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www.elsevier.com/locate/engstruct

Part I: Dynamic representation of wire rope springs

Rafik R. Gerges∗, Barry J. Vickery

Alan G. Davenport Wind Engineering Group, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Science,

The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada N6A 5B9

Received 17 November 2003; received in revised form 26 November 2004; accepted 3 December 2004

Available online 3 March 2005

Abstract

Two mathematical models for describing the effective stiffness and the equivalent viscous damping ratio of wire rope springs, as amplitude

dependent, were developed. Twenty-four springs were tested in free vibration and the displacement decays were recorded. The free vibration

time history was used to calculate the effective stiffness and the equivalent viscous damping ratio. For each displacement amplitude, the

effective stiffness was determined from the observed period of vibration. The equivalent viscous damping ratio was determined from the

logarithmic decrement of the velocity between the points of zero potential energy. The proposed models are semi-empirical in nature and

require no testing since all parameters are fully determined from the physical properties of springs.

© 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Damping; Energy dissipation; Experimental; Friction; Modeling; Non-linear; Stiffness; System identification; Wire rope

Usually, a number of different springs are selected for

Tuned mass dampers are auxiliary systems incorporated testing before one specific configuration is chosen. Such

into structures to reduce their resonant response under exploration procedures do not allow fine-tuning of the spring

dynamic forces. A tuned mass damper consists of a mass, a dynamic characteristics to the requirements of the particular

spring and a damper. The spring and the damper components application at hand. Moreover, the available models, to be

can be implemented in a number of ways. Possessing elastic incorporated in the analysis of structural systems, require

and energy dissipation characteristics, the wire rope spring incremental non-linear time domain analysis.

combines the spring and the damper actions in one device. Linearisation often results in an accurate representation

Both the stiffness and the damping of the wire rope spring of the characteristics of many non-linear dynamic systems.

can be adjusted by varying wire rope diameter, wire rope The non-linear stiffness of the wire rope spring can be

structure, wire material, coil diameter, number of coils approximated by an effective spring constant that maintains

and/or spring orientation. the same natural frequency at a certain displacement

While significant advances have been made in the amplitude. The complicated energy dissipation mechanism

modelling of wire rope springs, experimental work is can be represented by an equivalent viscous damping

still needed to calibrate the available models [1–13]. mechanism that, for a given amplitude, dissipates the same

Therefore, considerable experience is necessary for the amount of energy.

This paper describes a large set of dynamic tests

∗ Corresponding address: Nabih Youssef & Associates Structural that were conducted to quantify the amplitude-dependent

Engineers, 800 Wilshire Boulevard, Suite 200, Los Angeles, CA, USA. Tel.: effective stiffness and equivalent viscous damping ratio

+1 213 362 0707; fax: +1 213 688 3018.

E-mail addresses: rgerges@nyase.com, rafik_gerges@yahoo.ca (R.R. of the wire rope springs in the tension–compression

Gerges). mode of deformation. Twenty-four wire rope springs were

0141-0296/$ - see front matter © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.engstruct.2004.12.015

654 R.R. Gerges, B.J. Vickery / Engineering Structures 27 (2005) 653–661

recorded. For each recorded displacement amplitude, the

effective stiffness was determined from the observed period

of vibration. The equivalent viscous damping ratio was

determined from the logarithmic decrement of the velocity

between the points of zero potential energy.

Two mathematical models that describe the effective

stiffness and the equivalent viscous damping ratio, as

amplitude-dependent quantities, were developed. For each

wire rope spring, the effective stiffness values were

normalised by their minimum value and the displacement

amplitude values were normalised by the amplitude

value corresponding to the minimum effective stiffness. Fig. 1. A Schematic drawing of a wire rope spring.

The normalisation process resulted in similar trends

for the stiffness–amplitude and the damping–amplitude

relationships for all the springs tested. The minimum

effective stiffness was related to the stiffness of a ring beam

subjected to a point load and the corresponding displacement

amplitude was related to the dimensions of the wire rope

spring. The normalised effective stiffness was fitted with

two polynomials, which are functions of the normalised

displacement amplitude. On the basis of an understanding

of the actual energy dissipation mechanism, the equivalent

viscous damping ratio was also described as a function of

the normalised displacement amplitude.

Fig. 2. A photograph of some of the wire rope springs tested.

2. Experimental study

intended experimental study. Fig. 1 shows a schematic

drawing of a wire rope spring. The wire rope diameter, dr ,

and the coil diameter, Dc , were varied as listed in Table 1.

The wire rope structure is 6 × 19 with an independent wire

rope core (IWRC) for diameters 25.40 and 12.70 mm and

is 7 × 19 with a wire strand core (WSC) for diameters

7.938, 6.350 and 3.175 mm. To compare with other wire

rope structures, one spring was made of a 7 × 7 WSC wire

rope of 1.587 mm diameter. The ratio Dc /dr was chosen to

be in the range of 10–25 (with one exception of 33) as listed

in Table 1. The spring was intended to be two half-circles on

both sides of the aluminium retainers. However, after being

fabricated, it took a near elliptical shape with the major axis,

Dc1 , as the distance between the two retainers and the minor

axis, Dc2 , perpendicular to the retainers (see Table 1). Dc

was calculated as the average of Dc1 and Dc2 . Fig. 2 shows

some of the springs used in this study.

pendulum and a reaction column as shown in Fig. 3. The Fig. 3. A photograph of the pendulum set-up.

pendulum was pushed manually for several cycles to build

up motion and then was released to vibrate freely. The were recorded. A typical filtered displacement, x, time

displacements, x, at the wire rope spring attachment point history is shown in Fig. 4.

R.R. Gerges, B.J. Vickery / Engineering Structures 27 (2005) 653–661 655

Table 1

Dimensions and properties of wire rope springs

rotations, is

k θp = m p ag z (1)

where m p is the mass of the pendulum, ag is the acceleration

due to gravity and z is the distance between the pivot and the

pendulum centre of mass. The spring stiffness to pendulum

stiffness ratio was chosen to maintain a balance between

two sources of error. These were errors associated with the

calculation of the wire rope spring stiffness and errors due

to interpolation of stiffness and damping between recorded

amplitudes.

3. Analysis procedures

cal as shown in Fig. 5, the free vibration tension amplitude,

X T , and compression amplitude, X C , differ considerably

within the same vibration cycle as shown in Fig. 4. A rep-

resentative amplitude, X r , was chosen as

Fig. 4. A typical displacement time history. Xr = X T XC . (2)

656 R.R. Gerges, B.J. Vickery / Engineering Structures 27 (2005) 653–661

motion is linear. The commonest method for defining the

equivalent viscous damping is equating the energy dissipated

over a vibration cycle by the actual damping mechanism to

that dissipated by a viscous damping mechanism [14].

The energy dissipated in a free vibration cycle by a

rotational SDOF with viscous damping is given by

2π

fV ωD

E D = 2I p ωn β θ̇ (t)2 dt (7)

0

where the rotation is described by

θ (t) = exp(−βωn t) Cθ1 cos ωn 1 − β t

2

Fig. 5. A typical force–displacement relationship for the

tension–compression mode of deformation. + Cθ2 sin ωn 1 − β t 2 (8)

d θ (t)

The damped periods of the vibration, TD , were obtained θ̇ (t) = . (9)

from the free vibration time history (see Fig. 4). The dt

effective stiffness, kwr , corresponding to a particular The initial conditions are defined as

representative displacement amplitude, X r , was determined

to produce the same natural frequency as the non-linear θ (0) = 0 (10a)

spring. This equivalence criterion was adopted because and

the natural frequency of the tuned mass damper strongly

influences its effectiveness. θ̇ (0) = θ̇0 . (10b)

The calculation procedures, for each X r , are as follows:

The initial conditions are used to determine the constants

1. The circular natural damped frequency of the rotational Cθ1 and Cθ2 in Eq. (8). An expression for the dissipated

single-degree-of-freedom, SDOF, system is given by energy per cycle in free vibration for a viscously damped

2π SDOF was obtained by performing the integral in Eq. (7)

ωD = . (3) and is given by

TD

2. The total rotational stiffness of the SDOF system is given fV 1 −4πβ

by E D = I p θ̇0 1 − exp

2

. (11)

2 1 − β2

ω2D I p

ktθ = (4) Regardless of the actual damping mechanism, the energy

(1 − β 2 ) dissipation between points of zero potential energy can be

where I p is the mass moment of inertia of the pendulum expressed in terms of the change in the kinetic energy as

about the pivot and β is the equivalent viscous damping

ratio of the SDOF system evaluated in the next section f 1 2

ED = I p θ̇0 − θ̇12 . (12)

