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Date: 4/5/2018 Formatted: Font: (Default) +Headings (Calibri)

To: U.S. Fishing and Wildlife Service - Wildlife division Formatted: Font: +Body (Cambria)
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From: Austin Abernathy
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Subject: Chronic Wasting Disease in Deer
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Reference: Inquiry into the spreading of Chronic Wasting Disease in deer populations Formatted: Font: +Body (Cambria)

Action Required: Notifying State Residents and Advising on the spread of Chronic Wasting Disease Formatted: Font: (Default) +Headings (Calibri)

Distribution List: U.S Fishing and Wildlife Wildlife teams Formatted: Font: +Body (Cambria)
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Chronic Wasting Disease in Deer - Actions to Take
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Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) is a brain disease that is known to affect adult elk, mule deer,
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white-tailed deer, and moose. This disease causes deterioration of the brain, resulting in the tissues
and organs to turn into a spongy material. Reactions to this include starvation, loss of bodily Formatted: Font: (Default) +Headings (Calibri)

functions, extremely abnormal behavior, and ultimately death. CWD is always a fatal disease. CWD Formatted: Space Before: 4 pt, After: 6 pt
has been found in deer across areas of the United States, namely the midwest and Rocky Mountains. Formatted: Font: +Body (Cambria)
CWD has also been found in other countries such as Canada, Norway, and South Korea.

IntroductionAddressing Chronic Wasting Disease Formatted: Font: (Default) +Headings (Calibri), 14 pt,
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There is an urgent need to address the growing issue of Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD). It is
spreading throughout numerous deer populations throughout within the United States without Formatted: Font: +Body (Cambria)

having much scientific research conducted. CWD has the potential to radically change some
ecosystems and can cause all hunting activities to skid to a haltdestroy the multi-billion dollar
hunting market. Deer populations can diminish rapidly if this disease goes further without proper
research conducted and scientific experiments conducted.

Summary Formatted: Font: (Default) +Headings (Calibri), 14 pt,


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How CWD is spreadingWhy CWD should be studied
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paragraphs of the same style
CWD is spreading through deer populations around the world. Scientists do not have much
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information on the disease, including and there are many unknowns. This includes a clear-cut way
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to test for and detect CWD. There haves not been any practical live animal tests performed. As of
now, the only way to perform a completely accurate diagnosis of CWD is to examine the brain, Formatted: No bullets or numbering
tonsils, and lymph nodes of a deceased deer or elk. This current method is expensive, time Formatted: Indent: Left: 0", Don't add space between
consuming, and very tedious. Without an official test method, studying CWD has proven to be paragraphs of the same style

difficult and inefficient. Formatted: Font: +Body (Cambria)

Another issue scientists are unsure about is the impact of CWD on deer and elk population Formatted: Indent: Left: 0"
dynamics. Creating an official surveillance program is not only expensive, but would draw
resources from other wildlife management needs. However, computing modelling has suggested
that CWD could drastically reduce deer and elk populations by lowering the adult survival rate and
would destabilize long term population dynamics.

A final major unknown detail about deer infected with CWD is whether or not it can be contracted Formatted: Indent: Left: 0"
by or affect humans. The World Health Organization has reviewed all available scientific
information on CWD and concluded that there is not sufficient evidence to determine whether or
not humans can contract the disease. However, during the period of 1997-1998, three sporadic
cases of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) occured in the U.S. in young adults. CJD is a rare, Formatted: Font: +Body (Cambria), 11 pt
degenerative, and invariably fatal brain disorder. These three individuals had recently consumed
venison. While the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) did not find a certain link
between the venison consumed and CJD, it is strongly advised not to eat from infected animals. The
potential effects, if any, are largely unknown.

