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Thai Millennial Consumers’ Behavioural

Intention Towards Mobile Commerce

Aashna Arora
ARO14413033

A dissertation submitted in partial


fulfilment of the requirement for
the award of the degree
BA (Hons.) BA Fashion Buying and Merchandising
The London College of Fashion
University of the Arts London

4th May 2018


Declaration

“No portion of the work referred to in this dissertation has been submitted in support of
an application for another degree or qualification of this institution or any other
university or other institution of learning.”

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Acknowledgement

I would like begin by thanking my final major project supervisor, Chloe Mason for her
guidance and support through this journey. I would also like thank Lorna Dallas-Conte
whose advice on entrepreneurial strategies allowed me to view my work from a
different perspective.

I would like to acknowledge Gareth Davies, Managing Director at Fluxus for taking the
time to take part in my telephone interview. The interview provided this research with a
very interesting insight regarding his vast knowledge and expertise on the e-commerce
industry in Thailand. Lastly I would like to acknowledge the 81 participants who filled
out the questionnaire for this study and the 6 mobile shoppers who took the time and
effort to participate in the telephone interviews.

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Abstract

This dissertation examines the key factors impacting behavioral intention towards
online shopping of fashion products through mobile phones in Thailand. This
dissertation draws upon previous studies conducted on technology acceptance
models. The Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology model (UTAUT)
(Venkatesh et al. 2003) was used as a foundation to develop a model capable of
predicting the constructs that impact Thai Millennial consumers’ behavioral intention
towards mobile commerce. This model aims to provide businesses in Thailand a way
to assess success for their m-commerce channels and contribute to their
understanding of targeting the Millennial populations of users that are less inclined to
adopt and use m-commerce systems. The model along with the hypotheses was tested
using the statistical analysis of multiple regression analysis on data obtained by 81
mobile shoppers in Thailand. Furthermore, seven semi-structured interviews were
conducted, six with mobile shoppers and one with the Digital Innovation Specialist and
Managing Director at Fluxus Thailand. These interviews further supported and
enhanced the results of this study.

The results collected from the quantitative questionnaire suggest that; performance
expectancy, effort expectancy and hedonic motivations have a statistical significant
effect on behavioral intention towards m-commerce in Thailand. Whereas facilitating
conditions and social influence do not have a statistical significant effect on behavioral
intention towards m-commerce in Thailand. This was supported by the evidence
gained from the Interviews. The findings conclude that online retailers in Thailand need
to introduce mobile apps that focus on the user interface providing an ease to use
system and extrinsic motivation such as discounts and promotions.

Key Words: Mobile Phone, Mobile Commerce (M-commerce), Online Shopping,


Millennials, Behavioral Intention, UTAUT, Thailand

Total Number of Words: 12,146

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Table of Contents

1. Introduction 9
1.1 Background 9
1.2 M-Commerce in Thailand 9
1.3 Aim and Objectives 11
1.3.1 Aims 11
1.3.2 Objectives 11
1.4 Chapter Outlines 12

2. Literature Review 13
2.1 Identify The Thai Millennial Consumer 13
2.1.2 Online Shopping 13
2.1.3 Highly Selective 13
2.1.4 Growing Individualism 14
2.1.5 Technology Reliant 14
2.1.6 Seeking Convenience 15
2.1.7 Social Influence 16
2.2 Technology Acceptance 17
2.3 Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) 17
2.4 Unified Theory Of Acceptance And Use Of Technology (UTAUT) 18
2.5 Innovation of Diffusion Theory 19
2.6 Motivation Theories 20
2.4 Proposed Model and Hypotheses 21
2.4.1 Performance Expectancy (PE) 22
2.4.2 Effort Expectancy (EE) 23
2.4.3 Social Influence 23
2.4.4 Facilitating Conditions 
 23
2.4.5 Hedonic Motivations 24
2.4.6 Behavioural Intention 24
2.4.7 Controlled Variables 24

3. Methodology 26
3.1 Research Philosophy 26
3.2 Research Approach 26
3.3 Mixed Methods Approach 27
3.4 Research Methods 27
3.4.1 Quantitative Phase 27

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3.4.2 Qualitative Phase 28
3.5 Data Analysis 29
3.5.1 Quantitative Phase 29
3.5.2 Qualitative Phase 29
3.6 Reliability and Validity 30
3.8.1 Quantitative Phase 30
3.8.2 Qualitative Phase 30
3.7 Ethical Considerations 31
3.8 Methodological Limitations 31

4. Research Findings 32
4.1 Results from Quantitative Analysis 32
4.2.1 Descriptive Analysis 32
4.1.2 Multiple Regression Analysis 34
4.1.3 Reliability and Validity 37
4.1 Results from Qualitative Analysis 38
4.2.1 Mobile Shopper Interviews 38
4.2.2 Industry Expert Interviews 41

5. Data Analysis and Discussion 43


5.1 Thai Millennial Consumers’ Characteristics 43
5.2 Model to Predict Behavioral Intention towards M-Commerce 44
5.3 Recommendations for Online Retailers 46
5.5 Research Limitations 48

6. Conclusion and Recommendations 50


6.1 Conclusion 50
6.2 Further Recommendations 50

7. Personal and Professional Development 51

References 54
Image References 60

Appendices 61
Appendix A: Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) 61
Appendix B: Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) 62
Appendix C: Questionnaire Design 63
Appendix D: Interview Information Sheet 67
Appendix E: Qualitative Interview Guide 69
Appendix F: Interview Transcript: Mobile Shopper A 71
Appendix G: Consent Form Signed by Mobile Shopper A 74

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Appendix H: Interview Transcript - Mobile Phone Shopper B 75
Appendix I: Consent form for Mobile Shopper B 78
Appendix J: Interview Transcript - Mobile Phone Shopper C 79
Appendix K: Consent form for Mobile Shopper C 81
Appendix L: Interview Transcript – Mobile Phone Shopper D 82
Appendix M: Consent form for Mobile Shopper D 84
Appendix N: Interview Transcript: Mobile Shopper E 85
Appendix O: Consent form for Mobile Shopper E 88
Appendix P: Mobile Phone Shopper F 89
Appendix Q: Consent form for Mobile Shopper E 92
Appendix R: Interview Transcript – Industry Expert A 93
Appendix S: Consent Form – Industry Expert A 22
Appendix T: Mobile Phone Shopper Interview Coding 23
Appendix U: Industry Expert Interview Coding 31
Appendix V: Multiple Regression Analysis on SPSS 33
Appendix W: Cronbach’s Alpha Reliability Test 34
Appendix X: Research Ethics Form 40

List of Figures
Figure 2.1: Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) 18
Figure 2.2: Universal Theory of Adoption and Use of Technology Model 18
(UTAUT)
Figure 2.3: Five Characteristics on Innovation 20
Figure 2.4: UTAUT Model Modified to the Study 21
Figure 2.5: The Study Framework 22
Figure 3.1: The Process of Deduction 26
Figure 4.1: Respondents Age Group 32
Figure 4.2: How Often do you shop on your mobile phone? 33
Figure 4.3: Have you ever purchased an item through your mobile phone? 33
Figure 4.4: Strengths of Relationships between Independent and Dependent 36
Variables

List of Tables
Table 2.1: The Core Determinants of UTAUT 19
Table 2.2: Hypotheses 22
Table 3.1: Mobile Shoppers Interview 29
Table 3.2: Industry Expert Interviews 29

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Table 4.1: Model Summary 34
Table 4.2: ANOVA 34
Table 4.3: Multiple Regression: Predicting Behavioural Intention 35
Table 4.4: Combining p-value with Hypotheses 36
Table 4.5: Validity and Reliability Analysis of Multi-item Scales 37
Table 5.1: Hypotheses Test Results 44

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1. Introduction

1.1 Background

The Internet is rapidly developing an increased numbers of web users and the
introduction of high-speed Internet connections. Retailers are able to take advantage of
these technological developments to promote their products through a website. The
improved service through e-commerce (electronic commerce) has changed consumer
behaviour from traditional shopping methods to become highly dependent on Internet
shopping. This has caused several companies to change their business strategy in
response to the inevitable trend of rising Internet shoppers. Mobile commerce (or m-
commerce) can thus be defined as a sub e-commerce channel that allows e-commerce
to be executed through a mobile device. A mobile device refers to a handheld device
with computing capabilities such as a mobile phone or smartphone (Cambridge English
Dictionary, n.d).

Mobile devices are convenient because they can be accessed whenever and
wherever. This has provided retailers with a new medium through which it can reach
out to its potential customers. Despite m-commerce becoming a rising trend amongst
consumers (Deloitte, 2017), they still prefer to use a computer when it comes to
purchasing fashion products. It is believed that that the behavioural intention across the
two mediums vary greatly thus making it an imperative subjective to study (Chong,
2013).

1.2 M-Commerce in Thailand

E-commerce has rapidly grown in Thailand over the last decade and is proving to
become a more convenient method to shop. Thailand’s e-commerce market had a total
of $2.9 billion trade in 2016 and has been growing on an average of 14.5% per year
(Bain and Company, 2016) (Euromonitor, 2017). In 2016, Thailand saw a jump in e-
commerce sales when a political unrest caused a coup and impacted the consumers’
ability to go out and shop (Hope, 2016).

The generation born between 1980 and 2000, often classified as the Millennial
Generation or Generation Y is quickly becoming a group of consumers with a high
purchasing power. This generation has grown up using the Internet and mobile devices
thereby making them more likely to engage in m-commerce activities (Wangkiat
Fernquest, 2016). Thailand currently has 17 million mobile users, 41% of which use
their mobiles to shop online (Bangkok Post, 2017) (Statistia, 2016). Thai Millennials

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currently spend an average of eight hours per day on their mobile device and are
highly influenced by digital content with a high social media engagement (Voca Link,
2017). Although Thailand is not perceived as hi-tech country in terms of mind-set, the
population is keen to embrace new technological developments if they bring
convenience, excitement or sources or business” (Thailand 2017, Beyond the
Concerns, 2017). Thailand is currently a regional leader in m-commerce with the
highest percentage (52%) of online transactions taking place through mobile devices
(WARC, 2018).

Companies in Thailand are rapidly shifting their focus towards online sales through
mobile devices (Bangkok Post, 2017). Major players such as the Central Group and
The Mall Group have both invested in mobile apps that feature their latest products and
promotional activities (Rungfapaisarn, 2017). Thailand’s affinity for mobile phones has
caused companies like LOOKSI and Shopee to adopt a mobile-first strategy which has
resulted in a 9 times increase in app traffic from September 2015 to 2016 (Luo, 2017).
Furthermore, Lazada Thailand, an e-commerce company funded by Alibaba, has seen
an increase in online sales coming from mobile phones (Chen, 2018).

Thailand is not only experiencing a rise in sales on apps but also through social media
channels. Amongst Thai Consumers, 33% of e-commerce sales values come from
social media websites such as Instagram and Facebook. As of 2016, there are 500,000
online merchants with 10,515 using Facebook, 11,213 using Instagram as the medium
to promote and sell their products making Thailand the second-largest online retail
market in ASEAN (Bain & Company, 2016).

Despite the increased adoption of mobile phones usage in Thailand, no empirical


research has been conducted on the consumer behaviour of the Millennial generation
and in particular, their behavioural intention towards m-commerce. A large number of
studies have investigated the use of e-commerce, but the field of m-commerce hasn’t
been academically investigated. There is a lack of knowledge on Thai Millennial
consumers’ attitude towards mobile web shops and apps and little to no evidence on
what influences their behavioral intention. Previous studies to this nature have been
conducted, but with the focus of another market.

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1.3 Aim and Objectives

1.3.1 Aims
This research aims to identify the factors that can predict the behavioral intention
towards m-commerce. This dissertation focuses on Thailand’s Millennial generation
which has become the largest population in Thailand and is perceived to have different
values, attitudes, preferences and experiences that influence their behavioural
intentions. It is imperative to fill this research gap because the usage of mobile phones
and mobile shopping is gaining popularity within the Thai society and this information
could prove to be invaluable to online retailers.

1.3.2 Objectives
The primary objective throughout this dissertation is to develop a model capable of
providing useful information to online retailers in Thailand. It will help businesses
understand how to improve and promote its mobile channel to Millennials.

The following statements below outline the objectives of this study:

1. Identify the Thai Millennial Consumers’ characteristics in relation to online


shopping.
2. Develop a model of factors that describe Thai Millennial Consumers’
behavioural intention to adopt m-commerce systems as a means to purchase
fashion products.
3. Evaluate how the understanding of behavioural intention towards m-commerce
adoption can help online retailers evaluate future growth of m-commerce.

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1.4 Chapter Outlines

Chapter 1: Introduction – This chapter will introduce the subject and importance of
studying e-commerce and m-commerce. It will then present a current market analysis
of mobile commerce in Thailand and rationalize why this research topic is important
and contributes to the existing literature available. Lastly, the aims and objectives of
this research will be outlined.

Chapter 2: Literature Review - The chapter, Literature Review provides an in-depth


review of the existing literature in relation to the themes of this investigation. The two
primary themes of this investigation are defining the Thai Millennial consumer and
identifying factors that affect their attitude towards mobile commerce. This study
combines the constructs from information systems (technology acceptance models)
and psychology (consumer behaviour and attitudes). This chapter concludes with the
development of a model and hypotheses that will be tested.

Chapter 3: Research Methodology- The third chapter of this dissertation describes the
research approach, research philosophy, data collection and analysis method, and the
measures taken to ensure an adequate quality of results.

Chapter 4: Research Findings – The fourth chapter will analyse the findings collected
from the primary research. This chapter will be split into two sections, the first being an
analysis of the quantitative data using Multiple Regression Analysis and Cronbach’s
alpha. The second section will analyse the qualitative interviews undertaken with
mobile shoppers and industry experts through Template Coding.

Chapter 5: Data Analysis and Discussion - The fifth chapter will discuss the results
analysed in chapter four. It will demonstrate how these findings contribute to answering
the aims and objectives of this research. Lastly it will identify any limitations in the
research approach.

Chapter 6: Conclusion and Recommendations – The sixth chapter will derive


conclusions from this study. The chapter concludes with recommendations for further
research.

Chapter 7: Reflective Statement – The final chapter reflects on the researchers


activities and achievements during the journey of writing this dissertation.

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2. Literature Review

A systematic literature review was conducted to clearly set out the core underpinnings
of this investigation. The secondary research has been undertaken in the form of,
reports written by management consultancies such as Bain and Company and CDI,
News Articles focusing on the Thai market and journals and books to introduce
technology acceptance models and behavioural intention theories. When choosing
resources to include, the following criteria was considered: relevance to the subject
area, age of material and relevance to the Thai market specifically the millennial
generation.

2.1 Identify The Thai Millennial Consumer

This report will define Millennials, also known as ‘Generation Y’ in the age group born
between 1980 and 2000. Millennials are the most popular generation in Thailand, with
approximately 22 million individuals, making up 32% of the population. (Wangkiat and
Fernquest, 2016). Thailand’s fertility rate has declined to 1.5 births per woman, the
second lowest in South-East Asia. With a low birth rate and long life expectancy,
Thailand is becoming an “aged society”. The World Bank has predicted that by 2040,
42% of the population will be over the age of 65 compared to the current 15% (World
Bank, 2016). This means that Millennials will remain the largest consumer group
making the study of Millennials’ purchase behaviour crucial for companies competing in
the Thai market.

2.1.2 Online Shopping


As of December 2016 the number of online shoppers in Thailand totalled 17 million out
of the 40 million Internet users in the country. 40% of these online shoppers were
Millennials, making them the largest age group of online shoppers. Millennials view
their busy lifestyles and high cost of living as drivers towards online shopping
associating it with better value, lower prices and convenience (Voca Link, 2017). The
survey conducted by Siam Commercial Bank (SCB), the eighth largest bank in South-
east Asia, states that Thai Millennials are “…smart shoppers and big spenders who
search and compare to get what they want at the best value” (Siam Commercial Bank,
2014). They have a lack a sense of belonging and are more likely to be influenced by
factors such as value and price.

2.1.3 Highly Selective


The Digital Revolution has created more information and more choice for the consumer
which is supported by the 77% of Thai Millennials that claim to have more choices on

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how to live their lives (Voca Link, 2017). The research conducted by SCB and CDI
concluded that, an increased exposure to choices make consumers highly selective.
(Corporate Directions, Inc Asia Unit, 2016) (Siam Commercial Bank, 2014). This
demonstrates that their purchasing confidence has grown along with a better
awareness of their opportunities.

The characteristic of being highly selective is believed to be a result of having


experienced Thailand’s economic recession and political uncertainty for the majority of
their lives. The Nation published that 74% of Thai Millennials believe their standard of
living is unlikely to improve in the future (The Nation, 2015). This uncertainty has led to
the generational cohort to critically evaluate the advantages and disadvantages when
making a decision to purchase. However, the survey conducted by the advertising
agency Hakuhodo Bangkok Co., argues that being born in the 1980’s or 1990’s has a
significant impact on the individuals behavioural intention. Only the individuals born in
the 1980s witnessed the country’s economic crisis transpire therefore were greatly
affected. Whereas individuals born in the 1990s were rather impacted by the arrival of
Facebook and mobile phones leading to the behaviour of making purchase decisions
more easily than those born in the 1980s (Hakuhodo, 2017).

2.1.4 Growing Individualism


Thai Millennials are seen to be a group of ambitious individuals that are ready to take
risks, change jobs and work hard in order to succeed. 23% of Millennials hold more
than two jobs and more than 75% expect to change careers, which is twice the global
average of 34% (The Nation, 2015). Thai Millennials also have an increased
preference to start their own businesses to control their destiny and get a full reward for
their efforts. This suggests that Thai Millennials are strongly individualistic and have a
desire to evaluate their individual ability in which their earnings will reflect (Siam
Commercial Bank, 2004).

2.1.5 Technology Reliant


The way Thai Millennials spend their time, perform tasks, exchange information is
changing due to the fact that they are increasingly technology reliant. Kanokkhan
Prajongsangsri, managing director of investment and knowledge at IPG Mediabrands,
said "The digital transformation and technology have brought changes
to millennial consumers.” They have grown up with computers, Internet and social
media and are confident in using technology in their everyday life with each millennial
spending an average of 8 hours a day on the Internet (National Statistical Office,
2017). This generation embraces globalization through devices such as computers and

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mobile phones with 79% of them receiving current information and news through online
channels making them technology reliant. (Wangkiat and Fernquest, 2016)

Technology is seen as an empowering tool for Thai Millennials as it provides both


freedom and control. 85% of Thai Millennials agree with the statement, “technology
gives them more freedom of mobility” (Voca Link, 2017). Voca Link has also recorded
Millennials saying, “I can’t live without my cell phone. I use it to connect with people, to
remind me what I have to do, to wake me up and to transfer money” (Voca Link, 2017).
The Voca Link study concludes that Thai Millennials highly value and the convenience
and control that technology allows. They also show a highly positive attitude towards
mobile technologies such as mobile banking, with 80% of them agreeing that mobile
banking is ‘easy to use’ and ‘provides comfort’ (Voca Link, 2017). In addition the
Bangkok Post noted that 16 million of Thai’s have downloaded mobile wallet apps
demonstrating a clear demand control over their finances and that many are willing to
experiment with new tools to achieve control (Bangkok Post, 2017).