3. The spring rotational stiffness is given by 2

θ

= ktθ − k θp

fV f

kwr (5) By equating E D to E D , an expression for the equivalent

viscous damping ratio is obtained as

4. The tension–compression stiffness per coil of the wire

rope spring is given by δ

θ β= 2π

(13a)

kwr δ 2

kwr = (6) 1+ 2π

nc h2

where n c is the number of coils. where

θ̇0

3.3. Amplitude-dependent equivalent viscous damping δ = ln . (13b)

ratio, βwr θ̇1

For a spring, which has a hysteretic force–displacement

Damping in structures is usually represented by an relationship, zero displacement corresponds to a value for

equivalent viscous damping. It is the simplest form of the force (see Fig. 5) and therefore there is some potential

R.R. Gerges, B.J. Vickery / Engineering Structures 27 (2005) 653–661 657

energy stored in the spring. The zero-potential-energy 4. Experimental results and modelling

condition is satisfied only at points of zero acceleration. The

displacement time history was numerically differentiated 4.1. Effective stiffness, kwr

twice to determine points of zero acceleration. Velocities

corresponding to zero accelerations θ̇0 and θ̇1 were used 4.1.1. Typical stiffness–amplitude relationship

in Eq. (13) to obtain the equivalent viscous damping ratio. A typical effective stiffness based on full vibration cycles

Since the pendulum motion was recorded in terms of versus the representative amplitude, X r , is shown in Fig. 6.

displacement at the spring level, the rotational velocity, θ̇, for It also shows the effective stiffness based on tension and

small rotations, can be related to the translational velocity, ẋ, compression half-cycles. For the stiffness based on full

by cycles, it decreases rapidly with the increase of X r up to

a certain point where it reaches its minimum value, k min

ẋ

θ̇ ∼

= . (14) at amplitude X rmin , after which kwr slightly increases with

h the increase of X r . The rapid decrease of kwr with X r

The only component that dissipates a significant amount increase could be attributed to the increase of slip between

of energy in the rotational SDOF system is the wire rope individual wires, therefore reducing the wire rope’s effective

spring. The equivalent viscous damping ratio, calculated moment of inertia. In the small amplitude range, the non-

according to the above-mentioned procedures, should be linear geometric effects do not play a noticeable role and

corrected for the ratio of the total system stiffness to the hence the effective stiffnesses based on full cycles, tension

spring stiffness. The energy dissipated by a rotational SDOF half-cycles and compression half-cycles are all equal. This

system with viscous damping in one cycle of harmonic agrees with the recorded symmetric hysteresis loops under

vibration is small amplitudes (see Fig. 5). As the amplitude increases,

ω θ 2 stiffening takes place on the tension side while softening is

D = 2πβ

E hV k Θ (15) experienced on the compression side. The full cycle effective

ωn t

stiffness represents the average.

where ω is the frequency of response and Θ is the amplitude

of rotation. Since the response of a system is most sensitive 4.1.2. Minimum effective stiffness, k min , and corresponding

to damping when vibrating at its natural frequency, the amplitude, X rmin

damping equivalence point is always chosen at ω = ωn . If The minimum value for the effective stiffness based on

θ ,

the stiffness is provided only by the wire rope spring, kwr the full vibration cycle, k min , and the corresponding repre-

then the corresponding equivalent viscous damping ratio, sentative amplitude, X rmin , were obtained from experimental

βwr , is given by results for all the 24 springs and are listed in Table 1.

On the basis of the energy method and considering

ktθ

βwr = θ

β. (16) only the bending deformations, an expression for the

kwr tension–compression stiffness of a ring beam subject to a

point load was obtained as [15]

E Ix x 8

3.4. Dynamic properties based on the half-cycle kr = 3

(19)

Dc π − 2

4 π

Considering tension and compression separately, the where Ix x is the cross section moment of inertia about the

half-cycle period is TDT or TDC and the corresponding axis of bending and E is the modulus of elasticity. Three

amplitude is X T or X C , respectively, as shown in Fig. 4. The different values were assigned to Ix x , based on: a no-slip

velocities θ̇0 and θ̇1 are calculated for the half-cycle under condition; partial slip between strands but no-slip between

consideration. To carry out the analysis for the half-cycles, individual wires within the same strand; and a full slip

Eq. (3) is replaced by condition. The corresponding stiffness values were k ns , k ps

2π and k fs , respectively. k ns , k ps and k fs were normalised by

ωD = (17a) k min and are given in Table 1. The ratios k fs /k min for springs

2 TDT

1–23 are all in the near vicinity of unity which suggests that

for the tension half-cycle or k min can be accurately predicted using Eq. (19) with a full

2π slip condition considered in calculating Ix x .