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● Why CWD should be studied Formatted: Indent: Left: 0"
CWD is spreading through deer populations around the world. Scientists do not have much Formatted: Font: (Default) +Headings (Calibri), 14 pt,
information on the disease and there are many unknowns. This includes a clear-cut way to test for Not Bold
and detect CWD. There has not been any practical live animal tests performed. As of now, the only Formatted: No bullets or numbering
way to perform a completely accurate diagnosis of CWD is to examine the brain, tonsils, and lymph Formatted: Font: +Body (Cambria)
nodes of a deceased deer or elk. This current method is expensive, time consuming, and very
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tedious. Without an official test method, studying CWD has proven to be difficult and inefficient.

Another issue scientists are unsure about is the impact of CWD on deer and elk population Formatted: Indent: Left: 0"
dynamics. Creating an official surveillance program is not only expensive, but would draw
resources from other wildlife management needs. However, computing modelling has suggested
that CWD could drastically reduce deer and elk populations by lowering the adult survival rate and
would destabilize long term population dynamics.

A final major unknown detail about deer infected with CWD is whether or not it can be contracted Formatted: Indent: Left: 0"
by or affect humans. The World Health Organization has reviewed all available scientific
information on CWD and concluded that there is not sufficient evidence to determine whether or
not humans can contract the disease. However, during the period of 1997-1998, three sporadic
cases of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) occured in the U.S. in young adults. CJD is a rare, Formatted: Font: +Body (Cambria), 11 pt
degenerative, and invariably fatal brain disorder. These three individuals had recently consumed
venison. While the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) did not find a certain link
between the venison consumed and CJD, it is strongly advised not to eat from infected animals. The
potential effects, if any, are largely unknown.
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Human impact on the spread of CWD Formatted: Font: (Default) +Headings (Calibri), 14 pt
Humans are thought to play a large role in the spread of Chronic Wasting Disease. This is due to the Formatted: Font: (Default) +Headings (Calibri)
following –
 Use of artificial water structures Formatted: Font: (Default) +Headings (Calibri), 12 pt
o Artificial water structures contribute to the indirect spread of CWD. They can result Formatted: List Paragraph, Bulleted + Level: 1 +
in uninfected deer drinking after CWD infected deer. The infectious agents can Aligned at: 0.25" + Indent at: 0.5"
travel through saliva, thus contaminating the whole water source. Formatted: List Paragraph, Bulleted + Level: 2 +
 Use of urine-based scents Aligned at: 0.75" + Indent at: 1"

o Urine-based scents (UBS) contribute to the direct spread of CWD. UBS causes large Formatted: Font: (Default) +Headings (Calibri), 12 pt
populations of deer to gather together in one area. If an infected deer smells UBS Formatted: List Paragraph, Bulleted + Level: 1 +
and travels to an uninfected area, the area will be contaminated. Aligned at: 0.25" + Indent at: 0.5"

 Improper transportation, handling, and disposing of deer carcasses Formatted: Font: +Body (Cambria), 11 pt
o Improperly transporting, handling, and disposing deer can lead to the direct spread Formatted: List Paragraph, Bulleted + Level: 2 +
of CWD. If an infected deer carcass is brought to an area that is uninfected, it will Aligned at: 0.75" + Indent at: 1"
ultimately cause that area to become infected. Formatted: Font: 11 pt
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● Stopping the spread of CWD Formatted: Font: 11 pt
As of now, efforts to address CWD are increasing rapidly. Several state wildlife agencies are Formatted: Font: +Body (Cambria), 11 pt
aggressively locating and testing wild elk and deer for CWD and are developing programs to
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examine hunter-harvested deer and elk. Some states are considering or adopting regulations in
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respect to the transportation of hunter-harvested deer and elk outside of known CWD areas. In fact,
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Colorado has implemented regulations that only allow boned meat, quarters (no spines or
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heads), or processed deer meat to be transported out of known CWD areas.
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Aligned at: 0.75" + Indent at: 1"
One solution for managing CWD in wild populations is to reduce the density of animals in the
infected area .This will help slow the transmission of the disease. This can be done by selective Formatted: Font: (Default) +Headings (Calibri)
harvesting of all animals suspected to have the disease in recently discovered CWD areas. CWD Formatted: Font: +Body (Cambria), 11 pt
areas must be contained for this to be effective. In an effort to contain these areas, some states have Formatted: Font: (Default) +Headings (Calibri), 14 pt,
halted intrastate movement of deer and elk. This prevents potentially infected deer from wandering Not Bold
off into clean areas that are not infected. If CWD can be contained to very specific areas, it would be Formatted: No bullets or numbering
much easier to prevent further spreading of the disease and eliminate CWD from the known areas. Formatted: Font: +Body (Cambria)
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Conclusion
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Chronic Wasting Disease is a dangerous disease that needs to be studied. It is important that efforts
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are being made to help us get a better understand of the disease. Without a proper way to diagnose
CWD, it will be very difficult in creating any following surveillance groups to watch and maintain Formatted: Font: (Default) +Headings (Calibri), 14 pt,
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the spread. Broadening our knowledge of CWD is especially important as we are unsure of the
effects the disease could have on humans. It is important that residents of CWD infected areas Formatted: Indent: Left: 0", Don't add space between
paragraphs of the same style
understand the disease and why it spreads. Educating ourselves on Chronic Wasting Disease is
important and will help prevent the future spread of the disease. Formatted: Font: Not Bold