There has been an on-going switch in preference from PC and laptops to mobile
devices. Recent data proves that an influx of Thai users are primarily using mobile
phones to access the net while there is a substantial drop in tablet, laptop and desktop
users in comparison to 2016 (Nielsen IMS, 2017). According to the National Statistical
Office of Thailand, more than 90% of internet users in the country go online through a
mobile phone (EMarketer, 2017). Sirakovit noted that mobile phones “…have become
an extension of [Millennials] anatomy, which enables them to promote themselves and
even creatively express their ideas.” Currently 80% of Millennials in Thailand own a
mobile phone (The Nation, 2015).

2.1.6 Seeking Convenience


Thai Millennials are becoming more hyper-efficient and are looking for smarter and
more efficient ways to satisfy their wants and needs (Rastogi et al., 2017). To cater for
their busy lifestyles, popular convenience stores such as 7-Eleven and Family Mart
have started to offer extra value-added services, including bill payment and free Wi-Fi
(HKTDC Research, 2015). Thai Millennials highly favour convenience and speed when
it comes to shopping where they prefer cashless payment methods and are attracted to
online shopping to avoid possible traffic whilst shopping offline. (Siam Commercial
Bank, 2014).

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2.1.7 Social Influence
Thai Millennials are eager to connect with their social environments in order to gain
approval and praise (Fredrickson, 2017). They are highly influenced by the latest
trends and information gathered through reviews (Tangsupwattana and Liu, 2017).
Several sources including a recent article in the Bangkok Post and Mintel’s APAC
Metro Study for Thailand (2017) concluded that Thai Millennials are highly driven by
the usage of social networks with 90% of Internet users going online just to visit social
media sites (Wangkiat, P. and Fernquest, J., 2016) Thai’s are among the most social
media “obsessed” consumers in the world with 11 million Instagram users, 47 million
Facebook users and 9 million Twitter users as of May 2017 with most of them logging
in via mobile devices (Leesa-Nguansuk, 2017). Statista expects these numbers to rise
by 20% on average per year (Statistia, 2018). The consumer is getting more digitally
influenced with 85% of consumers beginning their shopping journey (researching for
products) on social media sites such as Messenger, Instagram, Line, Kaidee and
Facebook (Lifestyle Monitor, 2016). This is driving the force of m-commerce with more
than 40% of online sales coming from the source of social media accounts (Leesa-
Nguansuk, 2017). The survey conducted by Voca Link also suggests that social media
means different things to the different ages within the millennial generation. Platforms
such as Google+ and LinkedIn have a greater use by career focused older Millennials
whereas younger Millennials are heavier users of Instagram and Snapchat. (Voca Link,
2017)

In Southeast Asia the adoption of Internet technology took off slower than the rest of
the globe. Therefore the first experience with the Internet took off when sites like
Facebook developed in 2007 – the end of the Web 2.0. Therefore the population
jumped straight into the user-generated content creation going straight to social media
sites such as Facebook, Twitter and Instagram – also known as the “no-tail” (Ho,
2017). “Leapfrog” refers to developing countries, such as Thailand, making the
conscious decision not to replicate business models of those in developed countries.
Developing countries are adopting newer standards and models by passing years of
historical development (Deans, 2005). This theory suggests that countries like Thailand
in Southeast Asia have surpassed technology such as e-commerce and jumped
straight towards m-commerce. An example of this is that 50% of Lazada’s traffic comes
from mobile channels and Facebook is considered to be a one-stop shop alongside
Lazada where consumers can purchase products and find reliable reviews.

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2.2 Technology Acceptance

The next section of the literature review will evaluate the factors affecting acceptance
of information technology proposed by various researchers and how it can be applied
to the research of predicting behavioural intention towards m-commerce. For the
purposes of this study user acceptance is defined as the “demonstrable willingness
within a user group to employ information technology for the tasks it is designed to
support” (Dillon and Morris, 1996).

The relationship between investing in information technology and gains in productivity


have raised concerns among academics and researchers. It is important that the
intended target group accepts the new technology and uses it appropriately in order to
attain its productivity gains. When consumers come into contact with a new technology
or innovation they have the opportunity to adopt it or refuse it (Ajzen and Fishbein,
1980)

There are several studies that have been conducted in the field of consumer decision-
making that have resulted in models that suggest possible mental process humans use
to make a decision (Kumar, 2015). Theory of Planned Behaviour (Appendix B:62) and
Theory of Reasoned Action (Appendix A:61) have been used to predict several
behavioural types but are less successful when investigating in the field of technology
acceptance. This led to Davis’s (1989) development of the Technology Acceptance
Model (TAM).

2.3 Technology Acceptance Model (TAM)

TAM theorizes that the two constructs, perceived ease of use and perceived
usefulness, can predict the user’s behavioural intention and actual behaviour towards a
given technology. Davis defines perceived ease of use as the extent to which an
individual believes a technology would be effortless (1989). On the other hand,
perceived usefulness is defined as the extent to which an individual believes a given
technology would improve his or her job performance (Deans, 2005). Davis’s (1989)
research discovers the factor of usefulness to be more important than the ease of use
whereas Adams et al. (1992) concludes the opposite result.

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Figure 2.1: Technology Acceptance Model (TAM)

Source: (Davis, 1989)

2.4 Unified Theory Of Acceptance And Use Of Technology (UTAUT)

The UTAUT model integrates four key factors: performance expectancy (PE), effort
expectancy (EE), social influence (SI) and facilitating conditions (FC) and four
moderators that are, age, gender, experience and voluntariness of use. Venkatesh
proposed the UTAUT model in 2003 (Venkatesh, et al. 2003) with the purpose to
explain the users intention towards any given information system. The UTAUT model
has been applied to a variety of studies evaluating both organisational and end user
behaviour towards information technology. The objective of this research is to examine
consumer use of m-commerce.

Figure 2.2: Universal Theory of Adoption and Use of Technology (UTAUT) Model

Source: (Venkatesh et al., 2003)

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The UTAUT is an acceptance model compiled of eight models and theories including
Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), TAM, Motivational Model (MM), Theory of Planned
Behaviour (TPB), Model of PC Utilization (MPCU), Innovation Diffusion Theory (IDT)
and the Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) (Venkatesh et al., 2003).

Table 2.1: The Core Determinants of UTAUT

The source of integrated


UTAUT determinant The sub-determinant
model

Perceived usefulness TAM

Extrinsic motivation MM
Performance Expectancy/PE
Relative advantage IDT

Outcome expectations SCT


Perceived ease of use TAM
Effort Expectancy/EE Complexity MPCU
Ease of use IDT
Subjective norm TRA
Social Influence/SI Social factors MPCU
Image IDT
Perceived behavioral
TPB
control
Facilitating Conditions/FC
Facilitating conditions MPCU

Compatibility IDT
Perceived Enjoyment TAM
Hedonic Motivation/HM
Intrinsic Motivation Motivation Theories
Source: Adapted from Venkatesh et al. 2003 [Pg.27]

2.5 Innovation of Diffusion Theory

New information technologies and systems represent innovation for the target
audience, therefore it is important to acknowledge that adoption of information
technology derives from the diffusion of innovations literature where an individual’s
perception on innovation, among other factors is influenced by user acceptance
(Agarwal and Parasad, 2002). In addition, several researchers in the e-commerce field
have demonstrated the significance of innovation when determining purchase
intentions in different contexts (Escobar-Rodríguez and Carvajal-Trujillo, 2014).

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Diffusion theory consists of five characteristics on innovation which are outlined in
Figure 2.3.

Figure 2.3: Five Characteristics on Innovation

Relative The exent to which a technology offers improvements over


Advantage currently available tools eg. e-commerce, in store purchases.

Complexity The ease of use or learning to use the technology

Observability The extent to which the technologies outputs and gains are clear to
the user

Compatibility The consistency with social practices and norms among its users

Triability The opportunity to try the innovation before committing to it

Source: (Agarwal and Parasad, 2002)

A previous research that tested the the innovation diffusion literature found that the
following characteristics had the greatest impact on technology adoption. Compatiblity
and relative advantage were positively significant whereas complexity was negatively
significant to the adoption of new technology (Agarwal and Parasad, 2002).

2.6 Motivation Theories


Consumer shopping habits typically encompass more than one type of motivation.
Previous studies proposed hedonic and utilitarian shopping motivations to best analyse
consumer behaviours (Babin et al.,1994). Utilitarian shopping motivations reflect the
shopping motivation for convenience and time saving. It is a motivation that
emphasizes on the functionality of the product or service (Babin et al.,1994). Whereas,
hedonic motivation emphasizes on the consumers psychological sensations such as
emotions and feelings. Arnold and Reynolds (2003) associated a hedonic experience
with adjectives such as fun, enjoyable and pleasurable. Fashion retail experiences rely
heavily on hedonic interactions and experiences. Davis (1989) defines enjoyment as
the “intrinsic reward derived through the use of a technology”.

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2.4 Proposed Model and Hypotheses

This section of the literature review describes the research framework drawn from
existing theories reviewed in the previous section. It also formulates the hypotheses for
the study.

In the past, TAM and UTAUT have both been used to study the acceptance of
technology however over the recent years it has gained popularity as it is being
extended to study online shopping adoption. Coursais and Hassanein (2002) claim that
m-commerce can be viewed as a subset of e-commerce, hereby making it appropriate
to apply the theories of TAM and UTAUT to the study of m-commerce adoption
(Coursaris and Hassanein, 2002). Dean’s study shows that the traditional TAM model
is best suited for technology adoption in an organisational setting where an individual
may not have the free will to refused adoption (2005). This leaves UTAUT as a more
suitable option for a research in the business sector where the technology is being
used for a product or service. Wu, Tao and Yang’s research of 3G mobile acceptance
found that the “explanatory power of the UTAUT model is up to 70% in regards to
technology using behaviour” (Wu, Tao and Yang, 2008). Thereby proving UTAUT to be
an appropriate model as a theoretical foundation for this study.

Figure 2.4: UTAUT Model Modified to the Study

Performance
Expectancy

Effort
Expectancy

Behavioral
Social Intention
Influence

Facilitating
Conditions

Hedonic
Motivations

Source: Adapted from Venkatesh et al., 2003

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Figure 2.5: The Study Framework

Independent Variables Dependent Variable

Performance Expectancy
Behavioural Intention

Effort Expectancy

Social Influence
Controlled Variables

Facilitating Conditions Gender Age

Hedonic Motivation Experience Location

Source: Aashna Arora 2018

Table 2.2: Hypotheses

Hypotheses Path
H1 Performance expectancy positively affects consumers’ behavioural PE!BI
intention towards using m-commerce.
H2 Effect expectancy positively affects consumers’ behavioural intention EE!BI
towards using m-commerce.
H3 Social influence positively affects consumers’ behavioural intention SI!BI
towards using m-commerce.
H4 Facilitating conditions positively affect consumers’ behavioural intention FC!BI
towards using m-commerce.
H5 Hedonic Motivation positively affects consumers’ behavioural intention HM!BI
towards using m-commerce
Source: Adapted from Venkatesh et al. (2003)

2.4.1 Performance Expectancy (PE)


Performance expectancy is the degree to which m-commerce provides the consumer
with help to improve the performance of a task (Venkatesh et al., 2003). This construct
is made up of perceived usefulness, extrinsic motivation, relative advantage (Figure
2.3) and outcome expectations. Perceived usefulness measures the extent to which
the user finds the technology useful when completing a task. Previous studies on
behavioural intention towards mobile phones have shown perceived usefulness to
have a significant affect on consumers. Extrinsic motivation describes based on the

22
achievement of specific goals or rewards whereas outcome expectations refer to the
result an individual expects to achieve when using a given technology.

H1: Performance expectancy positively affects consumers’ behavioural


intention towards using m-commerce.

2.4.2 Effort Expectancy (EE)


Effort expectancy has the same meaning as Perceived Ease of Use that was
introduced by Davis in his model, TAM (1989). These constructs measure how easy it
is to use a technology. This is considered an important factor as the secondary
research conducted suggest that Thai Millennials are always searching for ‘easy to
use’ and ‘comfortable’ technologies (Voca Link, 2017). On the contrary, Yang (2008)
discovered that effort expectancy did not significantly impact the US consumers’
intention to adopt mobile commerce. Thereby making it unclear whether it will have an
affect on the behavioural intention on Thai Millennials, which is why it will be
investigated in this study.

H2: Effect expectancy positively affects consumers’ behavioural intention


towards using m-commerce.

2.4.3 Social Influence


As mobile commerce is a relatively new channel – a lot of consumers are still
unfamiliar with its technology. Humans have the tendency to follow what others are
doing in unfamiliar or uncertain situations. It can therefore be assumed that the
decision to adopt mobile commerce may be under the great influence of friends and
family members. This construct is derived from Subjective Norm in the TRA and TBA
models.

H3: Social influence positively affects consumers’ behavioural intention


towards using m-commerce.

2.4.4 Facilitating Conditions


Facilitating conditions is defined as the extent to which an individual believes that an
infrastructure is in place to support the use of m-commerce (Moore and Benbasat,
1991) Examples of this include payment methods, delivery methods, mobile phone
access and compatibility. This concept is derived from the construct, Perceived
Behavioral Control (PBC) factor that is included in the TPB model. PBC refers to
individual’s belief on their ability to execute a behaviour.

23
H4: Facilitating conditions positively affect consumers’ behavioural intention
towards using m-commerce.

2.4.5 Hedonic Motivations


Hedonic Motivations refers to an individual’s willingness to participate in an activity that
influences his or her pleasure or pain receptor. Hedonic Motivations is closely related
to the construct of perceived enjoyment that indicates how adjectives such as pleasure
and fun influence individual’s willingness to participant in an activity. A recent study on
mobile shopping behaviour argues that consumers consider mobile shopping to be a
pleasurable activity and enjoy spending their leisure time searching for clothes using
this medium (Blázquez, 2014).

H5: Hedonic Motivation positively affect consumers’ behavioural intention


towards using m-commerce.

2.4.6 Behavioural Intention


The dependent variable of this study will be behavioural intention. The dependent
variable refers to the variable being measured against the independent variables.
Behavioural intention refers to an individual perceived ability to engage in a given
activity (Persson and Berndtsson, 2015). Behavioural intention in this study is not
extended to explain a relationship with actual behaviour but instead measures the
extent to which an individual believes it will perform behaviour. Davis’s study concludes
that intentions can be used to predict actual behaviour (1989). However due to time
constraints this study will not measure the connection between intention of behaviour
and actual behaviour.

2.4.7 Controlled Variables


The following variables will be controlled during the study; Gender, Age and
Experience. In previous studies involving the UTAUT model, these variables are set as
the moderating variables where the researcher measures how gender, age and
experience can impact an individual’s behavioural intention towards mobile commerce
(Venkatesh, et al, 2003). However due to the time and word constraints of this study,
this study will treat these variables as controlled in order to execute a valid and reliable
set of data.

The study will only look at female consumers. As identified in the literature review,
female consumers are among the more popular gender that shop online in Thailand
(Mintel, 2017). In regards to age, the study will focus on the millennial generation as
outlined in the research aim. Lastly, many researchers argue that the attitude towards

24
purchase behaviour is formed as a result of experience (Davis, 1989) (Fishbein &
Ajzen 1975). Experience takes into account a person’s past experience that affects
their behavioural intention in the future. This research will control experience by only
including participants that have purchased goods through their mobile phone in the
past.

25
3. Methodology

The following chapter justifies the chosen research methodology for this research. It
will outline the researchers philosophy and research approach. Next, it will explain and
rationalize the chosen research strategies. Lastly it will identify potential limitations of
the chosen methodology.

3.1 Research Philosophy

This study will take a pragmatic philosophical approach that allows the research
question to decide the research method. This approach combines both positivism and
interpretivism research philosophies (Bryman and Bell, 2015). This approach allows
the combination of both qualitative and quantitative approaches (Creswell, 2002). This
approach adds depth and richness to the research following the belief that studies
involving behavioural intentions, is typically multi-layered and complex (Saunders,
Lewis, Thornhill, 2009).

3.2 Research Approach

This study adopts a deductive approach following the subsequent stages (Chapter 3,
Figure 1), constructing a theory, developing hypotheses based on the theory, testing
the hypotheses, examining the findings to accept or reject the hypotheses and finally
revising the theory if necessary (Bryman and Bell, 2015). The deductive approach is
most frequently used to understand the relationship between theory and findings
(Bryman and Bell, 2015; 23). Although deductive approach traditionally only involve
collecting findings through quantitative strategies, this research will combine both
quantitative and qualitative.

Figure 3.1: The Process of Deduction

1. Theory

2. Hypothesis

3. Data Collection

4. Findings

5. Hypotheses confirmed or rejected

6. Revision of Theory

26
Source: (Bryman and Bell, 2015)

3.3 Mixed Methods Approach

A mixed methods research is an appropriate methodology that allows the collection,


analysis and integration of both quantitative and qualitative research. By using a mixed
methods approach, the study will combine the accuracy and specificity of quantitative
data with the ability to ‘interpret idiosyncrasies and complex perceptions provided by
qualitative analysis’ (Bryman and Bell, 2015; 648). Bryman and Bell have criticized the
mixed methods approach with the argument that difference between quantitative and
qualitative methods make them difficult to combine (2015). However Creswell’s (2002)
studies emphasize that qualitative and quantitative methods can be combined and by
doing this, a more complete understanding of subject is achieved. This approach
emerges as the most reliable way to prove or disprove a hypothesis and results in a
greater confidence in findings (Saunders, Lewis, Thornhill, 2009) (Scandura and
Williams, 2000: 1259)

This study will follow an explanatory sequential mixed methods approach allowing the
researcher to first conduct a quantitative research to gain consumer feedback
regarding behavioural choices in mobile commerce and based on the results a
qualitative approach will be used to build on the results and truly evaluate the depth of
consumer behaviour in a more personal and inductive research method (Creswell,
2002).

3.4 Research Methods

3.4.1 Quantitative Phase


A quantitative approach was adopted using an online-administered questionnaire. This
approach allows the findings collected to be generalized when derived from a random
sample of an acceptable sample size. Thus allowing the formation of predictions
through the measurement of recurring opinions, attitudes and behaviours.

The questionnaire enables the researcher to generalize and infer characteristics from
the sample to the population when a decent sample size is applied (Bryman and Bell,
2015). Bryman and Bell suggest that a sample size of at least 25 participants is
required to generalize the results (2015). This method allows the researcher to collect
data from a large group of people resulting in a higher level of accuracy (Saunders,
Lewis, Thornhill, 2009). The questionnaire will consist of eight parts; the first part is

27
ensures that the controlled variables are respected. The remaining sections measure
the independent and dependent variables that include: performance expectancy, effort
expectancy, social influence, facilitating conditions, hedonic motivations and
behavioural intention. The data was collected using a five point Likert-type scale from
totally disagree to totally agree (Appendix C: 63). The questionnaire was targeted at
people who have experience with m-commerce in order to improve the validity of this
research.

