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REGISTER

LANGUAGE AND LANGUAGE TEACHING JOURNALS

Vol. 8, No. 1, June 2015 P-ISSN :1979-8903 E-ISSN: 2503-040X

Editor in Chief
Faizal Risdianto

Editors
Hanung Triyoko
Rr. Dewi Wahyu Mustikasari
Setia Rini
Ruwandi

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English Department of Educational Faculty
Salatiga Institute for Islamic Studies (IAIN) Salatiga

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June 2008

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Vol. 8, No. 1, June 2015 ISSN 1979-8903

Table of Content

English Core Competencies, Basic Competencies, and Assessment for Junior


High School in Curriculum 2013; Between Facts and Hopes
Does Ichnatun Dwi Soenoewati ………….……………………………1

Teaching and Learning English Paradigm and The Implementation of The


Policy
Zainal Arifin……………………………….…………………………….17

The Change of Mental Process in the Translation of Ronggeng Dhukuh Paruk


from Bahasa Indonesia into English
Khristianto…………………………..………………………..…………..35
.
An Analysis on Subtitling Strategies of Romeo And Juliet Movie
Endang Dwi Hastuti …………….……………………………………….46

The Use of Community Language Learning Method to Increase the Students’


Participation in Classroom Conversation
Siti Nurhasanah ………………………………………………………….68

THE USE OF EXPRESSIVE SPEECH ACTS IN HANNAH MONTANA


SESSION 1
Nur Vita Handayani……………….…………………………………….84
The Types of Cohesion Used in the ‘Issues of the Day’ Strip in the Jakarta
Post
Wulan Agustina………………….………………………………………97

Index…………………………………………………………………….150
REGISTER JOURNAL IAIN Salatiga Vol 8 NO. 1 (2015)

English Core Competencies, Basic Competencies, and


Assessment for Junior High School in Curriculum 2013; Between
Facts and Hopes

Does Ichnatun Dwi Soenoewati


State Junior High School 3 Semarang
doesichnatun129@gmail.com

Abstract
This paper focuses on some problems faced by Junior High School English
Targeted teachers concerning with the content, formulation, and the order of
Core Competencies (known as KI) and Basic Competencies (known as KD)
and the assessment in K „13 (known as K‟13). The material in K „13 is
regarded as being arranged in balance covering the student‟s attitude,
knowledge, and skills competencies stressing on language skills as a means
of communication to convey ideas and knowledge. Based on the K „13
implementation mentoring, 13 out of 15 teachers (87%) interpret the Core
and Basic Competencies differently and most tend to be unclear. This
happened due to the formulation, content, and order of the KIs/KDs which
were illogical, in contrary to mind mapping, and confusing the Targeted
teachers. Moreover, the assessment system, especially attitude assessments
are too complicated.

Keywords: Core Competencies/Basic Competencies and assessment in


K „13, revision of the formulation, content, order of core competencies and
basic competencies, and the simplification of attitude assessment

Abstrak

Makalah ini membatasi masalah yang dihadapi oleh para guru sasaran mata
pelajaran Bahasa Inggris SMP Kota Semarang yang kesulitan dalam
memahami konten, rumusan, dan susunan dalam Kompetensi Inti (KI),
Kompetensi Dasar (KD) dan penilaian dalam Kurikulum 2013 (K‟13).
Kurikulum 2013 mengklaim bahwa materi di dalamnya disusun seimbang
yang mencakup sikap, pengetahuan, dan ketrampilan dan menekankan
kompetensi berbahasa sebagai alat komunikasi untuk menyampaikan gagasan
dan pengetahuan. Berdasarkan hasil pendampingan implementasi Kurikulum
REGISTER JOURNAL IAIN Salatiga Vol 8 NO. 1 (2015)

2013 yang dilakukan penulis, 13 dari 15 guru (87%) menafsirkan KI/KD


secara berbeda dan sebagian besar belum jelas arahnya. Hal ini terjadi karena
rumusan, konten, dan susunan KD sangat tidak logis, tidak mengikuti peta
konsep/pemikiran anak, dan membingungkan guru.

Kata kunci: KI/KD, penilaian sikap, pembenahan rumusan, konten,


dan susunan KD, penyederhanaan penilaian sikap.

Introduction

Curriculum is all the subjects taught at educational institutions


(Kamus Bahasa Indonesia, 2008).The term curriculum is used to refer to the
overall plan or design for a course and how the content for a course is
transformed into a blueprint for teaching and learning which enables the
desired learning outcomes to be achieved (Richards, J.C., 2013).
The course setting is tailored to the circumstances and the ability of
each level of education in the implementation of the education and
employment needs. Length of time in the curriculum is usually adjusted with
the intent and purpose of the educational system implemented. The
curriculum is intended to be directed towards education and the intended
purpose in learning activities as a whole.
The community needs are always changing. To that end, the
educational curriculum should match the needs of the community so that the
curriculum needs reforming in accordance with the changing needs of
society. The curriculum which is easily understood by teachers with clear
formulations, the material in the core competencies (KIs) and the basic
competencies (KDs) which support each other and consecutively, not too
complicated for the assessment will greatly assist teachers in planning,
implementing, and evaluating learning.
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As the curriculum is intended to direct education towards the overall


direction and purpose, the curriculum should provide a clear description and
be easily understood by the teachers as the spearhead of education.
Based on the results of the implementation of K „13 mentoring by the
writer in 15 public and private junior high schools in Semarang, nearly 87%
of teachers still do not understand about the content, formulation, the order of
KIs/KDs and assessment in K „13. Some teachers misinterpret KD
formulations so that they choose wrong teaching materials. By teaching the
wrong materials, they will assess wrongly. The reasons are that the KIs/KDs
written in confusing words or phrases, the KDs which are illogical,
overlapping, jumping, and too narrow, make the teachers meet difficulties in
preparing, implementing, and evaluating learning. As a result, teachers teach
only what they understand. This would be detrimental to students. The
improvement of the content, formulation, and the order of KIs/KDs and the
simplification of the assessment, especially attitude assessment will ease
teachers to execute their main duties.
This paper aims at changing of the content, formulation, and the order
of KIs/KDs and simplification of the assessment, especially attitude
assessment to make teachers easier to plan, implement, and evaluate learning.

Richards (2013) proposed that before we can teach a language, we


need to decide what linguistic content to teach. Once content has been
selected, it then needs to be organized into teachable and learnable units as
well as arranged in a rational sequence. This statement is clear enough to
understand that if curriculum content and formulation confuse teachers, it‟s
impossible for them to implement them correctly. Confused teachers forced
to implement wrong formulation content will fail to execute the process and
assessment of learning. At the end, overall education will fail.
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Good tests are those that do the job they are designed to do and which
convince the people taking and marking them that they work. Good tests also
have a positive rather than a negative effect on both students and teachers
(Harmer, 2007). How can teachers design a good and proper test if they
misunderstand the content stated in the basic competencies? Furthermore, he
added that tests have a powerful effect on student motivation. Students often
work a lot harder than normal when there is a test or examination in sight.
Students can be greatly encouraged by success in test, or, conversely
demotivated by doing badly (Harmer, 2007). A serious test design by
teachers will be useless when it doesn‟t test the proper competencies just
because teachers misunderstand the content and formulation in KIs/KDs.
What do the students work hard for?

Discussion

Some changing elements in K „13 are Output Competencies


Standards (known as SKL), Process Standard (known as Standar Proses),
Content Standards (known as Standar Isi), and Assessment Standards
(known as Standar Penilaian). In this paper, the writer focuses the problem
only on changes of Content and Assessment Standards, especially in English
for Junior High School. The following paragraphs discuss them one by one.

Content standard
Changes in Content Standard are composed of materials that include a
balance among attitude, knowledge, and skills competencies. This is in
contrast with the previous curriculum which only emphasizes on knowledge
and skills. K „13 claims that a fundamental change is the material that is
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taught emphasizing on language skill competencies as communication tools


to convey ideas and knowledge in learners daily lives.
Competencies in K ‟13 are set forth in KI 1 (Spiritual Competencies),
KI 2 (Social Competencies), KI 3 (Knowledge Competencies), and KI 4
(Skills Competencies). Language skill competencies cover the skill
competencies to listen, speak, read, and write. Competencies 1 and 2 are
applied to all subjects at the same level of education, while competencies3
and 4 are different for each subject and each level.
In language learning, KI 3 only covers grammar and vocabulary,
while KI 4 includes skill competencies, such as listening, speaking, reading,
and writing. The separation of KI 3 and 4 look very unnatural in language
learning. Teachers may combine KD 3 and KD 4 in learning process, but
when they come to the assessment, teachers have difficulty choosing the
indicators to be tested. If we are going to evaluate the competencies of
learners‟ knowledge, then we will only involve grammar and vocabulary in
isolation. More fatal, in the midterm and end of the semester, or end of the
year assessment, skill competencies (KI 4) are not tested. Is it possible only
testing grammar and vocabulary in such assessment? Some teachers,
including the writer, break the rule in this case. Skill competencies,
especially reading skill competency is also tested here. Let's have a look at
the following example problems taken from the test item in The First Mid
Term Test for grade VII:
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Read the text and answer the questions below it.

Dear friends, I just want to say ….

Believe me; I love you now and forever, not only on February 14.

Olivia.

1. This is a kind of … card.


A. season greeting
B. birthday greeting
C. graduation greeting
D. achievement greeting

2. Olivia … her friends.


A. hates
B. loves
C. dislikes
D. doesn‟t love
Question 1 asks about the general description of a short functional
text which includes reading comprehension skills, while question 2 tests
vocabulary which belongs to knowledge competencies. Note the opinion of a
friend as posted on Facebook below:

(http://gg.gg/3rynv)
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She shared her opinion to test the skill competencies in end year
assessment by redesigning the test guideline although she knows it breaks the
rule.
Regardless of the separation between KD 3 and 4, KD 4 is not
explicitly included when students learn to listen, speak, read, and write.
Notice one example of skill competencies as outlined in KD 4.3 English for
Junior High School grade VII as follows:
Menyusun teks lisan dan tulis untuk menyatakan dan menanyakan
nama hari, bulan, nama waktu dalam hari, waktu dalam bentuk
angka, tanggal, dan tahun, dengan unsur kebahasaan yang benar dan
sesuai konteks.

English translation:
Developing oral and written texts to express and ask for the name of
the day, the month, the name of the time of day, time in the form of
numbers, date, and year, with the correct linguistic elements and in
context.

Where can we find a section which explicitly asks the teacher to teach
language skill competencies/skills of listening, speaking, and reading to
students except writing? If we look at the KD formulation above, students are
only required to be able to compose (write) oral and written texts to express
and ask for the name of the day, the month, the name of time of the day, time
in the form of numbers, date, and year, with linguistic elements correctly in
context. There is no demand on the learners to have a conversation, listening,
and reading. Again a friend of mine posted on Facebook as follows:

(http://gg.gg/3rynv)
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She complained for being unsuccessful to find speaking and writing


skills when discussing narrative texts either in grade 8 or 9 in K „13.
Compare these KDs found in Curriculum 2016 (as translated below).
8.2 (Listening)
Responding to the meaning in the very simple monologue accurately,
fluently, and acceptably to interact with the immediate environment
in the form of descriptive and procedure texts.
10.2 (Speaking)
Expressing the meaning in a very simple short monologue to use
spoken language variety accurately, fluently, and acceptably to
interact with the immediate environment in the form of descriptive
and procedure texts.
11. (Reading)
Reading aloud meaningfully very simple and short functional text and
short essay in the form of descriptive and procedure texts with
acceptable pronunciation, stressing and intonation.
12. (Writing)
Expressingthe meaning and rhetorical stages of a very simple, short
essay by using a variety of written language accurately, fluently and
acceptably to interact with the immediate environment in the form of
descriptive and procedure texts.

From the above data, it is clear that in the 2006 Curriculum, students
learn certain material formulated comprehensively so that they can get an
idea how to use it directly in everyday life. KIs/KDs formulator seem to
assume that teachers have to be smart in interpreting the formulation of KDs
on their own.
Agustien (2014) put forward that the main purpose of language
learning is to develop the ability to communicate (Communicative
Competencies/CC) and the core of the ability to communicate is a discourse
competency. Communicating requires oral and written skills. If the KD
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formula is confusing teachers, then there is a possibility teachers only deliver


one cycle only, namely oral or written.
Grouping the subject matter in English for grade VII written in KDs is
less logical. Note KD 3.1, 3.2, and 3.3 English grade VII in sequence below:
Understanding the social function, the structure of the text, and
linguistic elements in the expression of greeting, leave taking,
acknowledgments, and apology, and the response, in accordance with
the context of its use.

Understanding the social function, the structure of the text, and


linguistic elements on the introduction of self-expression, as well as
the response, greeting, leave taking, acknowledgments, and apology,
and the response, in accordance with the context of its use.

Understanding the social function, the structure of the text, and


linguistic elements of text for stating and asking the name of the day,
the month, the name of the time of day, time in the form of numbers,
date, and year.

In KD 3.1, one of the subject matters is greeting. This KD is given at


the beginning of the meeting between the teachers and learners, and among
learners. Logically, in the first meeting, other than saying hello, someone will
introduce themselves before speaking at length. K „13 recommends that
teachers provide authentic assessment (Assessment Standard, Krikulum
2013). Authentic assessment would be perfect if it begins with authentic
learning. However, based on the above basic competencies, 'introduction' will
be discussed in week 4, after the students know each other.
Other than saying 'Hi, Hello', people greet others in English saying
'Good morning, Good noon, Good afternoon, and Good evening'. It is a
material „names of time in the day and time in the form of number' support
greeting. However, these materials belong to KD 3.3 which is taught in about
the 6th week ahead. It's too far and illogical. To say „Good morning‟ for
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example, students should know when the time limit for morning, noon,
afternoon, or evening, so that the material „names of time in the day and time
in the form of number' support greeting. Helena (2014) re-writes that
teaching to communicate is teaching how to connect ideas logically. Illogical
subject matters positioning will make students think a bit harder.
Another problem is English KDs for grade VII is not sequential. Note
KD 3.7 to KD 3:10 sequentially as follows:
Understanding the social function, the structure of the text, and
linguistic elements in the text and ask to declare the nature of people,
animals, objects according to the context of its use.

Understanding the social function, the structure of the text, and


linguistic elements in texts to express and ask behavior/action/
function of people, animals, objects, according to the context of its
use.

Understanding the social function, the structure of the text, and


linguistic elements of text instruction, the sign or signs (short notice),
warning signs (warning/caution), according to the context of its use.

Understanding the social function, the structure of the text, and


linguistic elements of descriptive text stating and asking about
descriptions of people, animals, and objects, very short and simple,
according to the context of its use.

The subject matter at KD 3.7, 3.8, and 3:10 are people, animals, and
objects, but the subject matter at KD 3.9 is about instruction, notice or signs
and warnings that do not support the discussion of KD 3.7, 3.8, and 3.10. It is
confusing and messed up learner‟s maps of thinking (mind mapping). Buzan
(2010) wrote "Let the mind map that clearly, using a cascading hierarchy, a
clear sequence to reach up to the very tip of the branches." Students should
be given opportunities to think coherently and clearly. If KDs are interrupted
by another material and the material that is in need of understanding the
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material have been learned four weeks earlier, we can be sure the learners
had forgotten and have to start over from the beginning what it takes to learn
KD 3.10. In addition to a waste of time, learners will find it hard to readjust.
Celce-Murcia, et al. (1995) in Agustien (2014) explains that the
ability of discourse is "choice, sequence, word order, structure, and text of
speech to achieve coherent oral and written texts". So besides a language KD
should formulate clear language skills, students are expected to choose a
similar word, as well as use and arrange them coherently.
In addition, most of the KDs are drafted too narrowly. A KD only
contains a grammar, not a text. Consider the example of KD 3.2 English for
grade VIII as follows:
Applying text structures and linguistic elements to carry out a social
function for declaring and asking about the ability and willingness to
perform an action, according to the context of its use.

If we simplify this KD, roughly the intention is to ask the students to


learn one of the 32 helping verbs, that is CAN separately, not in the context.
The time available in a semester is too valuable just to learn one helping verb
in one KD. In addition to spending time, a helping verb can be addressed in
the discussion of certain texts, such as a descriptive text, a recount text, a
narrative text, and others to be more contextual and easy to remember and
understand by learners. When we describe certain people, we can mention
that the person could be/do something. For example, if we describe Raditya
Dika, we can describe that he can do the standup comedy, write a book, play
movies, and others. Suppose we describe certain animals, such as someone‟s
parrots, we can say that the bird could say hello, Aassalamu‟alaikum, etc. So
it does not have to put one of the 32 helping verbs to be understood by
learners in a KD.
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Grammar learned separately will not be easy to memorize. Nunan


(1998) writes:
"Grammar which is taught separately through exercise repeatedly
without giving an opportunity to students to try it in context will make
it difficult for learners to use because learners are not introduced in
the relationship between form, meaning, and use."

Similarly, by studying grammar separately, learners will probably get


a perfect score in the written assessment, but will have difficulty in using it
outside the classroom.
Another problem in K „13 is, KD formulation in English is confusing.
Note KD 3.3 English for grade VIII as follows:
Applying text structures and linguistic elements to carry out the social
function of expression to give instruction, encourage, prohibit, ask for
permission, as well as the way to respond, in accordance with the
context of its use.

The word 'apply', if we look at the Bloom's Taxonomy, belongs to


skills not knowledge competency. If we understand the KD as it is, teachers
will regard „applying‟ as language skill other than language knowledge. Note
the passage of 'The New Bloom's Taxonomy' which is updated by Anderson,
Krathwohl and summarized by Elizabeth Dalton (2003) the following:
Table 1. The learning objectives based on the revised Bloom's
Taxonomyby Anderson and Krathwohl.

Remembering Understandi Applying Analyzing Evaluating Creating


ng
Facts Remembering Understanding Applying Analyzing Evaluating Creating
facts facts facts using facts, using facts, using facts,
Concepts Remembering Understanding Applying concepts, and concepts, concepts,
concepts concepts concepts procedures and and
Procedures Remembering Understanding Applying procedures procedures
procedures procedures procedures
Meta Remembering the The strategy Applying Analyzing the Evaluating Creating
strategy of meta of meta the strategy of the strategy the
cognitive
cognitive cognitive strategy of meta cognitive of meta strategy of
meta cognitive meta
cognitive cognitive
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Knowledge Skills Competencies

From the table above, it is clear that applying is a skill competency.


Some teachers are not sure to choose the operational verbs fitting to the KD.

Assessment Standard
As discussed above, knowledge and skill competencies which are
separated makes teachers difficult to carry out the assessment. Attitude
competencies assessment burdens teachers a lot. Attitude competencies
which are assessed in a very detailed and complicated way by observation,
self-assessment, peer assessment, and teacher‟s journal is a bit ridiculous.
Teachers should plan the assessment of attitude, knowledge, and skill
competencies including any technique that will be used, assessment
indicators, assessment instruments, assessment rubrics and assessment
guidelines at the beginning of semester, or minimum before a certain KD is
carried out. The problems do not end at the planning step. It‟s also difficult
for teachers to note all students attitude during the learning process. Unlike
teaching in Indonesia, teaching in other countries always involves team
teaching. When a teacher is facilitating the learners during the learning
process, another teacher takes notes on learners attitude. This way of teaching
will lessen the teachers‟ burden in assessing the learners attitude. To know
more about assessment planning, here is the example of it:
Attitude Competencies Assessment Planning
K.D. 3.1 and 4.1

Subject : English
Grade/Semester : VII _______/1
Theme : Various issues related to the interaction between
teachers and learners during the learning process,
inside and outside of the classroom that involves
speech acts greeting, leave taking, gratitude, and
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apologies
Main material : Spoken text of greeting, leave taking, gratitude, and
apologies
Attitude : 1. Respecting and appreciating the grace of God.
2. Politeness.
3. Caring.
4. self confident

Assessment Meeting
Remark
techniques 1 2 3
Observation **)     The observation is not done
Self assessment ***) - -  at every meeting, but any
Peer assessment ****) - - - meeting to get the learners
Teacher journal*****)    attitude as stated in the
indicators.

The resume of attitude assessment for K.D. 3.1 dan 4.1

Assessment techniques
No. Attitude Self Peer Teacher‟s
Observasion
assessment assessment journal
1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3
1. Respecting and    - -  - - -   
appreciating the
grace of God.
2. Polite    - -  - - -   
3. Caring    - -  - - -   
4. Self confident    - -  - - -   

All this assessment could have been done by the teachers, despite
having to bother. All that work would be in vain when the school has
determined that every student should be given score B for the competencies
of his attitude, despite the behavior and attitude. This condition is in fact
precisely developing dishonest attitude to the teacher. Teachers will write the
students' attitude competencies assessment records only for a formality.
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Conclusion

Based on the explanation above, it can be concluded that the KIs/KDs


and English assessment, especially attitude assessment for Junior High
School in K „13 is very confusing teachers. For that reason, there needs to be
improvement on formulation, content, and the order of KIs/KDs and attitude
assessment. Formulate the KDs simply that all teachers interpret similarly
with others. Mind the discussion of a helping verb in a KD. A KD should be
developed based on a text. The rest (of languange competencies) will appear
when discussing the text. Arrange the KDs in line with the learners and
teachers mind map to ease both in understanding the content, so that teachers
can design a text instrument correctly.
Teachers should not be necessary to assess the learners attitude in
detail and very complicated way because the school has set learners attitudes
score, i.e. at least B.

References
Agustien, Helena (2014). The 2013 English Curriculum: The Paradigm,
Interpretation and Implementation. Semarang: FBS Unnes.
Buzan, Tony (2010). The Mind Map Book: Unlock Your Creativity, Boost
Your Memory, And Change Your Life. Pearson BBC Active.
Departemen Pendidikan Nasional. (2008). Kamus Bahasa Indonesia. Jakarta:
Pusat Perbukuan.
Harmer, Jeremy. (2007).How to Teach. England: Pearson Education Limited.
Kementrian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan (2014). Peraturan Menteri
Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Republik Indonesia Nomor 58
Tahun 2014 tentang Kurikulum 2013 Sekolah Menengah
REGISTER JOURNAL IAIN Salatiga Vol 8 NO. 1 (2015)

Pertama/Tsanawiyah. Jakarta: Kementerian Pendidikan dan


Kebudayaan Republik Indonesia.
Krathwohl, David R. 2002. A Revision of Bloom's Taxonomy: An Overview.
Theory into Practice (2002). Vol. 41 (4): 212-218. The Ohio State
University.
Nunan, David (1998). Teaching Grammar in Context. Oxford University
Press: ELT Journal Volume 52:2 April 1998.

Richards, Jack C. (2013). Curriculum Approaches in Language Teaching:


Forward, Central, and Backward Design. RELC Journal. 44(1) 5-33
Singapore.
REGISTER JOURNAL IAIN Salatiga Vol 8 NO. 1 (2015)

Teaching and Learning English Paradigm and The


Implementation of The Policy

Zainal Arifin
IAIN Surakarta
arizain@gmail.com

Abstract

Theory on Teaching English is currently moving on a paradigm shift. This


paradigm occurred because of a review on the basics of linguistic, pedagogic
and the review on the impact of sociolinguistics in a globalized setting. This
paper aims to show the results of comparative study which is textual on the
teaching and learning English paradigm and the policy has been
implemented by both universities. The objective of the study is to describe the
comparison of the paradigm between English Language Education and
academic policy in both universities. Descriptive qualitative in the form of
textual analysis is used in this study. Data were taken from the analysis of
documents and interviews with academicians in both universities then
analyzed using the theory of a paradigm shift in learning English (Kostoulas,
2010) and academic policy (Center for Quality Assurance, UGM, 2012)
using an interactive model of Miles and Huberman. The validity of the data
used triangulation methods and data sources. The results show that the
content of English Language Education taught at the Division of English
Language Education (ELE) HKU and at the English Language Education
Department (PBI) IAIN Surakarta have the same characteristics but the ways
in providing educational materials are relatively different. The paradigm and
academic policiy in ELE HKU applied the learning paradigm while at PBI
IAIN Surakarta is still applying on teaching paradigm. When the study was
conducted by researcher, the ELE Department IAIN Surakarta has been
moving towards a paradigm shift in some academic elements as the use of the
methods by lecturers called learning paradigm, although the method is not
covered by the policy. The difference between Paradigm and policy in both
universities is influenced by the context of the political situation, especially
the rules of ministry of higher education, cultural context and the orientation
on each university.

Keywords: Paradigm Shift, Academic Policy, English Language Education,


Intertextual Analysis
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Abstrak

Teori Pengajaran Bahasa Inggris saat ini sedang mengalami pergeseran


paradigma. Pergeseran paradigma ini terjadi karena peninjauan kembali
dasar-dasar linguistik dan pedagogis serta penilaian ulang dampak
sosiolinguistik bahasa Inggris dalam setting yang semakin mengglobal.
Artikel ini bertujuan untuk melaporkan hasil penelitian perbandingan tekstual
tentang paradigma pengajaran dan pembelajaran bahasa Inggris dan
kebijakan yang dimiliki dua jurusan Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris di dua
perguruan tinngi yaitu di Hong Kong University (HKU) dan di IAIN
Surakarta. Tujuan penelitian tersebut adalah mendeskripsikan perbandingan
paradigma pendidikan bahasa Inggris dan kebijakan akademik di kedua
perguruan tinggi tersebut. Desain penelitian ini adalah deskriptif kualitatif
dalam bentuk analisis intertekstual. Data diambil melalui analisis dokumen
dan wawancara dengan sivitas akademika kedua perguruan tinggi dan
dianalisis dengan teori pergeseran paradigma pembelajaran bahasa Inggris
(Kostoulas, 2010) dan kebijakan akademik (Kantor Jaminan Mutu UGM,
2012) menggunakan interaktif modelnya Miles and Huberman. Keabsahan
data menggunakan trianggulasi metode dan sumber data. Hasil penelitian
menunjukkan konten pendidikan bahasa Inggris yang diajarkan di Division of
English Language Education (ELE) HKU dan di Jurusan Pendidikan Bahasa
Inggris (PBI) IAIN Surakarta relatif sama namun cara dan alasan
memberikan materi pendidikan bahasa Inggris relatif berbeda. Paradigma dan
kebijakan akademik di ELE HKU sudah menganut lerning paradigm
sedangkan PBI IAIN Surakarta masih menganut teaching paradigm
walaupun saat penelitian ini dilakukan gejala untuk menuju pergeseran
paradigma sudah mulai terjadi di beberapa unsur akademik misalnya dalam
penggunaan metode bersifat learning paradigm oleh dosen walaupun belum
dipayungi oleh kebijakan yang sesuai. Perbedaan paradigma dan kebijakan
kedua perguruan tinggi ini dipengaruhi oleh konteks situasi terutama politik
pendidikan pemerintah yang berkuasa, konteks budaya dan oientasi masing
masing perguruan tinngi.

Kata kunci: Pergeseran Paradigma, Kebijakan Akademik, Pendidikan


Bahasa Inggris, Analisis Intertekstual

Iintroduction

At present, ELT theory appears to be undergoing a paradigm shift


which is sustained by a rethinking of its linguistic and pedagogical
REGISTER JOURNAL IAIN Salatiga Vol 8 NO. 1 (2015)

underpinnings, as well as by a re-appraisal of the sociolinguistic impact of


the English language in an increasingly globalized setting (Kostoulas, 2010).
This paradigm shift is also the impact of educational paradigm shift in
general that has occurred since the 1950s (Hill, 1999). A paradigm shift is
happening slowly but surely. Pergeseran is needed in addition is also
desirable (Barr and Tagg, 1995). This fundamental change would have an
impact on academic policy changes related to the implementation of teaching
and learning in the English Department, especially English as a second or
foreign language.
According to the Standards for Foreign Language Learning: Preparing
for the 21st Century, language and communication are the heart of the human
experience. The quote is a philosophical statement in the foreign language
learning in the United States. Regarding with this philosophical statement,
there are five simple words that reflect the philosophy of foreign language
education adopted to face the 21st century. Those words are communication,
cultures, connections, comparisons, and communities. These five words are
mutually integrated in the implementation.
Nowadays, ELT is in a transition between two different informing
paradigms (Figure 2.1). The dominant paradigm derives its linguistic and
pedagogical legitimacy from norms developed in the Anglophone West, and
is associated with linguistic hegemony. On the other hand, the emerging
paradigm espouses linguistic and pedagogical norms which are bounded by
local circumstance, and the position itself critically towards the political
implications of ELT. The interaction between these two paradigms seems to
generate tension at the points where they interface, namely the questions of
which language variety (what) to teach, through which methods (how) and to
what end (why) (Kostoulas, 2010)
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Figure1. Emerging VS Dominant Paradigm Paradigm (Kostoulas


2010)

In details the differences both paradigam in learning English as a


second language can be seen on the table 1 below;

Table 1. Contrasts between positivism and post-positivism


Positivism Post-Positivism
Emphasis on parts and de-contextualization Emphasis on whole and contextualization
Emphasis on separation Emphasis on integration
Emphasis on the general Emphasis on the specific
Consideration only of objective and the Consideration also of subjective and the non-
quantifiable quantifiable
Reliance on experts and outsider knowledge- Consideration also of the "average" participant
-researcher as external and insider knowledge--researcher as internal
Focus on control Focus on understanding
Top-down Bottom-up
Attempt to standardize Appreciation of diversity
Focus on the product Focus on the process as well
(Jacobs dan Farrel, 2004)
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In general there are eight major changes in learning Second Language


Education associated with this shift. These eight changes are Learner
autonomy, Cooperative Learning, Curricular integration, Focus on meaning,
Diversity, Thinking skills, Alternative assessment, Teachers as co-learners.
Figure 1.1 illustrates the interdependence of these eight changes of the
paradigm shift in second language education. The circular nature of the figure
emphasizes that all the changes are parts of a whole and the successful
implementation of one change depends on the others.

Figure 1.1. Eight Changes in Second Language Teaching ((Jacobs dan


Farrel, 2004)

Academic policy is also one of the ways to see the paradigm shift as
the implementation of second language education paradigm in an institution.
In this regard, the Center for Quality Assurance / Kantor Jaminan Mutu,
UGM (2012) states that academic policy is a policy direction and guidance
for managing the academic affairs. Academic policy is released in both
university level/ institute and the faculty level. Academic policy of UGM
include:
1. Education services division includes the Mission and Purpose, Program,
Resources, Evaluation of program and institutional affairs.
2. Research services division covers Mission and Objectives, Research
Program, Resources, Evaluations of Program and institutional affairs
3. The Community Services division includes the Mission and Objectives,
Program, Resources, Evaluation of program and institutional affairs.
4. Principles of Operation.
Academic policy is described by standardized academic affair and is
implemented based on the academic regulation. Academic Regulation is a
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software system for the implementation of the academic education that will
be implemented to the whole academic community in which each community
has a set of Specific study program.
Specific study program is a brief description of the study program that
functions to communicate between the students and the stakeholders. Specific
study program indicates explicitly the desired results of the learning process.
It helps students to understand: teaching and evaluation methods used. It
makes a link between a program organized and professional qualifications as
the output of graduates as well as its influence on their career level. it helps
students in determining the courses will be taken. It is not only as a label of
university and as an institution‟s responsibility to the public, but also to
provide stimulus to the faculties to understand and to implement the
educational goals and learning outcomes of the program being organized.
Based on the theoretical descriptions above, the researcher aims to
report the results of research on the analysis of textual paradigm of English
Language Education has been conducted in ELE HKU and PBI IAIN
Surakarta. The followings are the results and discussions.

Research Methods

Descriptive Qualitative is used in this study specifically in the form of


textual analysis. Two Universities are the Setting of the study. They are the
Division of English Language Education (ELE) Hong Kong University and
the English Language Education Department IAIN Surakarta. The data
collected in this study are in the form of words about paradigms and academic
policy in both universities. The researcher collected the data from the
documents and informants in both universities. The instruments used to
collect the data are document analysis and interviews. Data were analyzed
using the Miles and Huberman interactive model. The validity of research
was obtained through the triangulation methods and data sources.
Results and Discussion
Based on the textual analysis reffering to the theory of paradigm shift
in second or a foreign language teaching (EFL / ESL) which includes what,
how and why (Kostoulas 2010) as well as the description of academic policy
based on the Center for Quality Assurance UGM (2012) on data obtained
from documents that confirmed to informants from both universities, the
result of comparison of paradigms and policy for English in both universities
can be seen in Table 1, 2, and 3, below.
Table 1 Paradigm shift description and the policy in ELE HKU
Vision and mission HKU Vision and mission Faculty Details on ELE division
of Education, HKU HKU
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Vision Vision Programme Features

The University of Hong The Faculty of Education  Students will develop


Kong, as a leading aspires to lead the study and in-depth knowledge
international institution of practice of education, to of English language
higher learning in Asia, influence public policy and and linguistics,
strives to attract and nurture improve community life literature,
outstanding scholars from through education, and to communication and
around the world through nurture graduates who are Language acquisition
excellence and innovation in passionately committed to and will critically
teaching and learning, their professions. explore issues in
research and knowledge language education
exchange, contributing to the Mission and develop personal
advancement of society and strengths and
the development of leaders commitment to
In realizing our vision, we education.
through a global presence,
will endeavour:
regional significance and  The programme
engagement with the rest of offers two Degrees in
China.  To advance scholarship one. It is equivalent
and engage in research to a BA plus a
with high impact Postgraduate
Mission
internationally, Diploma in
nationally and locally; Education, a
The University of Hong  To break new ground professional teaching
Kong will endeavour: in curriculum and qualification
pedagogy, and to be a recognized in Hong
 To advance constantly role model for good Kong schools and
the bounds of educational practice; internationally.
scholarship, building  To nurture graduates of BA&BEd(LangEd)-
upon its proud traditions distinction with a Eng meets
and strengths global outlook, who are government
 To provide a committed to lifelong requirements for
comprehensive learning, ethical English teachers:
education, developing practice and • First degree
fully the intellectual and professionalism, and majoring in
personal strengths of its capable of becoming English
students while leaders in their fields; • Teacher training
developing and  To engage in qualification in
extending lifelong productive partnerships English language
learning opportunities with academic and teaching
for the community professional • Benchmark
 To produce graduates of communities in order English language
distinction committed to to generate, integrate, proficiency
lifelong learning, exchange and apply  Students may take a
integrity and knowledge, build range of elective
professionalism, capacity, and enhance courses within the
capable of being educational Faculty of Education
responsive leaders and opportunities for all; or in other Faculties,
communicators in their  To serve as a focal and may combine
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fields point of intellectual and elective courses to


 To develop a collegial, academic excellence in declare a minor
flexible, pluralistic and our fields of expertise subject.
supportive intellectual in Hong Kong, China  Students participate
environment that and Asia, and act as a in an Immersion
inspires and attracts, gateway and forum for programme overseas
retains and nurtures scholarship with the to increase global
scholars, students and rest of the world; awareness, enhance
staff of the highest  To develop and sustain language proficiency
calibre in a culture that a collegial, inclusive, and enrich
fosters creativity, supportive, flexible and professional
learning and freedom of multicultural development.
thought, enquiry and environment that will Courses
expression attract and nurture  English language and
 To provide a safe, students and staff of the linguistics courses
healthy and sustainable highest calibre in a  Pedagogy,sociology
workplace to support culture that inspires and psychology
and advance teaching, creativity, learning and integrated courses
learning and research at freedom of thought,  Educational studies
the University inquiry and expression.  Pedagogy (methods
 To engage in of teaching) and
innovative, high-impact Commitments Pedagogical Content
and leading-edge Knowledge (PCK)
research within and As we fulfil our mission, courses
across disciplines our policies and practices  Teaching practice in
 To be fully accountable will be characterized by primary and
for the effective their interconnectedness, secondary school
management of public and underpinned by the  English and Chinese
and private resources following core language
bestowed upon the commitments: enhancement
institution and act in  Common Core
partnership with the
 Excellence courses
community over the
generation,  Sustainability
 Collegiality Career Prospects
dissemination and  Teaching English
application of  Fairness
Language in
knowledge  Equity
mainstream HK
 Academic freedom
schools or EAL
To serve as a focal point of (English as an
intellectual and academic http://web.edu.hku.hk/about Additional Language)
endeavour in Hong Kong, /who-we-are/vision- in international
China and Asia and act as a mission-and-commitments schools
gateway and forum for  Government quality
scholarship with the rest of assurance or
the world curriculum
development
http://www.hku.hk/about/vis  Civil service and
ion.html administration
 Publishing and
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textbook writing
 Human resource
development and
communications
 Media and
journalism, arts and
culture, law,
management etc
(Undergraduate
Prospectus 2014-15 of
Faculty of Education of
HKU)

http://web.edu.hku.hk/f/pa
ge/592/Programme_Broch
ure_Undergraduate_Prosp
ectus_2014-15.pdf

Table 2 Paradigm shift description and the policy in ELE, IAIN Surakarta

Vision and mission Vision and mission Details on ELE division IAIN
IAIN Surakarta Faculty of Education Surakarta
and teachers training,
IAIN Surakarta
Vision of IAIN vision vision
Surakarta is to make Being an excellent
the institute as an faculty to shape Become an excellent study program
institution of higher professional to produce the good quality of
islamic education and graduates in the field graduates that having strong akidah
independent of of education and and akhlaqul karimah and deeper
education, research and language, have strong understanding in both theoretically
community service, as akidah, and good and practically in Teaching English.
well as the center of character.
Islamic studies and mission
social transformation mission 1. To organize educational services,
1. Organizing learning services, and teaching
education and Islamic sercvices, character
Mission IAIN
teaching by building, high quality education, and
Surakarta:
developing students‟ technology based to meet the
1. education, research
character of islam, requirement of English language
and community
high quality in teachers and educators.
service-oriented on
education, and 2. To conduct research for the
social transformation
technology based to development of pedagogical ways,
as the agent of change
meet the development teaching, science and technology in
.
of education and the learning English.
2. Developing campus
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life in Islamic need of society. 3. To give community service


atmosphere. Preparing 2. Conducting activities in business development
the students to have research for the and application of pedagogical ways
good knowledge (al- development of in Teaching English.
ilmu, akhlaq, and educational science 4. To organize and to expand the
„amal shaleh) and language. cooperation with partners concerned
3. Encouraging 3. Giving community with education, learning, and
students islamic services for the teaching English.
thought. Preparing development and 5. To create an islamic atmosphere
students to have wider implementation of in academic interaction and set the
knowledge, insightful, educational and standardized norm of interaction
competitive, and able linguistic sciences.
to meet people's needs 4. Establishing an Aims:
and ready to face the Islamic environment 1. To produce Professional English
global challenges and culture. teachers and educators having the
based on Islamic islamic characters both locally and
values. The Aims: nationally.
1. To produce 2. to produce research and
The aims are: graduates who are innovative studies in accordance
1. To prepare students professional, with the development of teaching
to become members of competitive, cultured and learning English
the community who based, and 3. to release the findings of concept
have the academic characterized based of knowledgeand paradigm in the
ability and Islam both locally and field of education, learning, and
professionalism. nationally. teaching English.
2. To develop, to 2. To produce the 4. to Produce English language
create, and to apply innovative creations education services to the community
knowledges, science in the field of in a variety of forms both in
and technology as well education and academic and non-academic in
as islamic art. language. accordance with the development of
3. To disseminate 3. To produce science and technology.
knowledge, science and educational and 5. to create professional academic
technology and islamic linguistic services to interactions and to support
art. the community in a character building and graduates
4. To promote the use various forms both in competence.
of science, science and academic and non- 6. to Produce the Memorandum of
technology and islamic academic. Understanding with some
arts in order to improve 4. To produce universities to develop the
the quality of people's innovative graduates institution.
lives. in the field of 7. to Provide good infrastructure in
education and the learning process in Islamic
(Rencana Induk language needed by ways.
Pengembangan IAIN the community.
Surakarta 2010-2015) 5. To create an The main competence of graduates:
atmosphere of • Pedagogical Competence,
islamic culture that • Personality Competence,
supports the • Professional Competence,
formation of character • Social Competence.
and competence of
graduates. supporting competence
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• Mastering ICT in English


(Borang Fakultas • Mastering quantitative ,
Tarbiyah dan Bahasa qualitative, and Action Resesrach
Akreditasi Program methodology,
Studi Sarjana Tahun • having good ability to translate the
2012) text from English-Indonesia or vice
versa

Elective course/ competence


• Guiding
• Translation entrepreneurship,
• Hospitality and travel handling.

(Borang Akreditasi Prodi


Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris 2012)

Table 1 Paradigm shift comparison between ELE HKU and ELE IAIN
Surakarta

Paradigm ELE HKU PBI IAIN Surakarta Keteranga


aspects n
ESL/EFL
(Kostoulas
2010))
What  English language and Main competence: Both
linguistics courses  Pedagogical universiti
 Pedagogy,sociology and competence, es offer
psychology integrated  Personality competence, the
courses  Professional similar
 Educational studies competence, learning
 Pedagogy (methods of  Social competence, content.
teaching) and Pedagogical
Content Knowledge (PCK) Supporting competence
courses  Mastering ICT in
 Teaching practice in english.
primary and secondary  Mastering Research
school methodology;
 English and Chinese quantitative, qualitative
language enhancement and action research.
 Common Core courses  Mastering in translation;
translating the text from
English to Bahasa
Indonesia or vice-versa .

Elective course/ competence


 Guiding
 Translation
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enterpreneurship,
 Hotel and travel
handling.
How Integrated Course Individual Subject Each
E-learning Communicative Langguage universit
Experiential Learning Teaching y has
Theoretical lecture different
Practice way in
Project Based Learning offering
the
learning
content.

Why Explaining the vision, Explaining the vision and Both


mission and strategic plan of mission of the university based universiti
the university based on the through developing the es have
need of both local and curriculum that refers to the the reason
international society that curriculum from the central based on
refers to the central goverment, the needs of local situationa
goverment‟s plan, and societies and SWOT of l and
supported by the human department.
resources.

Discussion

Based on the intertextual analysis above, it can be said that the


paradigm and policy on teaching English in IAIN Surakarta still refer to the
dominant paradigm or teaching paradigm and begin to face the paradigm shift
and the changes will be based on the situational context and political policy
on education which is the government regulations.
like the English Language Education department in Indonesia, the
paradigm of English education at the department of English Language
Education IAIN Surakarta is implementing the Curriculum from the central
goverment (the Ministry of National Education). English Language Education
(ELE) paradigm that developed in Indonesia is dynamic. Its paradigm shift
happening today is derrived from the base of curriculum. The Base is is
currently being shifted from competency-based curriculum (CBC) to
Outcomes-based curriculum (Imroatus Sholihah, 2014c).
Currently the new curriculum in ELE Department is still on the
preparation stage. The main stage is formulating KKNI. It has been done by
running the workshop on formulating KKNI conducted by Center for Quality
Assurance (LPM) IAIN Surakarta. The aim of the workshop was directed to
run the paradigm shift launched by the government. This paradigm shift is
based on the premise that indonesia will be able to survive and to keep
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moving forward in the global economic place. The mutual understanding will
be considered to develop national labor qualifications (Minister of Education,
2010: 4). KKNI is a hierarchy of qualifications of the competence that can
reconcile, equalize, and integrate between the field of education and
vocational training in accordance with the structure of employment in various
sectors (Perpres No. 8 Tahun 2012 Pasal 1 Ayat (1)).
The results of the interview with some of the lecturers in the
Department of PBI IAIN Surakarta showed the tendency of some lecturers
began to use learner centered method. Some instructors have already applied
Project Based Learning. In fact, there are problems in the implementation of
the Teaching and Learning method they use. The problems are mainly related
to the academic policy that has not given yet to support the process of
learning by those methods that tend to embrace learning paradigm
integratively and cooperatively. Another problem is mainly related to
inadequate infrastructure facilities and resources, so the learning process can
not run succesfully and the learning objectives can not be achieved optimally.
This case is very different from the situation existing at ELE Hong
Kong University as a new paradigm shift called learning paradigm. This
happen because the paradigm and the policy of English Language Education
at ELE Hong Kong University has been adapted to the needs of the global
market as stipulated in the vision, mission, strategic plan and it is supported
by good quality of human resources to meet standardized graduate set by the
government. Therefore learning programs, assessment programs and agencies
have already referring to international standards.
The Hong Kong University, the reformation of Educational
curriculum on undergraduate level has been started since 2012, which was the
"total learning experience". Experiential learning as the example is not only
the method used by course instructors to teach but it has been a learning
system applied throughout the university and protected by policies to
maintain and improve the quality of teaching and provided by completed
infrastructure and facilities to build a new educational paradigm atmosphere.
It can be understood from the following quote:
In the past decade, HKU witnessed a historic reform in its
undergraduate education. The new undergraduate curriculum was
successfully implemented in September 2012. HKU took full
advantage of this opportunity to re-envision our curriculum as a „total
learning experience‟. We have introduced new and innovative forms
of learning, upgraded our infrastructure and extended learning into all
corners of university life (The University of Hong Kong)
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The figure of curriculum at HKU can be seen from the following table.

Chart 3. A Transformative Undergraduate Curriculum in HKU


Experiential Learning system in teaching and learning is the combination
between experential and outdoor activity which is formulated into
standardized formal curriculum for the profession program and is still
proposing for non-profession program. Experential learning
Experiential learning also enacted at the university level in the form of the
student exchange program that supports the international reputation on
campus and at the same time students who returned after being sent overseas
will support their maturity and have a good quality of human resources after
obtaining a rich learning experience and the different education environment,
social and cultural as stated in the following quote:

The incorporation of experiential and „out of classroom‟ learning into


the formal curriculum is standard practice in professional
programmes and is increasingly being formalized in non-professional
programmes at HKU. This bottom-up initiative has been made one of
the common learning experiences in the 4-year curriculum.Other
experiential learning is also organised at University level. The HKU
Worldwide Student Exchange Programme administers reciprocal
academic student exchanges with over 280 partner institutions in 37
countries. Incoming exchange students contribute to internationalising
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the campus while outgoing undergraduates invariably return as more


mature and resourceful individuals after having acquired a rich
learning experience in a different educational, social and cultural
environment (The University of Hong Kong)

Experiential learning system at HKU is the combination among Outcome-


based Approach to Student Learning (OBASL), Problem-based Learning and
Co-curricular Learning. The objective of the OBASL at HKU is to involve
students in-depth understanding as in the following passage:
The ultimate goal is to engage students in deep understanding (deep
learning) rather than a surface factual recall (surface learning) which
teaching and learning research indicates is achieved through clear
understanding and appreciation of the Learning Outcomes (The
University of Hong Kong)

While the Problem-Based Learning and student-centered learning at the


university are to encourage the students learn actively. As the following
statement.
The University adopts problem-based and student-centred learning to
stimulate active learning among students. Authentic problems or
situations are used as a way of stimulating students to discover and
explore the key concepts and skills of the discipline in class, while
teachers act as facilitators and guides in the process. This new
learning method helps students to reason their way through problems,
to think critically, and to learn to become self-directed lifelong learner
(The University of Hong Kong)

Co-curicular Learning Center managed by a specific unit and is integrated


into the curriculum at the university level and faculty as the following:
The Centre of Development and Resources for Students (CEDARS)
and the General Education Unit (GEU) are the main providers of co-
curricular non-credit-bearing learning activities at HKU. Students
also engage in community service or advocacy projects which
typically entail a process of training, service and reflection. CEDARS
liaises with Faculties on how to better integrate service learning with
the formal curriculum (The University of Hong Kong)
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Learning description at HKU can be seen as follows:

Chart 4. Common earning Expereinces di HKU

Good Facilities and the good learning support systems at HKU support the
learning paradigm.
The following chart explains the facilities.

Chart 5 Support and Resources in HKU

Hypothesis
Based on the description above, the conclusion is the paradigm and the
policy on both the Division of English Language Education of the Hong Kong
University and English Language Education Department of IAIN Surakarta
are influenced by situational context , cultural context and the orientation of
each college. In the formulation of the vision, mission and strategic plans of
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the Division or Department is influenced by the educational policy of the


ruling government, market needs, and the resources of the University.

Conclusion
Theory on Teaching English is currently moving on a paradigm shift.
This paradigm occurred because of a review on the basics of linguistic,
pedagogic and the review on the impact of sociolinguistics in a globalized
setting. The results show that the content of English Language Education
taught at the Division of English Language Education (ELE) HKU and at the
English Language Education Department (PBI) IAIN Surakarta have the
same characteristics but the ways in providing educational materials are
relatively different. The paradigm and academic policiy in ELE HKU applied
the learning paradigm while at PBI IAIN Surakarta is still applying on
teaching paradigm. When the study was conducted by researcher, the ELE
Department IAIN Surakarta has been moving towards a paradigm shift in
some academic elements as the use of the methods by lecturers called
learning paradigm, although the method is not covered by the policy. The
difference between Paradigm and policy in both universities is influenced by
the context of the political situation, especially the rules of ministry of higher
education, cultural context and the orientation on each university.

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Sage Publication
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The Change of Mental Process in the Translation of Ronggeng


Dhukuh Paruk from Bahasa Indonesia into English

Khristianto
Faculty of Letters
the University of Muhammadiyah Purwokerto
kristian.topz@gmail.com

Abstract
Mental process (thinking activities) is a part of transitivity system,
representing language meaning as a symbol or representation meaning. In
translation, this meaning is the most important, determining whether or not a
clause is translated correctly. It means a sentence with a mental-process
predicate will be right only, if it is realized in the same process. This paper
tries to prove this notion, by exploring a novel translation from Bahasa to
English. It employs Halliday‟s transitivity as a means to contrast a source text
(T1) and a target text (T2).
Based on the analysis, it is found out that some mental processes in the novel
are translated into another process. Perception and affection are two subtypes
of mental process which are translated into relational process and material
process. The change into relational process is identified in many cases;
though most of the data are translated into a the same mental process. This
change is triggered by the strategies of modulation and transposition.
Meanwhile, there is only a single case of change into a material process,
which is resulted from the different realization, literal to metaphorical
expression. Thus, this proves that the change of a process in a clause does not
necessarily entail a change of meaning.

Keywords: mental process, perception, affection, transitivity, meaning


realization.

Abstact

Proses mental (thinking activities) merupakan bagian dari sistem transitivas,


yang mewakili makna bahasa sebagai simbol atau makna representasi. Dalam
penerjemahan, makna ini adalah makna terpenting, yang menentukan
benar/salah. Artinya satu klausa dengan predikat bertipe proses mental hanya
akan benar bila diterjemahkan menjadi klausa dengan jenis proses yang
sama. Tulisan ini akan membuktikan apakah dalil ini selalu benar, dengan
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mengkaji penerjemahan novel RDP dari bahasa Indonesia ke bahasa Inggris.


Teori transitivitas Halliday diterapkan sebagai perangkat kontrastif realisasi
proses mental dalam teks asli (T1) dan teks terjemahan (T2). Dari analisa
yang dilakukan, ditemukan sebagian klausa proses mental pada T1
diterjemahkan dengan klausa berpredikat bukan proses mental. Proses mental
yang mengalami perubahan adalah subtype persepsi dan afeksi. Mereka
direalisasikan menjadi proses material dan rasional. Perubahan menjadi
proses relasional merupakan perubahan yang dominan. Perubahan ini dipicu
oleh strategi penerjemahan modulasi dan transposisi. Sementara perubahan
menjadi proses material disebabkan oleh pengalihan gaya ungkap dari harfiah
menjadi metaforis. Terbukti bahwa perubahan proses yang terjadi tidak
secara otomatis mengubah makna atau pesan.

Kata kunci: proses mental, persepsi, afeksi, transitivitas, realisasi makna.

Introduction

Mental process refers to a category of activities which may be


embodied in a clause. It is just one of the six main types of the processes
formulated by Halliday (1985). Mental process is a type of activity
represented in a language to construe “our experience of the world of
our own consciousness” (Halliday & Matthiessen, 2004: 197). The verbs
like know, hate, like and the like are the examples. A clause bearing the
words will always depict “quantum of change in the flow of events taking
place in our own consciousness” (ibid).
A clause in a certain type of process in a language logically has to
be realized in another clause with similar type when it is translated into
another language. However, a different semiotic system may lead a
translator to change the processes type due to some determining factors.
This paper addresses the issue of process type change in a translation
involving Indonesian-English, particularly the mental process type.
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Translation is a process of meaning extraction from a text and


put the meaning into another. With meaning as its commodity,
translation is a communication involving at least two semiotic systems,
always operating in a certain context. Text, according to Halliday dan
Hasan (1985, Tou:1992:14), is a collection of meaning codified in words
and structures. It is a process and and product of social meaning in a
situational context (ibid:15). Further, they explain that a text presents in
variables determining their presentation manifestation. Text is always
influenced by field, tenor, and mode, and also its situational and cultural
contexts.
A translation work is a realization of single meaning in another
language. Thus, the meaning, which covers three types of meanings, is
represented in different verbal semiotic systems. In translation, the most
prominent meaning, “highest value”, to be maintained is the ideational
meaning; when TT fails to match ideationally to ST, it will not be viewed
as a translation (Halliday in Manfredi, 2008: 64-65). This is general for
translation work. A real value as the most important one to be
maintained is by context. In a certain case, it is very possible that another
meaning, either interpersonal or textual, bears the highest value.
Halliday sums the criteria of a good translation as, “a text which is a
translation (i.e. is equivalent) in respect of those linguistic features
which are most valued in the given translation context.” A translator
surely will try to realize all those three meanings from the ST in his/her
work.
Thus, it can be said that translation texts are representation of
one meaning in different languages. Textual realizations there are
comparable linguistic phenomena as a way to understand the working
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semiotic systems. Each text involved in translation is created for one


meaning to equalize the source work. If it is a novel, the translation
should be the same novel in other language(s). This means that the
textual realization there illustrates how a language operates for the
meaning, and the comparative study on languages in translation can
represent their linguistic characteristics. The use of translation text as
the source of language description has been done by many researches
(Yuli & Yushan: 2012, Lian & Jiang: 2014, Khristianto: 2014). The first
two compare English-Chinese, and the third describes Indonesia,
Javanese and English.
Another research exploring modality in translation is done by
Mao, Li and Xue (2014). They analyzed a drama, Major Barbara, and its
two Chinese versions as the data corpus to compare the modality system
in English and Chinese. A study investigating a different facet of
functional linguistics was done by Lavid, Arus, and Moraton (2009). It
focused on thematisation between English and Spanish, using
bidirectional translated text in the languages on different genres. Similar
to previous studies, this study also applied an approach of contrastive
functional description. In English-Indonesian texts, the study on
thematic structure has been done by Budiman (2006) and Wulandari
(2013). Both took Obama’s speech, the former used Obama’s first
inaugural speech and the latter selected Obama’s speech delivered in his
visit to Indonesia University, as the translation data to see how the
theme structure in two versions are different from one to another.
This paper will focus only on the variation of mental process
realization from Indonesian into English. The data sources are the novels
of Ronggeng Dhukuh Paruk (Tohari (1982), (2003), and (2006)) in two
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different languages, Bahasa Indonesia and English. This applies


Halliday’s transitivity to see the changes of mental process category in
the clauses collected from the sources.

Discussion

As mentioned earlier, mental process is a process characterized


by the activity occurring in our mind / consciousness. It includes
perception, cognition, and affection. These mental processes in the data
analyzed are also found to have a variation or change into other types of
processes. Each category of the mental process does change into another.
The first process of “perception” has been changed into “doing” and
“relational”.
1. Makin sering terdengar suara tangis bayi.

Makin sering terdengar suara tangis


bayi
cir: manner seeing proc. phenomenon
The cry of a baby pierced the silence
The cry of a pierced the silence
baby
actor doing proc. goal

The datum 1 above shows the process of perception or the so-called


process of seeing which is represented by the word "terdengar” (‘sound’)
turned out into a process with the verb "pierced", which is “material”
type of process. Material process is “concerned with our experience of
the material world” (Halliday & Matthiessen, 2003:197). “Pierce” means
a physical activity, though it is used metaphorically. Meanwhile, the
word "sound" clearly represents the activities carried out through the
sense of hearing, a perception.
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A change from mental to material is a big leap, considering both


are very different. It is like a change from one extreme to another in a
long continuum. The big difference between these processes can be seen
in their position on Halliday’s diagram (1994:108). The reason behind
this drastic change is the different style of expression in T1 and T2. T1
puts the meaning literally; T2 evokes the same meaning in a metaphor.
Thus, though the wording is different, T2 still maintains the same
meaning.
Another change of the perception process is into a relation
process, either attributive or identifying. “Relational clauses serve to
characterize and to identify” (Halliday & Matthiessen, 2003:210). As
shown in the datum 2, the clause in T1 has a verb "look" representing a
perception process done by “visual” sense. It is then changed into a main
verb form, to be "was" or linking verb "show" that both embodies a
process-attributive relations. Similar transitions are also seen in the
datum 3 and 4 with the changes of "tampak” (“seen”) into “was" and
“terdengar” (‘is heard’) into “was” .
2 Tidak tampak tanda Srintil lelah
Tidak tampak tanda Srintil lelah
seeing proc. phenomenon
If Srintil was tired, she showed no evidence of it
If Srintil was tired she showed
no
evidence…
carrier attributive attribute carrier attributive attribute
proc. proc.

Another case is seen from datum 4 in which a main verb


“melihat” "to see", perceiving through visual sense, is transferred into
"look" that serves as a linking verb to be synonymous with to be; it
serves to “characterize” the subject (carrier). The verb as predicate
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connects the carrier to its complement or attribute. This change is a


result of the transposition (Vinay and Darbelnet in Newmark, 1988:86)
from an active into a passive construction.
It shows a significant transposition from T1, which is packed in
simplex clause, into a T2 complex clause. For this Newmark (1988:87)
further explains, “Certain transpositions appear to go beyond linguistic
differences and can be regarded as general options available for stylistic
consideration. Thus a complex sentence can normally be converted to a
co-ordinate sentence or to two simple sentences…” (my emphasis). This
way provides evidence that a translator has a space to negotiate; he/she
can go in another path the author does not take—as long as the writer’s
meaning is preserved in the translation.
3. Dari tempatnya yang tinggi kedua burung bangau itu melihat
Dukuh Paruk sebagai sebuah gerumbul kecil di tengah padang
yang amat luas.
Dari kedua melihat Dukuh
tempatnya... burung... Paruk...
cir senser seeing proc. phenomenon
From the high vantage point of the two herons, the village of
Paruk would have looked like a small thicket in the middle of a
broad field.
From the the village would... looked a small
high... like thicket
cir carrier attributive attribute
proc.

What happen here is the change in point of view, modulation


strategy (Vinet and Darbelnet in Baker and Saldanha, 2009:582). They
say, ‘[a] translation method consisting of changing a point of view, an
evocation, and often a category of thought’ (Vinay and Darbelnet
1995:346). T1 positions the bird as the acting subject and the village as
the object; in T2, they are only a point from which the village is seen, and
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the village is the subject of passive-like construction using linking verb,


“look”. This modulation has made the shift on process type.
In addition to the change into relational process of attributive
subtype, the perception process is also found to be translated into an
identifying relational process. Some sample data showing such change is
as follows. The original clause with a verb of “mendengar” (‘hear’),
which clearly shows the activity of the auditory sense, is then embodied
in a target clause into a process of "being"; it shows an identification. One
way to prove the identification process is reversibility, the possibility of
a reversal of the position of the subject-complement, because either
complement or subject refers to a single referent. Here again, it can be
recognized an obvious transposition involved; the strategy is the culprit
for the shift on the process type.
4. Tetapi Santayib mendengarnya sebagai hiruk-pikuk
suasana ribuan monyet di pekuburan Dukuh Paruk.
Tetapi Santayib mendengar -nya sebagai...
senser seeing proc. phenomenon cir.
all Santayib registered was the cacophony of a thousand
screaming monkeys from the village cemetery.
all Santayib... was the cacophony...
token identifyng proc. value

Another subtype of the mental process is cognition, or thinking


process. The verbs included in this subtype are think, remember, remind,
know, and etc. In the data, the process of cognition in T1 is transferred
into an attributive-relational process. This can be seen in the data below
in which the verb “paham” (‘understand’), a thinking process, is then
realized into a main process of ‘being’ (was). “Was” in the T2 (target
text) is the main verb to represent the relational process.
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5. Boleh jadi Srintil belum faham benar makna lirik lagu


itu.
Boleh Srintil belum faham… makna…
jadi
senser knowing proc. Phenom.
It wasn't likely that she was able to fully fathom the
meaning of the lyrics.
It wasn't ... she was able to fully…
carrier attributive proc. attribute

However, it is seen that the meaning of “paham” is equal to the


verb “fathom”. This way reveals that “was” in the clause functions to be
“an auxiliary” to mean “can”. Thus, the change of the process is not there
since the cognition process of “paham” (‘understand’) is maintained in
its English version, “fathom”. It can be concluded that the cognition
process has no change in its translation.
The third subtype of mental process is affection, an emotion
aspect. It covers the words like love, hate, like, dislike. The affection in the
data is turned into an attributive relational process, as in the datum 6.
The predicate as the process realization in T1 is the verb “rindu” (‘to
long’). The clause with affection process is changed into a relational
clause with "were" as the main verb in the predicate of the target text.
The meaning of ‘to long’ is then embodied into an adjective “impatient”
in the translation.
6. Mereka sudah begitu rindu akan suara calung.
akan suara
Mereka sudah begitu rindu
calung
feeling
Senser phenomenon
proc.
They were impatient to hear the calung ensemble
They were Impatient…
Carrier attributive proc. attribute
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Thus, among four subtypes of mental process (perception,


cognition, affection and volition), only perception and affection are
changed into a different type of process. Most changes are identified in
the clauses with a perception process. The changes are due to the
translation strategies of transposition, and modulation. Another factor of
the change is the use of metaphorical expression in the target text to
realize a literal clause in the source.

Conclusion
A translation of clauses packed in mental process from Bahasa
Indonesia into English in the novel has given an evidence that variation
is possible. It opens a potential negotiation between the source and
target texts. A target text is not always fully obedient to its source. In
another way, a translator does not need to be dictated by an author to
express the meaning. As long as the meaning is maintained, a translator
has a free space to express it in his/her personal preference.

References

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_____. (1982). Ronggeng Dhukuh Paruk. Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama.
Asruddin Barori Tou. (2008). An SFL-inspired framework of translation:
a translational semiotic communication model. Journal of Modern
Languages. 18: 15-40.
Baker, Mona & Saldanha, Gabriela. 2009. Routledge Encyclopedia of
Translation Studies (2nd Edition). New York: Routledge. Taylor and
Francis e-Library.
Budiman, Arif. 2009. Thematic Structure Shift in Obama’s Inaugural
Speech in Between English and Indonesian Versions (A Systemic
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Functional Grammar Approach)-Master Thesis-Unpublished.


Yogyakarta: Graduate School, Faculty of Cultural Science, the
University of Gadjah Mada.
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Edward Arnolds.
Halliday, M.A.K. & Hasan, R. (1994). Bahasa, konteks, dan teks: aspek-
aspek bahasa dala pandangan semiotika sosial. (Terjemahan
Assruddin B.Tou). Yogyakarya: Gadjah Mada University Press. (The
original was published in 1985 by Deakin University, Victoria).
Halliday, M.A.K., Matthiessen, C.M.I.M. (2004). An introduction to
functional grammar (revised ed.). London: Arnolds.
Khristianto. 2013. The Various Realization of Relational Process between
the Javanese and English : A Study Case of Transtivity Theory Look on
Ronggeng Dukuh Paruk. Translation Conference 2013 (September
2013). Jakarta: LTBI, UNIKA Atmajaya
Lavid, Julia & Arus, Jorge & Moraton, Lara. 2009. Comparison and
Translation: Towards a Combined Methodology for Contrastive
Corpus Studies. International Journal of English Studies (IJES),
Special Issue:2009. University of Murcia.
Lian, Zhangjun & Jiang, Ting. 2014. A Study of Modality System in Chinese-
English Legal Translation from the Perspective of SFG. Cross-Cultural
Communication, Vol.4, No.3, pp.497-503, March 2014.
www.cscanada.net
Manfredi, Marina. 2008. Translating Text and Context: Translation Studies
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Mao, Zan, Li, Na & Xue, Jiao. 2014. Corpus Stylistic Analysis of Modal Verbs
in Major Barbara and its Chinese Versions. Theory and Practice in
Language Studies, Vol. No.1, pp-70-78, January 2014. Finland:
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Newmark, Peter. (1988). A Textbook of Translation. London: Prentice
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Wulandari, Diyah Fitri. 2013. Thematic structure shift found in English-
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AN ANALYSIS ON SUBTITLING STRATEGIES OF ROMEO AND


JULIET MOVIE

Endang Dwi Hastuti


SMA Negeri I Sumberlawang
hastuti.endangdwi@yahoo.com

Abstract
The focus of this research is to identify the subtitling strategies applied
in the subtitling of Romeo and Juliet movie. This research belongs to
descriptive qualitative research along with purposive sampling techniques.
The objects of the research are English sentences spoken by the actors and
actress in Romeo and Juliet movie as a source text (ST) and its Indonesian
subtitling as a target text (TT).
The research findings show that the subtitling strategies applied in
Romeo and Juliet movie are expansion, paraphrase, transfer, imitation,
condensation, decimation, deletion, taming, and resignation. Among those
strategies; condensation is the most dominant one due to the limited space
and subtitling time appearance because in the subtitling process, there
should be a thrifty translation whereas, the accuracy of Romeo and Juliet
subtitling depends on the context covering the text, both situation context and
cultural context. There are three components covering the situation context,
namely field, mode/channel, and tenor/relation.

Key words: Subtitling Strategy, Subtitling Accuracy, Thrifty Translation

Abstrak

Fokus penelitian ini ialah untuk mengidentifikasi strategi subtitling yang


diterapkan dalam subtitling film Romeo and Juliet. Penelitian bersifat
deskriptif kualitatif dengan menggunakan teknik purposive sampling. Obyek
penelitian ini adalah kalimat bahasa Inggris yang diucapkan oleh para aktor
dan aktris di film Romeo and Juliet sebagai teks sumber (ST) dan subtitling
Indonesia sebagai teks sasaran (TT). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa
strategi subtitling yang diterapkan dalam film Romeo and Juliet ialah:
ekspansi ,parafrase, transfer, imitasi, kondensasi penipisan (decimation),
penghapusan, pelembutan (taming) dan pengunduran (resignation). Di
antara strategi-strategi tersebut kondensasi adalah yang paling dominan
karena keterbatasan ruang subtitling dan ketersediaan waktu karena
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subtitling harus menghasilkan terjemahan yang hemat. Sedangkan akurasi


subtitling film Romeo and Juliet tergantung pada konteks yang meliputi teks,
baik konteks situasi dan konteks budaya. Ada tiga komponen yang meliputi
konteks situasi, yaitu lapangan, modus / channel, dan tenor / relasi.

Kata kunci: Strategi subtitling, ketepatan subtitling, terjemahan yang hemat

Introduction

Recently, movie translation or subtitling grows rapidly. There are two


kinds of movie translation namely: dubbing and subtitling which have
differences in both. Bordwell and Thompson (1990: 409) said “The most two
common forms of screen translation are dubbing and subtitling”. Then he
said further “Dubbing is the process of replacing part or all of the voices on
the sountrack in order to correct mistakes or rerecord dialog”. It means that
a dubbing is a process to replace voice in “soundtrack” to correct the
mistakes and re-record the voice. Thomson also said that dubbing can also be
applied not only from Source Language (SL) into Target Language (TL) but,
it also can be applied from Source language (SL) into source language (SL)
with the difference voice. Another translation expert, Whereas, Chitas, also
explored the definition of “dubbing” as follow: “Dubbing involves replacing
the original soundtract in the actor‟s dialogue with a target language (TL)
recording that reproduces the original message, while at the same time
ensuring that the TL sound and the same actors‟ lip movements are more or
less synchronized (2003:15)”. This definition stresses that dubbing involves
replacing the „soundtrack” from SL into TL with the same lips movement
from the actors.
Subtitling is truly different from dubbing. Gambier (1993: 276) explored
his definition about subtitling as follow: “Subtitling is one of two possible
methods for providing the translation of a movie dilaogue, where the original
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dialogue soundtrack is left in place and the translation is printed along the
bottom of the film”. In other words, it can be said that subtitling is done by
translating the film‟s dialogues then put the printed translation in the bottom
0f the film. Similarly as dubbing, the purpose of subtitling is helping the
viewers enjoy the films such as documenter movies, drama, and action and so
on. Then Betty White in (file:///G:/subtitling/eotvsection.php.htm
updated./04/01/2011) stressed that the amount lines of subtitling is not more
than two lines.
From the definition of dubbing and subtitling above, it can be concluded
that “dubbing” is the replacement of the original soundtrack of source
language (SL) into target language (TL) whereas “subtitling” is done by
sticking the written translation (target language) on the movie monitor.
Dubbing and subtitling are one of translation great works. Firstly, they are
done with translation process, and then continued by recording process or
sticking process.
The work of subtitling is done by having “texts” at first. The meaning of
the “text” depends on the situation context and cultural context. Situation
context is composed by some variables such as field (content), mode/channel
(spoken text/written text), and tenor/relation (the relation between the
speaker and the listeners/viewers or the writer and the reader). Knowing the
situation context and cultural context is very important in subtitling process
because by having them the translator can transfer the message from the
source text into target text well and he/she be able to choose the appropriate
translation strategies in doing his/her works. From those phenomenon, this
research focuses on (1) the equivalent meaning on subtitling of Romeo and
Juliet movie viewed from the context situation and cultural situation
covered the text, and (2) the translation strategies applied by the translator in
translating Romeo and Juliet movie.
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The Definition of Translation


There are some translation definitions explored by the experts of
translation. Some of them are Catford (1965), Nida and Teber (1974) and
Larson (1984). Catford (1965: 1) defined the translation as “an operation
performed on language: a process of substituting a text in one langauge for
a text in another”. Nida and Taber (1974) said that translating consist of
reproducing in the receptor language to the closest natural equivalent of the
source language message, at first in meaning and secondly in term of style.
While Larson (1983: 17) saw that translation is the replacement of meaning
from source language (SL) into target language (TL) by using the form of
the receptor target language. From the definition of translation above, it can
be concluded broadly, translation focuses on meaning equivalent.

Meaning (Situation Context and Cultural Context Based)

Neubert (1984) in Bell (1991: 79) said that meaning is “the kingpin of
translation studies. Without understanding what a text to be translated means
for L2 users the translator would be hopefully lost”. From this definition it
can be inferred that meaning has a broad definition. When we are talking
about “meaning” it means that we are not only talking about linguistics
aspect but also talking about everything outside the linguistics aspects such
as culture, situation, norm and rule of the society using that language.
The meaning of the text depends on the situation context and cultural
context. There are three components composed the situation contexts,
namely: field (content), mode/channel (written/spoken text), tenor/relation
(the relation between speaker-hearer/viewer) (Riyadi Santoso, 2003: 21). The
meaning of the text is also influenced by the culture covering the text
whether explicitly or implicitly. Explicitly, culture is a kind of artifact
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produced by the society such as clothes, foods, technology etc., while


implicitly, and culture appears in the forms of belief, attitude, values and
norms.

Subtitling Important Rules


Sugeng Hariyanto (2005: 100) said that there are some important rules in
subtitling such as the plot work, the movie terms, script and movie as a whole
work. Further, he said that “plot work” in subtitling means translating the
movie script from the source language into target language, then combine
the translation result with the movie and then revise it. Besides that, there are
some terms that should be known by the movie translator or subtitler such as
frame, shot, scene and sequences. Frame is a basic unit of the movie that is a
set of shot; then some shots are combined into scene; some scenes are
combined into scuents; and the last, some scuents combined into movie
which are connected by the dialogues. Besides, subtitling is also composed
by movie components such as soundtrack, music, effects, the tone of the
actors, mimic and gesture, camera movement, distance, and montage (cuts,
fade-in, dissolve, and so on).
Movie script refers to the source text that will be translated into target
text. There two kinds of scripts namely the original script and script purposed
to the movie translator. There are some notes for the original script such as
the setting notes, actor‟s mimic, and so on. The advantage of having original
script is that the translator knows “the situation” well. Whereas the script
proposed to translator does not include such notes but it includes the “timing”
notes which help in deciding the subtitling appearance in the movie monitor.
Movie as a whole work means that movie is the same as novel covered by
certain society culture that makes the translator works harder because the
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translators must transfer the semantic and pragmatics meaning, and also the
culture.

The Subtitling Difficulties


Translating a movie is not an easy work. Sugeng Haryanto (2005) said
that in translating a movie, the translator usually get difficulty in „language
and culture‟. Language difficulty refers to culture reference, idioms, diction,
humor and pragmatics meaning. Whereas culture difficulty refers to the lack
of knowledge and experience that the translator has related to the culture
habits done by the SL society. It also happens when the translator translates
idioms where they should choose the appropriate diction. It is very difficult
to translate an idiom because the limitedness equivalent meaning between
source language and target language. Then, the next problem that the
translator has is related to humor teasing allusion and pragmatics meaning.
Sometimes, the translator doesn‟t realize that the text which he/she translates
contain the implicit humor teasing allusion or the translator doesn‟t find the
appropriate equivalent meaning in target language because the meaning of
the humor related to the source language culture. While the difficulty in
pragmatics meaning means the difficulty in finding the appropriate
equivalent related to the actor‟s relation in composing dialogue especially
when the dialogues use certain dialect.
Sugeng Haryanto (2005) said further that movie translator also gets
difficulties because of limited time appearance and limited layout. There are
some subtitling layout rules such as the translation should be at the monitor
buttom, it just contains 2 lines in maximum, it only contains 35 characters for
each lines, it must be Helvetica or Arial font without sheriff, the font color
and the background must be in white, the text position is in the middle, and it
must be right flat for the dialogue beginning without a dash.
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Subtitling Strategies
Strategies here mean techniques used by translator in translating word,
phrase or speaker‟s utterance. Sugeng Haryanto (2005: 103) explored 10
subtitling strategies as follows:
1. Expansion
Expansion means giving addition meaning in the target language. For
example, the sentence that‟s in the dead day is translated into “Itu
terjadi di bebek mati (hari itu, seekor bebek mati kena lemparan
rotiku)”.
2. Paraphrase
In this strategy, the translator gives more explanation toward the part
of the sentence based on his/her own opinion. For example, the
sentence “Turn back no longer” is translated into “Jangan lagi melihat
masa lalu”.
3. Transfer
Transfer strategies are done by translating the source text literally. For
example, the sentence “Turn back no longer” is translated into
“Jangan lagi melihat-lihat ke belakang”.
4. Imitation
Imitation strategies are done by rewriting the source text into target
text. Usually this strategy is done in translating the name of person or
the name of place.
5. Transcription
This strategy is done by rewriting the certain words because of the
textual function how that language should be. For example, how the
sentence in the source text pronounced can be seen in the subtitling.
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6. Condensation
Condensation strategy is done by shortening the source text. In this
strategy the subtitler or translator eliminates unimportant utterance.
But, usually this strategy can make the loosing of pragmatics effect
that actually it should be transferred into target language
7. Decimation
Decimation is an extreme condensation. This strategy is usually used
in translating the actors‟ conversation or utterance when they have a
quarrel especially when they speak loudly and with fast speed.
8. Deletion
Deletion strategy means some of source texts are deleted because the
translator/subtitler believes that those parts are not important. The
differences between deletion and condensation is that in condensation
there is no any part that be deleted or it‟s just be condensed but in
deletion strategy there are some parts that be deleted by the translator.
9. Taming
Taming strategies is used to translate the rude or taboo words in order
to be acceptable in target language.
10. Resignation
Resignation is done when there is no any solution in transferring the
message from SL into TL. Automatically, the meaning of the source
text is not transferred into target language, or in other word it is
“untranslatable”.

Research Methodology

This research belongs to descriptive qualitative research with the aim to


describe the certain cases. The data in this research are the translation units in
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lingual forms of Romeo and Juliet Movie such as words, phrases and clauses
whereas, research procedures refer to a set of work in the research. Research
procedure is a map on how the research should be done, how to do it, and
why it is done. The researcher procedures belong to this research are data
collecting, data analysis technique, and presentation stage.
The object of the research is English Romeo and Juliet movie as the
source text (ST) and the Indonesian subtitling of Romeo and Juliet Movie as
the target language (TT). This research is done with the assumption that
Romeo and Juliet Movie is one of Shakespeare‟s masterpiece works and this
movie is one of Media to communicate between the author and the
readers/viewers. The data in this research is parallel bilingual corpus
consisting of spoken text spoken by the actors and actress in Romeo and
Juliet Movie as the source text (ST) and Indonesian subtitling appear in the
monitor as the target text (TT).There are some steps done in analyzing the
data. At first, the researcher focuses on identifying the source text meaning
profile and the equivalent meaning in target text then analyzing the
equivalent meaning based on the situation context and cultural context. Then,
the second analysis is focused on the subtitling strategies used in Romeo and
Juliet subtitling. The last stage of this research is composing and presenting
the result of the research. This research uses qualitative analysis strategy. In
presentation stage, in making the conclusion (verification) the researcher is
always eager to make clarification by having discussion with her colleges
toward the truth test of the meaning appears in the data.

Discussion

Language always appears in the form of “text”. The text‟s appearance


is surrounded with its society, whether physic or non-physic, which supports
the text existence or it can be said that a text always appears in its context. As
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explained before, there are two kinds of contexts surrounding the text,
namely situation context and cultural context. There are three variables
composing the situation context, namely field, tenor, and mode. Below are
the examples of the influence of situation context and cultural context toward
Romeo and Juliet movie translation.
Example

SL: Romeo : But soft! What light through younder window breaks?
It is the east, and Juliet is the sun
Arise, fair sun, and kill the envious moon
Who is already sick and pale with the grief
That thou her maid art far more fair than she
But not her maid, since she is envious
Her vistal livery is but sick and green
And none but fools do wear it; cast it off
It is my lady, O it is my love

TL: Romeo: Tapi lembut. Cahaya apa dari jendela itu


Itu di timur dan Juliet adalah matahari
Bangkitlah matahari dan bunuh bulan pengiri tu
Yang telah sakit dan pucat
Karena kau lebih cantik darinya
Jangan ikuti dia, karena ia iri hati
Begitu irinya dan hanya si dungulah yang menerimanya
Keluarlah
Itulah kekasihku
Dia menyadari itu

The description of situation context of prologue above is as follow. The


above prologue is spoken by Romeo in a night after having a party held by
Capulet family. In that party, Romeo met Juliet for the first time and they
both fall in love. After the party ends, Romeo tries to enter Juliet‟s chamber
by climbing the high wall fences. After reaching the Capulet‟s house, Romeo
is busy to find out Juliet‟s chamber, when he finds it; he speaks as the above
prologue. The tenor of this text is that Romeo who falls in love to Juliet after
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he meets Juliet for the first time. Juliet is a girl who makes Romeo‟s away
from Rosaline‟s love. The mode of this text is spoken text which is spoken
softly and full of feeling companied by soft music instrument. While the
cultural context of this text is that when someone is falling in love, he or she
would do everything although it is outside their capability; just want to meet
with the person whom he or she falls in love with. Furthermore, sometimes
he or she does a silly thing and annoy people‟s life just want to prove that he
or she really loves his or her partner.
There are some interesting things toward those subtitling/translation.
The first, the translation of the sentence “It is the east, and Juliet is the sun”
which is translated into “ Itu di timur dan Juliet adalah matahari”. Actually,
the source text is the conditional sentence in which the word “if” is
implicated so, the clause “It is this east” has a meaning “Andai itu timur”.
Secondly, the clause “That thou her maid art” is not translated by the
translator. Actually, the phrase “her maid” relates to western culture having a
meaning “the servant of Diana, the virgin goodness of the moon, was
unmarried maidens”. The Europeans believe that “Dewi Bulan” has a
faithful maid named Diana who never got married during her life and gave
her whole life to Dewi Bulan. Thirdly, the translation of the sentence “And
none but fools do wear it; cast it off” which is translated into “Begitu irinya
dia hanya si dungulah yang menerimanya”. We can see that this translation
is influenced by the situation context. The situation context composes this
clause is that Romeo is truly falling in love with Juliet, so he thinks that just
a fool person goes to Diana‟s thinking (Dewi Bulan‟s maid) who decides to
be unmarried woman during her life. Fourth, the translation of the sentence
“It is my lady, O it is my love” which is translated into “Keluarlah, itulah
kekasihku”. When we pay attention more to that translation it seems that the
meaning of target language is totally different from the meaning of source
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language. The translator fails to transfer the meaning of the clause “It is my
lady”. The translation is influenced by the situation context that Romeo
truly wanted to meet Juliet that night so he really hoped that Juliet came out
her chamber when Romeo saw Juliet‟s shadow. Fifth, the translator also fails
to translate the sentence “O that she knew she were” which is translated into
“Dia menyadari itu”. Actually this sentence has a purpose that is Romeo
hopes; Juliet knows that she is Romeo‟s lover now.

Subtitling Strategies

As explained before, subtitling strategies here mean techniques used by


the translator in translating word, phrase or speaker‟s utterance. It‟s very
possible that one sentence is translated by using one or more translation
strategies. There are 10 subtitling strategies that can be applied in subtitling,
namely: expansion, paraphrase, transfer, imitation, transcription,
condensation, decimation, deletion, taming, and resignation
a. Expansion
The followings are the examples of translation using expansion strategies.
1. SL: Narator : In fair Verona, where we lay our scene.
TL: Narator : Di Verona yang indah, dimana kami bercerita

2. SL: Sampson : I will bite my thumb at them which is disgrace to


them if they bear it.
TL: Sampson : Kugigit jempolku sebagai tanda memperlakukan
mereka jika mereka tahan. Majulah aku akan
mendukungmu

In the first sentence, “In fair Verona, where we lay our scene” and it
is translated into “Di Verona yang indah, diamana kami bercerita”. Here,
we can see that the translator gives more explanation by adding the phrase
“yang indah”. It is done because the movie shows the view and the
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description about Verona that looks so beautiful, clean, metropolis city


full of citizen‟s joys. While in the second example, expansion strategies
appear by adding explanation in the sentence “Majulah, aku akan
mendukungmu”. The addition of this sentence has a purpose to clarify the
meaning of the clause “I will bite my thumb at them”. This clause,
culturally has a meaning “an action which indicated contempt or
defiance” or a kind of action to mock somebody else. The adding of the
sentence “Majulah, aku akan mendukungmu” has a purpose that Sampson
endorses his friends to fight with the Capulets.

b. Paraphrase
The followings are the examples of paraphrase strategy:
1. Sl : I‟ll look to like, if looking like move
TL :Aku akan melihatnya dulu untuk memastikan apa aku
mencintainya
2. SL : This is the matter. Nurse, give leave a while
We must talk in secret. Nurse comes back again
I have remembered me, thou‟s hear our counsel
Thou know‟st my daughters of a pretty age

TL : Suster biarkan kami sendiri


Kami harus bicara empat mata. Suster, kembalilah
Aku baru mengingatkan diriku. Dengar percakapan
kami
Suster, kini kau tahu putriku mulai menjadi remaja
cantik

The paraphrase strategies appear in the first sentence that is in the


phrase “if liking moving to move” which is translated into “untuk
memastikan apa aku mencintainya”. The sentence ““I‟ll to look like, if
looking liking move” has a meaning if just by seeing it can make
someone falls in love, then Juliet wants to see Paris at first with the hope
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that she can fall in love to Paris as what her mother hopes. In the
second sentence, the paraphrase strategy appears in the translation of the
sentence “We must talk in secret” which is translated into “Kami harus
bicara empat mata” and the sentence “Thou know‟st my daughters of a
pretty age” which is translated into “Suster, kini kau tahu putriku telah
menjadi remaja cantik”. The phrase “in secret” has a meaning “rahasia”
and the translator paraphrases into “empat mata”. Whereas the phrase “
of pretty age” has the same meaning with “at an attractive age” that is
the changing of people‟s growth from a child into teenager or in
Indonesian it‟s famous with ABG (Anak Baru Gede) in which at this age
a girl usually looks more attractive and charming.

c. Transfer
The followings are the examples of transfer strategy:
1. SL: Romeo : Well what was yours?
Mercutio : That dreamers often lie

TL: Romeo : Dan apa mimpimu?


Mercutio : Pemimpi sering berbohong

2. SL: Romeo : Peace, Mercutio, peace!. You talk of nothing


Mercutio : True, I talk of dreams

TL: Romeo : Tenanglah Mercutio, tenang. Kau Cuma mengada-


ada.
Mercutio : Benar, aku bicara tentang mimpi

3. SL: Romeo :My lips, two blushing pilgrims, ready stand


To smooth that rough touch with a tender kiss

TL: Romeo : Bibirku seperti dua musafir, siap untuk


Melembutkan sentuhan kasar itu dengan ciuman
lembut
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Let‟s pay attention more to the underlined sentences above. At those


sentences, it‟s clear that the translator translates those sentences literally,
without giving more explanation or point of view changing. In the first
sentence, the translation of the sentence “That dreamers often lie” is
translated into “Pemimpi sering berbohong”. The word “lie” means “tell
lie” or in Indonesia it‟s equivalent with “pembohong/pendusta”. In the
second example, the clause “Peace, Mercutio, peace!” and “True, I talk
of dreams” which each clauses is translated into ““Tenanglah Mercutio,
tenang” and “Benar, aku bicara tentang mimpi”. Here, it‟s so clear that
the translator only transfers the meaning of source language into target
language literally. The same case also happens in third example “My
lips, two blushing pilgrims, and ready stand. To smooth that rough touch
with a tender kiss” which‟s translated into “Bibirku seperti dua musafir,
siap untuk melembutkan sentuhan kasar itu dengan ciuman lembut”.

d. Imitation
Below are the examples of imitation strategy.
1. SL: Sampson : A dog of the house of Montague move me
TL: Sampson :Anjing di rumah Montague membuatku
marah

2. SL: Narrator : In fair Veronna where we lay our scene


TL: Narator : Di Verona yang indah dimana kami bercerita

3. SL: Lady Montague : O where is Romeo? Saw you him today?


TL: Lady Montague :Dimana Romeo? Kau melihatnya tadi?

As it has explained previously, imitation strategy is done in which


the translators rewrite the source text into target text as what it is. This
strategy is usually applied in translating the name of person or the name
of place. In the above example, we can see that the translator just brings
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the word Montague, Verona, and Romeo into target text without
changing its phonemes or its writing.
e. Transcription
This strategy is done by re-writing the use of certain words to fulfill
the textual function about how the language should be used. But, in this
research the researcher doesn‟t find the using transcription strategy.

f. Condensation
The followings are the examples of condensation strategy.
1. Sl: Nurse : Now, by my maidenhead at twelve years old. I bade
her come.
What , lamb! What lady bird. God Forbid! Where is
the girl?
Juliet
TL: Nurse :Aku akan memanggilnya. Tuhan melarang. Juliet……

2. SL: Capulet : Trust to it, bethink you, I‟ll not be forsworn


TL: Capulet : Percayalah. Pikirkanlah

3. SL: Clown : Madam, the guest are come supper served up, you
called
TL: Clown : Nyonya, para tamu telah hadir

Condensation strategy is applied by summarizing the useless sentence


or utterance. In the first sentence, the translator condenses the sentence
“Now, by my maidenhead at twelve years old. What, lamb! What lady
bird. Where is the girl?” in the target text. Actually, the sentence “What,
lady-bird! God forbid! “What, lamb! What lady bird” has a meaning the
Nurse asks Juliet to come. The Nurse uses the phrase “lady bird” means
“woman of bad reputation” so, the use of phrase “God forbid” means that
Juliet should not be such kind of that girl. Furthermore, that sentence is
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translated by using condensation strategy because the Nurse speaks so


loudly and fast.
In the second example, condensation appears in the sentence “I‟ll not
be forsworn”. In this case, the condensation is done because this sentence
is spoken fast and loudly. This quarrel happens because the speaker
(Capulet) is getting angry because of Juliet‟s refusal toward Paris‟
proposal. In the third sentence, “Madam, the guests are come supper
served up, you called” which is translated into “Nyonya, para tamu telah
hadir”, the condensation in this translation appears in “supper served up
and you called”. Although the translator condenses those clauses in the
translation, but the viewers understand the message because in the screen
also presented the served meals on the table and all the guests are ready
with the party.

g. Desimation
The followings are the example of decimation strategies.
1. SL: Tybalt : What, drawn, and talk of peace? I hate the word
TL: Tybalt : Damai? Aku benci kata itu

2. SL: Tybalt : Have at thee, coward


TL: Tybalt : Majulah, Ayo
3. SL: Sampson: Quarrel. I‟ll back thee. Nay, as they dare
TL: Sampson : Berkelahi aku akan mendukungmu

In the first example, the decimation appears when the translator


translates the sentence ““What, drawn, and talk of peace” which is
translated into “damai?”. It means that there is an extreme condensation
which‟s called decimation. This utterance is spoken by Tybalt when he
gets a quarrel with the Motagues family named Benvolio. The same cases
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also appear in the second and third examples. The second and third
examples literally have meanings “Majulah kalian semua, pengecut”, but
the translator condenses it into “Majulah, Ayo”. while in the sentence
“Quarrel. I‟ll back thee. Nay, as they dare” and translated into “Berkelahi
aku akan mendukungmu”, condensation strategy appears when translator
condenses the meaning of the clause “Nay, as they dare” which‟s literally
has a meaning “Jika mereka berani”.

h. Deletion
The followings are the examples of deletion:
1. SL: Juliet : Come, gentle night; come loving, black-browed night
TL: Juliet : Datanglah malam. Datanglah malam penyayang

2. SL: Benvolio : Put up your sword, you know not what you do?
TL: Benvolio : Kenakan pedangmu!

In the first example, the translator deletes the phrase “black-browed”


in the translation. Actually that phrase is modifier of the word “night” so
it becomes a noun phrase which the word “night” is the head and the
phrase “loving black-browed” is the modifier which modifies the word
”night”. There is also an interesting thing toward that translation that is
the translator translates the word “lovely” into “penyayang” which‟s
unacceptable in target language. The word “lovely” is equivalent with
“bagus, menyenangkan, elok, indah”. So, the translation of the phrase
“comes loving, black-browed night” should be “Datanglah malam kelabu
yang indah.”
In the second example, the translator also makes deletion in doing the
subtitling. The deletion appears when the translator deletes the sentence
“you know not what you do”. That sentence is spoken by Benvolio
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proposed to Tybalt when they both are in a quarrel between the Montague
followers versus Capulet followers. Literally, that sentence has a meaning
“Tak taukah kau apa yang harus kau lakukan?”. This utterance has an
implicit meaning in order that Tybalt takes out his sword and gets ready
to have quarreled with Benvolio.

i. Taming
Below are the examples of taming strategy.
1. SL: Lady Capulet : Fie, fie! What are you mad?
TL: Lady Capulet : Sudah, hentikan

2. SL: Romeo : Tush, thou are deceived


TL: Romeo : Diam, pergilah kau

Those sentences are spoken by the speakers who are getting angry.
Then the translator translates the sentences by using taming strategies in
order to be more acceptable and polite in target language culture. Literally,
those sentences can be translated into “Hentikan, kau sudah gila/tidak
waras” while the second sentence is “Enyahlah, kau pembohong”.

j. Resignation
Below are the examples of resignation strategies.
1. SL: Lady Capulet: Well, think of marriage now. Younger than you
Here in Verona, ladies of esteem
Are made already mothers
I was your mother much young these years

TL: Lady Capulet: -


Seingatku, aku melahirkanmu saat aku seusiamu

2. SL: Mercutio : Athawart men‟s noses as they lie asleep


Her wagon spokes made long spiders‟ leg
The covert of the wings of grasshoppers
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Her traces of the smallest spider-web

TL: Mercutio : Dari hidung pria saat mereka tidur


Keretanya bagai lemari kosong
-

In the first example, the translator doesn‟t translate the sentence


“Well, think of marriage now. Younger than you. Here in Verona, ladies
of esteem are made already mothers”. Those sentences are spoken by
Lady Capulet when she persuades Juliet in order to get married with Paris,
a rich and an honorable man from Veronna. Literally, those sentences can
be translated into “Berfikirlah untuk menikah. Banyak gadis di Verona
lebih muda darimu dan sudah menjadi ibu”.
The second example, the translator also doesn‟t translate the sentence
“The covert of the wings of grasshoppers. Her traces of the smallest
spider-web”. Those sentences are spoken by Mercutio when he speaks to
Romeo and they both tell about their own dreams. Those sentences are
spoken by Mercution with low speech as though he were still in his dream.
In his dream, Mercutio met Queen Mab, a fairy who always presents in
someone imagination when he/she is falling in love. Actually, those
sentences can be translated into “Kerudung keretanya bagaikan sayap-
sayap belalang. Jejak keretanya bagaikan sarang laba-laba”.

Conclusion
From the above explanation it can be concluded that the subtitling
strategies applied in the subtitling of Romeo and Juliet movies are expansion,
paraphrase, transfer, imitation, condensation, decimation, deletion, taming,
and resignation. Among those strategies condensation is the most dominant
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one due to limited space and limited subtitling time appearance because in
subtitling it must be thrifty translation.
The accuracy of subtitling in Romeo and Juliet Movie depends on the
context covering the text, whether situation context or cultural context. There
are three components or variables covering the situation context, namely:
field, mode/channel, and tenor. It means that the translator must have cross
culture understanding in order to transfer the source language message into
target text well.

References

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REGISTER JOURNAL IAIN Salatiga Vol 8 NO. 1 (2015)

The Use of Community Language Learning Method to Increase


the Students’ Participation in Classroom Conversation

Siti Nurhasanah
sitinurhasanah270@yahoo.co.id

Abstract
Community Language Learning (CLL) is a language teaching method which
involves psychological aspect and students work together to develop what
skill of a language they would like to learn. This method firstly developed by
Charles A. Curran and his association which is called Counseling-Learning
theory. Within the language teaching tradition CLL is sometimes cited as an
example of a humanistic approach. The roles of the teacher is called
counselor and the learners are called client in the language classroom. The
research will use Community Language Learning (CLL) method to increases
the students‟ participation in speaking class for the students of International
Class Program State Institute of Islamic Studies (IAIN) Salatiga Batch
2013/2014 Academic Year 2013. The researcher uses Classroom Action
Research (CAR) who accompanied by an observer. To know the students‟
participation, the researcher conducts pretest and posttest within 2 cycles.
Each cycle consists of planning, acting, observing and reflecting. The
research shows that the students‟ participation increased not only their
conversation but also their motivation. Based on the results and findings, the
students could develop their participation which can be seen by the
increasing average between pretest and posttest from the cycle 1 to the cycle
2.

Keywords: Community Language Learning, Method, Classroom Action


Research, Language, Participation

Abstrak

Community Language Learning (CLL) merupakan metode pengajaran bahasa


yang melibatkan aspek psikologi dimana peserta didik ikut bekerja sama
dalam mengembangkan keahlian berbahasa yang ingin mereka pelajari.
Metode ini pertama kali dikembangkan oleh Charles A. Curran dan
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asosiasinya yang disebut teori Counseling-Learning. Ada pula yang


menyebut bahwa metode ini merupakan pendekatan humanisme. Pengajarnya
seolah-olah bertindak sebagai konselor dan peserta didiknya sebagai klien.
Selanjutnya penulis juga menggunakan metode CLL untuk meningkatkan
partisipasi mahasiswa dalam kelas Speaking di Program Khusus Kelas
Internasional (KKI) IAIN Salatiga Tahun Akademik 2013/2014 angkatan
2013. Penelitian yang digunakan adalah Penelitian Tindakan Kelas (PTK)
dimana penulis sebagai peneliti dan ditemani oleh satu orang sebagai
pengamat. Untuk mengetahui peningkatan partisipasi mahasiswa di kelas
tersebut, peneliti mengadakan pretes dan postes dalam 2 siklus. Masing-
masing siklus berisi perencanaan, aksi, observasi dan refleksi. Hasil
penelitian menunjukkan bahwa mahasiswa mengalami peningkatan tidak
hanya pada partisipasi percakapan bahasa Inggris mereka tetapi juga motivasi
belajar mereka. Hal ini bisa dilihat dari peningkatan rata-rata nilai dari pretes
ke postes baik di siklus 1 hingga di siklus 2.

Kata kunci: Community Language Learning, Metode, Penelitian Tindakan


Kelas, Bahasa, Partisipasi

Introduction

English as the International language plays an important role in this


era. It is the first international language used for international trade, tourism,
education, and other important international affairs to communicate among
nations in the world including students in the universities such as students of
International Class Program State Institute of Islamic Studies (IAIN)
Salatiga.
International Class Program is a new program that has been
established by IAIN Salatiga in October 1st, 2010. In this program, students
and lectures use foreign languages including Arabic and English as the
deliver language in the classroom. It means the students must be able to
speak in English as their daily conversation in the classroom although they
are different backgrounds from language major, natural sciences and social
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sciences. Another problem is the students come from different kinds of the
schools such as Gontor (Islamic Boarding School), MA/ PK (Islamic Senior
High School), and SMA (Senior High School).
This condition influences the speaking ability especially for students‟
conversation of International Class Program batch 2013. They are shy, less
confident and quiet when they should speak in English both inside and
outside of the classroom. At the fact, speaking is one of language skill where
the students should share their ideas, thoughts, and emotions because the
language indicates the ability of students to arrange the words to have
conversation and discussion with their friends and lecturers. In addition it
becomes challenge for the students to master foreign language especially
English well. They have projection to study abroad for Master Degree or to
be International teacher in the future. Therefore it is very important to them
for engaging in communication by using English for the students of
International Class Program.
In learning language, the most fundamental concept is psychology.
According to Marion E. Bunch (1977: 3), individual instances of learning
range all the way from the simplest change in behavior resulting from
practice to the most complex of those in the category of the higher mental
processes.
Learning is a basic and central component of the distinctive activities
that constitute the subject matter of psychology. Learning including
retention, on which it depends, is at the heart of perception, thinking,
imagination, reasoning, judgment, attitudes, personality traits,
systems of values, and the development and organization of the
activities that constitute the personality of the individual (Marion E.
Bunch, 1977: 3).
To improve the ability of students in learning language, it is better to
involve psychological aspects like Charles Arthur Curran did when he has
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taught La Forge, his student. Curran has used a method called Community
Language Learning (CLL).
CLL is a method to react the sensitivity of learner for learning
communicative intent. It should be noted that communicative intent is
sometimes forced by the number and knowledge of learners. It has made
CLL places unusual demands on teachers of language. They have to be
highly fluent and sensitive to atmosphere in both L1 (Native Language) and
L2 (Foreign Language).
CLL is firstly developed by Charles A. Curran and his associates.
Currant is a specialist in counseling and a professor of psychology at Loyola
University, Chicago, (Jack C Richards and Thedore S. Rodgers, 1986 p. 113).
His application of psychological counseling techniques for learning is known
as Counseling- Learning. Community Language Learning represents the use
of Counseling-Learning theory to teach languages, (Jack C Richards and
Thedore S. Rodgers, 1986 p. 113).
In counseling learning theory, it can be measured by performance.
Learning usually related to change in stimulus-response relationships that
result from practice and the evidence that learning has happened is a change
in successive performances like students of International Class Batch 2013
should do. They have to perform drama twice in a year using foreign
language Arabic and English. It is very interesting to know how CLL method
will be applied to improve the students‟ participation in classroom
conversation.
The problems and successes experienced by one or two different
student groups in the classroom may not necessarily represent language
learning universals. Other attentions have been expressed related to the lack
of a syllabus, which makes objectives unclear, evaluation difficult to
accomplish, and focus on fluency rather than accuracy, which may lead to
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inadequate control of the grammatical system of the target language. On the


other hand, CLL emphasizes the positive benefits of a method that focus on
the learner, stresses the humanistic side of language learning, and not merely
its linguistic dimensions.
Because of this condition, teacher should encourage students to strive
for independence. The teacher should also be culturally sensitive and
prepared to redesign tile language class into more culturally compatible
organizational forms. It makes the writer is interested in this method to
increase the students‟ participation in classroom conversation for the students
of International Class Program focus on batch 2013 by conducting Classroom
Action Research.

Research Methodology
According to Kemmis, CAR (Classroom Action Research) is a form
of self reflective enquiry undertaken by participants in social situation in
order to improve the rationality and justices, their understanding of these
practices and situations in which the practices are carried out (Hopkins, 1993
: 44).
Another definition proposed by Robert Rapport (1993) is that
Classroom Action Research aims to contribute both to the practical concerns
of people in an immediate problematic situation and to the goals of social
science by joint collaboration within a mutually acceptable ethical framework
(Hopkins, 1993 p. 44).
From the definitions above the researcher conclude that CAR as one
of the form of research that tries out ideas in practice for a social situation to
improve or change something and try to have a real effect on the certain
situation.
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Research Procedure
In this CAR, there are some steps as Kemmis stated. It consists of two cycles
and each cycle has the procedures as follows:
1. Planning

Some activities in planning such as:


a. Preparing materials, making lesson-plan, and designing the steps
in doing the action.

b. Preparing students‟ attendance list and scoring.

c. Preparing sheets for classroom observation to know the situation


of teaching learning process when the method or technique is
implemented.

d. Preparing a test including pretest and posttest.

2. Action

Here are activities in action:


a. Giving pretest for students of International Class Program batch
2013

b. Teaching speaking (conversation) through community language


learning

c. Giving chances for students to share their ideas, activities or ask


any difficulties or problems

d. Asking the students some questions orally and the students answer
orally related to the themes such as passion, hobby, dream,
education, culture, and so on.
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e. Giving posttest that will be attached in appendixes and written in


lesson plan for cycle 1 and 2.

3. Observation

Observation is one of the instruments used in collecting the data. As a


scientific method, observation can be systematically used to do serve and
note the phenomena, investigate what students feeling, thinking, and
something they do in teaching learning process. The writer plans to do
this observation flexible and open to record the unexpected.
4. Reflection

After the researcher has been accomplished to analyze the observation,


the researcher will plan for the next cycle. If the researcher finds
problems in the first cycle, she will do better for the next cycle.

Discussions
There are two cycles. In each cycle, the steps consist of planning,

acting, observing, and reflecting.

Cycle 1

1. Planning

Before conducting the research, the researcher prepared the


instruments such as:
a. Designing lesson-plan and preparing materials

Lesson plan is a teacher activities orientation so that teaching


learning process can be arranged well. In the first meeting, the
researcher prepares materials about passion; hobby; and interest
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of the students International Class Program Batch 2013. Then, the


second meeting is about international events and chances.
b. Preparing students‟ attendance list and scoring.

c. Preparing sheets for classroom observation to know the situation


of teaching learning process when the method or technique is
implemented.

d. Preparing a test including pretest and post test. For pretest, the
researcher uses oral test to know the students‟ profile of speaking
skill by giving them chances to speak one by one. For post test,
the researcher gives writing test.

2. Acting

a) The Implementation of the Action 1

The researcher as the teacher and accompanied by the


observer entered the class. The researcher created a good
condition by asking them to make a circle and sit on the floor then
the students gave attention to the teacher.
She gave the students‟ mind map about Community Language
Learning (CLL) to give them understanding on how the study
looked like and the benefits by joining this class.
After few minutes, every student introduced their names
including their nicknames.
Every student gave big applause for themselves. After they
have introduced themselves, they looked motivated to speak
more. Then the researcher would like to see their talents.
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Therefore she asked them to propose three topics based on their


passion, hobby, and interest.
She gave the students 15 minutes to find three topics and
asked them to explain the reasons. This activity became the
pretest to measure their speaking skill including pronunciation,
grammar, vocabulary and fluency.
Then every student told their topics with their reasons. It was
very interesting for them because most of them speak naturally
and the observer wrote the topics as materials for the next
meetings. She got more than 20 topics and clarified them based on
the student priorities. The topics they proposed such as education,
literature, writing, technology, economic, entrepreneurship,
business, social conflict, traveling, study abroad, culture, music,
art, and sport.
During their talk, the observer gave them assessments. Every
student spoke about three minutes. After that, the researcher gave
them comment. She also encouraged them to have no worries
about mistakes when they were speaking and just be confident.
b) The Implementation of the Action 2

The next meeting the researcher greeted the students as usual.


Every student in the group read and discussed the material for 15
minutes, after that they had to present their thought and feeling
related to international chances. Each group told what they
thought about student exchange, short course, international
conference, voluntary activity, and master degree for 7 to 10
minutes.
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After they got the descriptions about international programs,


the researcher asked them to write their dream for 20 minutes.
The writings were the expression of their feeling and thought.
From this activity, the researcher made it to be posttest.
3. Observation

In the first cycle, the writer and the observer have observed the
teaching learning process. The researcher could see that the students
of ICP batch 2013 basically are motivated to speak English. However
they face some problems. For example, some student can speak but
the grammar is incorrect, some of them speak quite well but they need
to improve their pronunciation, some of them have no confidence.
Sometimes some students are not ready to express their ideas
when they do not have time to prepare material regarding the topic. It
means some of them cannot speak naturally such as in informal
situation. But they are motivated to increase their conversation
through community language learning because of their dream to get
international chances.
By analyzing the result of pretest and post test above, there is
an increase of the students‟ grade of International Class Program
batch 2013. It is 0.03 from 2.75 to 2.78. This increase of the students‟
grade shows a little improvement of the students‟ participation in
classroom conversation. Thus, the researcher appreciate of their
effort, they already tried to improve their speaking from enough level
to be good level, and from good level to be very good level.
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4. Reflection

After analyzing the result of action in cycle 1, the researcher can


assume that it is very important for the teacher to create comfortable
condition in the classroom, it might be an informal situation but they
are serious to learn and they express their ideas naturally. There is no
gap among teacher and students in teaching learning process. The
teacher must encourage the students before, during, and end of the
class so that they are motivated to realize their dreams and express
their feelings. The teacher also should appreciate what the students
speak and give the students more assessment about the material and
practice in speaking.

Action 1 did not give satisfied result because the students are
still less confident, shy and afraid of making mistake in grammar
especially for the students of Islamic and Arabic Departments. It
means that the background of their departments influences their mind.

Therefore, it is very necessary to continue the next cycle to


encourage them for participating in classroom conversation. The
second cycle is carried out as follow up of the first cycle. To get the
effectiveness for the next cycle, the researcher will prepare better.
Cycle 2

1. Planning

Before conducting the research, the researcher prepared the


instruments such as:
a. Designing lesson-plan and preparing materials
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Lesson plan is a teacher activities orientation so that teaching


learning process can be arranged well. In the third meeting, the
researcher prepares materials about issues of international
conference for the students of International Class Program Batch
2013. Then, the fourth meeting is about youth and world peace.
b. Preparing students‟ attendance list and scoring.

c. Preparing sheets for classroom observation to know the situation


of teaching learning process when the method or technique is
implemented.

d. Preparing a test including pretest and posttest. For pretest, the


researcher uses oral test to know the students‟ profile of speaking
skill by giving them chances to speak one by one. For posttest, the
researcher gives writing test.

2. Acting

a. The Implementation of the Action 1

The researcher and the observer entered the class, then the
researcher as well as become the teacher controlled the situation
by asking them to make a circle and sit on the floor. The students
give attention to the teacher.
All students laughed, actually some students were
interested in to share their arguments and some of them have
confidence to express their opinion but every student has spoken
although some of them were active to talk and some of them did
not speak. We continued to the next topic about social activity.
This activity also became the assessment as pretest for the cycle 2.
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b. The Implementation of the Action 2

The researcher as the teacher greeted the students as usual. The


researcher created a good condition for the students until they had
paid attention to the teacher. After that, the teacher divided them
in to three groups by counting 1 to 3.
The students went to their groups and identified the
problem of the topic then they tried to arrange script and practiced
their roles in front of their friends. This condition also became
their preparation before they perform Art and Language
Exhibition (ALE) because every batch of International Class
Program should perform drama twice in a year, Arabic and
English drama.
After their discussion and performance, I gave them a post
test as the assessment of cycle 2.

3. Observation

In the cycle 2, the researcher was accompanied by the observer


observed teaching and learning process through CLL method. By
monitoring the students‟ activities, the writer could know that the
students have had high motivation to speak in English. The second
cycle shows better improvement than those in the first cycle. In the
second cycle, the students have more confidence and become active
to discuss ASEAN Community. The researcher really appreciated of
the students because they have shown big effort to improve their
English.
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The research showed that CLL method was appropriate to be


applied for students of International Class Program batch 2013
because the relation between teacher and student like counselor and
client had appeared in this activity. The teacher role was succeed to
implement CLL method and the students could respond what the
teacher direct to them. When the teacher proposed some topics then
they could explore deeply, they felt enjoyable to express their ideas,

By analyzing the result of pretest and posttest in cycle 2, there


is an increase of the students‟ grade of International Class Program
batch 2013 at the main that has been obtained. It is 0.16 from 2.99 to
3.15. Compare to cycle 1, the increase of mean is 0.13 from 0.03 to
0.16. This increase of the students‟ grade shows an improvement of
the student speaking skill. Therefore, CLL method is appropriate to
be implemented for the students of International Class Program batch
2013 to increase the students‟ participation in classroom conversation.
They have tried their motivation to improve their speaking, from good
to be very good level.

4. Reflection

After analyzing and comparing the result of implementation


between cycle I and II, the writer can say that CLL (Community
Language Learning) method could increase the students‟ participation
in the classroom conversation of the students International Class
Program batch 2013. In addition, it is very important for every teacher
to encourage students by giving motivation before and after the
lesson. The teacher also should appreciate what every student did and
spoke.
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The researcher believes that every teacher has their own


method but after doing Classroom Action Research (CAR) for the
students of International Class Program batch 2013, CLL is
appropriate to be applied for teaching and learning foreign language.
Besides this method involves psychological aspect, the students have
become more confident and more enjoyable to speak naturally to
express their ideas, share problems, and propose questions so that this
condition do not make a gap between teacher and students then they
can be enjoy in learning English.

In addition, this method is one of ways to dig students‟ talent,


encourage and appreciate what they do and speak, so that the students
reach their dreams by realizing the word of International Class
Program. It means CLL method which is implemented by the
researcher also has had a purpose to make students active in
classroom conversation after that the students to be more active
through joining some international events and chances such as short
courses, student exchanges, international conferences, voluntary
activities, and study abroad for master degrees.

Conclusion
Based on the theoretical review and the implementation of the study, the
writer can draw the conclusion as follows:
1. The profile of the students‟ participation in classroom conversation
showed that generally they were quiet and less confident to speak English
in the beginning of the lesson, especially for the students of non-English
Department of International Class Program batch 2013. Moreover, some
students could speak English but the grammars were incorrect, some of
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them could spoke well enough but need the improvement of


pronunciations.

2. Based on the teaching and learning process by implementing Community


Language Learning (CLL) method, the students could develop their
participation in classroom conversation although sometimes there were
grammatical errors. In addition, the students were unconfident to speak
English but after using Community Language Learning (CLL) method,
there were good responses from the students.

3. The result of the students‟ participation can be seen from the increasing
average between pretest and posttest in the first cycle to the second cycle.
In the first cycle, the mean of pretest is 2.75 and the mean of posttest
2.78. Then in the second cycle, the mean of pretest is 2.99 and the mean
of posttest is 3.15. The percentage of students‟ participation who have
gotten very good grade increase from 0% in pretest to 5.26% in posttest
of the cycle 1, and 26.32% in pretest to 42.11% in posttest of the cycle 2.
From the result of the test, the writer concludes that generally CLL
method could increase the students‟ participation in classroom
conversation.
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THE USE OF EXPRESSIVE SPEECH ACTS


IN HANNAH MONTANA SESSION 1

Nur Vita Handayani


Ahmad Dahlan University
pearhandayani@gmail.com

Abstract
This study aims to describe kinds and forms of expressive speech act
in Hannah Montana Session 1. It belongs to descriptive qualitative method.
The research object was expressive speech act. The data source was
utterances which contain expressive speech acts in the film Hannah Montana
Session 1. The researcher used observation method and noting technique in
collecting the data. In analyzing the data, descriptive qualitative method was
used. The research findings show that there are ten kinds of expressive
speech act found in Hannah Montana Session 1, namely expressing apology,
expressing thanks, expressing sympathy, expressing attitudes, expressing
greeting, expressing wishes, expressing joy, expressing pain, expressing
likes, and expressing dislikes. The forms of expressive speech act are direct
literal expressive speech act, direct non-literal expressive speech act, indirect
literal expressive speech act, and indirect non-literal expressive speech act.

Keywords: Pragmatics, Expressive, Speech Act, Direct, Indirect.

Abstrak
Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan jenis dan bentuk ekspresif
tindak tutur dalam Hannah Montana Sesi 1. Ini milik deskriptif metode
kualitatif. Objek penelitian adalah ekspresif tindak tutur. Sumber data adalah
ucapan-ucapan yang mengandung tindak tutur ekspresif dalam film Hannah
Montana Session I. Peneliti menggunakan metode observasi dan teknik
mencatat dalam mengumpulkan data. Dalam menganalisis data, metode
deskriptif kualitatif digunakan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ada
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sepuluh jenis tindak tutur ekspresif ditemukan di Hannah Montana Sesi 1,


yaitu mengungkapkan permintaan maaf, mengungkapkan terima kasih,
mengekspresikan simpati, mengungkapkan sikap, mengungkapkan ucapan,
mengungkapkan keinginan, mengekspresikan sukacita, mengekspresikan rasa
sakit, mengungkapkan suka, dan mengekspresikan tidak suka. Bentuk-bentuk
ekspresif tindak tutur yang langsung literal tindak tutur ekspresif, langsung
non-literal ekspresif tindak tutur, langsung literal ekspresif tindak tutur, dan
tidak langsung non-literal ekspresif tindak tutur.

Kata kunci: Pragmatik, Tindak Tutur Ekspresif, Langsung, Tidak Langsung.

Introduction
Communication is important as human being. It is a life skill, people
as social being need to communicate to the others, share ideas, express their
feeling and their emotion and has interaction to meet their needs. By
understanding the language and the meaning of it people connected to each
other. The utterances performed by the speaker are an action or activities
which may contain words expressed their feeling. In this case, it is called
expressive speech act. Expressive speech act can be direct and indirect. As
literary work, film also contains expressing feeling. Thus, this paper would
give more understanding in expressive speech act and direct and indirect
expressive speech act uttered in Hannah Montana Session 1.
Yule (1996: 3) states that “pragmatics is concerned with the study of
meaning as communicated by speaker (or writer) and interpreted by a listener
(or reader)”. It has to do with the meaning in interaction between the speaker
and the hearer. To reach the speaker‟s interpretation, the hearer has to
understand the utterance rather than words and phrase themselves. It is more
than understanding the speaker but also what the speaker‟s imply. In
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addition, context also influences what the speaker‟s imply. Context such as
when, where, what situation, who they are talk to, in what circumstances are
necessary to involves helping the hearer interprets the speaker‟s meant (idem:
3).
Yule (1996: 47) states speech act as action performed via utterances.
Like it is called, speech is the utterance and act is an action. As Austin says it
is not only saying something, the speaker is also doing something. Thus, it is
more than describing the word. It is used to communicate, to pass the
information, more than that it carries mutual acting between the speaker and
the hearer.
One of the aspects studied in pragmatics is speech act. Yule (1996:
47) defines speech act as the action performed by a speaker with an utterance.
In other word, there are activities intended to do by speaker by saying
something. Speech act firstly is delivered by Austin (1962: 103) which is
divided in three different acts, those are, locutionary act, illocutionary act,
and perlocutionary act. Austin (1962: 99) defines illocutionary act as
performance of an act in saying something. By saying the utterances, the
speaker is also doing a certain action. Searle (1976: 10-12) distinguishes five
classes of illocutionary acts and bases on illocutionary point, the result of
illocutionary point and the relationship of word and world. They are
assertive, directives, commissives, expressive, and declarations.
Searle (1976: 12) states expressive to mentions behabitive by Austin.
It is used to express the psychological state in sincerity condition about a
state of affair in specified in the propositional content. Including the
expressive speech act are welcoming, praising, blaming, etc. Yule (1996: 53)
states that expressive can be a statement of pleasure, pain, like, dislike, joy,
or sorrow. It means expressive tell about speaker‟s feeling.
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The expressive speech act can be direct and indirect, literal and non-
literal, implicit and explicit (Meyer 2009: 50). Combining the literal- non
literal and direct –indirect, there are four ways of performing expressive
speech act (Wijana: 1996: 33).

1. Direct Literal Speech Act


Direct literal speech act is the speech act expressed the word literally
and communicates directly. Thus, statement expressed in declarative
sentence, question expressed in interrogative, command, request expressed
imperative.
2. Direct Non literal Speech Act
In contrast, direct non literal speech act is the speech act expressed by
the sentence mode suitable for the purpose of speech, but the composition of
the words do not have the same meaning with the intention of speaker. Thus,
the speaker does not mean as the word mean. In this speech act, the speaker
means to criticize by declarative sentence.
3. Indirect Literal Speech Act
Indirect literal speech act is the speech act expressed in a sentence
mode, the meaning that is contrary with the purpose that it is expressing,
even though the meaning of the words are arranged in accordance with what
the speaker intended. It has different form and function which is not
compatible.
4. Indirect Non Literal Speech Act
Indirect non literal speech act is the speech act that when expressed
by sentence mode the meaning of the sentence is incompatible with the
intention of the speaker.
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Research Method

In this research, the researcher used descriptive qualitative research.


Dörnyei (2007: 24) says that qualitative research is a research involves data
collection procedures that result primarily in open-ended, non-numerical data
which is then analyzed primarily by non-statistical methods. In addition,
Neville (2007: 3) states qualitative research is suitable for observe the
disciplines of language and consider its place within social sciences and
humanities more generally.
The object of this research is the dialogue of the movie characters
using expressive speech act. Data in this research is the dialogue that contain
expressive speech act. Data source is a basic information and material that
collected by the researcher. It can be in the form of document, thing, person,
action, film, official document, etc. Data source of this research is film
Hannah Montana Session 1 episode 1-2. According to Mahsun (2005: 92-
104) there are three methods of gathering data. In this research, the researcher
used metode simak (observing method) because the data are in the form of
spoken language that obtained in a film Hannah Montana Session 1 episode
1-2. Thus this research used noting technique (metode catat) in collecting
expressive speech act. The researcher observing the film then write the
expressive speech act found and in which situation. In this research, the
researcher used qualitative and descriptive method to analyze and interpret
the kinds of expressive in Hannah Montana Session 1.

Discussion
According to data analyzing in Hannah Montana Session 1 episode 1-
2 the researcher found some expressive speech acts. They are expressing
apology, expressing thanking, expressing sympathy, expressing attitudes,
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expressing greeting, expressing wishes, expressing joy, expressing pain,


expressing likes, and expressing dislike.

Kinds of Expressive Speech Act Used in Hannah Montana Session 1.


1. Expressing Apology
a. Hannah : Oh, I’m sorry, Fermine.
Fermine : Is okay, I kiss it. (Kisses his finger) All better…..

The data (a) can be identified for expressing apology. Fermine is


Hannah‟s designer. He makes a dress for Hannah for the next show. Fermine
is hurting his finger while working on Hannah‟s wearing dress. She forgets
that Fermine sew the dress she wore. Hannah feels regrets to Fermine for
keeping moving. The apologizing expression is implicit because the verb am
does not fit the structure performative verb; the naming of speech act
conveyed in the adjective sorry.

2. Expressing Thanks
Thanking expresses that the speaker is pleased about or grateful for
something that another people have done. The performative verb that
describes this feeling is thanked, as shown in the data below:

b. Robby Ray : Son, I primped your ride.

Jackson : Oh, yes, he did! (Laughing) Oh! Thank you, thank you!
Thank you! Thank you! Thank you! Thank you!

Robby Ray: Okay, Son, you can let go now. It was cute when
you were five, now it just throws my back out.

The verb thank refers to this classification. The utterance in (b) is


used by Jackson to thanked Robby Ray for fixing his car.
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3. Expressing Resentment
Resentment refers to the verb resent. Resentment is statement to
expressing angry because you have been forced to accept someone or
something that you do not like.
In this situation, Miley had fight with Lilly because Lilly was
desperate to show Hannah‟s stuff to the other friends. Miley disbelieved that
Lilly wanted to do that which means Miley‟s secret as a popular singer
Hannah Montana will be revealed. After Lilly went home, Miley tells to her
father which also knows that her secret being revealed.
c. Miley : I am so mad!
Robby Ray : So you‟re gonna take it out on my ice cream
sundae? You wanna talk about it?

The data (c) expresses the speaker‟s feeling. The resentment shows in
the adjective mad which is mean angry.

4. Expressing Greeting
Greeting is something friendly or polite that you say or do when meet
or welcome someone. This expression shows that you are pleased that they
are with you.
d. Johnny: (walking over) Hey, Miley. How‟s it going?
Miley : Um, pretty good! Just getting some ketchup for my
veggie burger. I see you like mayonnaise. Never tried that on a
veggie burger! And maybe I should, but, not today because
then the ketchup would go all over the kitchen.
Johnny comes over to Hannah that is getting some ketchup in her
burger at the cafetaria. Johnny greets Hannah Montana friendly by saying
Hey, Miley How‟s it going? Those words are used to welcome Hannah. The
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Hannah‟s answer also reflected that the speaker intended to do greeting even
though she is nervous in speaking.
5. Expressing Joy
The performative verbs that denote this action is rejoice, brighten,
swoon, delight, amuse, please, satisfy, enjoy, and exult.

e . Robby Ray : And are you happy about that?

Jackson : Yes I am! Dad, it‟s mine. It‟s not perfect but it‟s my
own car, and I bought it with my own money.

Considering data (e) Jackson answering Yes I am with happily for Robby
Ray‟s question which means that he was happy. The reason is because he
bough new car with his own money.

Direct and Indirect Expressive Speech Act Found in Movie

1. Literal Direct Strategy


A speech act can be performed direct if its intent is clearly conveyed
by the words and structure of the utterance. The direct speech act can be
literal if the speaker means what she or he says.

f. Lilly : (following) what‟s wrong with your voice?

Hannah : Um, that happens after every concert. (Moving the


rack)
Lilly : (spreading clothes apart) You give so much. I just
wish Miley were here.
Hannah : (hidden behind the moving rack) Uh, Miley, who‟s
Miley? I don‟t know Miley, that‟s a strange name.

g. Oliver: Take it off, dude! Take it off! Take it off! Take it off!
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Friend : Dude, what's with you and the gum chewing?


Oliver : (think back: Aunt Harriet: Oh, little baby Ollie.
Aunt Harriet just wants to eat you up.You're so
yummy, yummy, yummy. (Baby crying) Oh…
Let me get that off you)
Oliver : (GRUNTING) I hate that woman.

h. Fermine: (leaving through the front door) I love you, Hannah


Montana.

The above data (f), (g), and (h) are in the form of declarative, as a
direct speech act, those would be used to make a statement. The
performative verbs such as wish, hate, and love are in declarative sentences
which are used to make statements not questions, commands or requests. It
uses to express action or opinion. The data have literal meaning because it
means like word means. The utterance in (f) means a wish that Miley can join
with Lily to see Hannah‟s concert because she is Hannah‟s big fan.
Unfortunately, Miley who is Lily‟s best friend refuses it. She feels
disappointed. The word wish literally means hope that her friend can see the
Hannah Montana together with her.
The utterance in (g) showed that the speaker hates with his aunt
Harriet. It has a literal meaning which means the speaker; Oliver does not
like Aunt Harriet. It can be seen that the hate of gum chewing is started when
he was a child. He remembers at that time his aunt chewed her gum but it
dropped to her. The way she is chewing and that disgusting dropped gum
makes Oliver hate his Aunt. It was sounding in hate tone. In the utterance (h)
Fermine, the speaker wants to show like or love the hearer before he leaves
Hannah‟s home. When the speaker‟s intended has the same aims as the words
means, thus, the above data used literal direct strategy to perform the
utterance.
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2. Non-literal Direct Strategy


A speech act can be performed direct if its intent if the words and
structure of the utterance agree with its function. The direct speech act can be
non- literal if the speaker does not mean what she or he says or the word does
not mean like the word say.
i. Robby Ray: I don't know, maybe it wanted to party. Oh, come on,
Dontzig, just trying to be neighborly.
Dontzig : That‟s nice, but I hate neighbors. That's why I got the
big hedge. So, something needs to be done about this.
Robby Ray: Yeah, and I think something needs to be done about this
(pointing Dontzig belly). I would recommend possibly some sit-ups
or maybe a bigger robe.
Dontzig :Ha, ha. Very neighborly… Oh, got a new car. You
know my wife, she had a car just like this. Traded it in. She thought it
was too girly.
In this case, the speaker utters non literal act that very neighborly here
means the opposite not neighborly. Literally, very neighborly is friendly or
helpful but it is used by Dontzig to criticize Robby Ray who asks her to be
neighborly at first. The data (i) are in the form of declarative and the function
is to make a statement so the data (i) belong to non- literal direct strategy.

3. Literal Indirect Strategy


In the indirect act if wherever there is an indirect relation between
structure and function. The indirect speech act can be literal if the speaker
means what she or he says.

j. Lilly : Miley, don‟t make me go see my favorite singer without


my best friend. If you don‟t take this ticket, I‟m going to
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end up going to the concert with Mr. Hannah Montana.


(points at Oliver)

Oliver : (standing again) You have an extra ticket to Hannah


Montana! (The entire cafeteria turns in their direction –
he sinks low in his chair) That was really loud, wasn’t
it? They disappear from view as their table is swarmed by
rabid Hannah Montana fans. (Back at the Stewart house,
Jackson comes down the stairs and enters the kitchen.

In this case, the speaker utters literal meaning that he speaks too loud.
The data (j) is not intended to question the way he speaks but it is used to
making a statement of blaming on what he did. It is because he realizes that
he was wrong by speaking too loud and making Hannah Montana‟s fans
swarmed them to see the ticket. The utterance used indirect strategy in
performing the utterances. The form of the utterances is tag question using
falling intonation but it is not used to make sure that he speaks to loudly. It is
used to make a statement of blaming.

4. Non-Literal Indirect Strategy.


In the indirect act if wherever there is an indirect relation between
structure and function of the utterances. Non- literal meaning is if the
speaker does not means what she or he said.
k. Dontzig : So, Stewart family, what would another leaves from
your tree be doing in my hot tub?
Robby Ray: I don't know, maybe it wanted to party. Oh, come
on, Dontzig, just trying to be neighborly.
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The utterance which is spoken by Dontzig has functioned to make a


statement rather than a question. Thus, there is indirect relation between the
structure and function. The structure is interrogative, but it is used to make a
statement of blaming. The utterances have non literal meaning; it does not
mean that the leaves can do something in the hot tub. It is used a figurative
language which supposed a non-living thing act like a living things. Thus,
this data (k) belongs to Non-literal indirect strategy

Conclusion
Based on the result of this study, the researcher can draw some
conclusions about the kinds of expressive speech act used by the character of
Hannah Montana Session 1. It can be classified as expressing apology,
expressing thanking, expressing sympathy, expressing attitude, expressing
greeting, expressing wishes, expressing joy, expressing pain, expressing like,
expressing dislikes. The researcher found the use of direct literal expressive
speech act, indirect literal expressive speech act, direct non-literal expressive
speech act, and indirect non- literal expressive speech act.

References

Austin, J.L. 1962. How to Do Things with Words. London: OUP

Dörnyei, Zoltán. 2007. Research Methods in Applied Linguistics. Oxford:


Oxford University Press.
Mahsun, M. S. 2005. Metode Penelitian Bahasa: Tahapan strategi. Metode,
dan tekniknya. Jakarta: Rajawali Press

Meyer, Charles F.2009. Introducing English Linguistics. Cambridge:


Cambridge University Press.
REGISTER JOURNAL IAIN Salatiga Vol 8 NO. 1 (2015)

Neville, Collin. 2007. Introduction to Research and Research Methods.


Bradford: University of Bradford

Searle, John R. 1976. A Classification of Illocutionary Act. Languange in


Society, Vol. 5, No.1. (April, 1976), pp 1-23.London: CUP

Wijana. I Dewa Putu. 1996. Dasar- Dasar Pragmatik. Yogyakarta: ANDI

Yule, George. 1996. Pragmatics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.


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The Types of Cohesion Used in the ‘Issues of the Day’ Strip in


the Jakarta Post

Wulan Agustina
Madrasah Tsanawiyah (MTs) YASINTA Salatiga
anitsuganaluw@gmail.com

Abstract
This study is aimed at describing discourse studies especially at cohesion
from reader‟s opinion strip. This is literary research, so the writer uses
descriptive qualitative approach. In this research, documentation and note
taking technique are used to collect the data. There are two objectives of the
research: 1) to carry out the types of grammatical cohesion used in the
“Issues of the Day” strip in The Jakarta Post on March 2012 edition and 2) to
find out the types of lexical cohesion used in the “Issues of The Day” strip in
The Jakarta Post on March 2012 edition. After investigating the English
sentences used in the “Issues of the Day” strip in The Jakarta Post on March
2012 edition, the writer found several findings as follows: 1) based on the
analysis of grammatical cohesion, the writer found there are references,
substitutions, ellipsis, and conjunctions; 2) based on the analysis of lexical
cohesion, the writer found repetitions, synonyms, hyponyms, meronyms,
antonyms, and collocations. The writer expects that it is able to contribute the
science of linguistic and able to be guidance for all readers.

Keywords: cohesion, „Issues of the Day‟ strip

Abstrak
Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menggambarkan studi wacana terutama pada
kohesi dari kolom pendapat para pembaca. Ini adalah penelitian sastra,
sehingga penulis menggunakan pendekatan deskriptif kualitatif. Dalam
penelitian ini digunakan teknik pencatatan dan pendokumentasian untuk
mengumpulkan data. Ada dua tujuan dari penelitian ini: 1) menemukan tipe-
tipe kohesi gramatikal yang digunakan para pembaca di kolom „Issues of the
Day‟ pada harian The Jakarta Post edisi Maret 2012 dan 2) menemukan tipe-
tipe kohesi leksikal yang digunakan para pembaca di kolom „Issues of the
Day‟ pada harian The Jakarta Post edisi Maret 2012. Setelah melakukan
pengkajian kalimat berbahasa Inggris pada kolom „Issues of the Day‟ edisi
Maret 2012, penulis menemukan beberapa temuan sebagai berikut: 1)
berdasarkan analisis kohesi gramatikal, penulis menemukan adanya referen,
substitusi, ellipsis, dan konjungsi; 2) berdasarkan analisis kohesi leksikal,
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penulis menemukan adanya repetisi, sinonim, hiponim, meronim, antonim,


dan kolokasi. Penulis berharap bahwa kajian ini dapat memberikan
sumbangsih terhadap ilmu kebahasaan dan menjadi acuan bagi para
pembaca.

Kata kunci : Kohesi, Kolom „Issues of the Day‟

Introduction
Writing is a process of expressing ideas or thoughts through words.
Someone produces something in written form so that people can read,
perform, or use it. People are encouraged to ensure a text flow through a
sequence of sentences when present their ideas in writing tasks. Thus,
writers‟ should be directed to the ideas they wish to express, as well as the
sentences they use to express those ideas. Sentences need to be connected to
each other. If ideas or sentences are simply juxtaposed without being related
to one another, it will be difficult or impossible for the reader to understand
the sequence. For enhancing the connectedness of sentences in a text, writers
may use “cohesion” to join ideas between sentences to create texture
(Halliday and Hasan, 1976: 4).
People are demanded to understand to read, and to create coherent texts.
In order to achieve it, the readers must be able to interpret the semantic
relation in the text. It is necessary for a writer to master the concept of
written text and the use of semantic relation through grasp of their linguistic
function, such as theme, rhyme, and lexico-grammatical cohesion. Cohesion
can be defined as the links that hold a text together and give a meaning to the
text. Hassan and Halliday (1976) classified cohesion into: 1) Grammatical
cohesion devices, which are reference, substitution, ellipsis, and conjunction,
and 2) Lexical cohesion devices, which are in the form of a) reiteration:
repetition, synonym, antonym, hyponym, meronym, and b) collocation.
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The opinion strip in The Jakarta Post has many commentators and it was
found that the texts were arranged by different writer and styles. Being
interested in knowing those facts, the writer is curious to find out the types of
cohesion that is used in their comments. By using 135 comments on March
2012 edition, this study will analyze the use of semantic relation of lexico-
grammatical cohesion as one of the linguistic functions. It will focus on the
analysis of cohesion by identifying the cohesive devices that are employed in
texts according to M.A.K. Halliday and Ruqaiya Hasan‟s cohesion theory
(1994) to explore what kinds of the type of cohesion used in that „Issues of
the Day‟strip.

Research Methodology
The writer uses a descriptive qualitative research. A qualitative
research is type of research which does not include any calculation or
enumeration because the data are produced in the form of words (Moleong,
1993: 3). It means that qualitative data tend to be the form of words than
series of number. Descriptive serves to describe or analogy characterizing
something and it deals with the meaning of thing and one view of meaning is
associative. This study attempts to identify, classify, and describe the
sentences of the “Issues of The Day” strip that taken from The Jakarta Post
newspaper.

Data Collection Methods


There are many ways to collect the data, such as documentation,
observation, tests, interview, and questionnaire (Arikunto, 2007: 101). In this
case, the writer uses documentation because Arikunto (1993: 202) defines
that documentation method is collecting data by using some variables such as
note, transcript, book, newspaper, ancient inscription, etc. This research is
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continued with note-taking technique which the data are listed, wrote, and
classifying according to the cohesion types. To collect the data, the writer
needs some procedure. These steps are:
a. Reading and learning 135 comments in “Issues of the Day” strip in The
Jakarta Post on March 2012 edition.
b. Identifying the words with emphasize on each comments that become
markers of cohesion types (the writer just focus on cohesion from each
comments, other cohesion types, especially for substitution, ellipsis, and
lexical cohesion, from different comment will not be taken although they
stay at the same topic and edition. Whereas the other types like reference
and conjunction can be collected from all sentences in the same edition,
and the writer will put one in the analysis as the representative of each
types).

Technique of Data Analysis


In analyzing the data, the writer applies descriptive method which
does not need hypothesis formulation. The steps are taken by the writer in
analyzing data such as:
Data Collection
Through this step, the writer reads the text of English writing on the
newspaper and puts all as the data. The writer has collected the data from 135
comments of Jakarta Post on March 2012 edition.
Identification
After collects the data, the writer identifies the types of cohesion that
are found in the strip.
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Classification
The writer classifies the sentences from each comments based on the types of
cohesion. It has been collected to continue the next analysis process.
Data Analysis
After classifying the sentences, the writer analyses the description of each
sentence based on theories of M.A.K. Halliday and Ruqaiya Hasan (1994).

Discussion
The writer is going to present the sources of data from Jakarta Post on March
2012 edition as follows:

NO DATA SOURCES
References
/we/, /their/, /they/, /our/, /I/, /the/, /his, /he/, /its/
Substitutions
/done/
Conjunctions
1. March 1st
/but/, /because/, /and/, /since/, /finally/, /but/
2012
Collocations
a) /House of Representative/ - /seats/ -
/constituents/ - /government/ - /corruption/ -
/political/ - /lawmakers/
b) /police/ - /criminality/
References
/my/, /this/, /they/, /their/, /I/, /our/, /we/, /it/, /us/,
them/, /those/, /these/, /you/, /that/
Conjunctions
2. March 2nd
/but/, /or/, /then/
2012
Ellipsis
/We must use or 0 lose our rights!/
Collocations
/Islam/ - /Muslims/
References
3. /the/, /it/, /that/, /then/, /you/, /I/, /this/, /your/, March 3rd
/these/, /his/, /he/, /our/, 2012
Synoymy
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a) /abattoirs/ = /slaughtered/
b) /pain/ = /torture/
Conjunctions
/as/, /then/, /and/
Ellipsis
/... and importers to improve 0/
Collocations
a) /abattoirs/ - /animals/ - /slaughter/ - /meat/
b) /export/ - /import/
Antonymy
a) /export/ >< /import/
b) /exporter/ >< /importer/
References
/I/, /the/, /their/, /he/, /this/, /it/, /his/
Substitutions
4. /one/ March 5th
Synonymy 2012
/missery/ = /suffering/
Antonymy
/muslims/ >< /non-muslims/
References
/this/, /the/, /they/, /it/, /we/, /you/, /them/, /I/, /my/
Hyponymy
a) /member/ - /fellow/
b) /garbage/ - /plastic bags, bottles, cups/
Conjunctions
/for several years now/, /and/, /then/, /or/, /when/,
/however/, /because/
Synonymy
5. a) /outrageous/ = /heartless/ March 6th
b) /care/ = /protection/ 2012
Meronymy
/zoo/ - /cages/, /enclosure/
Repetition
/feed/
Collocations
a) /zoo/ - /animals/ - /cages/ - /enclosure/ -
/Ragunan/ - /Surabaya Zoo/ - /giraffe/
b) /school/ - /educational/ - /preschool/ -
/kindegarten/
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References
/it/, /you/, /more/, /your/, /our/, /then/, /we/, /they/,
/the/, /this/, /those/, /their/, /them/
Conjunctions
/hence/, /however/, /otherwise/, /and/
Repetitions
/care/, /competition/, /world/
6. March 7th
Antonym
2012
/sportmen/ >< /sportwomen/
Ellipsis
/You care for what ..., not 0 the Indonesian people/
Collocation
a) /church/ - /christians/
b) /sport/ - /sportmanship/ - /the Indonesian
National Sport Committee/ - /soccer/
References
/it/, /they/, /this/, /we/, /their/, /now/, /the/, /those/,
/them/, /these/
Substitution
7. March 8th
/do/
2012
Conjunctions
/but/
Ellipsis
/0 Not because they are vocal, .../
References
/it/, /better/, /I/, /you/, /us/, /the/, /my/, /we/, /this/,
/they/, /these/, /your/, /their/, /that/
Substitution
/so/
8. March 9th
Conjunctions
2012
/but/
Repetitions
/proud/, /has done it/, /return flight/, /it/, /Garuda/
Collocations
/delicious/ - /food/
References
/we/, /the/, /our/, /then/, /you/, /better/, /your/,
9. /these/, /I/, /they/, /here/, /their/, /those/, /same/, March 10th
/them/ 2012
Substitutions
/not/, /do/
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Conjunctions
/but/
Ellipsis
/... some will not 0/
Repetitions
/we/
Hyponymy
/Arab League/ - /Saudi Arabia/, /Qatar/
References
/it/, /this/, /your/, /we/, /me/, /you/, /I/, /those/, /that/,
/us/, /the/, /most/, /our/, /they/, /their/
Conjunctions
/while/, /but/, /then/, /since/
10.
Repetitions March 12th
/respect/, /others/, /bule/, /mad/, /Indon/ 2012
Ellipsis
/0 Being used to being called bule .../
Collocations
a) /bule/ – /foreigner/
b) /equality/ - /fairness/
References
/I/, /those/, /the/, /it/, /my/, /they/, /these/, /their/,
/this/, /worst/
Conjunctions
/before/, /however/
11. Repetitions March 13th
/international organization/, /done by/, /local 2012
people/, /country/, the worst/, /Timor Leste/
Collocations
/Timorese/ - /Timor Leste/
Hyponymy
/nation/ - /Timorese/
References
/I/, /it/, /their/, /you/, /best/, /she/, /that, /the/, /her/,
/they/, /this/, /better/, /my/, /them/, /these/, /his/,
/here/, /our/
12. March 14th
Ellipsis
2012
/... and 0 sincere condolences .../
Conjunctions
/because/, /before/, /and/
Repetitions
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/the best/, /their/


Synonymy
/offspring/ = /children/
Hyponymy
/children/ - /teen/
Antonymy
/parents/ >< /children/
Collocations
a) /parents/ - /children/
b) /traffic/ - /roads/ - /accidents/ - /car/
References
/it/, /we/, /I/, /the/, /our/, /they/, /more/, /those/, /us/,
/further/, /sooner/
Conjunctions
/but/, /because/, /however/
13. March 15th
Synonymy
2012
/necessary/ = /pivotal/
Antonymy
/western/ >< /eastern/
Repetitions
/Maluku/, /Jakarta/
References
/you/, /us/, /our/, /it/, /your/, /most/, /we/, /he/, /this/,
/his/, /I/, /its/, /their/, /they/, /now/
Ellipsis
/... your own best interests, 0 not the Indonesian .../
14. Conjunctions March 16th
/then/, /as/, /in other words/, /until/ 2012
Repetitions
/high demand/, /they/
Collocations
a) /SBY/ - /president/ - /Democratic party/
b) /Mutawa/ - /religious police/
References
/this/, /you/, /I/, /your/, /its/, /the/, /he/, /better/,
/best/, /him/, /it/, /that/, /they/, /his/, /we/, /there/,
15. /their/, /cleanest/ March 17th
Conjunctions 2012
/at least/
Repetitions
/Singapore/, /track/, /right/, /the MoU/, /guy/, /they/,
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/he/
Synonymy
a) /good/ = /right/
b) /advantage/ = /benefit/
Antonymy
/right/ >< /wrong/
Hyponymy
/country/ - /Indonesia, Singapore/
Collocations
a) /government/ - /minister/ - /corruption/
b) /business/ - /investor/
c) /Azwar Abubakar/ - /Administrative Reforms
Minister
d) /SBY/ - /president/
References
/this/, /their/, /the/, /they/, /it/, /I/, /more/, /he/, /its/,
/that/, /you/, /better/, /worse/, /these/
Substitution
/done/
Ellipsis
/... and say no more 0?/
Conjunctions
/instead/, /until/, /or/
Repetitions
16. March 19th
/civilians/, /multiple/, /life sentence/, /America/
2012
Synonymy
a) /murder/ = /kill/
b) /troops/ = /soldiers/
Meronymy
/human/ - /souls, bodies/
Hyponymy
a) /country/ - /US/
b) /military/ - /Army/
Antonymy
/better/ >< /worse/
References
/more/, /this/, /the/, /you/, /us/, /I/, /further/, /its/,
17. March 20th
/we/, /they/, /similar/
2012
Conjunction
/until/
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Repetitions
/less/, /subsidies/, /consequences/, /electricity/,
/fuels/
Collocation
/traffic/ - /jam/ - /roads/
References
/the/, /more/, /they/, /better/, /their/, /them/, /that/,
/it/, /I/, /her/, /she/, /its/, /one‟s/, /one/, we/, /this/,
/more/, /our/, /your/
Conjunctives
/but/, /while/, /then/, /on the other hand/, /because/
Repetitions
/Thailand/, /women/, /boss/, /teacher/, /marriage/, /if
one‟s faith/, different/, /husband/
Synonymy
a) /Prophet/ = /Muhammad/
b) /devote/ = /submit/
Meronymy
a) /family/ - /husband/
18. b) /education/ - /teachers/ March 21st
Hyponymy 2012
a) /job/ - /teacher/
b) /country/ - /Indonesia, Thailand/
c) /human/ - /men, women/
d) /nation/ - /Thailand/
Antonymy
a) /men/ >< /women/
b) /physically/ >< /mentally/
c) /wive/ >< /husband/
Collocations
a) /education/ - /teacher/
b) /Muhammad/ - /Prophet/ - /Khadija/
c) /sister/ - /female/
d) /marriage/ - /husband/
e) /Islam/ - /muslims/
References
/it/, /the/, /they/, /their/, /those/, /stronger/, /your/
19. Substitution March 22nd
/done/ 2012
Conjunctions
/however/, /as long as/, /but/
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Repetition
/robbery/, /terrorism/
References
/it/, /the/, /those/, /its/, /this/, /they/, /these/, /I/, /my/,
/their/
Ellipsis
20. March 24th
/They constantly weave in and 0 out .../
2012
Conjunctions
/until/, /while/, /as for/
Repetitions
/people/
Reference
/I/, /your/, /it/, /its/, /those/, /you/, /more/, /now/,
21. March 26th
/they/, /them/
2012
Meronymy
/people/ - /citizens/
Reference
/I/, /this/, /you/, /the/, /it/, /they/, /their/, /these/
Conjunction
22. /as/, /meanwhile/, /and/ March 27th
Repetition 2012
/Greece/
Meronymy
/Asia/ - /North Korea/
Reference
/I/, /he/, /us/, /his/, /their/, /him/, they/, it/, /the/,
/your/, /you/, /more/
Ellipsis
/... is an opportunist or not 0, but .../
Conjunction
/meanwhile/, /eventhough/, /also/, /and/, /as/, /since/,
23. /but/ March 28th
Repetition 2012
/leader/, /Jakarta/, /their/
Antonymy
/opportunist/ >< /non-opportunist/
Hyponymy
/city/ - /Jakarta/
Collocation
/leader/ - /wisdom/
24. Reference March 29th
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/they/, /his/, /it/, /their/, /we/, /I/, /the/, /he/, /our/, 2012
/them/, /more/, /you/, /us/, /your/
Conjunction
/or/, /but/
Hyponymy
/country/ - /Indonesia/
/foreign organizations/ - /IMF/ - /World Bank/
Repetition
/right/, /fuel prices/
Collocation
/economic/ - /prices/
References
/their/, /it/, /the/, /I/, /they/, /most/, /he/, /his/, /this/
Conjunctions
/however/, /furthermore/, /and/, /after/, /because/,
/otherwise/
Ellipsis
/... for the benefit of all 0 on their .../
Repetitions
/government/, /the great thinker never blames
25. March 31st
others/, /a narrow-minded man/, /the president/, /fuel
2012
prices/, /oil prices/
Hyponymy
/country/ - /Indonesia/
Substitutions
/did/, /done/
Collocations
/government/ - /minister/ - /department/
Synonymy
/welfare/ = /prosperity/

There are two main types of cohesion: grammatical and lexical. The
writer will distinguish each of them accordance to their part.
1. Grammatical Cohesion
a. Substitution
There are seven sentences contains substitution found in the articles.
The writer is going to divide them based on types:
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1) Nominal
There is only one data that used nominal substitution, here is the
analysis:
(4) His teaching of Islam is definitely not the right one.
The word “one” substitutes teaching of Islam.

2) Verbal
There are five data that applied verbal substitution, here are
some the analysis:
(16) They must be punished for what they have done.
The word “done” substitutes killed innocent civilians.

3) Clausal
There is only one data that applied verbal substitution, here is
the analysis:
(8) Even so, Garuda are looking much better these days for
certain.
The word “so” substitutes Indonesians will be happy to
settle for less.

b. Reference
All of the data employ references, there are twenty-five editions
with different types found in each articles. The writer is going to
divide them based on their types:
1) Personal
Almost of each edition uses personal references. Here some
representative of analysis:
a) Pronoun
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(1) I am of the opinion that people representatives can be


found from neighborhood based representative.
The word “I” refers to the writer.

(5) Obviously, the animals didn‟t receive the good food,


care, and protection they should have enjoyed.
The word “they” refers to the animals.

b) Possessive
Almost of each edition uses personal references. Here some
representative of analysis:
(6) If you did not pull out players playing for the LSI, our
team would not have been tortured by Bahrain.
The word “our” refers to the writer and Indonesian
people.

2) Demonstrative
Almost of each edition uses demonstrative references. Here
some representative of analysis:
(1) This is outrageous and the heartless, cruel people
responsible should be prosecuted.
The word “this” refers to plastic that is found in a dead
giraffe‟s stomach.

(9) They squawk about issues on the other side of the world,
but have nothing useful to say about poverty and corruption
here
The word “here” refers to in their square.
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3) Comparative
(6) Dear Mr. President, it seems that you care more about
football than the plight of Christians in the Yasmin Church.
The word “more” compares football with the plight of
Christians in the Yasmin Church.

(17) Look at how India improves as it encourages investments


in similar things.
The word “similar” compares India‟s investment with
Indonesia‟s investment through electric vehicles.

c. Ellipsis
There are twelve sentences contains ellipsis found in the articles.
The writer is going to give some representative to be analyzed based
on their types:
1) Nominal
There are eight nominal ellipsis found in the text. The writer is
going to give some representative to be analyzed:
(2) We must use or 0 lose our rights!
The word “we” is omitted to make simple sentence. The
sentence should be “We must use or we lose our rights!”

2) Verbal
There are three verbal ellipsis found in the text. The writer is
going to give some representative to be analyzed:
(9) Some of these Middle East uprisings will succeed, some will
not 0.
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The word “succeed” is omitted. The sentence should be


“Some of these Middle East uprisings will succeed, some
will not succeed.”

3) Clausal
There is only one clausal ellipsis found in the text. The writer is
going to discuss it:
(7) 0 Not because they are vocal, street visible, self-proclaimed
police, and instituting instant justice, but because it is the
right thing to do.
The word “people wants to disband radical mass-groups” is
omitted. The sentence should be “People wants to disband
radical mass-groups not because they are vocal, street
visible, self-proclaimed police, and instituting instant
justice, but because it is the right thing to do.”

d. Conjunction
There are fifty-seven conjunction are discovered. Most of them have
similar word, so the writer only discuss one word to representative
the same based on their types:
1) Additive
There are ten additive conjunction found in the text. The writer
is going to give some representative to be analyzed:
(5) Ship all remaining critters to Ragunan, then close the
Surabaya Zoo or, if you still insist, contact a taxidermist so
there is no need to feed the animals.
The word “or” is categorized as alternative simple
additive because it gives two alternatives for solving the
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problem; to ship all the critters to Ragunan then close the


Surabaya Zoo or contact a taxidermist.

(14) In other words: the official introduction of a „religious


police‟ like the Mutawa in Saudi Arabia and Aceh.
The word “in other words” is categorized as expository
apposition additive because it adds another sentence for
the previous one.

(23) Also, Joko Widodo appears to be sincerely dedicated to


improve the welfare of the ‟rakyat kecil‟, ….
The word “also” is categorized as simple additive
because it adds the information about Joko Widodo‟s
characteristics.

2) Causality
There are fourteen causality conjunction found in the text. The
writer is going to give some representative to be analyzed:
(1) ... lawmakers from political parties are no longer legitimate
because they never listen to the cries of marginalized
constituents.
The word “because” is categorized as simple reversed
causality as it presupposes the cause of the lack of
lawmaker‟s legitimate.

(2) If you want to be seen as s peaceful religion, then start


acting peacefully.
The word “because” is categorized as simple conditional
causality as it is closely related where the causal means to
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act peacefully therefore want to be seen as a peaceful


religion.

3) Adversative
There are twenty-four adversative conjunctions found in the
texts. The writer is going to give some representative to be
analyzed:
(1) ... does not show that they are really working for the
people‟s interests but for their own business interests.
The word “but” is categorized as simple contrastive
adversative because it shows interests contradiction
between people and government.

... admitted their mistake. But, can they really confess to


what they have done?
The word “but” is categorized as containing ‘and’ proper
adversative. Proper, here, means in spite of-relation
between admitted and confess.

(5) ... they treated the animals with respect. However, the same
respect was overlooked for the people.
The word “however” is categorized as emphatic
contrastive adversative since it shows a contradiction
between the treating level of animals and human. Emphatic
means something is done strictly.

(6) We have a large population with a great potential among


our youth to excel in sports. However, they are not given a
chance.
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The word “however” is categorized as emphatic proper


adversative. It shows a pity contradiction between the
great of youth population with the chances that can be
given.

4) Temporality
There are nine temporality conjunction found in the text. The
writer is going to give some representative to be analyzed:
(1) Finally, they have admitted their mistake.
The word “finally” is categorized as simple conclusive
temporal.

(5) Ship all remaining critters to Ragunan, then close the


Surabaya Zoo ...
The word “then” is categorized as sequential simple
temporal.

(22) Meanwhile, North Korea‟s nuclear weapons program is


another problem.
The word “meanwhile” is categorized as durative
complex temporal.

2. Lexical Cohesion
a. Reiteration
Reiteration is a form of lexical cohesion which involves the
repetition of a lexical item and a number of things in using
synonymy, antonym, hyponymy, and meronymy at one end of the
scale. It will be identified through the following classes:
1) Repetitions
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The writer found twenty repetitions in the research; here is some


representative for analysis:
(5) Despite the numerous sign in the zoo not to feed the
animals, people have a habit to still feed them and dump
left over, ...
The word „feed‟ is reiterated twice as verb.

(8) There was a time when Garuda was the least preferred
airline. Now, I can‟t wait my next trip with Garuda.
The word “Garuda” is reiterated twice as noun (the name of
a well known airline).

Garuda has done it, while MAS has done it too, but in a
different consistency...
The word “has done it too” is reiterated twice as verb
clause.

(12) Do the best, think the best, and God will give you the
best.
The word “best” is reiterated three times as adjectiva.

2) Synonymy
The writer found fourteen synonyms in the data, here is some
representatives for the analysis:
(15) ... There are many advantages we can derive from
Singapore. ... in a way that gives mutual benefits. ...
The meaning of “advantages” is similar with “benefits”
that means keuntungan.
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(25) The great thinkers always think how to help his people‟s
prosperity. ... The president today did nothing to improve
welfare but to teach ...
The meaning of “prosperity” is similar with “welfare” that
means kemakmuran.

3) Hyponymy
The writer found nineteen hyponyms in the data; here are some
representatives for analysis:
(8) The culprit is Arab League, backed by Saudi Arabia and
Qatar in collaboration with ...
The word “Arab League” is hyponym for “Saudi Arabia
and Qatar”.

(18) Men and women are physically different. ... Hereby,


women are respectfully treated as human beings.
The word “human” is hyponymy for “men” and “women”.

4) Meronymy
The writer found four meronyms in the data; here are some
representatives for the analysis:
(18) Western women need to learn ... how to devote and submit
themselves to their husband and family ...
The word “family” is meronymy for “husband” because a
family usually consists of husband, wife, and children.

... I can‟t imagine how a female teacher ... But with a job
and education, she can survive...
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The word “education” is meronymy for “teachers”


because education relates with teachers, students, school,
learn, study, etc.

5) Antonym
The writer found twelve antonyms in the data; here is some
representatives for analysis:
(3) He brings misery and suffering to Muslims and non-
Muslims alike.
The word “Muslims” and “non-Muslims” are noun. The
“Muslims” means person whose religion is Islam, whereas
“non-Muslim” means person whose religion is not Islam,
such Christian, Hindu, Budha, etc. Besides looks from the
meaning, “non-Muslim” can be identified as antonym
through prefiks “non-”.

b. Collocation
The writer analyzed this type based on the whole of each edition
because each collocation is related with the topic. There are thirty
collocation are found. The writer is going to give some
representatives to be analyzed:
(10) There are two collocation:
- Bule
This word has closely sense with foreigner. „Bule‟ only
used by our society to call foreign tourists who have white
skin and blond hair.
- Equality
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This word has closely sense with fairness. They can be


categorized as synonym.

Conclusion
Discourse analysis leads to analyze of constituents (smaller units) that
have particular relationship with one another in a text. There many parts of
discourse analysis, and cohesion is one of them. Cohesion occurs where the
interpretation of some elements in the discourse depends on each other, so it
deals with the investigation of form. Through the investigation and analysis
from the data, the writer proposes several findings:
1. Based on analysis of grammatical cohesion, the writer found 7
substitutions, 44 references, 12 ellipsis, and 57 conjunctions.
2. Based on analysis of lexical cohesion, the writer found 20
repetition, 14 synonyms, 12 antonyms, 19 hyponym, 4 meronyms, and 30
collocations.

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