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Módulo: 1 Unidad: 1 Semana:1

INGLÉS PARA NEGOCIOS IV


A COMMON LANGUAGE
SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE

Mg. LUCILA VALLEJO ROMO


ORIENTACIONES

• Lea los textos que se presentan a continuación.

• Revise los materiales y las actividades de


autoevaluación para afianzar sus conocimientos
sobre los temas en clase.

• Analice y comprenda lo que cada uno expresa.

• Amplíe la información con la Guía Didáctica.


TECHNICAL VOCABULARY

Panel of interviewers

Executive
secretary
TECHNICAL VOCABULARY

Successful candidate

Manager
TECHNICAL VOCABULARY

Client and
salesperson

Chart
TECHNICAL VOCABULARY

Candidates

Business
Plan
TECHNICAL VOCABULARY

Shortlist

Computer
TECHNICAL VOCABULARY

Sales
manager

Worker
TECHNICAL VOCABULARY

Business Trip

Money /
Banknote
TECHNICAL VOCABULARY

Businesswoman

Letters

Finance
RULES FOR PUNCTUATION

Rules for punctuation

• The general purpose of punctuation is to help clarifying the reader's


ideas.
• You have to use punctuation only when there are good reasons for its
use; it means that you have to avoid over punctuation, particularly
the indiscriminate use of commas.
• Read carefully about some standard rules, and then try to use it in the
texts you write because sometimes your handwriting is your letter of
presentation to the clients:
RULES FOR PUNCTUATION

PERIOD

1. lt goes at the end of each sentence pattern that expresses


statement or a command. You don't have to place a period
after a group of words if it's not a sentence pattern.

2. Use a period after abbreviations: Street St. Mister Mr.


RULES FOR PUNCTUATION

PERIOD

1. We use a period at the end of sentences that are statements.


A statement is a sentence that states, or tells, something.

Examples:
• I like to eat salads.
• University starts on Monday.
• The baby's name is Thomas.

2. We use a period at the end of sentences that are commands.


A command is a sentence that tells someone to do something.

Examples:
• Pick up the keys.
• Turn left at the next light.
• Answer the phone, please.
RULES FOR PUNCTUATION
PERIOD

3. We use a period at the end of sentences that are indirect questions.


An indirect question is a question that is said as a statement. It uses a period
instead of a question mark.

Examples:
I was wondering why you moved to Chiclayo.
I wondered why Jane wasn't there.
Tim asked about that bike.

4. We use periods in abbreviations.


An abbreviation is a shortened version of a word or words.

Examples:
United States of America is abbreviated U.S.A.
Mr. is the abbreviation for Mister.
Rd. is the abbreviation for road.
e.g. is the abbreviation for example.
Ave. is the abbreviation for avenue.
Blvd. is the abbreviation for boulevard.
RULES FOR PUNCTUATION

COMMA (,)

1. lt is used between two sentence patterns joined by and, but, or, for, nor,
and so unless these patterns are very short.
would like to go out with my friends, but have to work on weekend.

2. Between items in a series of single words, phrases, or clauses.

I had to look for that letter in the house, in the office, in the attic, but could not
find it.

3. In the following conventional places:

a. In dates May 13, 1992 October, 1998, graduation


b. In addresses: 2045 Larcomar Street, Miraflores City, Lima
RULES FOR PUNCTUATION

COMMA (,)

4. After the name of a state or departnent when they are mentioned


together within a sentence.
Ancash, Huaraz, is my home town.

5. In figures, to separate thousands 1,000 (or 1000) 10,000 15,500,000

6. With nouns in direct address: Look, John!


Yes, Mary, it is

7. With titles and degrees.

John Zook, Captain of the Guard

8. After the salutation in informal letters:


Dear Mother,
Dear Jorge,
RULES FOR PUNCTUATION

COMMA (,)

9. After the complementary close in letters.

Sincerely yours, Yours very truly,

10. To separate the sentences connectors therefore, consequently,


however, etc. from the rest of the clause in which they occur.

Jim likes Pete; however, don't care for him.


Jim likes Pete; I, however, don't care for him.
Jim likes Pete; I don't care for him, however.
RULES FOR PUNCTUATION

SEMICOLON ( ; )
1. Use a semicolon between sentence patterns (two main clauses) that are
closely connected idea.

a) When the two patterns are joined by a sentence connector.