The survey was responded by 81 users on the online platform, Google Forms and sent
to users through social media sites as research shows that Millennials spend a lot of
time on social media platforms such as Facebook, Instagram and Line. The sample is
targeted at the Thai Millennial Consumer as defined in the literature review refers to
those born from 1980 to 2000. A purposive sampling was chosen for this study through
a snowballing method. This method allowed the identification of a participant that met
the criteria and asked them to recommend others who also meet the criteria. This
strategy is useful when the populations are inaccessible and allows the researcher to
access likeminded Millennials to take part in the questionnaire (Saunders, Lewis,
Thornhill, 2009).

3.4.2 Qualitative Phase


Qualitative research was applied to this research to gain insight on individuals’ unique
opinions on the subject area (Creswell, 2002). Two types of interviews were
conducted. The first was with mobile phone shoppers in Thailand and the second was
with industry experts in Thailand.

Sampling methods are divided into probability and non-probability methods (Persson
and Berndtsson, 2015). Probability sampling refers to a sample that is selected by
probability measures, meaning all individuals have an equal chance of being included
in the study. On the contrary, non-probability sampling does not give all individuals an
equal chance of being selected. The sampling encourages the researcher to only
chose participants that prove to be a good fit for the study (Bryman and Bell, 2015).

A non-probability sampling method, convenience sampling was applied to the


qualitative interviews. Saunders, Lewis, and Thornhill, (2009) recommend that the
researcher should decide the sample size based on the consideration that no new data
would surface. After interviewing 6 mobile shoppers, the researcher decided that no
further interviews were required, as no new data would be obtained.

28
Table 3.1: Mobile Shoppers Interview
Name Age Experience Date Appendices
Mobile Shopper A 20 Yes 14/03/2018 Appendix F
Mobile Shopper B 24 Yes 17/03/2018 Appendix H
Mobile Shopper C 22 Yes 23/03/2018 Appendix J
Mobile Shopper D 26 Yes 29/03/2018 Appendix L
Mobile Shopper E 34 Yes 2/04/2018 Appendix N
Mobile Shopper F 28 Yes 2/04/2018 Appendix P
The interviews conducted on industry experts, adopted an approach of judgemental
sampling. This is method allowed the researcher to choose interviewees that have
knowledge and expertise within the field of e-commerce in Thailand. The researcher
approached individuals with different positions to get a variety of opinions.

Table 3.2: Industry Expert Interviews


Name Company Position Date
Industry Expert A Fluxus Thailand Managing Director 20/04/2018
Appendix R

The interviews took the form of semi-structured interview and were conducted through
a telephone call interview. All of the questions asked by the researcher were open-
ended. This allowed the interviewee to express their honest opinion regarding the
subject area. The interview guide is included in Appendix E (69-70)

3.5 Data Analysis

3.5.1 Quantitative Phase


For the purposes of this research, a multiple regression analysis was chosen to test the
model and the hypotheses. The multiple regression analysis is a suitable method to
determine whether a relationship between the independent and dependent variable
exists, and to determine the strength of the relationship (Malhotra, 2010).

3.5.2 Qualitative Phase


The interviews were analysed using a Template Analysis. This type of analysis
combines a deductive and inductive approach. The template consists of codes and
categories that represent key themes. The codes were predetermined and then
amended based on the information collected from participants (Saunders, 2009:513).
This ensured that the data being coded was relevant to the theory and allowed for the

29
emergence of new codes that reflected the participant’s opinions (Bryman and Bell,
2005).

3.6 Reliability and Validity

3.8.1 Quantitative Phase


When conducting quantitative research, it is imperative for researchers to calculate the
reliability of the results. There are three types of reliability that are usually measured,
stability, internal reliability and inter-rater reliability (Persson and Berndtsson, 2015).
Stability will not be measured due to time constraints but taking into consideration the
highly dynamic nature of the fashion industry, the stability can be rated as moderate.
The inter-rater reliability is not applicable for this study because the questionnaire was
pre categorized into respective constructs. That leaves the internal reliability, which is
tested using Cronbach’s alpha-test. This is a measure of internal consistency
representing how closely related a set of items is as a group. This test is performed to
ensure that “…indicators that make up the scale are consistent.” Meaning, the
respondents rating on one indicator can be related to their score on another indicator
(Bryman and Bell, 2015; 169).

3.8.2 Qualitative Phase


Saunders Lewis and Thornhill (2009) stated that validity in qualitative data collection
refers to the truthfulness of the interviewee’s responses. Although the responses
collected may not be objective truths, the responses do represent the actual
circumstances and experience of the interviewed consumers and industry experts. The
interviewer did not ask sensitive or leading questions as this may have lead to the
interviewee giving false statements.

On the other hand the reliability of the qualitative interviews is relatively low. If another
researcher carried out the same interview, the industry experts will likely answer
differently as the e-commerce and fashion industry is highly dynamic. In order to
control the reliability of the interviews, the interviewer must not be biased as it may
influence the participant’s answer. In addition, an interview guide consisting of pre-
determined questions was drawn up to increase the consistency across the interviews
conducted. The same person conducted all interviews via telephone. Conducting the
interviews via telephone ensured that the participant’s answers would not be influenced
by the interviewers physical appearance (Bryman & Bell, 2015).

30
3.7 Ethical Considerations

This research follows the code of practice on Research Ethics provided by UAL
(University of the Arts London, n.d.). The research was conducted with respect to
ethical principles (Appendix X). All participants consented via the UAL consent form
(Appendix G,I,K,M,O,Q,S) and were provided with an information sheet, outlining
rationale and aim of the research project and frequenty asked questions (Appendix D).
All participants were given the option to remain anonymous however none of them
chose to.

3.8 Methodological Limitations

The limitations of quantitative surveys are that they do not provide any depth or
reasoning into the participants answers. In addition, the researcher is unable to control
the environment where the respondents are giving the answers. The chosen method of
purposive sampling method is highly prone to researcher biases and is not
representative of the entire population. Some limitations of the qualitative approach
includes the lack of validity from the potential bias of participants who may be giving
answers they think want to be received from the researcher. Since the study was
interviewing consumers that were living in Thailand, the researcher was not able to
conduct face-to-face interviews. Telephone interviews are one-dimensional which
means only verbal communication can be recorded (Scandura and Williams, 2000).

Furthermore, this study focuses on the fashion industry in Thailand, meaning the
results from this study may not be generalised to other industries and markets.
Likewise the research only focused on female Millennials (18-38 age group), which
means that the results will not represent the whole Thailand population.

31
4. Research Findings

In this chapter the research findings will be presented. This chapter is divided into two
sections, results from quantitative analysis and results from qualitative analysis.

4.1 Results from Quantitative Analysis

4.2.1 Descriptive Analysis


81 respondents answered the survey all of which were female, have experience
shopping through mobile commerce and are within the age bracket of 18-38. Figure 4.1
represents the age range of the survey takers. Majority of the respondents were 21-23
years (51%). Thus suggesting that the researcher’s judgement on sampling method
didn’t allow for older participants to be included. Respondents aged 30-35 only covered
2% of the total respondents. This proves as a limitation to the data collected, as there
wasn’t a variation between different age groups. As discovered in the literature review,
the behaviors of consumers born in the 1980’s versus the 1990’s can vary.

Figure 4.1 Respondents Age Group

33-35 years
30-32 years 1%
1% 36-38
years 18-20 years
27-29 5% 9%
years
5%

24-26 years
17%

21-23 years
62%

Source: Aashna Arora 2018

32
Figure 4.2: How often do you shop on your mobile phone?

Everyday
1%

Once every 6
months
17%

1-2 times per


month
34%

Once every 3
months
16%

1-2 times per week


Once a year 15%
17%

Source: Aashna Arora 2018

Figure 4.3: Have you ever purchased an item through your mobile phone?
No
0%

Yes
100%

Source: Aashna Arora 2018

33
Survey participants all answered, “yes” to having purchased an item through their
mobile phone. This confirms that the controlled variable of experience was met, and
adds validity to the survey results. A further question on ‘how often do you shop on
your mobile phone’ was asked to get an insight on the consumers’ actual behaviour.
There was a good variation between all the options, as presented in figure 4.3. Majority
of the participants (34%) shop through their mobile phone 1-2 times a month whereas
the only 1% of the participants answered “everyday”.

4.1.2 Multiple Regression Analysis


A linear regression analysis enables the prediction of an outcome of one variable
against another. The dependent variable (Behavioural Intention) is the variable that will
be predicated and the independent variables (Performance Expectancy, Effort
Expectancy, Facilitating Conditions, Social Influence and Hedonic Motivations) will be
used to predict an outcome. A multiple linear regression was used for this study as
there are multiple independent variables being tested.

Table 4.1: Model Summary


Adjusted R Std. Error of Durbin-
Model R R Square Square the Estimate Watson
a
1 .716 .512 .480 .46887 1.964
a. Predictors: (Constant), HM, FC, SI, EE, PE
b. Dependent Variable: BI

Table 4.2: ANOVA


Sum of Mean
Model Squares df Square F p-value
1 Regression 17.309 5 3.462 15.746 .000b
Residual 16.488 75 .220
Total 33.797 80
a. Predictors: (Constant), HM, FC, SI, EE, PE
b. Dependent Variable: BI

The overall multiple regression model was accepted because the p-value is less than
0.01 (Table 4.2). This means that there is less than 1% chance that the independent
variables do not have a significant effect on the dependent variable. Therefore this
model can be used to predict consumers’ intention to adopt mobile commerce. The R
square value (table 4.1) indicates the power of the model and how strong it is in
predicting behavioural intention (dependent variable). The R square value means that

34
51.2% of the variation in the dependent variable (Behavioral Intention) can be
explained by the independent variables. Lastly the F value (table 4.2) is greater than 1
which confirms that at least one of the independent variables have a significant
statistical effect on the dependent variable.

Table 4.3: Multiple Regression: Predicting Behavioural Intention


Dependent Variable
Behavioural Intention
Independent Variables Coefficient t- p-value Statistical
(β) value (Sig.) Significance

Performance Expectancy .291 2.306 .024 Yes


(PE)
Effort Expectancy (EE) .194 1.980 .044 Yes
Social Influence (SI) .061 .647 .520 No
Facilitating Conditions (FC) -.033 -.363 .718 No
Hedonic Motivations (HM) .310 2.413 .018 Yes
Source Aashna (2018)
When analysing the effects of independent variable on the dependent variable, the
coefficient (β), t-value and p-value (significance) are the most important measures. The
coefficient shows how much the dependent variable changes when the independent
variable is increased by one unit. The t-value indicates how important the variable is in
the model. For the hypothesis to be accepted the t-value must be greater than 1.96.
And lastly the p-value indicates whether the independent variable has a significant
effect on the dependent variable. The p=value needs to be lower than 0.05 for the
predicative variable to be significant. As demonstrated in Table 4.3, performance
expectancy, effort expectancy and hedonic motivations have a statistically significant
affect on behavioural intention. Performance expectancy had a t-value of 2.306, which
is greater than 1.96, and a p-value of 0.24, which is less than 0.05 thus proving that it
is statistically significant. On the other hand, the effect of social influence has a t-value
of 0.647, which is less than the acceptable value of 1.96. Likewise the factor facilitating
conditions has a negative t-value. The p-value for both factors is above 0.05 thus
concluding that these effects are not statistically significant. The results are
represented in Figure 4.1.

35
Figure 4.4: Strength of Relationships between Independent and Dependent Variables

Performance 0.024
Expectancy

0.044
Effort
Expectancy

Behavioral
Social 0.520 Intention
Influence

Facilitating
Conditions 0.718

Hedonic
Motivations 0.018

Key:
---- Dashed Line = Not Significant
___Straight Line = Significant
Source: Adapted from Venkatesh et al., 2003

Table 4.4: Combining p-value with Hypotheses


p-value Outcome
p-value > 0.05 Fails to reject the null hypothesis
p-value ≤ 0.05 Reject the null hypothesis
Adapted from Albarracín, D. and Wyer, R. (2000)

Performance expectancy, effort expectancy and hedonic motivations had a significant


effect thus fails to reject the null hypotheses, H1, H2 and H5. Social Influence and
Facilitating conditions had a p-value greater than 0.05 thereby rejecting the null
hypotheses, H3 and H4.

36
4.1.3 Reliability and Validity
Internal consistency reliability was measured using the Cronbach’s alpha. The alpha
coefficient varies between 1 (representing perfect internal reliability) and 0
(representing no internal reliability). Bryman and Bell suggest that if Cronbach’s alpha
is at 0.8 or higher – then this is an acceptable level of internal reliability whereas
Schutte et al. suggest that a score of 0.7 is also acceptable (2005) (2000;56).

The alpha has been applied separately to each individual variable as the increased
number of items on the scale results in a higher alpha – which can lead to a misleading
result (Creswell, 2002). All Cronbach’s results are higher than 0.7 with hedonic
motivations having the highest score of 0.918. Thus resulting in a reliable measure of
the concept based on the Cronbach’s Alpha (Table 3.1). Table 3.1 shows the crobach’s
alpha value for each independent variable.

Table 4.5: Validity and Reliability Analysis of Multi-item Scales

Item Cronbach’s Convergent Alpha if


Alpha Validity Item is
(Corrected Item- Deleted
Total
Correlation)
Performance Expectancy (N of α = 0.779
items=5)
PE1 0.529 0.747
PE2 0.479 0.761
PE3 0.591 0.725
PE4 0.547 0.740
PE5 0.631 0.710
Effort Expectancy (N of items = 5) α = 0.898
EE1 0.751 0.880
EE2 0.802 0.864
EE3 0.768 0.873
EE4 0.787 0.872
EE5 0.677 0.892
Social Influence (N of items = 5) α = 0.879
SI1 0.669 0.863
SI2 0.795 0.834

37
SI3 0.824 0.825
SI4 0.617 0.880
SI5 0.678 0.861
Facilitating Conditions (N of items α = 0.888
= 5)
FC1 0.797 0.848
FC2 0.739 0.862
FC3 0.779 0.852
FC4 0.591 0.896
FC5 0.750 0.859
Hedonic Motivations (N of items = α = 0.918
5)
HM1 0.801 0.899
HM2 0.901 0.876
HM3 0.862 0.884
HM4 .798 0.898
HM5 .614 0.936
Behavioural Intention (N of items = α = 0.825
3)
BI1 0.628 0.816
BI2 0.715 0.729
BI3 0.708 0.733

4.1 Results from Qualitative Analysis

The interviews conducted on mobile shoppers and industry experts were carried out to
further support the outcome from the quantitative data analysed.

4.2.1 Mobile Shopper Interviews


The two recurring themes when answering the first question “What do you consider are
the biggest differences between shopping on a computer and through a mobile phone”
were the frustrations of user-experience and the relative advantage of convenience.

In regards to user-experience, all participants had a shared view that the main
difference between the computer and a mobile device is the “wider” screens provide a
better user experience (Appendix J:80:64). The concerns regarding small screen of
mobile devices generates a high dependency on a quality user interface which was a
major theme identified during the coding of the interview results (Appendix T). The

38
most frequently mentioned recommendations for an improved user interface included,
easier product navigation, ability to compare products, improvement in performance
speed and easier check out processes.

Although mobile users claimed that the small size of mobile phones creates limitations
for m-commerce, it is also considered to be utilitarian benefit. According to both mobile
shoppers and industry experts – mobile phones allow on the go shopping thus allowing
consumers to shop whenever and wherever they want. Participant A stated “I only use
mobile shopping when I am out of the house or don’t have access to my laptop”
(Appendix F:71:5) which suggests that the usage of mobile commerce is highly
dependent on the convenience it offers (Appendix 9:60:3). Mobile shoppers claim that
this benefit is what enhances their daily productivity, Participant A mentioned “I want to
make the most of my time by searching and browsing through my mobile phone”
(Appendix 7:56:23).

Furthermore, the theme of convenience also mentioned by Participant E that claimed


mobile phone shopping to be convenient not because of location but because of the
facilitating apps available on her phone “such as banking apps and line messenger app
which is essential for online shopping in Bangkok”. Thereby suggesting a possible
relationship between the constructs of Facilitating Conditions and Performance
Expectancy. Majority of the participants acknowledged that mobile shopping in
Thailand is facilitated by social media apps such as Facebook, Instagram and LINE (an
instant communication app similar to WhatsApp and WeChat). Participants indicate
that this is a major driver on why they shop on their mobile phone.

Interestingly, mobile shoppers had difficulties differentiating between the utility and the
ease of use when shopping on their mobile phone. A frequent answer to the question –
“How can retailers improve the utility of mobile phone shopping” was that m-commerce
needs to be easy to use (Appendix 13:68:35). When asked to elaborate on this point,
the researcher found that many participants were frustrated by “loading time” of apps
and mobile web shops (Appendix 15:71:38). This indicates that there is a connection
between performance expectancy and effort expectancy and is in line with the TAM
model (Figure 2.5) where perceived ease of use has a direct effect on perceived
usefulness (Davis, 1989).

There were inconsistent opinions on whether society affects the behavioural intention
towards m-commerce. A lot of the participants avoided the question by stating whether

39
or not their friends shop on their mobile and shared their personal prediction on how
their friends feel towards it. Indicating that consumers do not use mobile commerce
services for social approval or because it’s the subjective norm, but because their
friends or family have recommended it to them. On the contrary Particpants C and F
admitted that others opinion on ease of use and performance have an effect on their
decision to use m-commerce services.

“I have a lot of friends that shop online…they talk about the good prices and
convenience…this has increased my intention to try different apps” (3/52-53)

“…I have heard good reviews from my friends – I am more inclined to shop
through my smartphone” (2/58-59)

“…They do face a lot of technical problems when doing so. This has definitely
made me question whether or not I should shop using my mobile phone…”
(Appendix 15:71:60).

All of the interviewees mentioned the importance of mobile compatibility. A few


expressed their concern towards web-shops not being mobile compatible and brands
not having apps. This indicates that participants believe mobile compatible web shops
and apps provide a better performance value.

“…Brands don’t have a mobile app or mobile compatible web-shop” (Appendix


9:0:26).

All respondents felt strongly about mobile apps and web shops to be slow performing
and present a lot of technical problems. This indicates that they feel mobile phone
shopping is beyond their perceived control whereas computers aren’t.

“If the process of browsing on your mobile phone is seamless and easy to use
and understand – it will automatically be enjoyable” (Appendix E:0:71)

Participant B expressed that mobile shopping was more enjoyable when it was easy to
use thus indicating that hedonic motivations and perceived ease of use are closely
linked. However, hedonic motivations wasn’t a strong theme across the opinions
collected during the interviews.

40
4.2.2 Industry Expert Interviews
The interview with the Managing Director of Fluxus Thailand provided an interesting
perspective on the m-commerce presence in Thailand, that was not attainable from the
mobile shoppers.

