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Nonlinear

Functional Analysis

in Banach Spaces

and Banach Algebras

Fixed Point Theory

under Weak Topology

for Nonlinear Operators

and Block Operator Matrices

with Applications

Aref Jeribi

University of Sfax

Tunisia

Bilel Krichen

University of Sfax

Tunisia

MONOGRAPHS AND RESEARCH NOTES IN MATHEMATICS

Series Editors

John A. Burns

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To

my mother Sania, my father Ali,

my wife Fadoua, my children Adam and Rahma,

my brothers Sofien and Mohamed Amin,

my sister Elhem,

my mother-in-law Zineb, my father-in-law Ridha, and

all members of my extended family ....

Aref Jeribi

To

the memory of my mother Jalila,

my father Hassan,

my wife Nozha, and my children Mohamed and Zaineb.

Bilel Krichen

Contents

Preface xi

Symbol Description xv

Introduction 3

1 Fundamentals 19

1.1 Basic Tools in Banach Spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

1.1.1 Normed vector spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

1.2 Contraction Mappings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

1.2.1 The contraction mapping principle . . . . . . . . . . . 22

1.3 Weak Topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

1.3.1 Weakly compact linear operators . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

1.3.2 The Dunford–Pettis property (DP property) . . . . . 34

1.4 Measure of Weak Noncompactness (MNWC) . . . . . . . . . 35

1.5 Basic Tools in Banach Algebras . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

1.6 Elementary Fixed Point Theorems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

1.7 Positivity and Cones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

2.1 Fixed Point Theorems in DP Spaces and Weak Compactness 51

2.1.1 Schauder’s fixed point theorem in DP spaces . . . . . 52

2.1.2 Krasnosel’skii’s fixed point theorem in DP spaces . . . 53

2.2 Banach Spaces and Weak Compactness . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

2.2.1 Schauder’s fixed point theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

2.2.2 Krasnosel’skii’s fixed point theorem . . . . . . . . . . 56

2.3 Fixed Point Theorems and MNWC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

2.3.1 Sum of two weakly sequentially continuous mappings . 58

vii

viii Contents

continuous mappings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

2.4 Fixed Point Theorems for Multi-Valued Mappings . . . . . . 68

2.4.1 Multi-valued maps with a weakly sequentially closed

graph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

2.4.2 Leray–Schauder’s and Furi–Pera’s types of fixed point

theorems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

2.5 Some Leray–Schauder’s Alternatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79

2.5.1 Leray–Schauder’s alternatives involving nonlinear con-

traction mappings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

2.5.2 Leray–Schauder’s alternatives for the sum of two weakly

sequentially continuous mappings . . . . . . . . . . . . 83

2.5.3 Furi–Pera’s fixed point theorem for the sum of two

weakly sequentially continuous mappings . . . . . . . 88

3.1 Fixed Point Theorems Involving Three Operators . . . . . . 91

3.1.1 Fixed point theorems for D-Lipschitzian mappings . . 92

3.1.2 Fixed point theorems in Banach algebras satisfying the

condition (P) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102

3.1.3 Existence of positive solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105

3.1.4 Fixed point theorems in Banach algebras and MNWC 106

3.2 WC–Banach Algebras . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118

3.2.1 Fixed point theorems in WC–Banach algebras . . . . . 118

3.3 Leray–Schauder’s Alternatives in Banach Algebras Involving

Three Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

3.4 Convex-Power Condensing Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131

3.5 ws-Compact and ω-Convex-Power Condensing Maps . . . . . 137

Algebras 143

4.1 Some Variants of Schauder’s and Krasnosel’skii’s Fixed Point

Theorems for BOM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143

4.1.1 One of the diagonal entries of I − L is invertible . . . 143

4.1.2 None of the diagonal entries of I − L is invertible . . . 146

4.2 Fixed Point Theory under Weak Topology Features . . . . . 148

4.2.1 One of the diagonal entries of I − L is invertible . . . 151

4.2.2 None of the diagonal entries of I − L is invertible . . . 154

Contents ix

4.3.1 Banach algebras satisfying the condition (P) . . . . . 164

4.4 Fixed Point Results in a Regular Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170

4.5 BOM with Multi-Valued Inputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175

4.5.1 Fixed point theorems of multi-valued mappings . . . 176

Biology 187

5.1 Transport Equations in the Kinetic Theory of Gas . . . . . . 189

5.1.1 Leakage of energy at the boundary of the slab . . . . . 189

5.1.2 Case where V(x, v, ψ(x, v)) = σ(x, v)ψ(x, v) . . . . . . 191

5.1.3 Positive solutions of the boundary value problem . . 200

5.1.4 Existence of solutions for a general nonlinear boundary

value problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202

5.2 Transport Equations Arising in Growing Cell Population . . 208

5.2.1 A particular case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209

5.2.2 Regular collision and weak compactness results . . . . 214

5.2.3 The general case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224

6.1 Existence of Solutions for Hammerstein’s Integral Equation . 229

6.1.1 Hammerstein’s integral equation . . . . . . . . . . . . 229

6.1.2 A general Hammerstein’s integral equation . . . . . . 233

6.2 A Study of Some FIEs in Banach Algebras . . . . . . . . . . 237

6.2.1 The weak sequential continuity and the weak compact-

ness in FIEs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237

6.2.2 Regular maps in FIEs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243

6.2.3 ω-condensing mappings in FIEs . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254

6.2.4 ω-convex-power-condensing mappings in FIEs . . . . . 257

6.3 Existence Results for FDEs in Banach Algebras . . . . . . . 263

6.4 An Application of Leray–Schauder’s Theorem to FIEs . . . . 266

7.1 A System of Transport Equations in Lp (1 < p < ∞) . . . . 273

7.1.1 Non-dependence of σi on the density of the population 274

7.1.2 Dependence of σi on the density of the population . . 284

7.2 A Study of a Biological Coupled System in L1 . . . . . . . . 287

x Contents

7.4 A Coupled System in Banach Algebras under the Condition (P) 303

7.5 Nonlinear Equations with Unbounded Domain . . . . . . . . 316

7.6 Differential Inclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322

7.6.1 Multi-valued initial value problems IVP . . . . . . . . 322

7.6.2 Multi-valued periodic boundary value problem of first

order . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330

Bibliography 339

Index 353

Preface

This book focuses on fixed point theory for block operator matrices and its

applications to a wide range of diverse equations such as, e.g., transport equa-

tions arising in the kinetic theory of gas (see [63]), stationary nonlinear bio-

logical models (see [138]), and in particular two-dimensional boundary value

problems arising in growing cell populations and functional systems of inte-

gral equations. In all these topics, we are faced with problems such as the

loss of compactness of mappings and/or missing appropriate geometric and

topological structure of their underlying domain. Hence, it is convenient that

we focus on fixed point results under the weak topology.

As a general rule, emphasis is generally put on some generic and recent re-

sults regarding the main topic, since it would be impossible to aim for complete

coverage. Simultaneously throughout the chapters (5–7), we tried to illustrate

the diversity of the theoretical results in the different settings (Banach spaces

and Banach algebras).

In recent years, a number of excellent monographs and surveys presented

by distinguished authors about fixed point theory have appeared such as, e.g.,

[2, 3, 45, 88]. Most of the above mentioned books deal with fixed point theory

related to continuous mappings in topology and all its modern extensions.

However, it is not always possible to show that a given operator between Ba-

nach spaces is weakly continuous. Quite often, its weak sequential continuity

does not present any problem. As a first aim, this book is devoted to the study

of several extensions of Schauder’s and Krasnosel’skii’s fixed point theorems

to the class of weakly compact operators acting on Banach spaces as well as

Banach algebras, in particular on spaces satisfying the Dunford–Pettis prop-

erty. Notice that both of the above mentioned theorems can be used in order

to resolve some open problems, seen in [99] and [115]. We first give some ex-

tension forms of Schauder’s theorem by using some tools of the weak topology.

Then, we present other results which are deduced by quite simple arguments.

The notion of weak sequential continuity seems to be the most convenient one

xi

xii Preface

However, weakly sequentially continuous maps are shown to be the most con-

venient ones to use. That is why some new variants of fixed point theorems

involving the measure of weak noncompactness and based on the notion of

weak sequential continuity are presented in Banach spaces as well as Banach

algebras. Some nonlinear alternatives for the sum of two weakly sequentially

continuous mappings, and belonging to Leray–Schauder and Furi–Pera, are

also presented.

The second objective of this book is dealing with the following question:

Under which conditions will a 2 × 2 block operator matrix with nonlinear en-

tries (and acting on Banach spaces and Banach algebras) have a fixed point?

Based on the previous extension established under the weak topology setting,

we are planning to extend these results by proving that, under certain hy-

potheses associated with its nonlinear entries, the 2 × 2 block operator matrix

!

A B.B ′

L :=

C D

and convex subsets of Banach spaces or Banach algebras. This discussion is

based on the presence or absence of the invertibility of the diagonal terms of

I −L. Several fixed point theorems from Chapter 2 enable us to get new results

for a particular 2 × 2 block operator matrix involving operators such as, e.g.,

D-Lipschitzian, convex-power condensing, weakly sequentially continuous...,

acting on a Banach algebra X. A regular case is considered when X is a

commutative Banach algebra satisfying the so-called condition (P); that is,

for any sequences {xn } and {yn } in a Banach algebra X such that xn ⇀

x and yn ⇀ y, then xn .yn ⇀ x.y; here ⇀ denotes the weak convergence.

That condition is very important and plays a key role in the investigations

conducted in the proposed monograph. A new recent work is considered, when

the entries are assumed multi-valued mappings.

Many applications to a wide range of diverse equations such as, e.g., trans-

port equations arising in the kinetic theory of gas [97], stationary nonlinear

biological models, in particular the two-dimensional boundary value problem

arising in a growing cell population, a functional system of integral equations,

and differential inclusions, are presented.

We should emphasize that this book is the first one dealing with the topo-

logical fixed point theory for block operator matrices with nonlinear entries

Preface xiii

in Banach spaces and Banach algebras. This book can also be regarded as a

modest contribution to the fixed point theory in Banach spaces and Banach

algebras. Researchers, as well as graduate students in applicable analysis, will

find that this book constitutes a useful survey of the fundamental principles

of the subject. Nevertheless, the reader is assumed to be, at least, familiar

with some related sections concerning notions like the fixed point theorems

of Schauder, Krasnosel’skii, Leray–Schauder and Furi–Pera, the basic tools

of the weak topology, the concept of measures of weak noncompactness, and

the transport equations, etc. Otherwise, the reader is urged to consult the

recommended literature in order to benefit fully from this book.

There are some theorems which are based upon a number of hypotheses.

These results are very recent. We should notice that, in a future and improved

version of this book, the number of hypotheses in some theorems could be

lowered and yet lead to the same conclusions. In other words, it may be

possible to find an optimum number of hypotheses in the future.

The first author should mention that in the thesis work performed under

his direction, by his former students and present colleagues Afif Ben Amar,

Ines Feki, Bilel Krichen, Soufien Chouayekh, Rihab Moalla, Bilel Mefteh, Na-

jib Kaddachi, and Wajdi Chaker, the obtained results have helped us in writing

this monograph.

Pr. Ridha Damak whose encouragement and valuable remarks influenced the

development of this monograph. We are grateful to Dr. Bilel Mefteh, Dr.

Wajdi Chaker, Dr. Rihab Moalla, and Dr. Najib Kaddachi, who have read

and commented upon the entire manuscript. Their constructive criticism has

led to many improvements and has been a very great help. We encourage any

comments or suggestions from any researcher. These comments or suggestions

will certainly enable us to integrate some improvements for a new version of

this book.

Sfax

Symbol Description

The most frequently used notations, symbols, and abbreviations are listed

below.

R, C The fields of real and Gr(T ) The graph of T .

complex numbers, ΦT The D-function of the

respectively. mapping T .

Rn The n-dimensional real Pcl (S) The family of all closed

space. subsets of S.

inf(A) The infimum of the set A. Pcv (S) The family of all convex

sup(A) The supremum of the set A. subsets of S.

∂A The boundary of the set A Pcl,cv (S) The family of all closed

∂Ω A The boundary in Ω of the convex subsets of S.

set A. l.s.c Lower semi-continuous.

Br The ball with radius r. u.s.c Upper semi-continuous.

BX The unit ball in X. C(Ω, R) The space of real

d(x, y) The distance between x and continuous functions on Ω.

y. Cb (I) The space of real

(X, d) The metric space X. continuous and bounded

X ∗ , X ′ The dual of X. functions on I.

diam(A) The diameter of the set A, C(J, X) The Banach algebra of real

where A is a subset of a continuous functions from J

metric space X. into X.

dim(X) The dimension of the space C(J, R) The Banach algebra of real

X. continuous functions from J

kxk The norm of x. into R.

(X, k.k) The linear normed space X. C(J) The Banach algebra of real

{xn } The sequence {xn }. continuous functions from J

(P) The (P) property. into R.

BOM Block Operator Matrix. Lp The Lp space.

xv

xvi Symbol Description

linear operators from X co(.) The closed convex hull.

into Y . conv(.) The closed convex hull.

W(X) The ideal of weakly (S, Σ, µ) The measure space S.

compact linear operators on MNWC Measure of weak

X. noncompactness.

L(X, Y ) The space of linear DP Dunford–Pettis property.

operators from X into Y . FIE Functional Integral

L(X) The space of linear Equation.

operators from X into X. FDE Functional Differential

xn ⇀ x xn converges weakly to x. Equation.

xn → x xn converges strongly to x. (m) The (m) property.

M The closure of the set M . TH The streaming operator.

Mw The weak closure of the set Nf Nemytskii’s operator

M. generated by f .

co(.) The convex hull. IVP Initial Value Problem.

Part I

1

Introduction

Over the past few decades, fixed point theory has been an active area of re-

search with a wide range of applications in several fields. In fact, this theory

constitutes an harmonious mixture of analysis (pure and applied), topology,

and geometry. In particular, it has several important applications in various

fields, such as physics, engineering, game theory, and biology (in which we

are interested). Perhaps, the most well-known result in this theory is Ba-

nach’s contraction principle. More precisely, in 1922, S. Banach formulated

and proved a theorem which focused, under appropriate conditions, on the ex-

istence and uniqueness of a fixed point in a complete metric space (see [149]).

This result leads to several powerful theorems such as inverse map theorem,

Cauchy–Picard theorem for ordinary differential equations among others. In

mathematics, some fixed point theorems in infinite-dimensional spaces gener-

alize a well-known result proved by L. E. J. Brouwer [42] which states that

every continuous map A : B1 −→ B1 , where B1 is the closed unit ball in Rn

has, at least, a fixed point in B1 . These theorems have several applications.

For example, we may refer to the proof of existence theorems for differential

equations. The first result in this field was Schauder’s fixed point theorem,

proved in 1930 by J. Schauder and which asserts that every continuous and

compact mapping from a closed, convex, and bounded subset M of a Banach

space X into M has, at least, a fixed point [147].

From a mathematical point of view, many problems arising from diverse

areas of natural sciences involve the existence of solutions of nonlinear equa-

tions having the following form

Ax + Bx = x, x ∈ M,

where A, B : M −→ X are two nonlinear mappings. M. A. Krasnosel’skii was

motivated by the observation that the inversion of a perturbed differential

operator could lead to the sum of a contraction and a compact operator. That

is why, M. A. Krasnosel’skii proved in 1958 a fixed point theorem (called

3

4 Introduction

for solving equations of the above type. This theorem asserts that, if Ω is a

nonempty, closed, and convex subset of a Banach space X, and if A and B are

two mappings from Ω into X such that (i) A is compact, (ii) B is a contraction,

and (iii) AΩ + BΩ ⊂ Ω, then the sum A + B has, at least, one fixed point

in Ω. It should be noticed that this result was the first important mixed fixed

point theorem which combined both Banach’s contraction mapping principle

and Schauder’s fixed point theorem.

integro-differential equations in a way which allows us to find a fixed point

for a continuous map defined on a functional space. This type of reasoning is

equivalent to the fact of solving these equations using standard arguments, for

example, transport equations arising in the kinetic theory of gas (see [63, 97]),

stationary nonlinear biological models (see [138]), in particular boundary value

problems arising in growing cell populations and functional integral equations.

At this level, the book of D. O’Regan and M. Meehan [136], as well as the

book of R. Dautray and J. L. Lions, [63] provided for us on the one hand a

comprehensive existence theory for integral and integrodifferential equations,

and presented also some specialized topics in integral equations, hence help-

ing us to develop our applications. On the other hand, these books made a

study of nonlinear and partial differential equations, not only those of classi-

cal physics, but also those that model transport in the kinetic theory of gas.

Unfortunately, in all these topics, we are faced with problems such as the

loss of compactness of mappings and/or missing appropriate geometric and

topological structure of their underlying domain. That is why, it is convenient

that we focus on fixed point results under the weak topology setting in or-

der to investigate the problems of existence of solutions for different types

of nonlinear integral equations and nonlinear differential equations in Banach

spaces. At this level, A. Ben Amar, A. Jeribi, and M. Mnif in [32] have stud-

ied the existence of solutions for a model introduced by M. Rotenberg [142]

in 1983, which describes the growth of cells population. The stationary model

was presented in [14] on the space L1 by the following equations :

Z

∂ψ

v3 (x, v) + σ(x, v)ψ(x, v) − λψ(x, v) = r(x, v, v ′ , ψ(x, v ′ )) dv ′ in D,

∂x K

(0.1)

ψ|Di = H(ψ|D0 ). (0.2)

The model (0.1)–(0.2) can be transformed into a fixed point problem having

Introduction 5

two types of equations. The first type involves a nonlinear weakly compact

operator on L1 spaces. The second type involves two nonlinear operators de-

pending on the parameter λ, say, ψ = A1 (λ)ψ + A2 (λ)ψ, where A1 (λ) is

a weakly compact operator (i.e., it transforms bounded sets into relatively

weakly compact sets) on L1 spaces and A2 (λ) is a (strict) contraction map-

ping for a large enough Reλ. Consequently, Schauder’s (resp. Krasnosel’skii’s)

fixed point theorem cannot be used in the first (resp. second) type of equations.

This is essentially due to the loss of compactness of the operator (λ−SK )−1 B,

where

∂ψ

SK ψ(x, v) = −v3 (x, v) − σ(x, v, ψ(x, v)),

∂x

and Z b

Bψ(x, v) = r(x, v, v ′ , ψ(x, v ′ ))dv ′ .

a

More precisely, the authors of [32] gave an extension of the Schauder and

Krasnosel’skii’s fixed point theorems in Dunford–Pettis spaces to weakly com-

pact operators. Since L1 is a Dunford–Pettis space, this generalization gives

a positive answer to some open problems encountered in [115] concerning the

existence results in L1 spaces for stationary transport equations arising in

the kinetic theory of gas. The boundary conditions were assumed to be linear

because, in contrast to biological models (0.1)–(0.2), it seems that, in rar-

efied gas dynamics context, nonlinear boundary conditions have no physical

meaning (see [115] and the references therein). Due to the nonlinearity of the

boundary conditions (0.2), the generalization of Schauder and Krasnosels’kii

results established in [32] cannot be used to solve the problem (0.1)–(0.2).

Consequently, it is useful to establish some fixed point theorems on general

Banach spaces which can be applied directly for solving the biological problem

(0.1)–(0.2). For this purpose, the authors of [33] gave some fixed point theo-

rems based on the notion of weak sequential continuity and the well-known

Arino–Gautier–Penot fixed point theorem.

In this direction, several other attempts have been made in the literature

in order to prove the analogousness of the Krasnosel’skii fixed point theorem

under the weak topology. In 2003, C. S. Barroso established a version of Kras-

nosel’skii’s theorem using the weak topology of a Banach space [22]. His result

required both the weak continuity and the weak compactness of A, whereas

B had to be a linear operator satisfying the condition kB p k < 1 for some

integer p ≥ 1. The proof was based on the Schauder–Tychonoff’s fixed point

theorem and on the weak continuity of (I − B)−1 . In a more recent paper [23],

6 Introduction

the sum A + B of a weakly sequentially continuous mapping A and a weakly

sequentially continuous strict contraction B.

works consists in giving sufficient conditions which ensure the invertibility of

I − B in order to deal with the mapping (I − B)−1 A. Hence, it would be

interesting to investigate, in the weak topology setting, the case when the

mapping I − B is not injective. We notice that this case was considered in

2006 by Y. Liu and Z. Li in [124] in the strong topology setting by looking for

the multi-valued mapping (I − B)−1 A.

theory) has been investigated by using the Krasnosel’skii fixed point principle

(see, for examples, [22, 23, 48, 51, 131, 150]). However, in some applications,

the verification of the hypothesis (iii) is quite hard to achieve. As a tentative

approach to resolve such a difficulty, many attempts were made in the litera-

ture in the direction of weakening the hypothesis (iii). For example, in [48],

T. A. Burton improved the Krasnosel’skii principle by requiring, instead of

(iii), the more general following condition:

(x = Bx + Ay, y ∈ M) =⇒ x ∈ M.

condition that is, (A + B)(M) ⊂ M in order to prove the existence of a fixed

point of A+B. The measures of noncompactness have proved to be a very use-

ful and efficient tools in functional analysis, for instance in fixed point theory

and in the theory of operator equations in Banach spaces. They were also used

in ordinary and partial differential equations, integral and integrodifferential

equations, and also in the characterization of compact operators between Ba-

nach spaces. The first measure of noncompactness, denoted by α, was defined

and studied by K. Kuratowski [114] in 1930. In 1955, G. Darbo [60] used

the function α in order to prove his fixed point theorem which generalized

Schauder’s fixed point theorem to the class of set-contractive operators, that

is, operators T which satisfy α(T (A)) ≤ kα(A) with k < 1. For more details,

the reader may refer to [8].

The measure of weak noncompactness is a very important tool used in

this book. This measure was first introduced by F. S. De Blasi [64] in 1977,

who proved the analogousness of Sadovskii’s fixed point theorem for the weak

topology. As stressed in [10], in many applications, it is not always possible

Introduction 7

to show the weak continuity of the involved mappings, whereas the weak

sequential continuity does not involve any problem. So, O. Arino, S. Gautier,

and J. P. Penot proved the analogousness of Schauder’s fixed point theorem for

weakly sequentially continuous mappings. Then, several fixed point theorems

have been proved for weakly sequentially continuous mappings of Darbo’s and

Sadovskii’s types [86, 112] and also Krasnosel’skii’s type (see, for examples

[4, 22, 29, 48, 51, 104] and many other references).

nonlinear analysis, was first proved for a Banach space in the context of degree

theory. Other variations of this principle were due to F. E. Browder [43], H.

H. Schaefer [144], W. V. Petryshyn [139, 140], and A. J. B. Potter [141]. These

variations, which are based on the compactness results, are useful in terms of

providing solutions for nonlinear differential and integral equations in Banach

spaces. The major problem is the loss of compactness in L1 -spaces, which rep-

resents the convenient and natural setting of some problems. At this level, this

approach fails when we investigate some nonlinear stationary transport equa-

tions in L1 context. However, these equations can be transformed into fixed

point problems involving nonlinear weakly compact operators. Nevertheless,

an infinite-dimensional Banach space, equipped with its weak topology, does

not admit open bounded sets, which represents a major problem. For exam-

ple, we may refer to nonlinear one-dimensional stationary transport equations

arising in the kinetic theory of gas, where we must describe the interaction of

gas molecules with solid walls bounding the region where the gas follows (see

[34, 115, 116]).

pings plays an important role in the existence of solutions for operator inclu-

sions, positive solutions of elliptic equations with discontinuous non-linearities,

and periodic and boundary value problems for second-order differential inclu-

sions (see, for examples the papers, [12, 37, 137], the monograph [79] by S.

Djebali, L. Górniewicz and A. Ouahaband, and the book of L. Górniewicz

[89]).

In [135], D. O’Regan has proved a number of fixed point theorems for multi-

valued maps defined on bounded domains with weakly compact and convex

values and which are weakly contractive with a weakly sequentially closed

graph. Recently, A. Ben Amar and A. Sikorska-Nowak [36] improved and

extended these theorems to the case of weakly condensing and 1-set weakly

8 Introduction

with unbounded domains. Moreover, they didn’t assume that they went from

a point into a weakly compact and convex set. Their results may be viewed

as an extension of some relevant and recent ones (the reader may refer to

[10, 33, 35, 134, 135]).

More recently, fixed point theory has been treated in Banach algebras. It

was initiated in 1977 by R. W. Legget [122] who proved the existence theorems

for the particular following equation:

x = x0 + x.Bx, (x0 , x) ∈ X × M,

algebra X, and where B : M → X represents a compact operator. The study

of functional integral equations (FIEs) and differential equations is the main

object of research in nonlinear functional analysis. These equations occur in

physical, biological, and economic problems. Some of these equations can be

formulated in suitable Banach algebras through nonlinear operator equations:

In recent years, several authors have focused on the resolution of the equation

(0.3) and have obtained many valuable results. We can cite for examples,

J. Banas in [15, 16, 19, 20], J. Caballero, B. Lopez, and K. Sadarangani in

[50], and B. C. Dhage in [66, 70, 71, 73]. These studies were mainly based on

the convexity of the bounded domain, as well as the well-known Schauder’s

fixed point theorem, in order to guarantee the compactness of the operator

I−C −1

A B. Moreover, some properties of the operators A, B, and C (such as

completely continuous, k-set contractive, condensing) and the potential tool of

the axiomatic measures of noncompactness, were used. We should notice that

−1

if I−CA is not invertible, I−C

A could be seen as a multi-valued mapping.

This case is not discussed in the results of Chapter 3. To our knowledge, this

question is still open.

Since the weak topology is the practice setting and it is natural to inves-

tigate the problems of existence of solutions of different types of nonlinear

integral equations and nonlinear differential equations in Banach algebras, it

turns out that the above-mentioned results cannot be easily applied. One of

the difficulties arising, when dealing with such situations, is that a bounded

linear functional ϕ acting on a Banach algebra X does not necessarily satisfy

Introduction 9

Journal of Functional Analysis, 2010 [26] a new class of Banach algebra satis-

fying a certain sequential condition called here the condition (P), which can

be presented as follows:

(

For any sequences (xn )n∈N and (yn )n∈N of X such that xn ⇀ x

(P)

and yn ⇀ y, then xn .yn ⇀ x.y, where X is a Banach algebra.

Their aim was to prove some new fixed point theorems in a nonempty, closed,

and convex subset of any Banach algebra or of a Banach algebra satisfying

the condition (P) under the weak topology setting. Their conditions were

formulated in terms of a weak sequential continuity for the three nonlinear

operators A, B, and C which are involved in Eq. (0.3). Besides, no weak

continuity conditions were required in their work. The theoretical results were

applied in order to show the existence of solutions for the following nonlinear

functional integral equations in the Banach algebra C(J, X) of real continuous

functions defined on the interval [0, 1]:

" Z ! #

σ(t)

x(t) = a(t) + (T1 x)(t) q(t) + p(t, s, x(s), x(λs))ds .u

0

and

" Z ! #

σ(t)

x(t) = a(t)x(t) + (T2 x)(t) q(t) + p(t, s, x(s), x(λs))ds .u ,

0

where 0 < λ < 1, J is the interval [0, 1], and X represents any Banach algebra.

The functions a, q, σ are continuous on J; T1 , T2 , p(., ., ., .) are nonlinear

functions and u is a non-vanishing vector.

Notice that the study of weakly condensing operators and weakly 1-set-

contractive ones has been one of the main research objects in nonlinear func-

tional analysis (see, for examples, [16, 35, 122, 127]). Due to the loss of com-

pactness, continuity, and weak continuity, the authors in [27] provided some

new fixed point theorems in Banach algebras satisfying the condition (P) un-

der the weak topology setting. Their results were based on the class of weakly

condensing, weakly 1-set-contractive, weak sequential continuity, and weakly

compact via the concept of De Blasi measure of weak noncompactness [64] for

10 Introduction

like compactness, continuity, and weak continuity were required for their work.

However, the weak continuity condition for an operator is not easily satisfied.

In general, it is not even verified.

ators, we thought that it would be interesting to continue, in a subsection of

this book, some previous studies around this concept. For this purpose, we

should notice that all the domains of the single-valued operators discussed

here are not assumed to be bounded. The discussed results may be viewed

as extensions of [5, 27, 93, 96]. For example, we quote that in [96], S. Hong-

Bo gave a generalization of the famous Sadovskii’s fixed point theorem on a

bounded domain (fixed point theorem of Schauder’s type) which asserts that

if S is a nonempty closed, bounded, and convex subset of a locally convex

Hausdorff space X and if F : S −→ S is a convex-power condensing operator,

then F has, at least, one fixed point in S. In 1996, D. Guo, V. Lakshmikan-

tham, and X. Liu [93] obtained another extension of the fixed point theorem

of S. Hong-Bo. Indeed, let S be a nonempty closed, bounded, and convex

subset of a Banach space X, x0 ∈ X, let n0 be a positive integer, and also

let F : X −→ X be a convex-power condensing operator about x0 and n0 . If

f (S) ⊂ S (the condition of Schauder’s type), then F has, at least, a fixed point

in S. In [5], R. P. Agarwal, D. O’Regan, and M. A. Taoudi gave an extension

of this result on an unbounded domain of the weak topology setting. More

precisely, if we assume that F : S −→ S is weakly sequentially continuous and

convex-power condensing operator, and if F (S) is bounded, then F has, at

least, one fixed point in S. In [4], the same authors assumed that the operator

F is ws-compact instead of being weakly sequentially continuous and gave

an example in the Banach space L1 = L1 (0, 1) for a ws-compact operator

which is not weakly sequentially continuous. In fact, there is no relationship

between the two notions: the ws-compactness and the weak sequential con-

tinuity. Recently, A. Ben Amar, S. Chouayekh, and A. Jeribi [28] controlled

the topological structure of the set of fixed-points of F by proving that this

set is weakly compact.

Knowing that the product W.W ′ of two arbitrary weakly compact subsets

W , W ′ of a Banach algebra X is not necessarily weakly compact, a recent

paper by J. Banas and M. A. Taoudi [21] gave a generalization of some results

established in [26] in the case of WC–Banach algebra, that is, a Banach algebra

such that the product W.W ′ of two arbitrary weakly compact subsets W , W ′

Introduction 11

algebras and that it is probably weaker than (P). In this direction, another new

and recent work [105] was established by A. Jeribi, B. Krichen, and B. Mefteh

in the case of WC–Banach algebras, for mappings involving ω-contractions,

where ω represents the measure of weak noncompactness, and also mappings

A satisfying the following assumptions:

(

If (xn )n∈N ⊆ D(A) is a weakly convergent sequence in X, then

(H1)

(Axn )n∈N has a strongly convergent subsequence in X,

and

(

if (xn )n∈N ⊆ D(A) is a weakly convergent sequence in X, then

(H2)

(Axn )n∈N has a weakly convergent subsequence in X.

papers [1, 80, 87, 103, 150]. Regarding these two conditions, K. Latrach, M.

A. Taoudi, and A. Zeghal noticed in [119] the following facts: (i) Every ω-

contractive map satisfies (H2). (ii) A mapping satisfies (H2) if, and only if, it

maps relatively weakly compact sets into relatively weakly compact ones. (iii)

A mapping satisfies (H1) if, and only if, it maps relatively weakly compact

sets into relatively compact ones. (iv) Operators satisfying (H1) or (H2) are

not necessarily weakly continuous. (v) The condition (H2) holds true for every

bounded linear operator.

Question 1:

Are there any examples of WC–Banach algebras which do not satisfy the

condition (P)?

scribed in a first formulation, using systems of integral equations as well as

systems of partial or ordinary differential equations. The theory of block oper-

ator matrices opens up a new line of attack of these problems. In recent years,

several papers were devoted to the investigation of linear operator matrices

defined by 2 × 2 block operator matrices

!

A B

L= ,

C D

where the entries were not necessarily bounded in Banach spaces. Our book

12 Introduction

does not pretend to be complete in any respect, e.g., it does not deal with the

vast literature concerning block operator matrices in spectral theory (see, e.g.,

the monograph of A. Jeribi [100], the book of C. Tretter [151], and the papers

[11, 24, 25, 30, 55, 56, 59, 106, 107, 129]) or with the semigroup theory (see,

e.g., [84]). However, the studies of nonlinear functional integral and differential

systems in Banach spaces and Banach algebras have also been discussed for

a long time in the literature. These studies were achieved via fixed point

techniques (see, e.g., the book of B. Krichen [111] and the papers [54, 133]). It

should be noticed that these systems may be transformed into the following

fixed point problem of the 2 × 2 block operator matrix

!

A B · B′

(0.4)

C D

follows: A maps a nonempty, bounded, closed, and convex subset S of a Banach

algebra X into X, B, B ′ , and D acting from X into X and C from S into X.

One of the most important problems in the fixed point theory is related

to the existence of solution for a two-dimensional equation. That is why A.

Ben Amar, A. Jeribi, and B. Krichen have established in [31] Schauder’s and

Krasnoselskii’s fixed point theorems for the operator (0.4), when B ′ = 1,

and X is a Banach space. These authors have applied their results to a two-

dimensional mixed boundary problem in Lp × Lp , p ∈]1, +∞[. Due to the loss

of compactness of the operator C(λ − A)−1 in L1 spaces, their analysis was

carried out via the arguments of weak topology and particularly the measure

of weak noncompactness. Hence, it was useful for the authors of [103] to extend

it by establishing some new variants of the fixed point theorems for a 2 × 2

block operator matrix involving weakly compact operators. This problem can

be formulated by:

∂ ! !

−v − σ1 (µ, v, .) R12

∂µ ψ1 ψ1

∂ =λ ,

R21 −v − σ2 (µ, v, .) ψ2 ψ2

∂µ

and

ψi | = Ki ψi | , i = 1, 2,

Γ0 Γ1

Z b

where Rij ψj (µ, v) = rij (µ, v, v ′ , ψj (µ, v ′ ))dv ′ , (i, j) ∈ {(1, 2), (2, 1)}, µ ∈

a

Introduction 13

[0, 1], v, v ′ ∈ [a, b] with 0 ≤ a < b < ∞. The functions σi (., ., .) and

rij (., ., ., .) are nonlinear and λ is a complex number, Γ0 = {0} × [a, b] and

Γ1 = {1} × [a, b]. We denote by ψi | (resp. ψi | ) the restriction of ψi

Γ0 Γ1

to Γ0 (resp. Γ1 ) while Ki are nonlinear operators from a suitable function

space on Γ1 to a similar one on Γ0 . We should notice that in the case

where σi depends on the density of the population, we have assumed that

Ki ∈ L (Lp ({1} × [a, b]; vdv), Lp ({0} × [a, b]; vdv)).

Question 2:

What happens if the reproduction rules are not generated by a bounded

linear operator Ki from Lp ({1} × [a, b]; vdv) to Lp ({0} × [a, b]; vdv)? To our

knowledge, this question is not yet developed.

[108] have initiated in 2012 the study of the existence of a fixed point for the

block operator matrix (0.4), where B ′ is a continuous operator on a Banach

algebra X. The theoretical tools were based on the fact that the mapping N

which is defined on the nonempty, closed, and convex subset S of X by:

(

N : S −→ S

y −→ N (y) = z,

is completely continuous. Some other conditions using the Lipschitzian [3] and

D-Lipschitzian maps (see the paper of B. C. Dhage [66]) were also used. An

application to a coupled system of nonlinear equations defined on bounded

domains in C([0, 1], R) was considered. In [101], the same authors continued

their studies in the weak topology setting. However, the arguments used in

their applications were not valid when the operators are defined on unbounded

domains. In fact, their proofs were based on Ascoli’s theorem which is not

generally applicable. To compensate the loss of compactness encountered, only

few alternative tools were known, for example measures of noncompactness

[8, 122]. Recently, a study of integral equations in the space Cb (I), constituted

of real functions which are defined, continuous and bounded on an unbounded

interval, was developed by many authors [17, 49, 61, 62, 127].

14 Introduction

mappings such as those of Banach and Schauder have been extended to multi-

valued mappings in Banach spaces. Following the Banach contraction princi-

ple, H. Covitz and S. B. Nadler [58] introduced the concept of set-valued

contractions and established the fact that a set-valued contraction possesses a

fixed point in a complete metric space. Subsequently, many authors general-

ized Nadler’s fixed point theorem in different ways. The theory has found ap-

plications in control theory, differential inclusions, and economics (see [2, 89]).

contractive, nonexpansive multi-valued mappings. The result due to Nadler

dealing with the Banach contraction principle for contractive mappings with

closed values, was first presented. They were also interested in a nonlinear

alternative of Leray–Schauder’s type, a Furi–Pera type result, and some coin-

cidence type results which were just some of the fixed point theories presented

for maps. An extension of the Schauder–Tychonoff theorem to multi-valued

maps with a closed graph was given. In 2009, L. Gorniewicz [89] provided a

systematic presentation of results and methods dealing with the fixed point

theory of multi-valued mappings and some of its applications were given. In

selecting the material he has restricted himself to the study of topological

methods in the fixed point theory of multi-valued mappings and their ap-

plications, mainly to differential inclusions. By using some techniques of the

above works, it was useful for us to develop some theoretical results and ap-

plications for block operator matrices (BOM) with multi-valued inputs.

basic tools of nonlinear functional analysis needed in the sequel. The final

section of this chapter deals with some classic results of fixed point theory in

order to study nonlinear problems in both Banach spaces and Banach algebras.

tractive maps in the Schauder and Krasnosel’skii fixed point theorems will

lead to another one dealing with weakly sequentially continuous and weakly

compact maps. That is why we choose it as the topic of Chapter 2. First,

a generalization of the Schauder and Krasnosel’skii fixed point theorems in

Dunford–Pettis spaces is presented. Both of these two theorems can be used

to resolve some open problems encountered in [99] and [115]. It is not always

possible to show that a map is weakly continuous. However, weakly sequen-

tially continuous maps appear as being the most convenient to be used. That is

Introduction 15

why some new variants of fixed point theorems involving the measure of weak

noncompactness and based on the notion of weak sequential continuity are

given. We conclude Chapter 1 with nonlinear alternatives of Leray–Schauder

and Furi–Pera for the sum of two weakly sequentially continuous mappings.

point for the sum of two weakly sequentially continuous mappings acting on

Banach spaces, it becomes natural to consider continuation principles for these

mappings in the case of Banach algebras. Some equations occurring in phys-

ical and biological problems can be formulated into the nonlinear operator

equation Ax.Bx + Cx = x. In recent years, many authors have focused on the

resolution of this equation and have obtained several valuable results (see, for

examples, [15, 16, 19, 20, 50, 66, 70, 71, 73, 149] and the references therein).

These studies were mainly based on the convexity of the bounded domain, the

famous Schauder’s fixed point theorem [149], as well as the properties of op-

erators A, B, and C (cf. completely continuous, k-set contractive, condensing

and the potential tool of the axiomatic measures of noncompactness).

Knowing that the product of two weakly sequentially continuous functions

is not necessarily weakly sequentially continuous, we will introduce, in Chapter

3, a class of Banach algebras satisfying certain sequential conditions called here

the condition (P), that is, we will say that the Banach algebra X satisfies the

condition (P), if for any sequences {xn } and {yn } in X such that xn ⇀ x

and yn ⇀ y, then xn .yn ⇀ x.y; here ⇀ denotes the weak convergence. The

first objective of this chapter is to prove some new fixed point theorems in

a nonempty, closed, and convex subset of any Banach algebras or Banach

algebras satisfying the condition (P) under the weak topology setting. Our

main conditions are formulated in terms of a weak sequential continuity related

to the three nonlinear operators A, B, and C involved in the previous equation.

Besides, no weak continuity conditions are required for this work. A nonlinear

alternative of Leray–Schauder in Banach algebra involving the three operators

is presented. The second objective of this chapter is to extend some results

due to B. C. Dhage to the case of D-Lipschitzian maps and other results to

ws-compact operators. We conclude Chapter 3 by improving and extending

several earlier works which used the condition (P) to mappings acting on

WC–Banach algebras.

sive survey of fixed point theory for block operator matrices (BOM) acting on

16 Introduction

Banach spaces and Banach algebras and its various useful interactions with

topological structures. An important feature of this fixed point theory (which

is developed in detail in Chapter 4) is that it is based on two-dimensional vari-

ants of fixed point theorems for the 2 × 2 block operator matrix L. There are

two objectives of Chapter 4. The first one is to discuss the existence of fixed

points for the block operator matrix L by laying down some conditions on the

entries, which are generally nonlinear operators. This discussion is based on

the presence or absence of invertibility of the diagonal terms of I − L. As a

second objective, we first recall that, in Chapter 3, the fixed point theorems

have enabled us to get new results for the 2 × 2 block operator matrix (0.4)

involving operators such as, e.g., D-Lipschitzian, convex-power condensing,

weakly sequentially continuous..., acting on a Banach algebra X. A regular

case is also considered when X is a commutative Banach algebra satisfying

the condition (P).

Chapter 5 deals with some open problems chosen from [99, 115, 116, 117,

118] concerning the existence of solutions on L1 spaces for nonlinear boundary

value problems derived from three models. The first one deals with nonlinear

one-dimensional stationary transport equations arising in the kinetic theory

of gas where we must describe the interaction of gas molecules with solid

walls bounding the region where the gas follows (see [115, 116]). The second

model was introduced by J. L. Lebowitz and S. I. Rubinow [121] in 1974 for

modeling microbial populations by age and cycle length formalism. The third

model, introduced by M. Rotenberg [142] in 1983, describes the growth of

a cell population. These three models can be transformed into a fixed point

problem including two types of equations. The first type involves a nonlinear

weakly compact operator on L1 spaces. The second type deals with two non-

linear operators depending on the parameter λ, say, ψ = A1 (λ)ψ + A2 (λ)ψ,

where A1 (λ) is a weakly compact operator (i.e., it transforms bounded sets

into relatively weakly compact sets) on L1 spaces and A2 (λ) is a (strict) con-

traction mapping for a large enough Reλ. Consequently, the Schauder’s (resp.

Krasnosel’skii’s fixed point theorem) [149] cannot be used in the first (resp.

second) type of equations. This is essentially due to the lack of compactness.

variants of Hammerstein’s integral equation. Next, we prove the existence of

solutions for several nonlinear functional integral and differential equations,

in Banach algebras C([0, T ], X), where X is a Banach algebra satisfying the

Introduction 17

of fixed point theorem under the weak topology.

Chapter 7 is first devoted to the study of existence of solutions for a bound-

ary coupled system arising in growing cell populations. We start the discussion

in the product Banach space Lp × Lp for p ∈ (1, ∞). Due to the loss of com-

pactness on L1 spaces, the analysis does not cover the case where p = 1. Next,

we extend the previous results to the case where p = 1, by applying the new

variants of fixed point theorems for a 2 × 2 block operator matrix involving

weakly compact operators already presented in Chapter 4. The second pur-

pose of this chapter is to study several coupled systems of nonlinear functional

integral equations with bounded or unbounded domains in the Banach algebra

C([0, 1], X). We conclude Chapter 7 by presenting some existence results for

coupled systems of perturbed functional differential inclusions of initial and

boundary value problems.

Chapter 1

Fundamentals

The study of fixed point requires more prerequisites from the general theories

of topological notions and nonlinear operators. The aim of this chapter is to

introduce the basic concepts, notations, and elementary results that are used

throughout the book. Moreover, the results of this chapter may be found in

most standard books dealing with functional analysis and fixed point theory

(see for examples [41, 83, 128]).

1.1.1 Normed vector spaces

Let X be a vector space over K, (K = R or C), the field of real or complex

numbers. A mapping k · k : X −→ R+ is called a norm, provided that the

following conditions hold:

(i) kxk = 0 implies x = 0,

a normed vector space. Usually we simply abbreviate this by saying that X is

a normed vector space. If X is a vector space and k · k is a norm on X, then

X becomes a metric space, if we define the metric d(. , .) by:

A normed vector space which is a complete metric space, with respect to the

above-defined metric d(. , .), is called a Banach space. Thus, a closed subset

19

20 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

a closed subspace of a Banach space is also a Banach space. Now, let us try

to put together, for future reference, a small catalogue of examples of Banach

spaces.

Example 1 (K, | · |) is a simple example of a Banach space.

n o

Kn := x : x = (x1 , . . . , xn ), xi ∈ K, i = 1, . . . , n .

There are many useful norms with which we can equip Kn , such as the fol-

lowing ones:

X

n 1/p

kxkp := |xi |p , x ∈ Kn .

i=1

are k · k1 , and k · k2 .

The next example extends the just considered one to the infinite-dimensional

setting.

Example 3 Let

n o

K∞ := x : x = {xi }∞

i=1 , xi ∈ K, ; i = 1, 2, . . . .

vector space, of which certain subspaces can be equipped with norms, allowing

them to be complete.

n ∞

X o

lp := x = {xi } ∈ K∞ : |xi |p < ∞ .

i=1

Fundamentals 21

X

∞ 1/p

kxkp := |xi |p

i=1

n o

l∞ := x = {xi } ∈ K∞ : sup |xi | < ∞ ,

i

and

kxk∞ := sup{|xi |, x ∈ l∞ }.

i

∞

With respect to this sup norm, l is complete.

define C(Ω) by:

n o

C(Ω) := f : Ω −→ K such that f is continuous on Ω .

Let

kf k∞ := sup |f (x)|.

x∈Ω

ous, we deduce that the space

n o

E := f ∈ C(Ω) such that kf k∞ < ∞

is a Banach space.

Definition 1.2.1 Let (X, d) be a metric space and let T : X −→ X be a

mapping. T is called a Lipschitz mapping (or a Lipschitzian mapping) with a

Lipschitzian constant k ≥ 0 (or k-Lipschitzian), provided that

22 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

and that the product of two Lipschitz mappings (defined by a composition of

mappings) is also a Lipschitzian mapping. Thus, for a Lipschitz mapping T ,

and for all positive integers n, the mapping T n = T ◦ · · · ◦ T , the mapping T

composed with itself n times, is a Lipschitz mapping, as well.

Lipschitz mapping with a Lipschitzian constant k. T is called a nonexpansive

mapping, provided that the constant k may be chosen so that k ≤ 1.

Lipschitz mapping with a Lipschitzian constant k. T is called a contraction

mapping, (or a k-contraction mapping) provided that the Lipschitzian constant

k may be chosen so that 0 ≤ k < 1. In this case, the Lipschitzian constant k

is also called the contraction constant of T .

In this section, we will discuss the contraction mapping principle, also called

the Banach’s fixed point theorem. We will also give some extensions and ex-

amples. We have the following theorem.

be a contraction mapping with a contraction constant k. Then, T has a unique

fixed point x ∈ X. Moreover, if y ∈ X is arbitrarily chosen, then the sequence

{xn }∞

n=0 , given by: (

x0 = y,

xn = T (xn−1 ), n ≥ 1,

converges to x.

{xn }∞

n=0 given by: (

x0 = y,

xn = T (xn−1 ), n ≥ 1.

We will prove that {xn }∞n=0 is a Cauchy sequence in X. For m < n, we use

the triangle inequality and we note that

Fundamentals 23

Hence,

d(xm , xn ) ≤ k m + k m+1 + · · · + k n−1 d(x0 , x1 ),

i.e.,

km

d(xm , xn ) ≤ d(x0 , x1 ),

1−k

whenever m ≤ n. From this, we deduce that {xn }∞ n=0 is a Cauchy sequence in

X. Since X is complete, this sequence has a limit, say x ∈ X. Furthermore,

since T is continuous, we deduce that

n→∞ n→∞ n→∞

If x and z are both fixed points of T , then we get

The following is an alternate proof stated in [41]. It follows (by induction)

that, for any x ∈ X and any natural number m, we have

Now, let

δ := inf d(T (x), x).

x∈X

3

d(T (x), x) < δ

2

and hence, for any m, we have

3

d(T m+1 (x), T m (x)) ≤ k m δ.

2

Moreover,

δ ≤ d(T (T m(x)), T m (x)) = d(T m+1 (x), T m (x))

24 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

3

δ ≤ k m δ,

2

which is impossible, since k < 1. Thus, δ = 0.

Now, let us choose a minimizing sequence {xn } such that

n→∞

and hence,

which implies that {xn } is a Cauchy sequence and hence, has a limit x in X.

Now, we may conclude that

d(T (x), x) = 0

whole space X, but rather a contraction on some neighborhood of a given

point. In such a case, we have the following result:

contraction mapping such that

Fundamentals 25

Proof. While the hypotheses do not assume that T is defined on the closure B

of B, the uniform continuity of T allows us to extend T to a mapping defined

on B which is a contraction mapping having the same Lipschitzian constant

as the previous mapping. We may also note that, for x ∈ B, we have

is a complete metric space, then T has a unique fixed point in B which must

be in B, by using the above calculations. Q.E.D.

playing an important role in fixed point theory [71].

X −→ X is called D-Lipschitzian (or D-Lipschitz), if there exists a continuous

nondecreasing function ΦT : R+ −→ R+ satisfying

kT x − T yk ≤ ΦT (kx − yk)

D-function of T on X.

In the special case where ΦT (r) = kr for some k > 0, T is a Lipschitz mapping

with a Lipschitzian constant k. In particular, if k < 1, T is a contraction on

X with a contraction constant k.

converse may not be true. If ΦT is not necessarily nondecreasing and satisfies

ΦT (r) < r for r > 0, then T is called a nonlinear contraction on X.

p √

For example, take T (x) = |x|, x ∈ R and consider ΦT (r) = r, r ≥ 0.

Clearly, ΦT is continuous and nondecreasing. First notice that T is subaddi-

tive. To see this, let x, y ∈ R. Then,

p p

(T (x + y))2 = |x + y| ≤ |x| + |y| ