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Competition and technology revolution are among the most certain things

to happen in the TV industry.

Formerly known as Community Antenna Television, or CATV, cable

television was originally developed to enhance poor reception of regular television

signals. Some people prefer cable because it provides unique programming

without some of the content restrictions placed on traditional networks. Because

cable television is a closed system, only subscribers have access to the channels

they choose to watch.

Cable Television (CATV) System is the third book of the Philippine

Electronics Code that covers the design and application, installation, maintenance,

and testing of the cable television system. A Cable TV is designed to serve the

public interest by assurance of delivering quality television signal and value added


The Royal Residence Condominium is a commercial-residential area

located along Rimando Road, going to Aurora Hill, in Baguio City. The building

stands on a total LOT AREA of 515.40 square meters. There are 4 commercial

units and 12 condominium residential dormitory units within the building that give

a total FLOOR AREA of 2,917.62 square meters.

Figure 1. Actual photo of Royal Residences. Front view (right side). Side view (left side)

It is committed to provide and sustain a one-stop shop modern residence

with convenient amenities to its occupants namely; the in-house canteen, laundry

shop, minimart and cafeteria, salon spa, free use of fitness gym and entertainment

room, Wi-Fi-ready units, hot/cold shower, 15-capacity scenic elevator, a parking

space, 24-hour security and CCTV, uninterrupted power and water supply. More

importantly, the building has its own cable-TV ready units.

II. Equipment Functions
The following components and facility were used in the Cable Television

System of Royal Residences.

1. Headend

Figure 2. Cignal TV Headend located at Porac, Angeles City, Pampanga

The CATV headend by Cignal TV is located at Porac, Angeles, Pampanga.

A headend is a server which receives the signal from a satellite that transmits the

microwave signals containing the video and audio signals of different channels

processes them into cable-quality signals, and then distributes them to homes and

cable networks. It can be considered as the master distribution center where

incoming television signals are received, selected, amplified and re-modulated,

and sent for transmission to cable networks.

2. Optical Node

Figure 3. Fiber Optical Node

A fiber optic node has a broadband optical receiver, which converts the

downstream optically modulated signal coming from the headend or hub to an

electrical signal going to the homes. The downstream signal is a RF modulated

signal that typically begins at 50 MHz and ranges from 550–1000 MHz on the upper

end. The fiber optic node also contains a reverse- or return-path transmitter that

sends communication from the home back to the headend. Since Cignal TV uses

different types of Optical Nodes for their operation, it is not possible to determine

the specifications of the said equipment.

3. Trunk Amplifier

Figure 4. Trunk Amplifier

After translating the optical signal to electrical RF signal at the Optical

Node, the signal enters the Trunk Amplifiers. Trunk amplifiers are RF amplifiers

used at intervals to overcome cable attenuation and passive losses of the electrical

signals caused by splitting or "tapping" the coaxial cable. For power source, the

Trunk Amplifier is connected to with a trunk power line so that there would be no

need for an external battery to power it up.

4. Service Entrance Cabinet

The Service Entrance Cabinet is the point

where outside cabling and services interface with

backbone cabling.

Figure 5. Service Entrance Cabinet

5. Tap

Figure 6. 8-port Outdoor Taps

The Service Entrance Cabinet of Royal Residence is installed with two 8-

port outdoor taps. Taps/Multi Taps or Directional Coupler is a passive electronic

device used to distribute television signals. A tap is used to "tap off" a part of the

available signal and send it to a TV or multiple TV's. Taps are directional

(Directional Coupler) to prevent unwanted signals from being fed backwards in a


6. TV Box

Figure 7. Cignal Digital TV Box

TV box, also known as set-top box (STB), is a device that connects a TV to

an external source signal, compressing digital signal into TV content in a form that

can be displayed on the TV screen. TV box receives the images and sounds

provided by analog TV and the digital content which include electronic program

guides, Internet pages, subtitles, etc. It enables users to view digital TV programs

on existing televisions and engage interactive digital entertainment, education and

commercial activity through the network.

