 𝑢𝑛𝑖𝑡
108
𝜂= × 100% = 76.635%
4 × 35.25

Voltages values

𝑉1 21.62v

𝑽𝟐 23.54v

𝑽𝟑 27.83v

𝑉4 34.73

𝜂 𝟏𝟎𝟖
× 𝟏𝟎𝟎% = 𝟕𝟕. 𝟕𝟒%
𝟒 × 𝟑𝟒. 𝟕𝟑

## Fig (3.7) Laboratory Circuit

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3.3.2 Result With Guard Ring
After connecting the guard ring insulator, and calculate both actual and
laboratory measurements. We will notice after connecting the insulator
the guard that the efficiency will increase
3.3.2.1 Actual Measurements

𝑉1 = 34.3𝑣
𝑉2 = 21.2𝑣
𝑉3 = 21𝑣
𝑉4 = 31.5𝑣

## 𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑡𝑎𝑔𝑒 𝑎𝑐𝑟𝑜𝑠𝑠 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔

𝐸𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑦 𝜂= × 100
𝑛 × 𝑤𝑜𝑟𝑘𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑡𝑎𝑔𝑒 𝑎𝑐𝑟𝑜𝑠𝑠 𝑏𝑜𝑡𝑡𝑜𝑛 𝑢𝑛𝑖𝑡
108
𝜂= × 100% = 85.7%
4 × 31

Voltages values

𝑉1 34.5v

𝑽𝟐 21.3v

𝑽𝟑 20.7v

𝑉4 31.85

𝜂 𝟏𝟎𝟖
× 𝟏𝟎𝟎% = 𝟖𝟒. 𝟕%
𝟒 × 𝟑𝟏. 𝟖𝟓

## Fig (3.9) Laboratory circuit

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3.4 Conclusions
When experimenting and calculating laboratory values, we found a small
difference between theoretical values and laboratory values where the
value of laboratory efficiency (77.74%) and theoretical value (76.635%)
after the use of the guard buffer was the laboratory values (84.7%) and
the theoretical value (85.7% ) Through the results in both cases we
observed increased efficiency when using the guard isolator and this is
required

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3.5 Experiment
Voltage Distribution on the Insulators of Overhead
Transmission Line Towers
Object: the object of this experiment is to teach the student how to
calculate the distribution of voltages on the insulators of overhead
transmission line towers.
Theory: The function of insulators is to support the conductor on towers
or poles while keeping safe electrical insulations. Insulators are
mechanically strong and electrically no conducting under worst weather
conditions.
Electrically each disk of suspension insulator can be represented as a
capacitance. Under normal conditions, the string can be represented as a
capacitance unites in series. The voltage across each similar disk will be
uniform. But because of the presence of tower metal parts in the vicinity
the voltage distribution becomes non uniform.

In general 𝑖 = 𝑗𝜔𝐶𝑉

## This technique will be applied on (n) insulators as shown in the figure

below

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Apply Kirchhoff law at point A

𝑖2 = 𝐼1 + 𝑖1

## 𝑗𝜔𝐶𝑉2 = 𝑗𝜔 𝐾𝐶𝑉1 + 𝑗𝜔𝐶𝑉1

𝑉2 = (1 + 𝐾) 𝑉1 ……..(1)

## Apply Kirchhoff law at point B

𝑖3 = 𝐼2 + 𝑖2

𝑉3 = (1 + 3𝐾 + 𝐾 2 ) 𝑉1 ……..(2)

## On the same way

𝑉4 = (1 + 6𝐾 + 5𝐾 2 + 𝐾 3 ) 𝑉1

## This will be done until we reach the last one 𝑉𝑛

𝑉 = 𝑉1 + 𝑉2 + 𝑉3 + 𝑉4 + ⋯ … . . +𝑉𝑛
𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑡𝑎𝑔𝑒 𝑎𝑐𝑟𝑜𝑠𝑠 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔
𝐸𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑦 𝜂= × 100
𝑛 × 𝑤𝑜𝑟𝑘𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑡𝑎𝑔𝑒 𝑎𝑐𝑟𝑜𝑠𝑠 𝑏𝑜𝑡𝑡𝑜𝑛 𝑢𝑛𝑖𝑡

Procedure:

## 1- Measure the voltage across each capacitor by means of voltmeter

without the effect of the tower material.

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2- Measure the voltage across each capacitor by means of voltmeter
take into account the effect of the tower material.
3- Measure the voltage across each capacitor by means of voltmeter
take into account the effect of the tower material and guard ring.
4- Calculate the efficiency in each case.
5- Compare each practical result with the theoretical one.
6- Record the result in the table below.
Voltages Ideal Presence of Presence of theoretical
tower guard ring
𝑉1
𝑉2
𝑉3
𝑉4
𝑉5
𝑉6

## 1- Calculate the string efficiency from the practical results.

2- Calculate theoretically the voltage across each capacitor.
3- Calculate theoretically the string efficiency.
4- Compare between practical and theoretical efficiencies.
5- Compare between the efficiencies with and without using guard
ring.

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