In terms of performance expectancy, the industry expert had similar opinions and
concerns to the mobile shoppers. The perceived ease of use and convenience were
claimed as the two most important factors when it comes to shopping online. The
interview shed light on current market players who are not taking the apps uses into
account and are merely treating it as “being a design job” (Appendix 20:0:35). The
examples given was that the search functions and filtering options need to facilitate a
simple user journey which is in line with what mobile shoppers said that user-interface
is really important to them.

Furthermore, the interviewee mentioned that an extrinsic motivation such as


promotions, quick deliveries or a “point…of customer loyalty that people want” is
important to the Thai consumers.

“Promotions, it’s the point some sort of customer loyalty that people want.
People will do anything for 5% off” (Appendix 19:0:97)

In regards to facilitating conditions, the interviewee claimed that language and payment
methods are the most important factors to Thai Millennials. An example was given that
the best performing sites are available in both Thai and English. The interviewee also
saw payment methods to be a current problem in Thailand. He further explained that
there standardized payment methods are not available in Thailand as Thai consumers
still prefer cash on delivery. Thereby suggesting that facilitating conditions is an
important factor that businesses need to consider.

The topic of the logistics in Thailand was frequently mentioned throughout the interview
as a barrier towards the growth of online shopping in Thailand. The interviewee
suggests that Thailand is “...at least 15 years behind…and until we don’t improve on
logistics we will be behind” the United Kingdom. However the leapfrog theory argues
that developing countries such as Thailand are not following the same business model
as the developed countries. The results from mobile shoppers didn’t mention any
logistical concerns – thereby suggesting that companies are trying to replicate existing

41
business models (from developed countries) but the consumer is not adopting the
same behaviour to ones in developed countries.

The interview also suggested that price and choice are important to Thai consumers
when they are shopping. This is in line with the findings in chapter 2 that suggest Thai
consumers are smart shoppers.

“If you know what you want then online the product needs to be price
competitive…” (Appendix 20:0:104).

“A range of products is important” (Appendix 20:0:26)

In conclusion, the interview conducted with the industry expert provided an interesting
perspective on online shopping in Thailand, with a focus on mobile commerce. It
supported the mobile shoppers perspective and provided concrete measures that can
be linked to the constructs in order to understand how businesses can improve their
mobile presence.

42
5. Data Analysis and Discussion

This section will combine the results from the qualitative and quantitative analysis to
discuss how the results answer the objectives of this study. In addition it will
demonstrate how the research conducted fits into what is already known and how this
study makes a contribution on the subject of mobile commerce in Thailand (Maxwell,
2005).

5.1 Thai Millennial Consumers’ Characteristics

Objective 1: Identify the Thai Millennial Consumers’ characteristics in relation


to online shopping.

Drawing upon the findings collected from the qualitative interviews, it can be implied
that Thai Millennials are smart shoppers. This is a result of their shopping habits that
involve comparing products to find high value products at competitive prices. Thai
Millennials associate online shopping with choice, competitive pricing and convenience
because they can shop from the comfort of their home. As Millennials increase the time
spent on their mobile devices, the online shopping is quickly shifting from laptops and
computers to the mobile phones. However due to the performance constraints of a
mobile phone some consumers are still reluctant to switch from e-commerce to m-
commerce shopping methods. Furthermore, the data collected confirms that female
Millennials’ in Thailand expect an easy to use shopping platform through which they
can easily compare products and purchase products at a competitive price. Although
participants agree that shopping through social media sites requires more effort, they
are willing to compromise this to get products at a better price and quality. Thus
indicating that product satisfaction is more important than effort expectancy.

Another key theme that derived from the primary research conducted, was the
construct of convenience. Consumers’ use mobile commerce as a means to purchase
fashion goods because it is easily accessible. They perceive time as a precious and
scarce commodity, which is why they find mobile shopping useful because it allows
them to purchase items without the interference of traffic or Wi-Fi. Thus supporting the
result of Performance Expectancy being the second highest construct that affects their
behavioral intention.

43
According to their characteristic, Thai Millennials are on the hunt for more convenient
and smart ways to complete their tasks. At the moment, the mobile commerce market
in Thailand is not living up to its full potential. By understanding consumers’ behavioral
intention and characteristics, businesses will be able to improve the mobile commerce
service that ultimately provides a benefit for the consumer. This point will be further
expanded on in section 5.3.

5.2 Model to Predict Behavioral Intention towards M-Commerce

Objective 2: Explore and develop a model of factors that describe Thai


Millennial Consumers’ behavioural intention to adopt m-
commerce systems as a means to purchase fashion products.

Three of the hypotheses were accepted and two were rejected. This section will
discuss the results of the hypotheses.

Table 5.1 Hypotheses Test Results


Hypotheses Path t- p- Supported
value value
H1: Performance expectancy positively affects PE!BI 2.306 .024 Yes
consumers’ behavioural intention towards
using mobile commerce.
H2: Effect expectancy positively affects EE!BI 1.980 .044 Yes
consumers’ behavioural intention towards
using mobile commerce.
H3: Social influence positively affects SI!BI .647 .520 No
consumers’ behavioural intention towards
using mobile commerce.
H4: Facilitating conditions positively affect FC!BI -.363 .718 No
consumers’ behavioural intention towards
using mobile commerce.
H5: Hedonic Motivation positively affects HM!BI 2.413 .018 Yes
consumers’ behavioural intention towards
using mobile commerce.

44
H1: Performance expectancy positively affects consumers’ behavioural
intention towards using mobile commerce.

The survey results demonstrated a statistically significant relationship between


performance expectancy and behavioural intention. Among the five constructs tested,
this was the second most influential construct towards users behavioural intention after
Hedonic Motivations. This was further supported by the qualitative results in which PE
was amongst the most popular theme (Appendix 20). Likewise Davis’s (1989) studies
also found perceived usefulness to be a strong predictor of behavioural intention.
Furthermore, Lu and Su’s research on m-shopping intention of online consumers also
concluded that usefulness has an impact on consumer’s behavioural intention.

H2: Effect expectancy positively affects consumers’ behavioural intention


towards using mobile commerce.

Effort expectancy also had a statistically significant effect on behavioural intention, thus
failing to reject the null hypothesis, H2. This is evident in the qualitative results where
majority of the respondents believe ease of use to be an important factor when
shopping online. They shared frustrations regarding mobile phone shopping and
shared ideas on how they can be improved such as “A good layout” that can facilitate
an easier shopping experience (Appendix 9:61:39). In addition the payment process
was perceived as frustrating and many preferred when this process is automated.

In comparison to previous research conducted on this subject, Chong’s (2013) study in


particular concluded that perceived ease of use had no effect on behavioural intention.
However it is worth remembering that the studies have used different samples and
questionnaire questions. On the other hand Yang’s (2010) study found that behavioural
intention towards m-commerce in South Korea was present. And again, this cannot be
directly compared to this study as the geographical location of the consumers’ are
different.

H3: Social influence positively affects consumers’ behavioural intention


towards using mobile commerce.

Social influence rejects the null hypothesis as no statistical correlation was found
between the construct and behavioural intention. This result is in conflict with the
existing research on social influence. The early studies on technology acceptance

45
model such as the TRA, suggest that subjective norm is an important factor when it
comes to predicting technology acceptance. This was supported by Yang (2010) when
established her studies demonstrated a strong correlation between subjective norm
and American consumers’ intention to use mobile shopping services. However, it can
be assumed that due to cognitive biases it is possible that respondents may not
explicitly state that their friends and families opinions affect theirs. A lot of people think
that their beliefs and decisions are originated from themselves rather than from others
(Albarracín and Wyer, 2000).

H4: Facilitating conditions positively affect consumers’ behavioural intention


towards using mobile commerce.

Facilitating conditions did not have a statistically significant effect on behavioural


intention, thereby rejecting the null hypothesis H4. This finding isn’t in line with the
interviews conducted. Majority of the interviewees expressed concerns regarding
compatibility of web-shops and that apps should be compatible with apple pay. This
result supports rogers five characteristics on Innovation and is in line with an early
meta-analysis that concluded compatibility to be an important construct when
predicating consumers’ behavioural intention (Agarwal and Parasad, 2002).

H5: Hedonic Motivation positively affects consumers’ behavioural intention


towards using mobile commerce.

Hedonic motivations had the highest significant effect on behavioral intention with a p-
value of 0.018. The same importance was not achieved through the qualitative results.
Majority of the interviewees did agree that shopping through their mobile phone could
be “fun” and “exciting” but it wasn’t a reoccurring theme throughout the interviews.
Furthermore, participant’s suggested that hedonic motivations derive from performance
and effort satisfaction thereby indicating a relationship between these constructs. No
previous research on mobile commerce was found that has included hedonic
motivations as a predictor of behavioral intention. Thereby, this finding contributes to
the field of knowledge on mobile commerce.

5.3 Recommendations for Online Retailers

Objective 3: Evaluate how the understanding of behavioural intention towards


m-commerce adoption can help online retailers evaluate future growth of m-
commerce.

46
The behavioral intention towards mobile commerce in Thailand has proven to be
dependent on three constructs, Performance Expectancy, Effort Expectancy and
Hedonic Motivations. In addition through a deeper understanding on affects on mobile
commerce behavioral intentions, online retailers can shift their focus towards improving
features that matter most to its target consumers. Currently, a lot of online retailers are
focusing on improving the web design of their apps whereas this study did not indicate
any correlation between behavioral intention and web designs. Ultimately by improving
their mobile commerce services, the rate of fashion goods sold through m-commerce in
Thailand can be improved.

The quantitative studies proved that performance expectancy has a statistically


significant affect on the behavioral intention of Thai Millennials consumers’ towards
mobile commerce. The interviews further supported this by providing insight of what
this could mean. Thus making it imperative for businesses to consider the performance
of their mobile web-shops and apps. Furthermore, there was a general agreement from
participants that mobile optimised web shops perform better than non-optimised web
shops.

In addition a key point that was raised from this study is that Millennials expect
businesses to market and promote their apps to make consumers’ aware of the
benefits they can gain from using the mobile app to consume products. Chapter 2 of
this dissertation also reveals that Thai Millennials are highly influenced by social media.
Online retailers can use social media to promote their apps in order to gain more traffic
on the apps. In addition, the study showed that consumers highly value extrinsic
motivations. Therefore businesses should consider promoting their mobile app through
providing discounts and promotions in order to entice new consumers to their mobile
channel.

The millennial generation understands that mobile shopping enables them to make
purchases anywhere at anytime. Thereby making this medium appropriate for impulse
shopping. In order to exploit this opportunity, retailers need to streamline their mobile
shopping experience making it faster and easier and less complex to aid the
consumers’ quick purchases.

In regards to effort expectancy, the results from this study demonstrated that ease of
use is a very important factor that indicates whether or not consumers’ want to

47
participate in mobile shopping. Seeking convenience is an important characteristic for
Thai Millennials; in some cases they view this as a driver towards their behavioral
intention towards mobile shopping. The study showed that Millennials prefer automated
processes such as saving personal information and efficient ways of viewing products,
which is why a lot of them still prefer to use laptops to mobile devices. Businesses
should consider focusing on simplifying payment processes and product navigation.

Hedonic motivations have proven to be an important factor for consumers’ when they
are shopping through their mobile phones. The outcomes of this study indicate that an
enjoyable shopping experience can be achieved through a higher performance
expectancy and effort expectancy. Businesses are therefore recommended to improve
their mobile web shop and apps to take into account the users experience and build an
easy to use retail experience. In addition, it can also be suggested that businesses
should consider incorporating a personalized shopping feature powered by a good
algorithm to further enhance the user experience. Although retailers should keep in
mind that such features provide an overall benefit than introducing more friction.

Overall, mobile commerce is a relatively new phenomenon for Thai consumers. It is


recommended to online retailers that in order to gain a competitive advantage they
need to act soon and gain a head start with mobile shopping before it becomes an
everyday habit for the general population. The millennial generation is now the largest
population in Thailand and catering to their needs is becoming essential for online
retailers to survive. These consumers are highly reliant on technology, value
convenience and are aware that their time is a precious commodity. In order to gain the
attention of these consumers’ businesses must design web shops and apps that are
easy to use and facilitate quick purchases.

5.5 Research Limitations

This research consists of several limitations that need to be considered. First, it is likely
that there are other factors that influence m-commerce shopping that has not been
discussed in this study. The factors tested in this study explain 51.2% of the variance in
behavioural intention (Table 4.1). This indicates that there are other factors that fill up
the remaining amount of the prediction.

Secondly, a non-probability sampling method was used which means that the results
generated from this study cannot confidently generalise the entire Female Millennials
population in Thailand. Thirdly, the surveys were conducted in an environment beyond

48
the control of the researcher. Lastly, the researcher was only able to conduct 1 industry
interview; therefore, this research is based on one opinion that cannot be used to draw
accurate conclusions.

49
6. Conclusion and Recommendations

6.1 Conclusion

The aim of this research was to explore and determine the key factors affecting Thai
Millennials behavioural intention towards mobile commerce. The results and findings
from this research have contributed to the knowledge of behavioural intention towards
mobile commerce in Thailand, where previous research on this topic is not available.

While e-commerce continue to mature, the inevitable gain in m-commerce popularity


has consumers enjoying the convenience mobile devices offer. This study concludes
that Thailand’s growing demand for m-commerce is being driven by the following
factors: Performance Expectancy, Effort Expectancy and Hedonic Motivations.

6.2 Further Recommendations

The findings presented in this dissertation have revealed recommendations for future
research. This research undertook a non-probability sampling approach that limited the
study. A future research on this topic can take the approach of probability sampling in
order to gain a higher confidence in the data collected and be able to generalise the
findings to the whole population.

Furthermore, due to the time constraints and word count limit of this dissertation, the
researcher was not able to measure how moderating variables such as gender, age
and experience can impact the affect of independent variables on behavioural
intentions. This dissertation only focused on female Millennials with experience in
mobile shopping. It would be interesting to investigate how gender and experience
could impact behavioural intentions.

Finally, the model represented in the findings of this dissertation (Figure 4.4) was able
to explain only 51.2% of the variance in behavioural intention to shop on mobile
phones. This means that there are other factors that were not addressed in this
dissertation. Further research should explore more independent variables and possibly
propose a refined model with a higher percentage of variance.

50
7. Personal and Professional Development

The final chapter of this dissertation discuss the researchers experiences during the
writing of this dissertation and final year of undergraduate studies. This chapter will
thoroughly analyse the strengths and weaknesses supported by existing theories on
critical reflection. It will discuss how the researcher overcame challenges with
reference to academic models to demonstrate my personal and professional growth.

Since the start of my final year, I considered my Final Major Project (FMP) as the first
step towards building my future career. I have always known that someday, whether its
right after graduation or a couple years after, I want to start up my own business in
Thailand. Over the course of my undergraduate degree all the knowledge and
experience I have gained has sparked my interest in the role technology plays in the
fashion industry. Although I have not finalised a business plan that I would like to
pursue, I wanted to take advantage of my FMP to explore some key business ideas
currently relevant to Thailand.

I started off my journey with an extensive research on the retail industry in Thailand
and identified key trends in the market. I found that the emergence of electronic
commerce and subsequent channels such as mobile commerce and social media
commerce were reoccurring themes. Looking back I have realised, the toughest part of
my journey was defining the research topic. There were various topics I wanted to
explore in depth, however I understood that having a focused dissertation was highly
important. It felt logical to complete my literature review before I delved into defining my
aim and objectives, thus I followed this order. Writing the literature review was the most
enjoyable part of my dissertation as I got to discover attitudes of the Thai consumer,
which formed my research topic on behavioural intentions towards m-commerce.

Along the way, I came up with a lot of potential ideas on how to proceed with my
dissertation. I faced the difficulty of having a vast amount of research but no clear path
on how I was going to proceed. Moon (2008) suggested that free-flow writing on a topic
is a good way to release thoughts and ideas. I found this extremely useful, as I can be
quite critical on my ideas that it stops the flow of generating thoughts. It also allowed
me to reflect on each stage during the writing of my research, which resulted in a body
of work that I am confident in.

Conducting the primary research was the most challenging stage of my dissertation. I
was extremely excited to conduct my primary research and gain insight on how

51
consumers’ actually feel towards m-commerce. After conducting the quantitative
research, I found that my research was lacking in depth opinions, which is why I
decided to take a qualitative approach of semi-structured interviews. These interviews
were not only conducted on mobile shoppers but also on industry experts in order to
gain a greater insight into the subject area. It also came to my attention that I could
take advantage of this opportunity to build connections within the industry in Thailand
and expose myself to potential opportunities for a job after I graduate.

I went about approaching industry experts through Linkedin invitations. I was really
excited to see that a total of 13 people accepted my invitation to connect and a total of
7 people replied to my mail - offering to take part in my research. Unfortunately, only
one person actually took part in my interview. I was really disappointed by this outcome
as I had high expectations. I spent over a month waiting for their responses and
followed up with several of them, but still had no answer. After my year in industry, I
can imagine that their busy schedules may not allow them to take part in my interview.
In addition a lot of the interviewees were on leave for the Thai New Year celebration
that takes place during the month of April. Nonetheless, the one insight I managed to
get was a success, and I found it extremely fruitful to witness results that were beyond
what I had anticipated.

My third year was extremely overwhelming as I had a lot of things to juggle but as Dr.
Hans Selye once said “adopting the right attitude can convert a negative stress into a
positive one” (1987:p138). I followed this saying by having a positive attitude towards
all my tasks. I didn’t see the benefit in stressing out; instead I used that energy to
organize my schedule and work towards my goal. This led to a productive use of my
time and thus enabled me to take part in external activities such as the Microsoft x LCF
project, the SET challenge and the LVMH – Future of Luxury competition. As it is my
last year at LCF and in London, I wanted to make the most of my opportunities and
absorb as much knowledge and experience as possible.

A weakness I discovered during this journey was my inability to stay on task. This was
a major problem when I was conducting any research online because I would be
reading something and then get deviated once I came across another interesting or
unfamiliar concept. The upside of doing this was that I got a chance to genuinely read
around the topic and expand my reading list and knowledge in the process. However, it
meant that each task would take twice as long than I had initially anticipated. From my
experience on DIPS, I also came across a similar problem where I didn’t have enough

52
time to complete all the work I was tasked. I had overcome this problem by writing a to-
do-list and manage my time efficiently to complete all the tasks according to priority.
Hard work and determination got me through large amounts of work I never thought I
could complete. Similarly I applied that learning here and I overcame this struggle by
writing down a to-do-list every time I was working on my dissertation. This ensured that
I was completing sections of my dissertation on time, and I wouldn’t fall behind my
initial schedule.

Lastly, the week before my submission for the Future and Innovation’s module, I was
panicking to finish my work as I spent too long conducting my secondary research. In
the end I wasn’t really happy with quality of my work because I didn’t get enough time
to focus on the layout of my report. During this event I learnt that it was important to be
in control of your work before it takes control of you. Meaning I must have control over
my time through organisation and better self-management. This will allow me more
breathing space to think through my ideas and submit a piece of work that I am proud
of.

As I write the last paragraph of my dissertation, I am looking back and valuing all the
experiences and opportunities I have accepted. I appreciate all the skills I have gained
and challenges I have overcome throughout this year. I am confident that it will remain
with me long after I graduate, and facilitate me in my building my career.

53
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60
Appendices

Appendix A: Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA)

The theory of reasoned action is a model that states three elements or factors are
important towards behaviour. The first is attitude, whether this be positive or negative,
it has a significant impact in predicting an intention. The second element is a subjective
norm that suggests people feel the need to comply with what the society wants or
expects.

Source: Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975

61
Appendix B: Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB)

The theory of planned behaviour is seen as an improvement of the TRA model. It


reinforces the assumptions made in the TRA model and adds perceived behavioural
control to it. PBC refers to the ability an individual to perform a given behaviour.

Source: Fishbein & Ajzen 1975

62
Appendix C: Questionnaire Design

Thank you for choosing to participate in this survey. The objective of this research is to
identify the factors that can predict the intention to use m-commerce systems to
purchase fashion products. Mobile commerce (or m-commerce) is a subcategory of the
e-commerce channel that involves shopping through mobile including mobile web,
apps and social media sites.

This research is being conducted as an element of BA Fashion Buying and


Merchandising at London College of Fashion, University of the Arts London.

By completing the this survey you are giving consent to participate in this survey and
agreeing for the data collected to be part of the research for a Bachelors Dissertation.
All responses are anonymous and strictly confidential.

Please only fill out the questionnaire if:


1. Your gender is Female
2. You are within the age bracket of 18-38 years
3. You are from Thailand or are currently living there
4. You have previous experience in purchasing fashion products through mobile
commerce.

Any queries please contact: a.arora1@arts.ac.uk

Thank you in advance, Aashna Arora

Please confirm you are a female


o Yes, I am a female
o No, I am not

Please confirm you from Thailand or currently live there


o Yes, I am from Thailand or I currently live there
o No, I am not

Please select your age group


o 18-20
o 21-23
o 24-26
o 27-29

63
o 30-32
o 33-35
o 36-38

Please confirm that you have previously purchased a fashion product through your
mobile phone.
o Yes, I have purchased a fashion good or service through my mobile phone
o No, I have not

User Behavior: On average how often do you shop on your mobile?


o Everyday
o 1-2 times per week
o 1-2 times per month
o Every 3 months
o Every 6 months
o Once a year

Please indicate how strongly you agree or disagree with the following statements.
Strongly Disagree

Neither Agree nor

Strongly Agree
Disagree

Disagree
Agree

Performance Expectancy (PE)

I find using mobile shopping useful in my daily life


I can find fashion products I want easily through mobile
commerce
I find mobile shopping gives me greater control over my
purchases
Using mobile shopping enhances my task effectiveness
Using mobile shopping increases my productivity

Effort Expectancy (EE)

It is easy to use my mobile phone to browse for


products

64
I find mobile commerce easy to use to purchase
products
Learning how to use mobile commerce is easy for me
My interaction with mobile commerce is clear and easy
to understand
Mobile commerce makes my shopping journey easier.

Social Influence (SI)

People who are important to me think that I should use


mobile commerce to shop
People who influence my behavior think that I should
use mobile commerce
People whose opinions I value prefer that I use mobile
commerce
I know people who use mobile commerce, which has
influenced my decision to use it too.
Overall the people around me support my decision to
use mobile commerce

Facilitating Conditions (FC)

I have the resources necessary to purchase items


through mobile commerce
I have the knowledge necessary to purchase items
through mobile commerce
M-commerce is compatible with other technologies I use
I can get help from others when I have difficulties using
mobile commerce to purchase goods
I have the necessary infrastructure to use m-commerce.

Hedonic Motivations (HM)

The brand I shop at through my mobile phone is


pleasant
The brand I shop at through my mobile phone is
enjoyable
The brand I shop at through my mobile phone is fun
I enjoy spending my time searching for products using
the m-commerce medium.
Shopping through mobile commerce is interesting

Behavioural Intention (BI)

65
I intend to use mobile-commerce to purchase fashion
products.
I will recommend mobile commerce to my friends and
family.
I will continue to use mobile commerce more frequently.

66
Appendix D: Interview Information Sheet

Title of the Final Major Project: Thai Millennial Consumers’ Attitude Towards Mobile
Commerce Adoption

Student Name: Aashna Arora

Contact Details: A.ARORA1@ARTS.AC.UK

Hosting Institution: University of the Arts London, London College of Fashion

Background: Mobile commerce (or m-commerce) is a subcategory of the e-commerce


channel that involves shopping through a mobile phone including mobile web, apps
and social media sites. It has become an alternative channel for searching, browsing
and purchasing products. There is a considerable amount of evidence indicating that
the number of consumers using smartphones to make purchases will grow immensely
over the next few years in Thailand. Despite the increased adoption of smartphones
and mobile phone usage in Thailand, no empirical research has been found that
studies the attitude and behavior of the Thai Millennial generation towards accepting
and using mobile commerce as a medium through which they purchase fashion
products.

Aim of this Research: The aim of this research is to identify the factors that can predict
the attitude and intention of Thai Millennial consumers’ to use m-commerce systems to
purchase fashion products.

FAQ

How long will the interview take to complete?

The length of this interview is limited to 8 questions that will take approximately
25-45 minutes to complete.

How will you store and use the information collected?

All the data collected will be stored with the researcher. The consent forms and
particpants names will be removed and destroyed from the research. The
interview transcripts will be stored with the researcher and archived for other
researchers. The information collected will be used to underpin and analyse
findings for the subject area.

67
Will the outcome of this research be published?

The outcome of this research will not be published. A copy of the dissertation
may be kept at the University of the Arts London library as an academic
reference.

Will my name or the company I work for appear on the research?

Your name and the company you work for will only appear in the research if you
consent to them being used. All Participants have the right to remain
anonymous if they wish to.

68
Appendix E: Qualitative Interview Guide

Thank you for choosing to participate in this interview. The aim of this research is to
identify the factors that can predict the intention of Thai Millennial consumers’ to use m-
commerce systems to purchase fashion products. Mobile commerce (or m-commerce)
is a subcategory of the e-commerce channel that involves shopping through mobile
including mobile web, apps and social media sites.

This research is being conducted as an element of BA Fashion Buying and


Merchandising at London College of Fashion, University of the Arts London.

By completing the this interview you are giving consent to participate in this interview
and agreeing for the data collected to be part of the research for a Bachelors
Dissertation. All responses are strictly confidential.

Interview Questions for Mobile Shoppers

1. What do you consider are the biggest differences between shopping on a


computer and through a mobile phone?

2. What do you believe are the advantages of shopping on a computer?

3. What do you believe are the advantages of shopping on a mobile phone?

4. How can mobile phones be improved to make you want to shop more through
mobile commerce?

5. How can online retailers increase your utility of shopping on your mobile
phone?

6. How can online retailers make it easier for you to shop on your mobile phone?

7. Do you have any friends that shop on their mobile phone? If so, would this
increase your intention to shop on your mobile phone?

8. How can retailers increase your level of enjoyment when shopping on your
mobile phone?

69
9. Do you have any final comments or thoughts on this subject before we end the
interview?

Interview Questions for Industry Experts

1. Can you identify the three most important factors for a successful web shop on
mobile phones?

2. What advantages does a mobile phone have in comparison to computers for


online shopping?

3. How do web shops on mobile phones differ from ones on the computer?

4. Do you believe the consumer differs between shopping on a mobile phone or a


computer? Does this affect the design of the web shop?

5. How can companies increase the usefulness of their mobile phone web shop?

6. How can companies make their mobile phone web shop more beneficial for the
consumer?

7. What do you think makes a consumer purchase through their mobile phone
rather than their computer?

8. How do you believe mobile commerce, as a shopping channel will develop in


the future?

70
Appendix F: Interview Transcript: Mobile Shopper A

Age: 20
Experience: “I have used mobile commerce before in the UK, never in Thailand. I
have only used my mobile phone to browse for products and I have shopped through
social media sites such as Instagram and Line in Thailand.”
Date: 14/03/2018

1 Interviewer: What do you consider are the biggest differences between shopping
2 on a computer and through a mobile phone?
3 Mobile Shopper A: It’s the resolution of the picture because when I look for some
4 products I want to look at it from a 360 angle and I want to see it clearly through my
5 mobile. I only use mobile shopping when I am out of the house or don’t have access to
6 my Laptop. For example if I am on the bus or the train, I will use my mobile phone to
7 browse for products. But if I am at home I will use my laptop.
8 Interviewer: What do you believe are the advantages of shopping on a laptop?
9 Mobile Shopper A: Not comparing to the mobile right?
10 Interviewer: No just any benefits you see when using your laptop or desktop to
11 shop online.
12 Mobile Shopper A: Online you need a physical energy, and I got tired of that.
13 Interviewer: Anything else you would like to add?
14 Mobile Shopper A: No, I like to browse online because I can search for more options
15 and also compare products across brands.
16 Interviewer: What do you believe are the advantages of shopping on a mobile
17 phone?
18 Mobile Shopper A: Mobile over laptop?
19 Interviewer: No just in general what do you believe are the benefits smartphone
20 shopping can provide you with?
21 Mobile Shopper A: Well because you can shop whenever and wherever. And when I
22 am travelling on the bus or on the train, I like to make the most of my time by searching
23 and browsing and shopping through my mobile phone. Smartphone shopping is
24 compatible to my lifestyle, because you I don’t carry my laptop all the time since it is
25 heavy, whereas my mobile phone is always in my hands.
26 Interviewer: How can mobile phones be improved to make you want to shop
27 more through mobile commerce?
28 Mobile Shopper A: I think maybe retailers can improve their mobile versions.
29 Interviewer: Can you make some suggestions on what features they can improve
30 on?

71
31 Mobile Shopper A: For me, the most important thing is how I can view the product. This
32 is something that needs to be improved on the mobile web shops. It needs to be a
33 visual improvement – for example when I search; I want to zoom into the details of the
34 clothing or product I am going to purchase. But when I use my mobile phone, I have to
35 scroll to see the details whereas a computer is a much easier way to see the product
36 clearly. This is also because the screen is so much bigger.
37 Interviewer: How can online retailers increase your utility of shopping on your
38 mobile phone?
39 Mobile Shopper A: I am not sure if this feature is available on my mobile, but when I
40 shop on my laptop – all my information, usernames and passwords are stored in the
41 computer. So every time I come across a page where I have to fill out my personal
42 details or my payment details – it will be automatically entered for me in one click. So
43 you don’t have to fill in like anything. When I go on amazon you can just click “buy now”
44 – something like that. I don’t like filling in anything. And it is secure in there. Oh yeah
45 security is really important too and yeah how easy you can process to the purchase.
46 Interviewer: So do you believe security is an important factor when you are
47 purchasing products online?
48 Mobile Shopper A: Security and it has to be easy to use.
49 Interviewer: Now that you have mentioned ‘Easy to use’, how can online retailers
50 actually make it easier for you to shop on your mobile phone?
51 Mobile Shopper A: By having a feature like I mentioned earlier than Amazon does
52 really well is a one-click purchase.
53 Interviewer: Do you have any friends that shop on their mobile phone? If so,
54 would this increase your intention to shop on your mobile phone?
55 Mobile Shopper A: Yes, I think for shopping perceptions they feel like shopping through
56 mobile is like less secure than using the laptop. But actually, I believe that they use the
57 same security system on the phone as they do on the laptops and desktops. But a lot
58 of people have that perception that shopping through their mobile phone is not so
59 secure. I somewhat agree with this but I think people believe that phones are more
60 casual and therefore more people use their phones just to browse when they are
61 outside. When they are outside and they want to purchase something – this is when
62 they will use their smartphones. But phone is also necessary for browsing.
63 Interviewer: Do you believe shopping or browsing on your mobile phone is seen
64 as enjoyable or fun?
65 Mobile Shopper A: Yes, I do agree with this because I shop online quite often.

72
66 Interviewer: Have you ever scrolled through Instagram and wanted to purchase
67 the same outfit? And click through to the website to find it added to your
68 basket?
69 Mobile Shopper A: Shopping through Instagram is easier than shopping through a
70 brand website. Maybe because the speed of Instagram. But when I shop through
71 Instagram it was a Thai brand – it is a channel through which these brands showcase
72 their products – and when you want to purchase something you just have to go and
73 add them on Line and communicate with them through that.
74 Interviewer: So have you purchase products through this method more than a
75 couple of times?
76 Mobile Shopper A: Yea, and it is quite easy. I paid them through bank transfer. I really
77 wanted the product so for me a bank transfer payment method was acceptable. But if
78 they have an alternative or easier payment methods I would certainly prefer that. It
79 would support my purchasing behaviour. Also, sometimes when you visit a brands
80 website, their mobile version is slow and you want to see something and you click on a
81 link and it takes too long to load. It looses my attention and I lose my patience. I need
82 something that is quick. Through my shopping experiences on mobile I have found that
83 web pages take too long to load and I want to quickly browse through pages and not
84 spend too much time trying to complete a task. For example one click payments such
85 as Apple – really support my purchase I think I will purchase more when I use apple
86 pay because I’m like “omg its so easy to use!” Paying quicker and easier is very
87 important. Sometimes when I go for dinner with my friends I’ll often offer to pay for
88 them first as it is so easy to make a payment through my phone.
89 Interviewer: Do you have any final comments or thoughts on this subject before
90 we end the interview?
91 Mobile Shopper A: In summary I believe the biggest barriers for me shopping through
92 my mobile phone is resolution and speed. If there is a way that I can view products
93 easier and the speed is up to or as quick as when using my laptop, then I would prefer
94 to shop through my mobile. Also I’d like to add that brands should declare or inform
95 customers that shopping through a mobile platform is as secure as using the laptop as
96 this is something that a lot of my friends are not aware of. A lot of people think mobile
97 shopping is a less secure method.

73
Appendix G: Consent Form Signed by Mobile Shopper A

Thai Millennial Consumers’ Attitude Towards Fashion M-


Title of the project:
Commerce Adoption
Student Name: Aashna Arora
Student Email: A.ARORA1@ARTS.AC.UK
Hosting Institution: University of the Arts, London College of Fashion

I have read the Information Sheet and have had the details of the study explained to
me. My questions have been answered to my satisfaction, and I understand that I may
ask further questions at any time.

I understand I have the right to withdraw from the study at any time and to decline to
answer any particular questions.

I agree to provide information to the researcher on the understanding that my name will
not be used without my permission. (The information will be used only for this research
and publications arising from this research project.)

Agree Not Agree


I agree/do not agree to Participate in this Interview x
My name can be mentioned in this research study x
The name of the organisation I work for can be mentioned in this
x
research study

I agree to participate in this study under the conditions set out in the Information Sheet.

Participants Name Printed: Milky Soranun Wiboonwattanakit

Participant Name Signed:

Date: 14th March 2018


Appendix H: Interview Transcript - Mobile Phone Shopper B

Age: 24
Experience: Yes, I have experience shopping through my mobile phone through web
shops and through social media sites in Thailand.
Date: 17/03/2018

1 Interviewer: What do you consider are the biggest differences between shopping
2 on a computer and through a mobile phone?
3 Sumedha: I believe the biggest differences between mobile shopping and my laptop is
4 the user experience. Personally, I find it hard to shop on my mobile phone because of
5 the user interface. It is quite slow, the images are not clear, the interface is not
6 seamless and smooth. Retailers also need to make more of an effort to customize the
7 user experience on mobile. I believe this works relatively well on my laptop which is
8 why I still use my computer to shop online.
9 Interviewer: What do you believe are the advantages of shopping on a laptop?
10 Sumedha: They layout of the web shop is much easier and nicer. It is easy to navigate,
11 there are a lot of options and buttons to click on whereas because my smartphone is
12 really small – it seems as if everything has been squeezed in there and there is
13 sometimes too much information that is not organized correctly, or too little information.
14 Interviewer: What do you believe are the advantages of shopping on a mobile
15 phone?
16 Sumedha: It is more convenient.
17 Interviewer: Can you expand more on what you believe provides convenience?
18 Sumedha: Well by convenience I mean that I can access it from anywhere as I always
19 have my smartphone on me. It is also more convenient because I spend a lot of time
20 on my phone – so sometimes I am not at home or I am too lazy to pull up my laptop I
21 will just complete the purchase on my mobile phone.
22 Interviewer: Great thanks, the next question is how can mobile phones be
23 improved to make you want to shop more through mobile commerce?
24 Sumedha: Well, like I mentioned user interface is really important to me. I believe it
25 shapes the whole experience I have with the brand. Brands need to make theirs more
26 user friendly because right now a lot of brands don’t have a mobile app or mobile
27 compatible web-shop. A lot of them are linked to social media sites such as Instagram
28 so you usually have to access via Instagram that can be quite confusing.
29 Interviewer: How can online retailers increase your utility of shopping on your
30 mobile phone?

75
31 Sumedha: By designing a better user interface. For example push notifications through
32 apps are really important. This is a good way to promote discounts, new product
33 recommendations, any sales or special promotions that the brand is running. Through
34 these notifications I can learn more about new products rather than using Instagram
35 newsfeed as the only connection with the brand.
36 Interviewer: How can online retailers actually make it easier for you to shop on
37 your mobile phone?
38 Sumedha: A good layout is really important – as it makes the shopping experience
39 easier. It needs to be a user-friendly layout. The retailer could add things like apple pay
40 which are extremely convenient. I believe all brands should have their personal app
41 specific to the company. Then I can easily connect with brands through one click on my
42 phone. Brands can also consider the possibility of getting into virtual reality – for
43 example when you can try the clothes on. Features like this will improve the user
44 interface of shopping through my mobile phone.
45 Interviewer: Do you have any friends that shop on their mobile phone? If so,
46 would this increase your intention to shop on your mobile phone?
47 Sumedha: I have friends that shop on their mobile phone and have recommended it to
48 me because of quick deliveries and unexpectedly nice items for a really good price. I
49 believe mobile phone shopping has given us more options to shop through – and this
50 has increased the choices I have in terms of what I want to purchase, how I want to
51 purchase it and how I want to pay for it.
52 Interviewer: What do you think motivates your friends to shop on their mobile
53 phone?
54 Sumedha: I think it is the fact that it is a convenient way to shop. And also now in
55 Thailand a lot of local brands can be reached through social media sites such as
56 Instagram and purchases can be made through Line. A lot of these times these brands
57 are located in far locations and I can’t always get to it due to traffic. And because these
58 items are cheap and I have heard good reviews from my friends – I am more inclined
59 to shop through my smartphone.
60 Interviewer: Do you believe shopping or browsing on your mobile phone is seen
61 as enjoyable or fun?
62 Sumedha: Yes, I definitely like to scroll through brands Instagram page, and a brand
63 catalogues. I think this is a fun way to pass my time as I can see what is in store and
64 what is new in Fashion all the time.
65 Interviewer: Do you have any final comments or thoughts on this subject before
66 we end the interview?