ωD = (17b) To predict the representative displacement amplitude

2 TDC

corresponding to k min , an empirical expression in the form

for the compression half-cycle. Also, Eq. (13b) should be Dc1.24

replaced by X rmin = 0.086 (20)

dr0.24

θ̇0

δ = 2 loge . (18) best fits the experimentally obtained X rmin values (see

θ̇1 Table 1).

658 R.R. Gerges, B.J. Vickery / Engineering Structures 27 (2005) 653–661

Fig. 6. A typical normalised effective stiffness versus normalised Fig. 8. A typical normalised energy dissipation versus normalised

displacement amplitude. displacement amplitude.

To identify the energy dissipation mechanism, a typical

energy dissipation/amplitude relationship is plotted in Fig. 8.

The energy dissipated is normalised by the maximum strain

energy that can be stored in the wire rope spring, which

is

1

E Smax = kwr 2X rmin 2X rmin . (22)

2

The relationship between the energy dissipation and the

amplitude suggested a fit in the form

f

E D = CED1 X r + CED2 X r2 , (23)

Fig. 7. Normalised effective stiffness versus normalised displacement

amplitude for all springs. which represents the combination of two mechanisms. The

term proportional to the amplitude represents a friction

damping mechanism as shown in Fig. 9(a). The term

4.1.3. General expression for the amplitude-dependent proportional to the amplitude squared represents a rate-

effective stiffness, kwr (X r ) independent linear damping [14,16] in which the damping

For each spring, the effective stiffness values, kwr , and force is proportional to displacement as shown in Fig. 9(b).

the representative amplitude values, X r , were normalised by η is a dimensionless damping constant. A condition for

k min and X rmin , respectively. The normalisation process was achieving slip is

repeated for the 24 springs and normalised values are plotted πηkwr X r

in Fig. 7. A general expression for the amplitude-dependent kwr (X r ) X r ≥ F f + (24)

2

effective stiffness was obtained, through fitting, as and was considered in fitting the dissipated energy with

Xr 4 Eq. (23).

kwr (X r ) = k min

1 + 0.95 1 − min

Xr

4.2.2. General expression for the amplitude-dependent

for X r ≤ X rmin (21a) damping ratio, βwr (X r )

and The equivalent viscous damping ratio values, βwr ,

1.5 were plotted versus the normalised displacement amplitude

Xr values, X r / X rmin , for the 24 springs and are shown in

kwr (X r ) = k min 1 + 0.14 −1

X rmin Fig. 10. The relationship between the viscous damping ratio

equivalent to the combined damping mechanism and the

for X r > X rmin (21b)

amplitude needs to be described. When the energy dissipated

and is plotted in Fig. 7. by a viscous damping mechanism under harmonic excitation

R.R. Gerges, B.J. Vickery / Engineering Structures 27 (2005) 653–661 659

match the trend of the above-mentioned data (see Figs. 7 and

10). However, discrepancies are observed between measured

and predicted X rmin and k min for the 7 × 7 spring. Further

testing is required to check the applicability of the models

developed to other wire rope structures.

5. Conclusions

amplitude increases up to its minimum value, beyond

which the stiffness slightly increases with the amplitude.

The minimum stiffness value was found to be equal

Fig. 10. Equivalent viscous damping ratio versus normalised displacement to the stiffness of a ring beam having the same coil

amplitude for all springs.

diameter and a cross section moment of inertia equivalent

to full slip between the wires. The displacement amplitude

corresponding to the minimum effective stiffness was

is equated to that dissipated by both the friction and linear empirically expressed as a function of the coil diameter

damping mechanisms as and a weak function of the wire rope diameter. The

ω stiffness–amplitude relationship was found by fitting the

2πβwr kwr X r2 = 4F f X r + πηkwr X r2 , (25) normalised data points.

ωn

The energy dissipation/amplitude relationship showed

a relationship between βwr and X r , for ω = ωn , is obtained that the damping mechanism is a combination of a friction

as damping and a rate-independent linear damping. Equating

2 Ff η the energy dissipated by the combined mechanism to

βwr (X r ) = + . (26)

π kwr X r 2 that dissipated by viscous damping, an expression for the

By fitting the expression given by Eq. (26) and fulfilling equivalent viscous damping ratio as a function of the

the slip condition given by Eq. (24), values for the non- displacement amplitude was developed. This expression was

dimensional parameters F f /(k min X rmin ) and η are obtained fitted to the damping-amplitude relationship.

as 0.0776 and 0.0627, respectively, and the fitted expression

is shown in Fig. 10. As X r increases, the contribution of the

friction damping to βwr decreases. For large X r values, βwr Acknowledgements

approaches a value of η/2 (see Fig. 10).

The Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council

4.3. Applicability to other wire rope structures of Canada and Rowan, Williams, Davis and Irwin Inc.

supported the initial stage of this work through the Industrial

The effective stiffness and equivalent viscous damping Postgraduate Scholarships program. The Ontario Ministry

ratio expressions were developed on the basis of springs of Education continued the support through the Ontario

having wire rope structures of 7 × 19 WRS or 6 × 19 IWRC. Graduate Scholarships program.

660 R.R. Gerges, B.J. Vickery / Engineering Structures 27 (2005) 653–661

β damping ratio (% of critical)

List of symbols βwr equivalent damping ratio of wire rope spring (% of

critical)

ag acceleration due to gravity η dimensionless damping constant

CED1,2 fitting constants for amplitude-dependent dissi- Θ rotation amplitude

pated energy θ rotation

Cθ1,2 constants in the expression for free vibration ω circular frequency

rotation of the SDOF system ωD natural damped circular frequency of rotational

Dc coil diameter SDOF

dr wire rope diameter ωn natural circular frequency

E modulus of elasticity

ED dissipated energy per vibration cycle Operators

f

ED dissipated energy per free vibration cycle

ED

fV

energy dissipated per free vibration cycle by • Differential with respect to time.

viscous damping

E hV

D energy dissipated per harmonic vibration cycle by

Abbreviations

viscous damping

E Smax maximum strain energy stored in the wire rope

IWRC independent wire rope core

spring

SDOF single-degree of freedom

Ff friction force

WSC wire strand core

Fr spring restoring force

h distance between the spring/damper (or wire rope

spring) attachment point and pivot point

References

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point [1] Bouc R. Forced vibrations of a mechanical system with hysteresis. In:

Ix x cross section moment of inertia about the axis of Proceedings of 4th conference on non-linear oscillation. 1967, p. 315.

bending [2] Wen YK. Method for random vibration of hysteretic systems. Journal

k fs stiffness of the ring beam under a point load, based of Engineering Mechanics Division, ASCE 1976;102:249–63.

on a full slip condition [3] Cutchins MA, Cochran JE, Guest S, Fitz-Coy NG, Tinker ML. An

investigation of the damping phenomena in wire rope isolators. In:

k min minimum effective stiffness of a wire rope spring Proceedings of the 1987 ASME design technology conference. 1987,

k ns stiffness of the ring beam under a point load, based p. 197–204.

on no slip condition [4] Lo HR, Hammond JK, Sainsbury MG. Non-linear system identifica-

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kwr effective stiffness of the wire rope spring vibration isolation system. Journal of Sound and Vibration 1992;157:

k θp pendulum rotational stiffness 7–18.

[6] Ko JM, Ni YQ, Tian QL. Hysteretic behaviour and empirical

ktθ total rotational stiffness modelling of wire-cable vibration isolator. International Journal of

θ

kwr effective wire rope spring rotational stiffness Analytical and Experimental Modal Analysis 1992;7:111–27.

mp pendulum mass [7] Demetriades GF, Constantinou MC, Reinhorn AM. Study of wire rope

nc number of coils systems for seismic protection of equipment in buildings. Engineering

Structures 1993;15:321–34.

TD damped natural period of vibration, based on a full [8] Tinker ML, Cutchins MA. Instabilities in a non-linear model of a

cycle passive damper. Journal of Sound and Vibration 1994;176:415–28.

TDC half of the damped natural period of vibration, [9] Ni YQ, Ko JM, Wong CW. Mathematical hysteresis models and their

based on a compression half-cycle application to non-linear isolation systems. In: Proceedings of the 6th

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TDT half of the damped natural period of vibration,

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t time a wire-cable isolator via a cyclic loading test, Part 1: Experimental

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