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E Brooke Kilgore

Professor Santacroce

SPED 498.002

Evidence of Student Learning: Data Analysis Unit

Part A: Learning Context, Topic and Objectives (CEC 1, 2, 3, 5/InTASC 1, 2, 3, 4, 7)

Perry Hall Middle School is located in Perry Hall, Maryland. There are 1,895

students total in the school. Out of that total there are eight different races that

make up the student body: 1,013 Caucasian, 445 African American, 281 Asian, 75

Hispanic, 71 Multi-racial, 8 American Indian, and 2 Pacific Islander. There are 599

students in the building receiving free and reduced meal services. Out of all the

students in the school there are 809 in gifted and talented classes and 173 that

homeless. This group is made up of two self-contained classes that focus on

For these lessons, I am teaching the middle and high groups together. There

are thirteen students in these groups: four in the middle group (one girls and three

boys) and nine in the high group (two girls and seven boys). Among the group there

are three students with Down Syndrome, two with Autism, five with intellectual

disabilities, two with other health impairments (one student has a hearing

impairment due to these health impairments) and one with a specific learning

disability. The student with a hearing impairment has an interpreter and also wears

a hearing aid that has an FM system to help amplify what the teacher is saying.

There is one student that is an ELL student and occasionally has trouble with

understanding what words mean. His oral skills are proficient but he struggles with

reading and writing. In the middle group there are five students with a range of

grade level but vary greatly from unit to unit. The high group has seven students and
reading levels are around third grade and below. The math levels of the high group

are at about a first-second grade level for this unit but tend to vary as well.

There were three standards used during the first lesson and various essential

skills were addressed. The first standard used was “CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.K.MD.B.3

Classify objects into given categories; count the number of objects in each category

and sort the categories by count (limit category counts to be less than or equal to

10.).” The essential skills addressed by this standard are the ability to sort objects by

a given attribute and the ability to classify objects by predetermined categories

related to attributes. For this lesson the students were able to sort pictures of

graphs based on similar attributes in order to identify the name of the graph. The

students practiced sorting to prepare us for future lessons that would require them

to sort data and count it based on the category. We did not address the second

The second standard used was “CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.1.MD.C.4 Organize,

total number of data points, how many in each category, and how many more or less

are in one category than in another.” The essential skills and knowledge needed to

meet these standards were the students ability to sort data into separate categories,

their ability to display data in appropriate graph, and the ability to answer questions

about the data such as “which has more?” and “which has less?” During this lesson

students were able to sort pictures of graphs based on their attributes. They were

able to identify a bar graph, line graph, pictograph, and pie chart and dictate the

attributes that name these graphs. The students did have prior knowledge about
how to sort objects into categories and how to answer questions about the data. The

which had the least when looking at a graph. We did not display data in this lesson

but we prepared to work towards those skills in the future lessons.

There were two standards used during the second lesson. The first standard was

“CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.K.MD.B.3 Classify objects into given categories; count the

numbers of objects in each category and sort the categories by count.” There are two

different essential skills that are addressed with this standard. The skills focused on

are the students’ ability to sort objects by a given attribute and their ability to

classify objects by predetermined categories related to attributes. During this lesson

students were able to count objects that shared an attribute by using tally marks.

The students were also able to sort groups of tally marks and match them with the

correct total. At the end of each lesson for this topic we sorted data about ourselves.

The students were able to sort names of students based on similar attributes, and

count the totals by tally marks. In the second lesson the students practice collecting

data again by recording the number of cards in a category using tally marks. These

lessons and the skills addressed helped prepare the students for future lessons that

“CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.1.MD.C.4 Organize, represent, and interpret data with up to

how many in each category, and how many more or less are in one category than in

another.” There were three skills that this standard focused on and that I used
during my lesson. The skills included the ability to sort data into separate

categories, the ability to display data in appropriate graph, and the ability to answer

questions about the data. At the end of the lessons students sorted data into

different groups based on similar attributes. They were able to determine which

category an object belonged to by analyzing the similarities that it shared with other

objects. The students were also able to answer questions about the data we

collected like which category had the most and which category had the least. There

was one skill that we did not practice during this lesson but we discussed it in order

to prepare for future lessons. The students did not display the data that we collected

during these class periods in a graph. We talked about the different types of graphs

that would be useful to help display the data in order to prepare for the bar graph

lesson that followed.

There were three common core standards used for the third lesson. The first

standard was “CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.K.MD.B.3 Classify objects into given

categories; count the number of objects in each category and sort the categories by

count (limit category counts to be less than or equal to 10.).” There were two

essential skills that this standard focused on; the ability to sort objects by a given

attribute and the ability to classify objects by predetermined categories related to

attributes. During this lesson the students had to sort data into different categories

based on their attributes. Students moved names of each other to a group that

matched the answer they gave when asked a question. There were four categories

that we decided on and each student had to match a name to the correct category.
The second standard used for the third lesson was “CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.1.MD.C.4

Organize, represent, and interpret data with up to three categories; ask and answer

questions about the total number of data points, how many in each category and

how many more or less are in one category than in another.” The skills focused on

with this standard are the ability to sort data into separate categories, ability to

display data in appropriate graph, and the ability to answer questions about the

data. During this lesson, students were required to sort our data into different

groups that we decided on. They each had to put a students name in the correct

category based off the answer they gave to a question. The students also had to

display the data we collected in a bar graph that they helped to construct

most and which had the least, what the title of the graph was, and what the total of

The final standard used for this lesson was “CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.2.MD.D.10

Draw a picture graph and a bar graph (with single-unit scale) to represent a data set

with up to four categories. Solve simple put-together, take-apart, and compare

problems using information presented in a bar graph.” The three skills focused on in

this standard are the ability to collect, sort, organize, and graph data, knowledge of

the elements of picture graphs and bar graphs, and the ability to analyze graphs,

answer questions about the data, and make decisions based on the data. During this

lesson, students addressed all of these skills and were able to demonstrate them.

Each student took a turn with collecting, sorting, and organizing the data we were
using to make our graph. I had students use tally marks to count the total number in

each category to help them create the graph. The students were also able to

demonstrate their knowledge about the parts of a graph by identifying where the

title, key, and axes go as well as what we should label them. After we created the

graph the students were able to analyze the graph and answer questions about the

data we collected. Students were able to tell me which category had the most

students and which had the least students. They were also able to determine which

category had more/less when given two options.

At the beginning of the introduction lesson each day I had the students read

our objectives out loud to the class. The first objective was “students will be able to

identify different types of graphs.” Then I had a different student read the second

objective, which was “students will be able to identify and label parts of the graph.”

Both of these objectives were easy for the students to understand and were easily

measureable. By using the formative assessments, I was able to see which students.

At the beginning of tally marks lessons I had the students read the objectives

to me. The first objective was “students will be able to count using tally marks.” I

then had a different student read the second objective, which was, “students will be

able to collect data using tally marks.” These objectives were clear and easily

measurable for the lesson. At the end of the lesson the students were able to count

tally marks as well as draw the correct number when given a specific number to

draw. One of the activities on day one asked the students to collect data about each

other’s birthdays and record the data using tally marks. On the second day of the

lesson the students were given stacks of cards that they had to sort and record the
data using tally marks. For both days the students were able to achieve the

objectives.

At the beginning of the bar graph lessons, I had students volunteer to read

the objectives to the entire class. The first objective was “students will be able to

identify different types of graphs” and the second was “students will be able to

collect data and record in a bar graph.” Both of these objectives are easily

measurable and were easy for the students to understand. After the conclusion of

the lesson the students would be able to sort data and count it using tally marks. The

students would also be able to graph their data in a bar graph and answer questions

Students will demonstrate their knowledge by participating in formative

assessments throughout the class periods. These assessments will include verbal

questions, “magic bag” activities, and exit tickets. Judging by the responses that I get

when I ask questions to the class I will be able to determine if I need to spend a

couple more minutes explaining a topic or if we are ready to move on to the next

part. Students will also take turns coming up to the board and participating in the

“magic bag” activity. I will help the students that struggle during this activity by

restating the definitions or asking a question that will help guide them towards the

correct answer. The exit tickets help summarize what we learned about while giving

the students an opportunity for independent work. This also allows me to examine

their answers to try and understand where they are struggled and what I need to

reteach in order to move forward in the unit. In the tally marks activity, students

will demonstrate their ability to draw and count tally marks in their small groups.
The adults running the groups will assist with drawing and counting. The students

will have an opportunity to come to the board and record the data for their group. I

will ask questions to the whole class about the data we collected in order to

compare the results from each group. During the activities in the bar graph lesson,

the students will demonstrate what they have learned so far about the graph making

process. The students will have to sort data about our class and use their knowledge

about tally marks in order to count the data. They will be able to identify the parts of

a graph and create a title. Then the students will have to use the data we collected to

construct a graph.

On the summative assessment, students will have to count groups of tally

marks and match the number to the correct grouping as well as match a grouping to

the correct number. The students will also be asked to examine different types of

analyze a bar graph and determine which category had the most or the least. It is the

same assessment as the pre-assessment and will address the same skills that we will

At the end of the unit the students will complete a post-assessment to

determine what they learned from the unit. The post-assessment is the same as the

pre-assessment to help measure what the students learned during the unit. The

questions will be about sorting objects based on attributes, different types of graphs,
counting data using tally marks, and analyzing data in a graph. All of the questions

The pre-assessment used to assess the students’ prior knowledge of data

analysis covered a few different topics. The test was seven pages long with twenty-

six questions in total. On the first page the students were asked to pick from four

pictures the one that matched best in a specific category. They were also asked to

label groups of items that had something in common. For example, when shown

pictures of a pen, pencil, stapler, and paper clip, the students would pick “school

supplies” as a label. On the next page the students were asked to count tally marks

and to pick the group of tally marks that matched a given number. So if asked to pick

the answer that had twenty-two tally marks the students would pick the correct

option by counting the tally marks. Then the students were asked to count how

many of a specific coin there were in a group. On the next three pages the students

were asked questions about bar graphs, line graphs, and pie charts. The last page

asked students to identify the prime number out of a group and then questions that

required the students to analyze a chart. Out of the thirteen students that were in

the middle and high groups, six students scored 20-26/26, four students scored

At the beginning of each lesson on bar graphs, I had students volunteer to

read the objectives to the entire class. The first objective was “students will be able

to identify different types of graphs” and the second was “students will be able to

collect data and record in a bar graph.” Both of these objectives are easily

measurable and were easy for the students to understand. After the conclusion of
the lesson the students would be able to sort data and count it using tally marks. The

students would also be able to graph their data in a bar graph and answer questions

One formative assessment that was used in every lesson was the “magic bag”

activity. This formative assessment required students to come to the board and pick

from the “magic bag” and then place the vocab word the picked in the right spot.

There were two versions of this that were used in every review; one about the

different types of graphs and one about the parts of a graph. Additionally, this

activity was used during the tally marks lesson to assess what the students know

about tally marks. They had to pick a number from the bag and match it to the

correct groping of tally marks. A variation of this assessment had the students pick a

number from the bag and draw the correct number to match the one they chose.

At the end of the first tally marks lesson, the students completed an exit

ticket to see what they learned during that period about counting and drawing tally

marks. On the second day of this lesson they answered questions about our small

group activity in order to assess what they learned about using tally marks to record

data. Following each of the bar graph lessons the students answered questions

about the graph that we made as a class. One day we were not able to complete the

worksheet so the questions were asked verbally. On the other day the students were

able to complete the exit ticket before the end of the period. There was no scoring

tool required to grade the formative assessments during these lessons. The

activities were matching exercises and in order to move on to the next question, the
student must answer the one they are working on. Until the student gets it right

they will continue to try to answer.

Part C: Instruction (CEC 1, 3, 4, 5/InTASC 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8)

At the beginning of the class period for the introduction lesson, I asked for

student volunteers to read the two objectives for the day. The first objective for the

day was “students will be able to identify different kinds of graphs” and the second

one was “students will be able to identify and label parts of a graph.”

The beginning of the second introduction lesson started with student volunteers

reading the two objectives out loud for the class. The objectives were the same as

the previous lesson: “students will be able to identify different kinds of graphs” and

the second one was “students will be able to identify and label parts of a graph.”

At the beginning of the first tally marks lesson I asked student volunteers to

read the two objectives. The first objective was “students will be able to count using

tally marks” and the second objective was “students will be able to collect data using

tally marks.”At the start of the second tally marks lesson I asked for two student
volunteers to read the objectives for the day. The objectives for this lesson were the

same as the previous lesson. The first objective was “students will be able to count

using tally marks” and the second objective was “students will be able to collect data

using tally marks.”

I opened the bar graph lesson by having student volunteers read the two

objectives out loud to the entire class. The first objective was “students will be able

to identify different types of graphs” and the second was “students will be able to

collect data and record in a bar graph.” At the beginning of the second bar graph

lesson I asked for two student volunteers to read the objectives out loud to the class.

The objectives were the same as the previous lessons objectives.

After analyzing the students’ pre-assessment scores and learning about their

IEP needs, I was able to adapt my lesson to fit their needs. I knew from looking at

counting. I also saw that there were some students who understood tally marks and

other students that did not. In order to move forward through this unit the students

would need to learn about tally marks in order to ensure that every student would

be able to collect data. The students also need to know about the parts of a graph in

order to create one.

The students will participate in games that will test their knowledge about the

topic of the day. They will get to come up to the board and use the technology to

complete the activities. During the first day of the tally marks lesson, the students

collect data about ourselves and this was a great way to practice collecting data and
using tally marks. The second day of the tally mark lesson has the students break up

into small groups and complete an activity. During the graphing lessons, since the

graphs will be about them, they will have a chance to be a part of the lesson, literally.

Their names will be on the board and each one will be sorted. Each student picks

randomly from the bag so they don’t get their own name. This helps incorporate

social skills and requires the students to interact with each other to complete the

activity.

In each lesson the students will read objectives that will explain what we are

doing that day. I will ask the students if they know about that topic or if they know

any of the words that we will use. In the introduction lesson, I will jump right into

the lesson and start teaching the students about data analysis and the different

types of graphs. Real quick before we start the lessons on the other days, the

students will come up to the board and review what we have already learned. Then I

will introduce the new vocabulary that we will be using during that lesson and

throughout the rest of the unit. After we have talked about the new vocabulary I will

explain the new topic we will be covering. Once we have discussed the new topic,

the students will participate in practice problems to use the new information they

have learned. This will be a chance for me to see what I still need to review and what

they seem to understand. We will continue to do practice problems or another

activity in order to practice the skill. During the tally marks lesson the students will

practice recoding data and counting using tally marks. In each of the bar graph

lessons, we collected data, counted using tally marks, and then created a graph.

After each activity that we collected data in the students were asked questions about

topic we learned during class that day.

There will be lots of formative assessments used throughout this unit. Each day

will have a review of the types of graphs and the parts of a graph. Students will

practice using tally marks when we are collecting data and will practice creating the

graph. Students will also have to answer questions about the data we collected and

the graph we made. Throughout every lesson, the students will complete formative

assessments at the beginning of the lesson to review the information that we have

already learned. This helped them to practice and helped me to assess what areas

the students were still struggling with. Additionally, at the end of every lesson the

students will complete an exit ticket or answer questions about the lesson we

completed.

In each lesson, I will provide definitions of any new vocabulary that we will be

discussing. I will use videos to explain tally marks in another way and will stop the

video periodically to explain something further. I will use color-coding in definitions

in order to help the students make the connection between words. I will also use

sign when possibly during my lesson to assist the student with a hearing

impairment in my class.

When students are struggling during the formative assessments, I will offer

verbal prompts like stating the definition of a graph or asking the students a leading

question. If they are still struggling, I will offer to let them phone a friend and ask for

help from the class. After each student answers one of the questions I will explain
why their answer was correct. I will state the definition or give another example of

why that is the correct answer.

In the introduction lesson, students will learn about the four different types of

graphs that we will discuss during this unit. They will learn that a bar graph uses

bars, a line graphs uses lines, a pictographs uses pictures and a pie chart uses a pie

shape. The students will also learn about the important labels on a graph. They will

learn that the title tells you what the graph is about, a key tells you what each color

or picture represents, and which axis goes left to right and which one goes up and

down. During the tally marks lessons students will learn how to draw and count

tally marks. We will also practice collecting and recording data in order to prepare

for our graphing lessons. The bar graph lesson will use all of the information we

have learned so far in order to create our graph. Students will have to collect data

about the class and use tally marks to count each group. Then they will have to label

the parts of a graph and create the title and key. We will also need to label our axes

and create the interval. The students will need to know what type of graph we are

making in order to determine what we will use to display the data on the graph.

At the end of each lesson the students will participate in some kind of formative

assessment. After the introduction lesson, students will answer a series of questions

about the different types of graphs that we learned about and the parts of a graph.

They will also complete a word wall and circle the words that we discussed during

the lesson and put an “x” through the words that we did not discuss. At the end of

the tally marks lessons the students will complete a worksheet on one of the days to

practice drawing and counting tally marks. On the second day the students will
answer questions about data we collected in small groups. After the bar graph

DESCRIPTION:

This lesson was designed for a middle school self-contained special

education class. The class focuses on functional, academic, and life skills of the

students. This math class is a combination of the middle and high math groups,

which are made up of three girls and ten boys. In the middle group there are five

levels are at about a first grade level but vary greatly from unit to unit. The high

group has seven students and reading levels are around third grade and below. The

math levels of the high group are at about a first-second grade level for this unit but

tend to vary as well. In this group of students, there is one student who has a

hearing impairment and wears a hearing aid in one ear. This hearing aid has an FM

system connected to it transmitting the audio into his ear and the instructor wears

the system to amplify what is said. There is another student who is an English

Language Learner (ELL). His parents speak very little English but his language skills

are very good. Most of the students have difficulties staying on task or focusing on

the lesson. The majority of students are very polite and remember to raise their

hand before answering a question, but some still call out. There are some students
that have Behavior Intervention Plans (BIP) to maintain positive behavior during

class periods.

During this lesson, students will be introduced to data analysis. They will

learn what data analysis is and why it is useful. The students will be introduced to

the different types of graphs they may see: bar, line, pie chart, and pictographs. Each

graph will be explained further for when and why it is helpful. The students will

learn how to label a graph and what parts are important to look at when reading a

graph. This lesson is taught over two days to ensure that the students fully grasp the

PREREQUISITES:

understand different ways to calculate information given to them. The students

understand and can interpret whole numbers. All students took a pre-assessment

about data analysis to see what they knew before we started the unit. This

assessment was found in the PCI curriculum that is designed for students with

developmental disabilities, autism, and significant learning disabilities. The

questions were about sorting objects based on attributes, different types of graphs,

counting data using tally marks, and analyzing data in a graph. Based off of their

scores the students were placed in a low, middle, and high group.

ESTIMATED TIME:

45 minutes
PURPOSE:

Classroom Instruction

K-6

CONTENT AREAS:

Math

COMMON CORE:

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.K.MD.B.3 Classify objects into given categories; count the

number of objects in each category and sort the categories by count (limit category

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.1.MD.C.4 Organize, represent, and interpret data with up to

in each category, and how many more or less are in one category than in another.

INSTRUCTIONAL GOALS:

At the end of this lesson, students will be able to identify different types of

graphs when shown a picture of a certain graph. Students will be able to label parts

of a graph. They will analyze parts of the graph in order to answer general questions

about the graph. Students will also be able to pick a title that best describes the data

shown.
OBJECTIVES:

Students will be able to identify and label parts of a graph.

Students will be able to identify different kinds of graphs: bar graph, line graph, pie

chart, and pictograph.

VARIABILITY:

For this lesson there are thirteen students with different instructional needs

for the class. The majority of the students benefit from color-coding, definitions,

mnemonics and easy to remember sayings. The students love to participate

especially when movement or the interactive white board are involved. There is one

student that uses American Sign Language to communicate in addition to speaking,

so basic sign language is used during the lessons to help convey the information

easily. This is also beneficial for the other students, as well, since there are a few

that have learned and still practice using sign language.

Addy- Addy is a new member of Perry Hall Middle School and is one of two sixth

graders present during this class time. Addy is frequently eager to engage with the

lesson but can often be overlooked during whole class activities due to other

classroom distractions. Addy responds well to positive feedback and will participate

in class discussions when called upon.

Alex- Alex is a student who thrives on positions of leadership and is among the most

actively engaged with lessons. Alex struggles with impulsive behaviors, and
frequently requires the attention of faculty members to monitor his behavior. Alex

has a behavior management plan that allows him to receive five minutes of

computer time. Alex will have three sticky notes on his desk labeled one, two, and

three, which are to be removed each time his behavior is deemed unacceptable. If

Alex finishes the Mod with one or more sticky notes on his desk, he will be rewarded

with computer time five minutes prior to switching mods.

Yousef- Yousef is the most recent addition to the FALS program at Perry Hall

Middle. Yousef struggles with motivating himself to engage with lessons and has

demonstrated a negative attitude towards his new classroom environment and

peers. Multiple situations involving Yousef have required a lesson being stalled in

order to address Yousef's behavior. One strategy that has been successful with

Yousef is informing him that a parent phone call will be made if he continues to

misbehave.

Ethan Smith- Ethan is a respectful and organized student who follows directions

well. Ethan is among the quieter students in the class and will wait to be called on

before speaking out. To encourage Ethan’s participation, he will likely need to be

called on before raising his hand. Ethan struggles with oral expression and will be

given opportunities that target this need and support him throughout the

lesson. Occasionally, Ethan will be caught in off-task behavior such as staring at the

wall, playing with clothing or things on the desk, and putting his head down on the

desk. In order to keep him on task he is seated near a teacher or teacher aide.
Xavier- Xavier is especially soft spoken and becomes easily distracted when not

actively engaged with the lesson. Xavier sits in the front of the classroom, which

allows the teacher to direct his attention back to the lesson with a simple tap on the

desk. When asked to answer questions, Xavier can become shy and require some

encouragement to participate. However, when engaged he is very talkative.

Madison- Madison is a kind and friendly student who works well with other

encouragement before sharing an answer. Madison is a positive role model for

classroom behavior, and sets a good example for others. She is very eager to come

up to the board and participate in activities.

Leonard- Leonard is well behaved in the majority of his classes and seems to enjoy

working independently more than working in groups. Leonard struggles with

motivation and can become agitated during school due to factors both inside and

outside the classroom. Leonard is not as assertive as others in the classroom, but

will raise his hand when he desires to participate in whole class activities.

participates in the lesson at hand. He is a team player and demonstrates an

eagerness to please others but can become discouraged by criticism. Brady loves to

come up to the board and to participate in activities.

Nasir- Nasir is a very social student and is very eager to participate in activities. Due

to a speech impediment, it can be difficult for his friends and teachers to understand

what he is trying to say. He regularly needs reminders to slow down when speaking

and to put breaks in between each word. Nasir has a behavior plan using "lego

wrestling men" to track and record good behavior. If at the end of the day he has

earned six wrestling men; he is rewarded with a prize of his choice. Nasir also has

teacher aide to assist keeping him on task during the lesson.

William- William is a very capable and kind student. Due to medical complications

that left him deaf in one ear, and partially deaf in another, his teachers are required

to wear an FM system that transmits to his hearing aid. Additionally, some simple

sign language is used during the lessons to relay the message in the event that

directions or explanations were missed.

Ethan Morris- Ethan is a very kind and respectful student. He always raises his

hand, loves to participate in activities, and answer questions. He is easily

discouraged and can have some behavior issues when he gets angry or frustrated.

motivated to continue working.

Chris- Chris is a very sweet kid and loves to volunteer to read or answer questions.

He is very polite and makes sure to always raise his hand before answering a