7. RG6 Coaxial Cable

Figure 8. RG6 Coaxial Cable

The Royal Residences uses RG6 Coaxial Cables. All of the new demands required

by, satellite signals and broadband internet made it necessary to find a more effective

coaxial cable. RG6 cable was designed to fulfill these requirements. It has a larger

conductor, which gives you much better signal quality. The dielectric insulation was made

thicker as well, which means it is much less likely to carry an electric current that could

damage your sensitive electronics. RG 6 is also made with a different kind of shielding,

which allows it to more effectively handle Ghz level signals.

8. Cable Terminator

Figure 9. COAXMAX5 Cable Terminator for RG6 Cable

Cable Terminator provides the connection of the wire or fiber to a device,

such as equipment, panels or a wall outlet, which allows for connecting the cable to

other cables or devices. It is used to prevent signals from reflecting off the end of

the transmission line. Reflections at the ends of unterminated transmission lines

cause distortion , which can produce ambiguous digital signal levels and

disoperation of digital systems.

III. Equipment Layout
The notes and legends section lists and explains any special symbols and

conventions used on a drawing/illustration. The legends and notes that are used

in the succeeding figures are all found in Figure 10.

Figure 10. Legends and Notes

Figure 11. Cable Line Riser Diagram

The riser diagram of Royal Residences building is shown in Figure 11. A

riser diagram (two-dimensional, in a vertical plane) which shows the major items

of electrical equipment in a building; displays, floor by floor, the feeders and major

items of equipment.

IV. Building Layout
This section contains the different floor plans of the Royal Residences


The basement, shown in figure 12, has seven essential rooms. Upon

entering, the utility and storage room and the music room is seen at the right side

of the stairs. In parallel with these rooms, we can find the fitness center and the

kitchen area. Dining area is seen adjacent to the kitchen area. This area also

serves as a study area for the students who stay on the building. There is a laundry

room wherein they can wash their clothes and bed sheets. Beside this room, the

admin office is installed wherein the manager and the human resource officer

manage and monitor the establishment. The basement has also a parking area or


Figure 12. Basement Floor Plan

As shown in figure 13, the ground floor has two units with ten bedrooms

with toilet and bath in every room. A common living room is also seen in each units.

This floor has also two rentable space for tourists or visitors who wanted to stay

overnight or for days. The admin or information section is located at the entrance

of the ground floor. In each units it has a fire exit located at the end of their

respective hallway.

Figure 13. Ground Floor Plan

For the second to fifth floors, each floor there are two units and each units

has a common living room for entertainment purposes. In one unit, it has twelve

bedrooms with toilet and bath in every room. There is also a fire exit in the end of

the hallway in each unit. The building is equipped with elevator for easier and faster

access in every floor. This can be in figure 14.

Figure 14. Second to Fifth Floor Plan

The sixth floor is shown in figure 15. Like the second to fifth floor, this floor

has also two unit with a common living room. Every unit still have twelve bedrooms

with toilet and bath and a fire exit located at the end of the hallway. Eight bedrooms

are located at the outmost side of the building while at the opposite side it has four

bedrooms. This a common design for every floor of the building.

Figure 15. Sixth Floor Plan

Figure 16 shows the last floor of the building, it has also two units and still

with a common living room located in each unit. Only seven bedrooms are installed

in every unit. These rooms have a private toilet and bath. At the end of the hallway,

fire exits are found to be used in case of emergency.

Figure 16. Attic Floor Plan

The figure below represents the sample interior and design of the units. We

can see that the units are mirrored, which means the two units has the same layout.

This design is common to almost all of the floors of the building.

Figure 17. 3D Model of Royal Residences (Second - Sixth Floor)

V. Violations
This section contains the violations committed by Royal Residences in

opposition to the requirements stated in the third book of the Philippine Electronics

Code (Cable System Television System).


1. There is no Electronic Permit before the work is started.

2. The contents of the plan does not have the Signal Levels in

Tabulated Form, Budget Losses, and Powering.


1. The distance of the Service Entrance Cabinet at its center from the

ground is not 1.5 meters.


1. The Royal residences does not have headend equipment room and

horizontal distribution system within the building.

2. There is no Main Pull Box in the Royal Residences.

VI. Conclusion
The researchers had conducted a visit and made an inspection in Royal

Residences located at Aurora Hill, Baguio City regarding the Cable Television (CATV)

system of the said establishment. It can therefore be concluded that there are still some

rules that the residence has violated as per required in establishing an CATV as

mentioned in the book 3 of the Philippine Electronics Code (PEC).

Cable television has brought some benefits to its subscribers and it has changed

how most viewers watch television. From television antennas to being a community

television supplying few local subscribers having few channels and now to a stable

connection to numerous suppliers and dozens of channels to choose, cable TV has

upgraded to a more consumer-friendly and user-friendly as well.

It was seen in the list of violations that the rules under the general provisions of the

book like no electronic permit and under service entrance facility that the cabinet is not

distanced properly and finally to its system of backbone distribution, a missing main pull

box and no headend equipment rooms are established in the building are some the ones

violated. The rules stated in the book are not just something to be written but also to be

followed because if a technical difficulty will arise due to the violations, then it would be an

annoyance to the tenants or to some people in the establishment. Therefore, it should not

be taken for granted. Given the list of information acquired by the researchers, it can be

said that the Royal Residences’ cable television system has abided most of the rules as

prescribed and required in PEC book 3 and regarding with its violations, it should be

addressed as soon as possible by considering the recommendations mentioned to avoid

problems in the future.

VII. Recommendations

1. The Royal Residences shall obtain Electronics Permit from the Office

of the Local Building Official as stated in the new Electronics

Engineering Law.

2. The Royal Residences should request for a copy of the Signal Levels

in Tabulated Form, Budget Losses, and Powering from the engineer

who made the design.


1. The Royal Residences should move their Service Entrance Cabinet

so that its center from the ground is 1.5 meters.


1. The Royal Residences should have the headend equipment room

beside the Admin Office, so that it will be always monitored.

Regarding the horizontal distribution system, the Royal Residences

can still design as long as they follow the proper instructions.

2. The Royal Residences shall have 1 Main Pull Box placed on the


VIII. Proof of Visit

IX. Appendix
CATV System Checklist
 The TV-Box is installed in a cool, dry location that provides good


 If possible, the TV- LED lights are visible to the user.

 All cables include service loops at the proper bend radius and are strain-

relieved at the back of the TV-Box.

 The supplied 75W RG-6 cable was used to connect the antenna to the

TV-Box. All RF cabling required by the system configuration was

terminated at both ends with the correct “F” connectors using proper tools,

exactly to the manufacturer's specifications. Enter information for any

other RF cable used:

Cable length: NA Cable type used: RG-6 Connectors used: F-Type

 RF cables are strain-relieved, protected from abrasion, and free of stress.

A minimum 4.5" (11.5 cm) bend radius is maintained throughout, and 8"

(20 cm) service loops are present where appropriate.

 All wiring conforms to the system wiring diagrams (and all cables are free

of stress, twists, and kinks (minimum bend radius is maintained

throughout), neatly arranged, protected from abrasion, and labeled at both

ends, as necessary, to identify them easily.

 The TV-Box is hard-wired to a 12 VDC or 24 VDC, 120 W power source,

and the TV-Hub is receiving 10-30 VDC power at its input.

X. References

 Service Entrance ATS. (n.d.). Retrieved April 04, 2018, from

 Horne, G., D., Lar, U., D., W., & J. (2015, October 20). COAXMAX 5-in-1

Multi-Functional Cable Termination Tool. Retrieved April 04, 2018, from Multi-


 CATV Terminators. (n.d.). Retrieved April 04, 2018, from

 RG6 Coaxial Cable. (n.d.). Retrieved April 04, 2018, from