The job was difficult; however, he did it well.
c) When the two patterns are joined by a conjunction (and, but, etc.), but each
sentence pattern contains considerable internal punctuation.
I have not forgotten Washington, New York, San Francisco, and Las
Vegas; nor have forgotten my trips to Chicago, Los Angeles, and
Spokane.
d) Use a semicolon to separate word groups that contain commas within them.
For officers we elected Robin Sanders, the banker, as president; Edwin
Paz, superintendent of schools, as vice president; Carlos Bums, the
well known lawyer, as secretary; and Leonel Lincoln, an officer of the
milling company, as treasurer.
RULES FOR PUNCTUATION

COLON (:)
Whereas a semicolon separates, a colon introduces or direct attention to what
is to follow.
1. A colon in used between two sentence patterns when the second
pattern, explain, restates, or amplifies the first.
They raised the tuition for one reason only: they could not operate
on the current revenue
2. A colon is used after a sentence pattern when an enumeration or an
explanation is going to follow:
There are three ways to get there: by car, by bus, or by plane.

3. A colon is used in certain conventional places:

a. After the salutation in a formal letter: Dear Mr. Jackson:

b. Between hours and minutes expressed in figures: 12:00 2:45


RULES FOR PUNCTUATION

RULES FOR CAPITALIZATION

1. The first word of a sentence should be capitalized if the quotation is


itself a complete sentence.

2. Capitalize proper names.

a. People their names and titles.

b. Geographical places and the name of the people who live in these places.
London, Londoners India, Indians

c. Languages and the names of school subjects deriving from languages.


Italian German Portuguese Japanese
RULES FOR PUNCTUATION

RULES FOR CAPITALIZATION

2. Capitalize proper names.

d. Days of the week, months of the year, and holidays, but not
generally the names of centuries and not the names of the seasons.

Sunday Christmas the fifteenth century

e. Name of structures, bridges, highways, and ships.

The Montauk Highway Rockefeller Center

f. Titles of school courses, but not the simple identification of a


course.

Speech 495 speech

Biology 111 biology


RULES FOR PUNCTUATION

RULES FOR CAPITALIZATION

g. Titles; and words showing family relationships when with proper


names, in direct address, and in direct reference without a noun
marker.

President Roosevelt Doctor Jones Aunt Mary


Good Moming, Grandfather

h. lmportant words (usually, all words except a, the, conjunctions, and


prepositions of four letters or less when not at the beginning) in titles
of books, magazines, newspapers, plays, etc.

The Denver Post


The Saturday Evening Post
RULES FOR PUNCTUATION

I. Racial, religious, and political groups.

Negroes Methodists Democrats

j. Names of historical events and documents.

The French Revolution The Constitution

k. Names of organizations.

Delta Tau Delta The Red Cross

l. Words that refer to the deity.


Jehovah God Him Who Christ His name

m. The pronoun l. I play soccer

n. Words that refer to the whole or parts of a body of land or water.


The South Pacific The Indian Ocean
RULES FOR PUNCTUATION

Read the text. lt contains twelve sentences.


Find the twelve sentences and insert initial
capitalization and end punctuation where it
corresponds. Do not add or eliminate
commas.
THE TELEPHONE MIRACLE

if you give a quick glance to the recent past you are going to take into account that
telephone has been one of the greatest inventions of our world at first, it was
used in a simple form, it means only for making and receiving calls then,
high technology has improved its use
today, new system is based on the computer, and as Internet is the center of
the modem world people connect their home computers to computerized
information centers only by using the wire telephone, and instant connections
and clearer conversations are given to us over the telephone almost everything
people do this by using telephone: to do their banking, to pay main public
services, to buy things, to send and receive documents by fax, etc.
remember people don't want to lose time by looking for a phone booth or using
coins to make a call; the life style is to do things as fast as possible so, don't
worry because you don't have to be at home or at the office to use the telephone
anymore cellular phones that have no wires are available for you as you know, a
call from a cellular phone travels along radio waves to stations located in different
places, then, the radio signal is connected to the regular phone system you will be
able to find cellular phones wherever you go, they are in different prices, sizes and
models, too some of them record images, take pictures and send them it
means that it doesn't matter if you are driving, walking, running, taking a shower or
at the beach you can receive a phone call because you can carry the cellular
phone in your pocket, in your car or wherever you want
THE TELEPHONE MIRACLE