76
67 Sumedha: I would like to add one thing before we do complete, I do believe that one of
68 the biggest reasons why I shop through my mobile phone is because of convenience
69 and that it is accessible no matter where I am. Although – a lot of the times – it doesn’t
70 necessarily mean that shopping through my smartphone is convenient because many
71 brands haven’t invested enough in their online platforms therefore it is hard to navigate,
72 it is not simple, it is not easy to use, and the user interface is poor. Retailers have to
73 focus on their mobile sites and apps in order to make them seamless. Apps like
74 instagram, snap chat and Line are easy to use, easy to understand, and easy to
75 navigate which is why we use it everyday. If shopping apps were as easy and had a
76 user-friendly interface I would be more inclined to spend more time on the app or
77 mobile site.
78 Interviewer: Thank you for summing that up really well Sumedha. This is the end
79 of the interview, thank you very much for your time and your thoughtful answers.

77
Appendix I: Consent form for Mobile Shopper B

Thai Millennial Consumers’ Attitude Towards Fashion M-


Title of the project:
Commerce Adoption
Student Name: Aashna Arora
Student Email: A.ARORA1@ARTS.AC.UK
Hosting Institution: University of the Arts, London College of Fashion

I have read the Information Sheet and have had the details of the study explained to
me. My questions have been answered to my satisfaction, and I understand that I may
ask further questions at any time.

I understand I have the right to withdraw from the study at any time and to decline to
answer any particular questions.

I agree to provide information to the researcher on the understanding that my name will
not be used without my permission. (The information will be used only for this research
and publications arising from this research project.)

Agree Not Agree


I agree/do not agree to Participate in this Interview x
My name can be mentioned in this research study x
I agree that the transcript of this interview will be archived for
x
future research purposes

I agree to participate in this study under the conditions set out in the Information Sheet.

Participants Name Printed: Sumedha Seghal

Participants Name Signed:

Date: 17 March 2018


Appendix J: Interview Transcript - Mobile Phone Shopper C

Age: 22
Experience: Yes, I have experience shopping through my mobile phone through web
shops and through social media sites in Thailand.
Date: 23 March 2018

1 Interviewer: What do you consider are the biggest differences between shopping
2 on a computer and through a mobile phone?
3 Mobile Shopper C: It is easier to see a selection of the different collections or products
4 available on a computer as it has a wider screen. When you zoom into images the
5 resolution is a lot clearer on the computer rather than on my mobile phone. However,
6 shopping on a mobile device may be more convenient as you can do it from anywhere
7 at any time without needing Wifi. I think that is really important as time is becoming
8 extremely important to my friends and me – we want to make most of the time we have
9 and complete tasks anywhere we like.
10 Interviewer: What do you believe are the advantages of shopping on a laptop?
11 Mobile Shopper C: Firstly, as I mentioned earlier it is a wider screen making it easier to
12 go through products and surf the brands website. I am quite used to browsing through
13 websites using my laptop so I feel a lot more comfortable doing it on my laptop.
14 Secondly, it is easier to see customer reviews on products. There is always a section
15 which I can easily find on my big screen.
16 Interviewer: What do you believe are the advantages of shopping on a mobile
17 phone?
18 Mobile Shopper C: You can shop from the app at any time in any place. The apps are
19 also quite easy to use and I really like how apps send you updates or notifications on
20 new collections being released or on sales and promotions. These notifications are
21 extremely useful for the brand to let me know when my product is being delivered,
22 when it has been dispatched etc. Although I have only seen this on Amazon UK not on
23 any Thai apps- this I guess is a point that they can improve on. I also once experienced
24 the phone detected the store near by and it gave me a buzz that I found really
25 interesting and quite advantageous.
26 Interviewer: Where did you experience this?
27 Mobile Shopper C: This happened to me when I was in New York with apps like Target
28 and Urban Outfitters.
29 Interviewer: How can mobile phones be improved to make you want to shop
30 more through mobile commerce?

79
31 Mobile Shopper C: They need to update app processors as some apps are slow and
32 keep crashing.
33 Interviewer: How can online retailers increase your utility of shopping on your
34 mobile phone?
35 Mobile Shopper C: I think brands need to promote their app more frequently, a lot of
36 the times I am not aware that the brands I want to shop at have an app or even just
37 that their websites are mobile compatible. Also giving consumers an incentive to
38 download the application would be good – maybe a promotion or free delivery on your
39 first mobile purchase.
40 Interviewer: How can online retailers actually make it easier for you to shop on
41 your mobile phone?
42 Mobile Shopper C: Allowing the brands that don’t have applications to at least have a
43 fast paced website that is not slow and is easy to use and navigate through. I think
44 most people will prefer using apps instead of using it on Safari.
45 Interviewer: How often do you download new shopping apps on your phone?
46 Mobile Shopper C: I don’t download it that often, only when I come across something
47 that gives me an easy link to download it. And I only keep the app on my phone if I
48 have the intention to use it more than once again. I like to only have apps that I really
49 use on my phone otherwise it gets too messy and confusing.
50 Interviewer: Do you have any friends that shop on their mobile phone? If so,
51 would this increase your intention to shop on your mobile phone?
52 Mobile Shopper C: Yes, I have a lot of friends that shop online through ASOS or
53 Pomelo Fashion and Lazada. They talk about the good prices they get on it, quick
54 deliveries and convenience that these online stores provide on the mobile. This has
55 increased my intention to try different apps.
56 Interviewer: Do you perceive shopping or browsing on your mobile phone is
57 seen as enjoyable or fun?
58 Mobile Shopper C: Yes, I really enjoy browsing for products on my phone during my
59 free time. Especially when the application or the mobile site isn’t slow and is fast
60 loading – I can be on it for a long time!
61 Interviewer: Do you have any final comments or thoughts on this subject before
62 we end the interview?
63 Mobile Shopper C: No, I think that’s it. I am looking forward to see how mobile
64 shopping will improve and change in the coming year or two as I have seen a huge
65 shift towards it but the question is whether or not it will be a sustainable medium
66 through which we browse and make purchases.

80
Appendix K: Consent form for Mobile Shopper C

Thai Millennial Consumers’ Attitude Towards Fashion M-


Title of the project:
Commerce Adoption
Student Name: Aashna Arora
Student Email: A.ARORA1@ARTS.AC.UK
Hosting Institution: University of the Arts, London College of Fashion

I have read the Information Sheet and have had the details of the study explained to
me. My questions have been answered to my satisfaction, and I understand that I may
ask further questions at any time.

I understand I have the right to withdraw from the study at any time and to decline to
answer any particular questions.

I agree to provide information to the researcher on the understanding that my name will
not be used without my permission. (The information will be used only for this research
and publications arising from this research project.)

Agree Not Agree


I agree/do not agree to Participate in this Interview x
My name can be mentioned in this research study x
I agree that the transcript of this interview will be archived for
x
future research purposes

I agree to participate in this study under the conditions set out in the Information Sheet.

Participants Name Printed: Ploy Kambhu Na Ayudhaya

Participants Name Signed:

Date: 23 March 2018


Appendix L: Interview Transcript – Mobile Phone Shopper D

Age: 26
Experience: Yes, I have experience shopping through my mobile phone through web
shops and through social media sites in Thailand.
Date: 29/03/2018

1 Interviewer: What do you consider are the biggest differences between shopping
2 on a computer and through a mobile phone?
3 Mobile Shopper D: Convenience is the biggest difference between shopping on a
4 computer and through my smartphone. It allows me to shop anywhere at anytime. If I
5 am in the office and the computer is in front of me I will be shopping on my computer.
6 But other times when I am travelling to work on the train or in my Uber – having my
7 phone to browse for products I may want is extremely convenient. I also enjoy
8 browsing through products when I get bored – whenever I have spare time. Or
9 sometimes – if I see something nice that I like I can quickly search up on my phone to
10 see how much it may cost.
11 Interviewer: What do you believe are the advantages of shopping on a laptop?
12 Mobile Shopper D: Well if I have to do something like print out a label to return my
13 products, I can only do this on my laptop – so I guess there isn’t really any option.
14 Despite that, my laptop has a much larger screen making it easier to view and scroll
15 through products. Sometimes on my phone not all options are visible whereas the
16 computer - able to view more items at once without having to click on the item to see a
17 bigger picture every time. Also when I am shopping online I browse several brands at
18 once – being on a laptop allows me to browse different websites at once. It is easier to
19 compare different things. My laptop also auto fills all my information so I don’t have to
20 enter it every time I want to purchase an item.
21 Interviewer: What do you believe are the advantages of shopping on a mobile
22 phone?
23 Mobile Shopper D: Some sites offer mobile discounts, which has tempted me to shop
24 on my mobile phone rather than my laptop. Mobile phone shopping is also more
25 accessible. I always have my phone therefore I can shop whenever.
26 Interviewer: How can mobile phones be improved to make you want to shop
27 more through mobile commerce?
28 Mobile Shopper D: Going back and forth between pages need to be easier. Sometimes
29 I spend really long scrolling through the catalogue just to click onto the 50th product to
30 see it more clearly, but then when I go back it takes me to the top of the catalogue.

82
31 This is the most frustrating thing! On the computer I can open a new tab and close it if I
32 am not interested. But tabs on my phone are just harder to deal with.
33 Interviewer: How can online retailers increase your utility of shopping on your
34 mobile phone?
35 Mobile Shopper D: The app needs to be easy to use. Also mobile phone discounts will
36 be helpful.
37 Interviewer: How can online retailers make it easier for you to shop on your
38 mobile phone?
39 Mobile Shopper D: App needs to be easy to use, It needs to be seamless so that I
40 don’t feel the difference between being on a laptop and being on my phone. My details
41 should be stored in the application – so I never have to enter them ever again. I should
42 be able to browse products from multiple stores at the same time. I shouldn’t lose track
43 of what I am browsing just because I want to see a clearer image.
44 Interviewer: Do you have any friends that shop on their mobile phone? If so,
45 would this increase your intention to shop on your mobile phone?
46 Mobile Shopper D: No, I do not shop on my mobile phone because my friends do. I am
47 not sure if my friends even shop on their mobile phone.
48 Interviewer: Do you enjoy when shopping on your mobile phone?
49 Mobile Shopper D: Yes, because it is easy to browse products on it. As long as I am
50 not having technical issues shopping online is fun.
51 Interviewer: Do you have any final comments or thoughts on this subject before
52 we end the interview?
53 Mobile Shopper D: No I don’t. Thanks.

83
Appendix M: Consent form for Mobile Shopper D

Thai Millennial Consumers’ Attitude Towards Fashion M-


Title of the project:
Commerce Adoption
Student Name: Aashna Arora
Student Email: A.ARORA1@ARTS.AC.UK
Hosting Institution: University of the Arts, London College of Fashion

I have read the Information Sheet and have had the details of the study explained to
me. My questions have been answered to my satisfaction, and I understand that I may
ask further questions at any time.

I understand I have the right to withdraw from the study at any time and to decline to
answer any particular questions.

I agree to provide information to the researcher on the understanding that my name will
not be used without my permission. (The information will be used only for this research
and publications arising from this research project.)

Agree Not Agree


I agree/do not agree to Participate in this Interview x
My name can be mentioned in this research study x
I agree that the transcript of this interview will be archived for
x
future research purposes

I agree to participate in this study under the conditions set out in the Information Sheet.

Participants Name Printed: Purnama Parmar

Participants Name Signed:

Date: 28 March 2018


Appendix N: Interview Transcript: Mobile Shopper E

Age: 34
Experience: Yes, I have experience shopping through my mobile phone through web
shops and through social media sites in Thailand.
Date: 2/04/2018

1 Interviewer: What do you consider are the biggest differences between shopping
2 on a computer and through a mobile phone?
3 Mobile Shopper E: Shopping through my mobile phone is highly convenient compared
4 to a computer. This is because I always have my phone on me and its easy to pay for
5 products as I have all the necessary apps on my phone such as banking apps and line
6 messenger app which is essential for online shopping in Bangkok
7 Interviewer: Why would you say Line messenger app is essential for online
8 shopping Bangkok?
9 Mobile Shopper E: There are a lot of boutiques in Thailand that sell their clothes
10 through Line Messenger, it is an app like Facebook or WeChat. These retailers often
11 market their products through Instagram and will accept Bank Transfer as payments. I
12 enjoy shopping through this medium only when I find styles that I really want. Bank
13 transfers have become easier – before I had to go to the ATM or to the Bank itself to
14 make the payment but now I can do it from my phone.
15 Interviewer: What do you believe are the advantages of shopping on a laptop?
16 Mobile Shopper E: I can shop from the comfort of my home or office. I am always on
17 my computer in the office so whenever I need to do some online shopping I will just
18 browse on my computer, as the screen is bigger and easier to see. Also my boss may
19 find it suspicious if I am on my phone a lot.
20 Interviewer: What do you believe are the advantages of shopping on a mobile
21 phone?
22 Mobile Shopper E: The ease a convenience of being able to shop anywhere at any
23 time is why I shop on my mobile phone. When I am not home or not in the office I have
24 no option but to use mobile phone. I use my phone to mostly browse, and make the
25 purchases on my laptop – unless I am shopping through Line, which forces me to
26 make a conversation with the retailer through the Line Messenger App.
27 Interviewer: How can mobile phones be improved to make you want to shop
28 more through mobile commerce?
29 Mobile Shopper E: A lot of the times the mobile phone apps or mobile sites are quite
30 slow. For example when I initially to shop on Pomelo Fashion’s application and I kept
31 getting error messages when I tried to add products to my cart –whereas I have never

85
32 faced such a problem on my laptop. Although mobile apps are quite nice because…
33 and easy it gives me the information of when my order has been shipped which is
34 extremely helpful. I believe improving the visibility on shipments and returns on the
35 mobile phone will be a good point for retailers to improve on.
36 Interviewer: How can online retailers increase your utility of shopping on your
37 mobile phone?
38 Mobile Shopper E: The loading time needs to be improved – I have a lot of friends that
39 complain about apps taking too long to load and that can greatly impact the
40 consumer’s experience. This is especially bad when there is a online sale – the app
41 cannot take on traffic and it keeps crashing down. Retailers can also create chats that
42 can provide customer service from the app, this will make the customer journey a lot
43 smoother. Also, I’d like to add that I personally prefer shopping through apps than
44 through mobile sites on my phone. So I think more retailers should have applications
45 for online shopping.
46 Interviewer: How can online retailers make it easier for you to shop on your
47 mobile phone?
48 Mobile Shopper E: As I mentioned the loading time needs to be improved. Other than
49 that I believe that details such as Images, Sizes and Fabric details need to be well
50 displayed. The app should also provide order and return statuses and if it included a
51 push notification of when your order is processed, or your refund is processed it be a
52 lot easier for me. In addition, customer support is extremely important; if I contact them
53 through the app they should reply and rectify my problems as quickly as possible – that
54 would make my shopping easier. Also making payments easily is important, the app
55 should be compatible with apple pay and should store my details so I don’t have to
56 enter it in every time I want to purchase a product.
57 Interviewer: Do you have any friends that shop on their mobile phone? If so,
58 would this increase your intention to shop on your mobile phone?
59 Mobile Shopper E: A lot of my co-workers and friends shop on their mobile phone
60 because it is convenient, but they do face a lot of technical problems when doing so.
61 This has definitely made me question whether or not I should shop using my mobile
62 phone or just wait till I get to my computer to complete the purchase. A lot of people I
63 know shop on their mobile phone only when they have to purchase products through
64 Line which is extremely popular in Bangkok. And when people share a good
65 experience with me – in terms of quality of product and value for money I am more
66 inclined to go and browse the same retail stores to see if I can find something nice for
67 myself too.

86
68 Interviewer: How can retailers increase your level of enjoyment when shopping
69 on your mobile phone?
70 Mobile Shopper E: I think the aspect that consumers enjoy most when shopping is
71 browsing for new products and styling it. So I think if the process of browsing on your
72 mobile phone is seamless and easy to use and understand – it will automatically be
73 enjoyable. When brands include personalized suggestions I get more excited because
74 they tend to be products I want to purchase, but not a lot of Thai brands currently do
75 this.
76 Interviewer: Do you have any final comments or thoughts on this subject before
77 we end the interview?
78 Mobile Shopper E: I personally have experience selling products through Instagram –
79 which is where I market my products and consumers approach me through whatsapp
80 or line if they want to purchase it. They use the payment method of bank transfer that
81 has become a lot easier now that we have mobile banking, although some people are
82 still transitioning between traditional banking and mobile banking as it is still a foreign
83 concept for a lot of people. But I do believe that mobile purchasing has a huge
84 advantage – and that is that you can connect with retailers on a personal level and chat
85 with them which is almost like going to the store and having a conversation with the
86 sales assistant. It has also allowed entrepreneurs like me to reach more consumers
87 with little or no investment in my retail channel.

87
Appendix O: Consent form for Mobile Shopper E

Thai Millennial Consumers’ Attitude Towards Fashion M-


Title of the project:
Commerce Adoption
Student Name: Aashna Arora
Student Email: A.ARORA1@ARTS.AC.UK
Hosting Institution: University of the Arts, London College of Fashion

I have read the Information Sheet and have had the details of the study explained to
me. My questions have been answered to my satisfaction, and I understand that I may
ask further questions at any time.

I understand I have the right to withdraw from the study at any time and to decline to
answer any particular questions.

I agree to provide information to the researcher on the understanding that my name will
not be used without my permission. (The information will be used only for this research
and publications arising from this research project.)

Agree Not Agree


I agree/do not agree to Participate in this Interview x
My name can be mentioned in this research study x
I agree that the transcript of this interview will be archived for
x
future research purposes

I agree to participate in this study under the conditions set out in the Information Sheet.

Participants Name Printed: Nandini Pawa

Participants Name Signed:

Date: 02 April 2018


Appendix P: Mobile Phone Shopper F

Age: 28
Experience: I do have any experience shopping through my mobile phone but I have
through my laptop.
Date: 02/04/2018

1 Interviewer: What do you consider are the biggest differences between shopping
2 on a computer and through a mobile phone?
3 Marisa: The screen will not display all the options, where the computer has a wider
4 screen and able to see more. I can view collections faster when there is more on the
5 screen, whereas on the phone you have to scroll down more. The mobile phone can be
6 used from anywhere and everywhere. It is convenient and helps save time in our busy
7 lives. If there is something quick I need to purchase or order I will often use my phone
8 for it.
9 Interviewer: What do you believe are the advantages of shopping on a laptop?
10 Marisa: That the screen is bigger, I am able to see if not all but more information
11 regarding the product on the same page making it clear and easy to follow. It is also
12 easier to navigate on the laptop because it displays more options and you are able to
13 zoom in and out of things quite easily. The format of the page is clear and organized
14 meaning it usually comforts the eye. And also sometimes the mobile phone apps and
15 sites can be of very poor quality making it slow and causing a messed up format. For
16 example the text box’s are not aligned to the side column. Also with the help of a
17 mouse it is faster to navigate and easier to explore across different websites and
18 search engines.
19 Interviewer: What do you believe are the advantages of shopping on a mobile
20 phone?
21 Marisa: Shopping on the mobile phone means that we can be efficient when it comes
22 to purchasing. If you know what you want or need a mobile phone could do it for you
23 anywhere. My mobile phone is also something I am using all the time – which is why it
24 is helpful to have transparency of my purchase at real time- so I can see if the
25 shipment has been dispatched, if my returns have been accepted, my order has been
26 delayed etc. Whereas I am not always on my laptop so this feature, even if available,
27 will not be truly useful.
28 Interviewer: How can mobile phones be improved to make you want to shop
29 more through mobile commerce?
30 Marisa: Easier interface is very important. How we move around the site or the app
31 needs to be easy to learn and do. This means that the options need to be smart and

89
32 tailored to my needs. Mobile sites should be of better quality – should not crash all the
33 time and face technical problems. The mobile sites also need to display more items on
34 the screen and include more categories. Sometimes the filters on the category are not
35 clear and then going back and forth between the pages can be difficult.
36 Interviewer: How can online retailers increase your utility of shopping on your
37 mobile phone?
38 Marisa :The site should be better than surfing the web through your mobile. It needs to
39 be easy to use and the categories used for the products needs to be presented in a
40 clear way. Oh and easy payment – taking a picture of your card or apple pay is
41 important because it makes the process easier. Also adding incentives such as
42 promotions and discounts as a result of downloading or purchasing from the mobile
43 app for the first time.
44 Interviewer: How can online retailers make it easier for you to shop on your
45 mobile phone?
46 Marisa: A way to download the app using one click or using a QR barcode will make
47 more people download the app and making retailers mobile applications more popular.
48 Interviewer: Do you have any friends that shop on their mobile phone? If so,
49 would this increase your intention to shop on your mobile phone?
50 Marisa: I do have friends that shop on their mobile phone but they only do to buy
51 groceries and order on demand services such as food delivery and cab service. Things
52 that are easy and don’t require much thought because we don’t want to spend too
53 much time on it.
54 Interviewer: How can retailers increase your level of enjoyment when shopping
55 on your mobile phone?
56 Marisa: It should be linked to social media sites such as Instagram, Facbook which are
57 platforms that retailers use to market themselves, and where I spend the most time.
58 Interviewer: Do you have any final comments or thoughts on this subject before
59 we end the interview?
60 Marisa: Yes, I would like to add that maybe the shopping experience could be linked
61 between the smartphone and the computer. Meaning that consumers can complete the
62 process on either – depending on the service or the stage of purchase. For example I
63 would like to do my initial browsing on my phone then complete the purchase by
64 making a payment on my laptop, then I can get notifications on my phone regarding the
65 delivery status in real time on my phone. If I want to make a return it can be done via
66 my laptop or smartphone – whatever I see convenient at the time and lastly I can see
67 that my return has been processed on my phone. The next week I can get a notification

90
68 telling me a new product that has come into store and the next time I am on my laptop I
69 may look at it.

91
Appendix Q: Consent form for Mobile Shopper E

Thai Millennial Consumers’ Attitude Towards Fashion M-


Title of the poject:
Commerce Adoption
Student Name: Aashna Arora
Student Email: A.ARORA1@ARTS.AC.UK
Hosting Institution: University of the Arts, London College of Fashion

I have read the Information Sheet and have had the details of the study explained to
me. My questions have been answered to my satisfaction, and I understand that I may
ask further questions at any time.

I understand I have the right to withdraw from the study at any time and to decline to
answer any particular questions.

I agree to provide information to the researcher on the understanding that my name will
not be used without my permission. (The information will be used only for this research
and publications arising from this research project.)

Agree Not Agree


I agree/do not agree to Participate in this Interview x
My name can be mentioned in this research study x
I agree that the transcript of this interview will be archived for
x
future research purposes

I agree to participate in this study under the conditions set out in the Information Sheet.

Participants Name Printed: Marisa Chayavivatkul

Participants Name Signed:

Date: 02 April 2018

92
Appendix R: Interview Transcript – Industry Expert A

Company and Job Role: Managing Director at Fluxus Thailand and Digital Innovation
Specialist
Date: 20/04/2018

1 Interviewer: I am not sure if you have had sometime to read the document I sent
2 you through email. Allow quickly go over it, I am doing my research based on
3 mobile commerce acceptance among the millennial consumers in Thailand. So I
4 was just wondering if I could get your opinion because you have been working in
5 the industry in Thailand for sometime now. I just want to ask you what you
6 current occupation is, where you are working in and how you are involved in e-
7 commerce.
8 Industry Expert A: I work, the company is mine. We set it up in London 5 and a half
9 years ago. Then because my family’s been in Thailand for a long time – in 28 years we
10 used Thailand as the launch pad for our Asia expansion. So we set up our company
11 here two and a half years ago. Our company is a technical consulting firm we do pretty
12 much all of BBC’s commerce. If you have bought anything like a stamp from royal mail
13 online – we did that. We ran a few charity donation sites. So in terms of mobile and
14 traditional commerce we are quite ***. The market over here is quite different. Rather
15 than going to one company for a design on for UX and one for something else, they
16 tend to just go to one company in Thailand. So one company for everything. So the
17 market is a little bit different here. But now we’re worked on everything from big
18 enterprise commerce through to little commerce – small companies that want to have a
19 go.
20 Interviewer: Ok thank you. Can you identify the three most important factors for
21 a successful web shop on mobile phones that you think is important to Thai
22 consumers?
23 Industry Expert A: Ok so if you look at the one that’s have been successful it’s the
24 market places the lazadas the shopies the 11 streeth so it seems to be promotions,
25 Thai language and its quick delivery is the one that’s quite the pain. The logistics will
26 always be a problem in Thailand but that’s not. And range of products is important.
27 Interviewer: What advantages does a mobile phone have in comparison to
28 computers for online shopping?
29 Industry Expert A: Well if you look at the consumers here they all have a mobile phone
30 – the latests ones – an iphone an android very few people own laptops these days
31 anymore so the website isn’t at least mobile first. You can kind of it won’t succeed. Its
32 why none of the big companies here have not been able to do it properly. And

93
33 obviously you know central group the mall group and so on their commerce is a
34 complete failure. Its because they can’t get simple things right. Their search functions
35 don’t work, they are not optimized for mobile phones very well, they think of it being a
36 design job rather than actually taking the uses into account. Yeah it’s a disaster.
37 Interviewer: How do web shops on mobile phones differ from ones on the
38 computer?
39 Industry Expert A: Well, they should be the same but the way you interact with them
40 are different. You are on the go vs. you want to sit and type. You are probably going to
41 need good filtering options as apposed to a very good search function. You are going
42 to need to have quite clever approach to the spatial design of the site, you have a
43 much smaller screen as you do on the computer. Which is why most ecommerce
44 shops fail here. You capture an eye less on imagery because you only have a small
45 screen to see it. If you look at Amazon for example what they have done particularly
46 well is that there is a very clear set of instructions when you get that you know its here
47 are the categories, here are the departments, here are these products, click on the
48 product you’ve got more than two images and the rest is just design information to
49 make you wan to buy. So it’s more about making a simple user journey than making
50 the best looking page. And people forget that here. But you know we are at least 15
51 years behind.
52 Interviewer: Do you believe the consumer differs between shopping on a mobile
53 phone or a computer? Does this affect the design of the web shop?
54 Industry Expert A: Yes I think when you look at how a lot of people do shopping here is
55 that its on easy to use mediums so that is Line, Instagram, Facebook who have an
56 entire mobile platform. People are beginning to use things like Lazada and shopping.
57 Actually one thing I just thought about is that the main difference is between trust.
58 People trust facebook and Instagram and Line. They trust that they can make a
59 payment through Line or a payment through the bank. They still don’t entirely trust
60 using credit cards. So webshops here need to have Linepay or Alipay or prompt pay.
61 That is one of the big ones.
62 Interviewer: So do you believe the increased use of these social media sites
63 influence consumers to shop on their smartphone instead? Thailand is
64 supposed to one of the largest consumers of social media sites in Asia.
65 Industry Expert A: Well I do agree, I think it comes down to how you market and share
66 it on facebook or line or whatever. And if it link to a shop that that’s fine. As long as that
67 shop is mobile optimized and that shop has a decent local payment gateway that
68 people can use. I don’t if you remember the last coup here when there was the curfew.
69 Are you familiar with a company called acommerce?

94
70 Interviewer: Yes I have heard of them
71 Industry Expert A: So they basically do logistics and payment platforms, sort of
72 commerce platforms really. They were quite small at the time but because of the
73 curfew people stopped going out the malls like Paragon or Central World or whatever
74 and they had to shop online. And so Acommerce had a massive increase just from the
75 people that were shopping online because they had nothing else they could do. So that
76 was basically the rise of the massive rise in the trend of e-commerce. There is an
77 article I can send it to you.
78 http://www.bbc.com/news/business-36640035
79 Interviewer: Next I’d like to ask, how you think can companies can increase the
80 usefulness of their mobile phone web shop?
81 Industry Expert A: Well this comes down to what you are trying to sell. Are you trying to
82 sell insurance, or selling traditional products, or music or is it virtual is it subscription
83 and so on. There is pretty much a set customer journey with commerce. You really
84 don’t want to mess with it too much. Where people its I think its nobody can find
85 something that is super easy so you know if you are selling make up its split by brand
86 or category filter and you know it has to be filter based not search based. This is where
87 a lot of companies make a mistake – they think that search is what people do but that
88 is not what they do at all. So that’s the most important one – so get that right and then
89 people can find you products. Make it very easy to buy. Just a simple quality buy now
90 run. You can have people who bought this have also bought and cross selling and up
91 selling options unless you have a good algorithm don’t bother. And the other thing is
92 can it be Cash on Delivery, well cash on delivery supposed for Thailand is one thing
93 people do still prefer it. So whenever we do ecommerce people want both cash on
94 delivery and traditional payment methods. So I think easy to find by using filter not
95 search. Make it very easy to buy from – nothing can get in the way. Make sure the site
96 is in English and Thai. Probably Chinses as well. Don’t get too hung up on design –
97 make sure the user experience is the first forward people have and I hate to say it
98 again but its that promotions it’s the points some sort of customer loyalty that people
99 want. People will do anything for 5% off.
100 Interviewer: How can companies make their mobile phone web shop more
101 beneficial for the consumer?
102 Industry Expert A: Its got to be convenient right. The reason you would go online and
103 not the shops is because you are on the go and you want something now. If you can’t
104 get it for three weeks then you will go get it in the shop. And Thai people do tend to
105 prefer at least the older generation to go touch the product. But if you know what you

95
106 want then online the product needs to be price competitive and convenience
107 competitive or both.
108 Interviewer: What do you think makes a consumer purchase through their mobile
109 phone rather than their computer?
110 Industry Expert A: Ease of access, everyone has a phone. People sit on the bts to get
111 to work and they just browse social media so that is the captive time, I am bored I shall
112 just do some online shopping.
113 Interviewer: How do you believe mobile commerce, as a shopping channel will
114 develop in the future?
115 Industry Expert A: I think the biggest hinges right now are the logistics networks. So
116 you got Kerry and Lalum and Alibaba spending another billion dollars on their own
117 logistics here and you got acommerce and agility here. Until logistics is improve we will
118 be behind. Another thing is payment methods. The most popular payment method is
119 Omise that is doing extremely well. And their fees are very expensive compared to the
120 UK. So we got payment gateways and not everyone that except all methods, some
121 people only take line pay or bank transfer, or mastercards. Until we have standardized
122 payment methods it will not be resolved. The lack on standardization. Options is good.
123 The rise of crypto currency and American Express. They need to get rid of cheques,
124 cash and bank transfer. They need to force them into a habit.
125 Interviewer: Do you have anything you would like to add before we end this
126 interview?
127 Industry Expert A: I don’t think so; I think we are in the infancy on commerce here. No
128 one has really cracked it. Lazada is probably one of nearest things but it is still a mess.
129 If Amazon comes here and gets logistics sorted out it will still take over. There is a long
130 way to go. Bangkok is still what the UK was 15 years ago before Amazon came out.
131 The mind set is changing because of demand apps like Lineman are only being
132 adopted now.

96
Appendix S: Consent Form – Industry Expert A

Thai Millennial Consumers’ Attitude Towards Fashion M-


Title of the project:
Commerce Adoption
Student Name: Aashna Arora
Student Email: A.ARORA1@ARTS.AC.UK
Hosting Institution: University of the Arts, London College of Fashion

I have read the Information Sheet and have had the details of the study explained to
me. My questions have been answered to my satisfaction, and I understand that I may
ask further questions at any time.

I understand I have the right to withdraw from the study at any time and to decline to
answer any particular questions.

I agree to provide information to the researcher on the understanding that my name will
not be used without my permission. (The information will be used only for this research
and publications arising from this research project.)

Agree Not Agree


I agree/do not agree to Participate in this Interview x
My name can be mentioned in this research study x
The name of the organisation I work for can be mentioned in this
x
research study
I agree that the transcript of this interview will be archived for
x
future research purposes

I agree to participate in this study under the conditions set out in the Information Sheet.

Participants Name Printed: Gareth Davies

Participants Name Signed:

Date: 20 April 2018


Appendix T: Mobile Phone Shopper Interview Coding

Key
= Codes formed
during
analysis
= Predetermined
Codes

Theme A1: Thai Millennial Characteristics


Categories Quotes Participant Line

Price “Unexpectedly nice items for a really good price” (2/48) 2 48


Conscious “and because these items are cheap…I am more 2 58-
inclined to shop through my smartphone” (2/58-59) 59
“…quickly search up on my phone to see how much it 4 9
may cost” (4/9)
“I should be able to browse products from multiple 4 42
stores at the same time” (4/42)
“…In terms of quality of product and value for money I 5 65
am more inclined to go and browse…” (5/65)
Smart “I enjoy shopping through this medium only when I find 5 11-
Shoppers styles that I really want.” (5/11-13) 13
“I spend really long scrolling through the catalogue” 4 29
(4/29)

“It is easier to compare different things” (4/18-19) 4 18-


19
Expect “Mobile sites need to display more items on the screen 6 12
Options and include more categories” (6/12)

“mobile shopping has given us more options to shop 2 49-


through and this has increased the choices I have in 50
terms of what to purchase.” (2/49-50)
“Mobile phone shopping has given us more options to 2 48-
shop through – and this has increased the choices I 51
have in terms of what I want to purchase, how I want to
purchase it and how I want to pay for it” (2/48-51)
Seek Product “I really wanted the product so for me a bank transfer 1 76-
Satisfaction payment method was acceptable…but if they have an 68
alternative or easier payment method I would certainly
prefer that” (1/76-78)
“I enjoy shopping through this medium only when I find 5 11-
styles that I really want.” (5/11-13) 13

“I use my phone to mostly browse, and make the 5 24-


purchases on my laptop – unless I am shopping 26
through Line, which forces me to make a conversation
with the retailer through the Line Messenger App.”
(5/24-26)
“Brands should inform customers that shopping a 1 95
mobile platform is as secure as using the laptop.”
(1/95)

Theme A2: Performance Expectancy


Code Quotes Participant Line
Useful “…Phone is also necessary for browsing” 1 62
(1/62)
“I see something nice that I like I can quickly 4 9
search up on my phone…” (4/9)

“…Mobile phone could do it for you 6 22


anywhere” (6/22)
Customization, Product “Retailers need to make more of an effort to 2 6-7
Recommendations customize the user experience on mobile”
(2/6-7)

“When brands include personalized 5 72


suggestions I get more excited”(5/72)
“…New product recommendations” (2/33) 2 33

Extrinsic Motivation “…Any sales or special promotions that the 1 33


brand is running” (1/33)
“Giving an incentive to download the 3 36-
application would be good – maybe a 37
promotion or free delivery on your first mobile
purchase” (3/36-37)
“Some sites offer mobile discounts, which as 4 23-
tempted me to shop on my mobile phone 24
rather than my laptop” (4/23-24)
Enhances Task “I will only use mobile phone to browse for 1 5-6
Effectiveness and products when I don’t have access to my
Productivity laptop” (1/5-6)

“I like to make the most of my time by 1 23


searching and browsing through my mobile
phone” (1/23)
“I want to quickly brose through pages and 1 83-
not spend too much time trying to complete a 84
task” (1/83-84)

“Smart phone shopping is compatible to my 1 24


lifestyle” (1/24)
“Fast paced website that is not slow and is 3 40-
easy to use” (3/40-41) 41
“I browse several brands at once” (4/18) 4 18
“Mobile sites are quite slow…I keep getting 5 29
error messages”(5/29)

“Shopping through Instagram is easier than 1 70


shopping through a brands
website…because the speed of Instagram”
(1/70)

Convenient “Access it from anywhere as I always have 2 18-


my smartphone on me” (2/18-19) 19
“A lot of these times these brands are located 2 56-
in far locations and I can’t always get to it due 57
to traffic.” (2/56-57)

“Shopping from a mobile device is more 3 6-7


convenient as you can do it from anywhere at
any time without needing Wifi” (3/6-7)
“We want to make most of the time we have 3 8-9
and complete tasks anywhere we like” (3/8-9)

“Convenience is the biggest difference 4 3-5


between shopping on a computer and
through my smartphone. It always me to shop
anywhere at anytime” (4/3-5)
“Mobile shopping is also more accessible” 4 24
(4/24)
“Shopping through my mobile phone is highly 5 4-5
convenient…because I always have my
phone on me” (5/4-5)
“The ease a convenience of being able to 5 22
shop anywhere at any time is why I shop on
my mobile phone.” (5/22)

Push Notifications, “Push notifications through apps are really 2 32


Alerts, Real time important. This is a good way to promote
Information discounts, new product recommendations”
(2/32)
“Notifications are extremely useful for the 2 21-
brand to let me know when my product is 22
being delivered, dispatched etc” (3/21-22)
Control Over “Virtual reality…feature like this will improve 2 43-
Purchases the user interface of shopping through my 44
mobile phone” (2/43-44)
“…it gives me the information of when my 5 33
order has been shipped which is extremely
helpful” (5/33)
“improving the visibility on shipments and 5 34
returns on the mobile phone will be a good
point for retailers…”(5/34)

Brand Connection “Through…notifications I can learn more 2 35


about new products rather than using
Instagram newsfeed as the only connection
with the brand” (2/35)
“Brands should have their personal app 2 41-
specific to the company. Then I can easily 42
connect with brands through one click on my
phone” (2/41-42)
“Retailers can create chants that’s can 5 41-
provide customer service from the app” (5/41- 42
42)
“Mobile purchasing has a huge advantage – 5 81-
and that is that you can connect with retailers 83
on a personal level and chat with them” (5/81-
83)

Customer Support “Retailers can create chats that’s can provide 5 41-
customer service from the app” (5/41-42) 42
“Customer support is extremely important; if I 5 52
contact them through the app they should
reply and rectify my problems as quickly as
possible” (5/53)

Theme A3: Effort Expectancy


Code Quotes Participant Line

Ease of Use “360 angle…I want to see products clearly through my 1 4


mobile”(1/4)
“I can search for more options and compare products” 1 14
(1/14)
“visual improvement...zoom into details” (1/33) 1 33
“scrolling on a computer is easier and clearer” (1/35) 1 35

“mobile versions are slow and…it takes too long to load” 1 80-
(1/80-81) 81
“User interface is quite slow, images are not clear and 2 5-6
interface is not seamless and smooth” (2/5-6)

“Easy to navigate” (2/10) 2 10


“The layout is easier and nicer” (2/10) 2 10

“A good layout is important – as it makes the shopping 2 39


experience easier. It needs to be a user-friendly layout.”
(2/39)
“It is easier to see a selection of different collection or 3 3-4
products available on a computer because it has a
wider screen.” (3/3-4)

“Easier to see customer review on products (on my 3 14


laptop)” (3/14)
“Laptop has a much larger screen making it easier to 4 14
view and scroll through products” (4/14)
“My laptop also auto fills all my information so I don’t 4 19-
have to enter it every time I want to purchase an item” 20
(4/19-20)
“Apps need to be easy to use, it needs to be seamless 4 40
so that I don’t feel the difference between being on a
laptop and mobile device” (4/40)
“Laptop…screen is bigger and easier to see” (5/18) 5 18

“The loading time needs to be improved…apps taking 5 38-


too long to load” (5/38-39) 39
One Click “All my information, usernames and passwords are 1 41
Purchases stored in the computer” (1/41)

“one click…buy now” (1/44) 1 44

“paying quicker and easier is very important”(1/86) 1 86

“retailers have to focus on their mobile sites and apps in 2 73


order to make them seamless” (2/73)
“easy to pay for products as I have all the necessary 5 4-6
apps on my phone such as banking apps and line
messenger app which is essential for online shopping in
Bangkok” (5/4-6)
Complexity “Many brands haven’t invested enough in their online 2 70-
platforms therefore it is hard to navigate, it is not simple, 72
it is not easy to use, and the user interface is poor”
(2/70-72)

Theme A4: Social Influence


Code Quotes Participants Line
Subjective Norm “A lot of my co-workers and friends shop on their 5 60-
mobile phone because it is convenient, but they 61
do face a lot of technical problems when doing
so. This has definitely made me question whether
or not I should shop using my mobile phone”
(5/60-61)
“I know people shop on their mobile 5 65-
phone…share a good experience with me….I am 66
more inclined to go and browse the same online
store” (5/65-66)
“I do not shop on my mobile phone because my 4 46-
friends do. I am not sure if my friends even shop 47
on their mobile phone” (4/46-47)

Recommendations “I have friends that shop on their mobile phone 2 47-


and have recommended it to me” (2/47-48) 48
“…I have heard good reviews from my friends – I 2 58-
am more inclined to shop through my 59
smartphone” (2/58-59)

“I have a lot of friends that shop online…they talk 3 52-


about the good prices and convenience…this has 53
increased my intention to try different apps”
(3/52-53)

Theme A5: Facilitating Conditions


Code Quotes Participants Line
Perceived “Apps are slow and key crashing” (3/31) 3 31
Control

Compatibility “…Brands don’t have a mobile app or mobile 2 26-


compatible web-shop” (2/26-27)) 27
“I think brands need to promote apps more 3 34-
frequently…I am not aware that they have an app or if 36
their website is mobile compatible.” (3/34-36)

“I have all the necessary apps on my phone such as 5 4-6


banking apps and line messenger app which is
essential for online shopping in Bangkok” (5/4-6)
“Bank transfers have become easier…now I can do it 5 12-
from my phone” (5/12-14 14

“The app should be compatible with apple pay and 5 54-


should store my details” (5/54-55) 55
“…Print out a label to return my products, I can only do 4 12-
this on my laptop” (4/12-13) 13

Theme A6: Hedonic Motivations


Code Quotes Participant Line
Enjoyment “I enjoy browsing for products on my phone during my 3 56
free time.”
“I also enjoy browsing through products when I get 4 7
bored – whenever I have spare time” (4/7)
“As long as I am not having technical issues shopping 4 50
online is fun.” (4/50)

“I enjoy shopping through this medium only when I find 5 12


styles that I really want”
“if the process of browsing on your mobile phone is 5 71
seamless and easy to use and understand – it will
automatically be enjoyable” (5/71)

Intrinsic “I like to scroll through brands instagram pages and 2 62-


Motivation catalogues. I think this is a fine way to pass my 63
time…”(2/62-63)
Intrinsic “I also once experienced the phone detected the store 3 23-
Motivation near by and it gave me a buzz that I found really 25
interesting” (3/23-25)
“When brands include personalized suggestions I get 5 72
more excited”(5/72)
Appendix U: Industry Expert Interview Coding

Theme B1: Performance Expectancy


Code Quote Line
Extrinsic “…Seems to be promotions…and its quick deliveries” 25
Motivation “Promotions, it’s the point some sort of customer loyalty that 97-
people want. People will do anything for 5% off” 98
Function “Their search functions don’t work” 34
“They think of it being a design job without taking the uses 35-
into account” 36
“You need a clever approach to spatial design of the 42-
site…you have a much smaller screen as you do on the 45
computer”
“You need a good filtering options as apposed to a very good 41
search function”
“Its about making a simple user journey rather than making 49
the best looking page”
Convenience “”You would go online…is because you are on the go and 102
want something now”
“Everyone has a phone, people sit on the BTS to get to work 108-
and they just browse social media so that is the captive time, 110
I am bored I shall just do some online shopping”
Customization “…who bought this have also bought and cross selling and 89-
up selling options unless you have a good algorithm don’t 90
bother.”

Theme B2: Facilitating Conditions


Code Quote Line
Compatibility “They are not optimized for mobile phones very well” 35
“As long as that shop is mobile optimize..” 66
Language “Make sure the site is in English and Thai. Probably 94-95
Chinese as well.”
“Thai Language…” 24
Payment “Not everyone excepts all methods, some people only take 118-
Methods line pay or bank transfer” 119
“Until we have standardized payment methods it will not be 120
resolved”
“Cash on delivery…is something Thai people still prefer” 91
“Decent payment gateway that people can use” 66

Theme B3: Effort Expectancy


Code Quote Line
Ease of “Amazon for example…has a clear set 47
Use of…categories…departments”
“Easy to use mediums so that is Line, Instagram, Facebook who 54
have an entire mobile platform”
“Its very important that people can find your products” 87
“Make it very easy to buy. Just a simple quality, buy now run” 88-
89

Theme B4: Market Situation


Code Quote Line
Thai Market “…But you know we are at least 15 years behind.” 50
“Until we don’t improve on logistics we will be behind” 115

Theme B5: Identify Thai Millennial Consumer Characteristics


Code Quote Line
Price Conscious “If you know what you want then online the product 104-
Consumers needs to be a price competitive and convenience 105
competitive”
Choice “A range of products is important” 26
Appendix V: Multiple Regression Analysis on SPSS

Adjusted R Std. Error of Durbin-


Model R R Square Square the Estimate Watson
1 .716a .512 .480 .46887 1.964
a. Predictors: (Constant), HM, FC, SI, EE, PE
b. Dependent Variable: BI

Appendix 23: Anova


Sum of Mean
Model Squares df Square F Sig.
1 Regression 17.309 5 3.462 15.746 .000b
Residual 16.488 75 .220
Total 33.797 80
a. Dependent Variable: BI
b. Predictors: (Constant), HM, FC, SI, EE, PE

Appendix 24: Coefficients


Unstandardized Standardized
Coefficients Coefficients
Model B Std. Error Beta t Sig.
1 (Constant) .881 .376 2.346 .022
PE .286 .124 .291 2.306 .024
EE .168 .093 .194 1.810 .074
SI .059 .090 .061 .647 .520
FC -.031 .085 -.033 -.363 .718
HM .259 .107 .310 2.413 .018
a. Dependent Variable: BI
Appendix W: Cronbach’s Alpha Reliability Test

Performance Expectancy

Reliability Statistics
Cronbach's Alpha Cronbach's Alpha Based on Standardized Items N of Items
.779 .779 5

Item Statistics
Mean Std. Deviation N
PE1 3.8354 .77510 79
PE2 3.7468 .83924 79
PE3 3.2278 .89083 79
PE4 3.4557 .94459 79
PE5 3.1519 1.02643 79

Inter-Item Correlation Matrix


PE1 PE2 PE3 PE4 PE5
PE1 1.000 .428 .352 .419 .402
PE2 .428 1.000 .455 .293 .313
PE3 .352 .455 1.000 .363 .565
PE4 .419 .293 .363 1.000 .549
PE5 .402 .313 .565 .549 1.000

Item-Total Statistics
Scale Mean Scale Corrected Item- Squared Cronbach's
if Item Variance if Total Multiple Alpha if Item
Deleted Item Deleted Correlation Correlation Deleted
PE1 13.5823 7.836 .529 .301 .747
PE2 13.6709 7.788 .479 .292 .761
PE3 14.1899 7.130 .591 .406 .725
PE4 13.9620 7.088 .547 .352 .740
PE5 14.2658 6.403 .631 .466 .710

Effort Expectancy

Reliability Statistics
Cronbach's Alpha Cronbach's Alpha Based on Standardized Items N of Items
.898 .903 5

Item Statistics
Mean Std. Deviation N
EE1 3.6582 1.01130 79
EE2 3.7722 .86156 79
EE3 4.0380 .79167 79
EE4 3.9873 .72490 79
EE5 3.6329 .89410 79

Inter-Item Correlation Matrix


EE1 EE2 EE3 EE4 EE5
EE1 1.000 .748 .609 .641 .583
EE2 .748 1.000 .708 .673 .589
EE3 .609 .708 1.000 .760 .581
EE4 .641 .673 .760 1.000 .626
EE5 .583 .589 .581 .626 1.000

Item-Total Statistics
Scale Corrected Squared Cronbach's
Scale Mean if Variance if Item-Total Multiple Alpha if Item
Item Deleted Item Deleted Correlation Correlation Deleted
EE1 15.4304 7.915 .751 .607 .880
EE2 15.3165 8.450 .802 .671 .864
EE3 15.0506 8.946 .768 .653 .873
EE4 15.1013 9.220 .787 .656 .872
EE5 15.4557 8.815 .677 .466 .892
Social Influence

Reliability Statistics
Cronbach's Alpha Cronbach's Alpha Based on Standardized Items N of Items
.879 .882 5

Item Statistics
Std.
Mean Deviation N
SI1 2.9241 .81291 79
SI2 2.8734 .77405 79
SI3 2.8354 .83866 79
SI4 3.3165 .92742 79
SI5 3.3924 .74106 79

Inter-Item Correlation Matrix


SI1 SI2 SI3 SI4 SI5
SI1 1.000 .759 .734 .355 .433
SI2 .759 1.000 .817 .521 .512
SI3 .734 .817 1.000 .546 .600
SI4 .355 .521 .546 1.000 .712
SI5 .433 .512 .600 .712 1.000

Item-Total Statistics
Scale Corrected Squared Cronbach's
Scale Mean if Variance if Item-Total Multiple Alpha if Item
Item Deleted Item Deleted Correlation Correlation Deleted
SI1 12.4177 7.682 .669 .626 .863
SI2 12.4684 7.406 .795 .735 .834
SI3 12.5063 6.997 .824 .739 .825
SI4 12.0253 7.384 .617 .554 .880
SI5 11.9494 7.972 .678 .574 .861
Facilitating Conditions

Reliability Statistics
Cronbach's Alpha Cronbach's Alpha Based on Standardized Items N of Items
.888 .889 5

Item Statistics
Std.
Mean Deviation N
FC1 4.0380 .79167 79
FC2 4.0380 .72400 79
FC3 3.9873 .79249 79
FC4 3.7089 .80307 79
FC5 3.9620 .74150 79

Inter-Item Correlation Matrix


FC1 FC2 FC3 FC4 FC5
FC1 1.000 .780 .696 .502 .680
FC2 .780 1.000 .649 .460 .600
FC3 .696 .649 1.000 .558 .697
FC4 .502 .460 .558 1.000 .541
FC5 .680 .600 .697 .541 1.000

Item-Total Statistics
Scale Corrected Squared Cronbach's
Scale Mean if Variance if Item-Total Multiple Alpha if Item
Item Deleted Item Deleted Correlation Correlation Deleted
FC1 15.6962 6.445 .797 .698 .848
FC2 15.6962 6.932 .739 .633 .862
FC3 15.7468 6.499 .779 .614 .852
FC4 16.0253 7.102 .591 .365 .896
FC5 15.7722 6.819 .750 .578 .859
Hedonic Motivations

Reliability Statistics
Cronbach's Alpha Cronbach's Alpha Based on Standardized Items N of Items
.918 .920 5

Item Statistics
Std.
Mean Deviation N
HM1 3.5696 .79556 79
HM2 3.4937 .91810 79
HM3 3.5190 .94544 79
HM4 3.5570 .84348 79
HM5 3.7089 .94938 79

Inter-Item Correlation Matrix


HM1 HM2 HM3 HM4 HM5
HM1 1.000 .821 .795 .667 .528
HM2 .821 1.000 .883 .783 .608
HM3 .795 .883 1.000 .774 .542
HM4 .667 .783 .774 1.000 .573
HM5 .528 .608 .542 .573 1.000

Item-Total Statistics
Scale Corrected Squared Cronbach's
Scale Mean if Variance if Item-Total Multiple Alpha if Item
Item Deleted Item Deleted Correlation Correlation Deleted
HM1 14.2785 10.280 .801 .698 .899
HM2 14.3544 9.155 .901 .843 .876
HM3 14.3291 9.172 .862 .811 .884
HM4 14.2911 10.030 .798 .659 .898
HM5 14.1392 10.352 .614 .398 .936
Behavioural Intention

Reliability Statistics
Cronbach's Alpha Cronbach's Alpha Based on Standardized Items N of Items
.825 .827 3

Item Statistics
Std.
Mean Deviation N
BI1 3.5190 .78219 79
BI2 3.4810 .71362 79
BI3 3.5063 .74890 79

Inter-Item Correlation Matrix


BI1 BI2 BI3
BI1 1.000 .581 .574
BI2 .581 1.000 .690
BI3 .574 .690 1.000

Item-Total Statistics
Scale Corrected Squared Cronbach's
Scale Mean if Variance if Item-Total Multiple Alpha if Item
Item Deleted Item Deleted Correlation Correlation Deleted
BI1 6.9873 1.808 .628 .395 .816
BI2 7.0253 1.846 .715 .527 .729
BI3 7.0000 1.769 .708 .522 .733
Appendix X: Research Ethics Form

PLEASE ENSURE THAT YOU HAVE READ THE ‘GUIDANCE FOR RESEARCH ETHICS
APPROVAL’ AND ‘CODE OF PRACTICE ON RESEARCH ETHICS’ BEFORE COMPLETING
THIS
FORM http://www.arts.ac.uk/research-ethics/
NAME: Aashna Arora

COLLEGE: London College of Fashion


IF YOUR RESEARCH INVOLVES PARTICIPANTS, PLEASE COMPLETE QUESTIONS 1 TO
9. IF
NOT,the
Will GOparticipants
TO QUESTION 10 BELOW.
be: (please tick as appropriate)

Students at the University Yes/No

Staff at the University Yes/No

How will participants be recruited and how many will be involved?


The participants will be selected according to their age, gender and experience. They will be
contacted through social media sites. The researcher aims to get 50-100 respondents for the
survey and 6 respondents for the Interviews.
What will participants be asked to do? (Explain in terms appropriate to a lay person)

Survey: The participants will be asked to answer fill out an online survey. They survey takes
about 5-10 minutes to complete. All questions will be either multiple choice options or 5 likert
scale options. The participant will not be asked to share any person information.

Interview: Participants will be asked to complete an interview via telephone where they will be
asked to answer eight questions with a possibility of further questions. This will be a relaxed
discussion. The participants name and age will be noted.
What potential risks to the interests of participants do you foresee and what steps will
you take to minimize those risks? (A participant’s interests include their physical and
psychological well- being, their commercial interests; and their rights of privacy and reputation).

The participants completing telephone interviews may not feel comfortable sharing their opinion
with someone they have never met. In order to minimize this risk, the researcher will start off by
introducing themselves and building a personal connecting. Furthermore the researcher will
treat the interview as a discussion to make the participant comfortable.
What potential risks to yourself as the researcher or research student do you foresee and
what steps will you take to minimize those risks? (e.g. does your research raise issues of
personal safety for you or others involved in the project, especially if taking place outside
working hours or off University premises)

The research does not raise any issues of personal safety. The interviews will be taken place at
the researchers home where it is quiet and the researcher can focus and record the telephone
interview easily.

Please attach a copy of proposed written consent form and information sheet to be given
to participants. If you are not obtaining written consent or supplying an information
sheet, please explain the reasons for this.

This has been included in the Appendices of the Dissertation

Does your project involve children or vulnerable adults e.g. a person with a learning
disability?

No
Will you be obtaining personal data from any of the participants?

Yes, the researcher will obtain only the name and age of the participants. For the industry
expert interviews, the company and job role will also be obtained. This will be safely stored and
disposed of once the research is complete.

How will you store and use this information during the course of your research?

The information will be stored on the researchers laptop. The age will be used in the analysis
and discussion of this research. The name of the participant will be coded. The name will only
appear on the consent form that the participant signs which will be added to the appendices of
the dissertation.

What parts of this information will be confidential?

No parts of this information will be confidential.

Will you separate personal identifiers from other (coded) personal data, and if so how will
you safeguard the key?

Yes the participants name will be coded on the transcript. The participants names will only
appear on the signed consent form.

Will personal data be irreversibly anonymised or, if you have separated the data, will the
linking code between the two databases be destroyed?

The data linking the interview transcripts and the participants name will be destroyed.

At the conclusion of your research: Which of your data sets do you intend to retain
personally for use in future research?

I intend to retain the interview transcripts for personal use in the future.

Which do you intend to archive for other researchers?

The interview transcripts will be archived for other researchers.

Which do you intend to destroy?

Consent forms will be destroyed; as that is the only place you will find the participants name
and signature.

If you intend to retain certain data sets for future use or to archive them:
How will they be stored?
How will participants be informed what data will be retained, and will their consent be
obtained for this?

The transcripts will be stored on the researchers personal computer. The participants are
informed that the transcripts will not be destroyed and their consent is obtained for this.
If you intend to destroy certain data sets at the conclusion of the research:
Explain why this is appropriate
How will you ensure that the data will be disposed of in such a way that there is no risk of
its confidentiality being compromised?
The participants name and consent forms will be disposed off. It will be deleted from the
researchers computer. This will also be removed from the bin to ensure that there is no risk of it
being compromised.
9. Will payments to participants be made?
No
10. Will any restrictions be placed on the publication of results?
No

I confirm my responsibility to deliver the project in accordance with the Code of Practice
on the Research Ethics of the University of the Arts London (the University). In signing
this form, I am also confirming that:
a.) The form is accurate to the best of my knowledge and belief.
b.) There is no potential material interest that may, or may appear to, impair the
independence and objectivity of researchers conducting this project.
c.) I undertake to conduct the project as set out in the application unless
deviation is agreed by the University and to comply with any conditions set
out in the letter sent by the relevant College Research body and/or the
University’s Research Ethics Sub-Committee.
d.) I understand and accept that the ethical propriety of this project may be
monitored by the relevant College Research body and/or the University’s
Research Ethics Sub-Committee.
Signature of Researcher:

Date: 02/05/2018
Signature of Supervisor: