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Assignment 3

Part 1

Read Linda Whitesitt’s “Women as ‘Keepers of Culture’: Music Clubs, Community Concert Series,
and Symphony Orchestras,” and answer the following questions. Upload your answers prior to class
on February 12.

1. How did women’s music clubs—and therefore the role of women—evolve in the late
nineteenth and early twentieth century?
2. Summarize the types of clubs and activities that are described on pages 66–69.
3. Who was Ella May Smith and what were her major accomplishments?
4. Who was Adella Prentiss Hughes and what were her major accomplishments?
5. How did women assist in the founding of permanent orchestras in Cincinnati, Philadelphia,
New York, and Cleveland? Be specific.

1. The clubs that these women played at were originally exclusively for other women to be at
but over time, these women wanted to share their art with everyone so they would eventually
drop the “women’s” part from the clubs so everyone could join. As the music grew, the
people’s respect for these women grew so much so composers would write music
specifically for these individuals to play. this grew into what we have today as touring artists
and local orchestras
2. For the most part the music that was played within these clubs was classical music. The
activities that happened are very similar to today's jazz scene it seems, theses people would
play for each other, write for each other, socialize, teach each other new ideas and so on.
3. Ella May Smith was president of a 3,000 member club in Columbus and a charter member of
Cleveland's Fortnightly Music Club. She was a Jack of all trades really, she taught piano,
vocals, harmony, composed and much more. She also started an outreach program to teach
younger kids about finer music.
4. Adella Hughes was essentially a fantastic business woman. She was a manager for these clubs
and would raise thousands of dollars to these different organizations and started fantastic
series of concerts. Also she founded the Mozart Society.
5. In order to assist forming these orchestras permanently these women would form a board of
directors after seeing many failed attempts by male counterparts at forming foundations.
These boards would handle day to day tasks and handled the money in a way that allowed
the orchestras to get off their feet and become a staple in their cities.