If you give a quick glance to the recent past you are going to take into account that
telephone has been one of the greatest inventions of our world. At first, it was
used in a simple form, it means only for making and receiving calls then,
high technology has improved its use.
Today, new system is based on the computer, and as Internet is the center of the
modem world people connect their home computers to computerized
information centers. Only by using the wire telephone, and instant connections
and clearer conversations are given to us over the telephone almost everything.
People do this by using telephone: to do their banking, to pay main public
services, to buy things, to send and receive documents by fax, etc.
Remember people don't want to lose time by looking for a phone booth or using
coins to make a call; the life style is to do things as fast as possible. So, don't
worry because you don't have to be at home or at the office to use the telephone
anymore. Cellular phones that have no wires are available for you. As you know, a
call from a cellular phone travels along radio waves to stations located in different
places, then, the radio signal is connected to the regular phone system you will be
able to find cellular phones wherever you go. They are in different prices, sizes
and models, too. Some of them record images, take pictures and send them. It
means that it doesn't matter if you are driving, walking, running, taking a shower or
at the beach. You can receive a phone call because you can carry the cellular
phone in your pocket, in your car or wherever you want.
RULES FOR PUNCTUATION

TITLES
Titles in English are used before someone's name to show their rank, profession,
or maybe their marital status.
These are some titles in English:
Mr. .- lt is a title you use before a man's family name when you want to be
polite with him, even in speaking or writing.

Mrs. .- This title is used before a married woman's family name when you
are speaking or writing and you want to be polite with her.

Miss.- This title is used before a family name of the woman who is not
married when you are speaking or writing and you want to be polite with
her.

Ms. - This title is used before a woman's family name because it is not
important to say if she is married or not, or maybe when you do not know
whether she is married or not.
These titles are only used with full names or surnames.
RULES FOR PUNCTUATION

TITLES
Examples:

Good morning, Mr. Esquive!.


This is Mrs. Clara Parker.
NOT
Good moming, Mr. Edward.
This is MS. Clara.

When you are talking or writing to someone directly, you do not usually use
their full name.

Examples:
Hello, Miss Luna.

NOT
Hello, Miss Angie Luna.
RULES FOR PUNCTUATION

TITLES

Titles are not used with people you know well or who are famous.

Examples:

This is my friend Milagros Salinas.


"The Quixote" by Cervantes Saavedra

NOT

This is my friend Miss Milagros Salinas.


"The Quixote" by Mr. Cervantes Saavedra.
RULES FOR PUNCTUATION

* Match the following:


........ Tolstoi
a. This is the new manager
b. This is my husband. ........ Melissa Vargas
c. " Peace and War" by ........ Mr. Jhon Arguedas
d. Good afternoon.
........ Enrique Moncada
e. She is my friend.
........ Mrs. Fuentes
RULES FOR PUNCTUATION

* Match the following:


....c.... Tolstoi
a. This is the new manager
....e.... Melissa Vargas
b. This is my husband.
....a.... Mr. Jhon Arguedas
c. "Peace and War" by
d. Good afternoon. ....b.... Enrique Moncada

e. She is my friend. ....d.... Mrs. Fuentes


RULES FOR PUNCTUATION

Phrasal verbs
Two word verbs, phrasal verbs or multi word verbs, like give up or put
off, are used in different positions according to the kind of words they
are going to be used with. In monolingual dlctionaries they are
Usted in alphabetical order directly after the entry for their main verb.
Here we have some examples:

WITH NOUNS WITH PRONOUNS


Hang up the telephone. Hang it up.
Hang the telephone up. (Not: Hang up it,)
Put in the rice. Put it in.
Put the rice in. (Not: Put in it.)
EXERCISES
*Look at the example and rewrite the sentences in the correct form. Look up for
the phrasal verbs in your dictionary.
Example
Pick the letters from the floor and then put them the box. ( up, in )
Pick up the letters from the floor and then put them in the box.

1. Take the dishes of the dishwasher and put them the cupboard. ( out, in )
__________________________________________________________

2. Tum the lights and look the dress. ( on, for )


__________________________________________________________

3. Put the fish a small bowl with some sauce. ( in )


__________________________________________________________

4. Put your makeup during the day and take it at night. ( on , off)
__________________________________________________________

5. The company needs to take 20 new staff this month. ( on )


__________________________________________________________
EXERCISES
*Look at the example and rewrite the sentences in the correct form. Look up for
the phrasal verbs in your dictionary.
Example
Pick the letters from the floor and then put them the box. ( up, in )
Pick up the letters from the floor and then put them in the box.

1. Take the dishes of the dishwasher and put them the cupboard. ( out, in )
Take out the dishes of the dishwasher and put them in the cupboard.

2. Tum the lights and look the dress. ( on, for )


Turn on the lights and look for the dress.

3. Put the fish a small bowl with some sauce. ( in )


Put the fish in a small bowl with some sauce.

4. Put your makeup during the day and take it at night. ( on , off)
Put on your make up during the day and take it off at night.

5. The company needs to take 20 new staff this month. ( on )


The company needs to take on 20 new staff this month.
EXERCISES
*Look at the example and rewrite the sentences in the correct form. Look up for
the phrasal verbs in your dictionary.
Example
Pick the letters from the floor and then put them the box. ( up, in )
Pick up the letters from the floor and then put them in the box.

6. I want you to put your phone number in my book. ( down )


__________________________________________________________

7. She's made that old blue dress into a skirt and dressed the doll. ( over, up )
__________________________________________________________

8. Many companies go in the first year. ( under )


__________________________________________________________

9. Don't forget to put the doq.before you go to bed. (out)


__________________________________________________________

10. You have to work in these Math exercises. (out)


__________________________________________________________
EXERCISES
*Look at the example and rewrite the sentences in the correct form. Look up for
the phrasal verbs in your dictionary.
Example
Pick the letters from the floor and then put them the box. ( up, in )
Pick up the letters from the floor and then put them in the box.

6. I want you to put your phone number in my book. ( down )


I want you to put down your phone number in my book.

7. She's made that old blue dress into a skirt and dressed the doll. ( over, up )
She´s made over tha old blue dress into a skirt and dressed up the doll.

8. Many companies go in the first year. ( under )


Many companies go under in the first year.

9. Don't forget to put the doq.before you go to bed. (out)


Don´t forge to put the dog out before you go to bed.

10. You have to work in these Math exercises. (out)


You have to work out in these Math exercise.
TENSES

Tense

Present Tense Past tense Future Tense


TENSES
Present tense is further divided
into four parts

Present Tense

Simple
Present perfect
Present indefinite Present continuous Present perfect
continuous
SIMPLE PRESENT

Activities

go out

have breakfast

take a shower

have lunch

drive

run around the park

Wash clothes
SIMPLE PRESENT

Simple Present Tense: Uses


• To give your opinion
I like ice cream. I don't like spicy food.
• Everyday activities:
I work everyday.
I play football every weekend.
• To talk about schedules
The library opens at eight. It doesn't open at 7.
• To talk about daily habits (routine actions)
Sara eats a cheese for breakfast every day. She doesn't eat cereal.
• To give facts
The earth circles the sun. The moon doesn't circle the sun.
Adult human body contains 206 bones.
Light travels at almost 300,000 kilometers per second.
THE PRESENT SIMPLE TENSE
AFFIRMATIVE:

I
WORK
YOU

SHE
WORKS
HE
IT

WE
WORK
YOU
THEY
THE PRESENT SIMPLE TENSE
AFFIRMATIVE:
THE PRESENT SIMPLE TENSE
AFFIRMATIVE:
SIMPLE PRESENT

3rd person singular - spelling


1. In general, the third person singular is formed by adding an s to the base
verb.
work He works

2. Verbs ending in ss, x, ch, sh, o add “es” to the third

PERSON SINGULAR

dress She dresses


fix He fixes
watch She watches T.V.
wash She washes
go It goes!

3. Verbs ending in consonant + y, changes the y to i and add “es”


Consonant + y  i + es: cry – cries, fly – flies, terrify – terrifies.
SIMPLE PRESENT
SIMPLE PRESENT
SIMPLE PRESENT

Examples

1. push pushes
2. sneeze sneezes
3. glorify glorifies
4. annoy annoys
5. kiss kisses
6. deny denies
7. marry marries
SIMPLE PRESENT

AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCES

These sentences show something special in the third person singular (he she, it ),
but the rest of the pronouns work in the same way. Analyze the examples below:

1. My friends always study very hard. OR They always study very hard

2. My friend always studies very hard. OR She always studies very hard.

3. You often have your meetings at night.

4. Steve often has his meetings at night.


SIMPLE PRESENT

THE PRESENT SIMPLE TENSE


INTERROGATIVE: WORK
SIMPLE PRESENT

THE PRESENT SIMPLE TENSE


INTERROGATIVE: WORK
SIMPLE PRESENT

THE PRESENT SIMPLE TENSE


(Interrogative)

• DOES HE WORK AS A DOCTOR?


YES, HE DOES.

• DO YOU PLAY CARDS?


YES, I DO.

• DOES YOUR SISTER PLAY THE PIANO?


YES, SHE DOES.
SIMPLE PRESENT

YES - NO QUESTIONS

lf we talk about a yes no question we are referring to that question you can
answer with YES or No, only. This answer is known as short answer. The key to
recognize these questions is by identifying the auxiliaries DO or DOES at the
beginning of the sentences.
Examples:
1. A: Do they send faxes at night?
B: Yes, they do.
2. A: Does your boss give you instructions all the time?
B: No, she doesn't.
3. A: Do Alberto and Tony work so hard everyday?
B: Yes, they do.
4. A: Does your wife always cook for you?
B: No, she doesn't. Sometimes cook for her.
THE PRESENT SIMPLE TENSE

NEGATIVE: WORK
SIMPLE PRESENT

THE PRESENT SIMPLE TENSE


(Negative)

• HE DOESN’T WORK AS A DOCTOR, HE WORKS AS


A TAXI DRIVER.

• I DON´T PLAY CARDS, I PLAY CHESS.

• SHE DOESN’T PLAY PIANO, SHE PLAHYS GUITAR.


SIMPLE PRESENT

NEGATIVE SENTENCES

* In these kind of sentences we are going to use the auxiliaries DO and


DOES in their negative form.

DO NOT = DON'T ( contraction )

DOES NOT = DOESN'T ( contraction )

The auxiliaries help us to identify the grammatical tense.

Do is used for I, you, we, and they.


Does is used with the third person singular: He, she, it.

There is something you always have to remember: whenever you use the
auxiliaries DO or Does the verbs have to be in their infinitive form with all
the pronouns.
SIMPLE PRESENT

Examples:

1. The secretaries don't work on the computer everyday.

2. The secretary doesn't work on the computer everyday.

3. The dogs don't eat bones on Tuesday.

4. The dog doesn't eat bones on Tuesday.

lf you read the sentences carefully you will see that all the verbs are in
their infinitive form; although we have used the pronouns he, she, and
it.
FORMATION OF SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE
FORMATION OF SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE

Affirmative Interrogative Negative


I think Do I think ? I do not think.
You think Do you think? You don't think.
he, she, it Does he, she, it He, she, it doesn't
thinks think? think.
we think Do we think? We don't think.
SIMPLE PRESENT

George and Betty are good friends. They speak good


French. Betty works in a restaurant downtown and
George is a manager. The children play in the park
every weekend. George and Betty visit church
together every Sunday.
SIMPLE PRESENT

Find and correct the mistakes:


1. I work for a very good company, and I also student at Alas
Peruanas University.

2. The manager talkes with all employees once a week.

3. The manager and I has a meeting today.

4. The company’s profits looks good.

5. The technician fixes any computer problems we have.

6. Everybody working hard every day, and company morale is


high.

7. The people in this company really likes working here.


Find and correct the mistakes:
1. I work for a very good company, and I am also a student
at Alas Peruanas University.

2. The manager talks with all employees once a week.

3. The manager and I have a meeting today.

4. The technician fixes any computer problems we have.

5. Everybody works hard every day, and company morale is


high.

6. The people in this company really like working here.


SIMPLE PRESENT

a) My mother is a teacher. She (teach) English.


teaches
b) Jorge is my best friend. He (play) soccer.

c) My cat (sleep) in the kitchen

d) My friends (study) Italian at their school.


SIMPLE PRESENT

a) My mother is a teacher. She teaches English.

b) Jorge is my best friend. He plays soccer.

c) My cat sleeps in the kitchen

d) My friends study Italian at their school.


SIMPLE PRESENT

EXERCISES

*Look at the example, and rewrite the sentences using the pronouns HE or SHE.

Example: They work from Monday to Friday.


He Works from Monday to Friday.

1. They often fix my cars.

2. We usually play the violin at night.

3. You make laugh all the time.

4. They always take cara of sick people.

5. Peter and Gustavo come late almost always.


SIMPLE PRESENT

EXERCISES

*Look at the example, and rewrite the sentences using the pronouns HE or SHE.
Example: They work from Monday to Friday.
He Works from Monday to Friday.

1. They often fix my cars. He works from Monday to Friday.

2. We usually play the violin at night. She usually plays the violin at night.

3. You make laugh all the time. He makes laugh all the time.

4. They always take care of sick people. He always takes care of sick people.

5. Peter and Gustavo come late almost always. She comes late almost always.
SIMPLE PRESENT
GRACIAS