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I n t ern at i o n a l J o u r na l of Ap p l i e d Re s e a rc h 20 16 ; 2( 2) : 73 -75

ISSN Print: 2394-7500 Kuvempu University, Jnana Sahyadri Campus, Shankaraghatta, Shivamogga, Karnataka,
ISSN Online: 2394-5869 India.
Impact Factor: 5.2
IJAR 2016; 2(2): 73-75
com Received: 07-12-
Accepted: 04-01-2016

Venkatesha H
Research Scholar,
of Studies in Economics,
Kuvempu University,
Jnana Sahyadri Campus,
Shivamogga, Karnataka,

Dr. SN Yogish
Professor, Department of
Studies in Economics,
Kuvempu University,
Jnana Sahyadri Campus,
Shivamogga, Karnataka,

Venkatesha H
Research Scholar,
of Studies in Economics,
~ 73 ~
r. Venkatesha H, Dr. S N Yogish
i Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.,) is emerging as one of the important fruits of semiarid and rainfed
g areas. Its cultivation is possible even on marginal degraded lands earlier found as unsuitable for
growing crop. Apart from this, its ability to withstand salinity in soil and water to some extent made
h this crop to emerge as a hardy fruit crop. The present paper found that suitable high-yielding verities of
the crop widely cultivated by Afghanistan, Arabian Peninsula, Bulgaria, China, Cyprus, Greece, India,
- Iran, Israel, Malta, Mexico, Spain, Tunisia, USA and Yugoslavia in the world according to the agro-
climatic conditions of crop.
i Keywords: High-Yielding, Varieties, Pomegranate

e 1. Introduction
The pomegranate is an important and favourite table fruit. To highlight its importance it was
l chosen as a symbol of the 18th International Horticultural Congress held during 1970,
d showing it in a basket. It is commercially grown for its sweet-acidic fruits used for dessert
purposes. It is very much liked for its cool refreshing juice and also valued for its medicinal
i properties. Its popularity is also due to ornamental characters of the tree, especially when
bearing bright red flowers during most of the seasons.
n Pomegranate is an ancient fruit originated in Persia, Afghanistan and Baluchistan (De
g Candolle, 1967)[3]. It is also thought to be indigenous to the region of Iran, where it was first
cultivated about 2000 B. C. ago, according to Everein off (1949)[1], but it spread to
Mediterranean countries at a very early date. The pomegranate is a fruit of great antiquity
v and is known to have been cultivated in the Middle East more than 5000 years ago. The wild
or semi-wild pomegranate still exists in the north of Syria, in Gil end and on Mount Carmel.
a According to De Candolle, Vavilov and others, the pomegranate originated in South-west
r Asia, probably in Iran and some adjoining countries.
Composition of the edible portion (68%) of pomegranate is as below. Moisture 78% protein
i 1.6%, fat 0.1%, fibre 5.1%, carbohydrates 14.5%, mineral matter 0.7%, calcium 10 mg/100
e mg, magnesium 12 mg/100 g, phosphors 70 mg/100 g, iron 0.3 mg/ 100 g, oxalic acid 14
mg/100 g, thiamine 0.06 mg/100 g, riboflavin 0.10 mg/ 100 g, nicotinic acid 0.30 mg / 100
t g, vitamin C 14 mg/ 100 g and calorific value 65 mg/ 100 g.
The fruit juice easily ferments and may be used for the production of wise. The juice of wild
i pomegranate in Azerbaijan (USSR) is used in the manufacture of citric acid and sodium
e citrate for medicinal purpose.
The bark of the stem and root contain a number of alkaloid belonging to the pyridine group.
s It is also employed in the therapeutics in dysentery and diarrheas.
El-Shaaraway and Nahapetian (1983)[8] reported that pomegranate seed contain about 15%
oil with a high refractive index, iodine value and very low melting point. The oil has a
o potential for industrial use. The seeds also contain 1.09 g oestrone/100g of seeds and 0.036
f mg coumestrol (a non-steroidal oestrogen)/100 g of seeds (Moneamet al., 1988)[2].
Pomegranate grows well under semi-arid conditions. It thrives best under hot dry summer
and cold winter provided irrigation facilities are available. The tree requires hot and dry
p climate during fruit development and ripening. It cannot produce sweet fruits unless the
temperature is high for a sufficiently long period. Humid climate lowers the quality of fruits
o and increases incidence of fungal diseases. The pomegranate tree is deciduous in areas of

~ 74 ~
International Journal of Applied Research
International Journal of Applied Research

low winter temperature world. r fruit, sweet tart

and an evergreen or t fruit.
partially deciduous in 3 s
tropical and subtropical . . A
conditions. It can tolerate r
frost to a considerable 5 a
extent in dormant stage, . b
but is injured at j i
temperature below -110 C. e R a
Orchards can be c e n
established up to an t s
altitude of 500m. i u P
Pomegranate can be v l e
grown on a wide range e t n
of soils. It prefers a well- s i
To study the high-
drained, sandy loam to n
yielding varieties of
deep loamy or alluvial a s
pomegranate in the
soils. It can also be grown u
world. n
on light soils. Quality and l
colour a
development in light soils Roman Chouall -
. D
is good but poor in heavy Medium dark,
soils. It tolerates salinity i
S s almost dark fruit,
up to 9.00 EC/mm and sweet tart flavor,
sodicity 6.78 ESP. o c
u u grown in Iraq.
r s Mellassi - Large red
2 fruit with soft seeds
. c s
e i and sweet taste.
Cherabani - Medium
o red fruit, sour
o n taste and the
f The pomegranate syrup is used for
varieties ruling in preparing
different countries are beverages.
discussed as follows: Selimi - Large red
f a
fruit with sweet
o t
A tart taste and
r a
f small seed.
For evaluating the
g Aswar (Black),
specific objective of the
t h Ahmar (Red) and
study, necessary data
h a Halwa also
was obtained from
e n grown.
secondary data.
Secondary data was
s s B
collected from various
t t u
published sources like
u a l
books, articles,
d n g
y Kandhar large white - a
The geographical Extra-large r
boundary of the study area r yellowish sweet i
is restricted to the world. n fruit, early ripening. a
The topical scope focuses a Kandharlargered – Uzbekskii
on the High-Yielding l Extra-large fruit Saldikii
varieties of Pomegranate. s with sweet flavor, (Uzbek
It is very important to mid-season sweet) –
study the a ripening. This is sweet fruit.
high-yielding varieties of n one of the best NikiskiiRannii –
the pomegranate for the varieties in the Sweet tart fruit,
d early ripening and
purpose of increasing the world of
to produce.
area, production and yield r Pomegranate.
by suitable varieties of the e Kandhar large black –
crop with respect to p Dark purple (looks
various countries in the o black), extra- large
International Journal of Applied Research

i Cyprus very large fruit.

n Zaitiki - Large, sweet fruit
a with soft seed. Israel
Cin-Kwene-liu-Cin-pehin Wonderful - The sweet
e-liu - are some Greece tart variety from USA.
of the varieties. Patrasacide - Extra-large, High production with
Echen - large thin red fruit with very sour medium hard seeds.
skinned (paper shell) taste, good for syrup. Asmar (Black) - Dark
fruit, sweet taste. PatrasDouce - Large red, purple almost black
sweet fruit, productive. fruit, white, hard seeds.
Ras-el-Bghil - Very large
India fruits with normal seed
Ganesh – The number one Red Lufani - Red, large
Pomegranate in India, with normal seeds,
large yellowish red, with good production.
soft seeds. Malissi - Nearly
Mridula – A hybrid of seedless (called
Ganesh and a red seedless) early
Russian variety, pink red ripening.
skin with soft seeds,
sweet taste, early mature
in Dolce - Alappi, Dolce
150 days. Nostrale.
Bhagwa – Sweet, soft
seeded red fruit
Blanca - Medium whitish
suitable for export.
Muscat – The rind is fruit, seeds are undeveloped
yellowish pink, grains (nearly
seedless), aril
are medium hard. pink in color,
Bassein seedless – The outer productive.
skin color is red, seeds soft. Dulce Colorada- Large red
Jodhpur Red – Grown in color, red arils, soft
Rajasthan, rind is seeded, sweet,
yellowish in color with
whitish pink arils. productive.
Jalore seedless – Grown Gorda de Jativa - Large
in Rajasthan the rind red fruit, red aril,
is reddish.Arils are soft, sweet, productive.
pink colored. Pignoncea - Large red fruit,
Dholka– Grown in Gujarat, small seed, sweet.
Cagin - Large red fruit, very
arils pink red colored.
Joyti – Released from hard small seed, sour.
UAS, Bangalore, red Quiseppe - Large, red, sweet
fruit with soft arils. fruits with high production.
RCR-1- Released from
UAS, Dharwad. Fruit
red colored soft arils.
G-137 – Open pollinated
variety from Ganesh,
released by MPKV,
Yercaud Selection -
CO-1-Released by
TNAU, Coimbatore
having soft seeds.
Ruby red – It is a multiple
hybrid developed at
IIHR, Bangalore, rind
red, and seeds soft. Fruit
size small.

Shahvar (Saveh) – Red skin,
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M flavor, high d
e production. e e
x  a r
i U r f
c n l u
o i y l
Granada de china t .
and Granada e Wonderful – Bright red –
Agria are grown. d variety with sweet
tart. This is the
main commercial L
S S a
variety of USA.
p t Very productive r
a a in San Jaquin g
i t Valley of e
n e California. It is ,
Molar - The best s frost sensitive
seedling pomegranate variety.
in Spain, sweet good e
o a
red fruit, productive. f U r
Valencia -An early n l
ripening sweet variety i
A y
with moderate t
production m .
e e Wonderful – Bright
r d red variety with
T sweet tart. This is
u i
the main
n c S commercial
i a t variety of
Granada – Very a USA. Very
s early, red medium
i t productive in
a bud sprout of e
a wonderful. San Jaquin
Gabsi – Large s Valley of
Early foothill – Large
yellowish fruit, fruit similar to California. It is
with sweet taste. wonderful, ripens o frost sensitive
Tunsi – Medium red after Granada, low f variety.
fruit, dark red aril acid and high sugar.
with sweet tart taste. A Y

Chelfi E m u
– a e g
Medium r r o
red, l i s
seedless y c l
variety. a a
Djebeli – Very large red Granada – Very v
fruit, late ripening w i
sweet variety with o early, red medium
a bud sprout of a
very small seed. n
wonderful. SlatkiBarshi Nar -
d Early ripening,
T e Early foothill – Large
fruit similar to large, yellowish
u r
wonderful, ripens green fruit with
r f
after Granada, low sweet taste.
k u
e l acid and high sugar.
 6
E .
Hicaznar - A large –
fruited, having good a
productivity. r C
L l o
a y n
-Yellowish white
r c
juice and light
g l
seeds. w
e u
Kizil anar - Large red o
, s
fruit with sweet tart n
International Journal of Applied Research

i 3. De Candlle A. Origin
o of Cultivated Plants,
n Hafner
The pomegranate is one Publication Company,
of the ancient and highly New York and London,
praised 1967,
favourite fruit. It is 237-240.
commercially grown 4. Chattopadhyay TK, A
through different high- Text Book on Pomology
yielding varieties which (Subtropical Fruits),
are suitable for the agro- Kalyani Publishers,
climatic conditions of the New Delhi,
nations in the world. For 1998; III: 161.
its sweet- acidic fruits, 5. Bose TK, Mitra SK.
which provide a cool Fruits: Tropical and
refreshing juice and is Subtropical, Naya
valued from its medicinal Prakash, Culcutta, 1990,
properties. Its popularity 616.
is also due to the 6. Chandha KL. Hand Book
ornamental nature of the of Horticulture, Directorate of
plant which bears bright or information and
very attractive flowers. publication of
agriculture, Indian
7 Council of Agricultural
. Research, New Delhi,
R 297.
e 7. Hiwale SS. The
f Pomegranate, New India
e Publishing
r Agency, New Delhi,
e 2009, 09-13.
n 8. El-Shaaraway MI,
e Nahapetian A,
s Fette
1. Evereinoff VA. The Scifen
Pomegranate, Fruits Anstrichitted, Fing
Outremer, Faisal University,
1949; 4:161-170. Saudi Arabia,
2. Moneam NMA, El- 1983; 85:123-126.
Sharaky AS,
Badreldin MM.
Journal of
1988; 438:438-441.