● Notify residents of CWD infected areas about Formatted: Font: +Body (Cambria)
○ Adjusting Use of Artificial Water Structures Formatted: No bullets or numbering
As previously stated, artificial water structures help stimulate the spread of the disease. It is Formatted: Font: +Body (Cambria), Not Bold
recommended that artificial water structures are build in locations that are undesirable or
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inaccessible to deer. Water should be replaced frequently and should be kept clean of organic
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matter and particulates. Uninfected deer drinking after infected deer is thought to be one of the
main causes of the spread. Water should not be left out intentionally for deer use.

○ Limiting Use of Urine Based Scents Formatted: Indent: Left: -0.25"


Another cause of the spread is the use of Urine Based Scents (UBS). The UBS that hunters and state
residents use should be commercially produced scent-wicks that are dipped in the bottle of scent
and hung on twigs or branches. Scents should be in resealable containers that can be hung in a tree
or placed on a stake in the ground. This prevents scents from contacting the soil or surrounding
areas that could potentially be infected with CWD. It is also advised that residents eliminate the use
of UBS and switch to synthetic or food based scents. The scents create large concentrations of deer
in surround areas, when can lead to the direct transmission of the disease.

○ Properly Transporting, Handling, and Disposing of Deer Formatted: Indent: Left: -0.25"
Residents can also help prevent spreading through proper transporting, handling, and disposing of
carcasses. Residents should avoid transporting and wild deer carcasses or any deer brains, spinal
cords, or lymph tissue across counties. This assists in preventing the spread of CWD into areas that
are uninfected. When dressing deer inside of CWD infected areas it is important that residents use
utensils dedicated to field dressing, remove all deer organs, and limit contact between the deer
carcass and the ground. The disease can spread easily without proper handling of carcasses. For
proper disposal of carcasses, residents should use landfills or their regular municipal waste stream.
This prevents any other animals from coming in contact with potentially infected carcasses.

● Notify potential hunters that Formatted: Indent: Left: -0.25"


It is instructed for hunters to not shoot, handle, or consume any elk or deer that is sick or acting
abnormally. If hunters have been hunting in a known CWD-infected area, it is important that they
have their deer meat tested for CWD. Hunters must be wearing gloves when handling deer,
properly disposing deer meat, and avoiding deer feces or urine. It is also important that hunters
avoid handling or cutting through the brains or spinal cords of deer. Hunters should not eat the Formatted: Indent: Left: 0", Don't add space between
brain, spinal cord, eyes, spleen, tonsils, or lymph nodes of deer. If hunters spot a deer acting paragraphs of the same style
abnormal, it is important to notify state wildlife and health officials. There is a possibility that the Formatted: Font: (Default) +Headings (Calibri), 14 pt,
deer has CWD and will be valuable information for wildlife officials. Not Bold
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Recommendations Formatted: List Paragraph, Add space between
 Start a research group for CWD paragraphs of the same style, Bulleted + Level: 1 +
o It is very important that we understand fully under the effects that CWD will have Aligned at: 0.25" + Indent at: 0.5"

on our wildlife. We also need to know how the disease affects humans. Studying Formatted
CWD can ultimately lead to a cure, knowledge of containing the disease, and Formatted: Font: +Body (Cambria), Not Bold
whether or not humans should be afraid of it. Formatted: List Paragraph, Add space between
● paragraphs of the same style, Bulleted + Level: 2 +
○ It is very important that we understand fully under the effects that CWD will have Aligned at: 0.75" + Indent at: 1"
on our wildlife. We also need to know how the disease affects humans. Studying CWD can Formatted: Font: +Body (Cambria)
ultimately lead to a cure, knowledge of containing the disease, and whether or not humans Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.5", No bullets or
should be afraid of it. numbering
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● Get infected area residents to understand the spread of Chronic Wasting Disease Formatted: Font: +Body (Cambria), Not Bold
○ Ensuring that residents of infected areas understand CWD and how it spreads is key in
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stopping the spread of the disease. Please share with them the information about the disease and
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what they can do to help prevent spreading the disease.
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 Adjust use of artificial water structures Formatted: Font: +Body (Cambria)


o It is recommended that artificial water structures are built in locations that are Formatted: Font: +Body (Cambria), Not Bold
undesirable or inaccessible to deer. Water should be replaced frequently and should Formatted: List Paragraph, Add space between
be kept clean of organic matter and particulates. Water should not be left out paragraphs of the same style, Bulleted + Level: 1 +
intentionally for deer use. Aligned at: 0.25" + Indent at: 0.5"
Formatted: Font: +Body (Cambria), Not Bold, Not Italic
 Limit use of urine-based scents Formatted: Font: +Body (Cambria)
o The UBS that hunters and state residents use should be commercially produced
Formatted: List Paragraph, Bulleted + Level: 2 +
scent-wicks that are dipped in the bottle of scent and hung on twigs or branches. Aligned at: 0.75" + Indent at: 1"
Scents should be in sealable containers that can be hung in a tree or placed on a
Formatted: Indent: Left: 0"
stake in the ground. . For proper disposal of carcasses, residents should use landfills
Formatted: Font: +Body (Cambria), Not Bold
or their regular municipal waste stream
Formatted: List Paragraph, Add space between
paragraphs of the same style, Bulleted + Level: 1 +
 Properly transporting, handling, and disposing deer carcasses
Aligned at: 0.25" + Indent at: 0.5"
o State residents should avoid transporting any deer brains, spinal cords, or lymph
Formatted: Font: +Body (Cambria)
nodes across county lines. When dressing deer inside of CWD infected areas it is
important that residents use utensils dedicated to field dressing, remove all deer Formatted: List Paragraph, Bulleted + Level: 2 +
Aligned at: 0.75" + Indent at: 1"
organs, and limit contact between the deer carcass and the ground.
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Aligned at: 0.25" + Indent at: 0.5"
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Aligned at: 0.75" + Indent at: 1"
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References
Wagner, Nancy. “Hunting Industry Analysis.” Smallbusiness.chron.com, Houston Chronicle,
smallbusiness.chron.com/hunting-industry-analysis-71160.html

"RECOMMENDATIONS FOR REDUCING THE SPREAD OF CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE


(CWD)." Http://dnr.wi.gov. January 1, 2014. Accessed March 3, 2018.
http://dnr.wi.gov/topic/wildlifehabitat/documents/transmission.pdf.
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“Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD).” Www.cdc.gov, Center for Disease Control and
Prevention, 17 Aug. 2017, www.cdc.gov/prions/cwd/index.html Formatted: Font: +Body (Cambria)
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“Chronic Wasting Disease FAQ.” Http://Cwd-Info.org, Chronic Wasting Disease Alliance,
cwd-info.org/faq/.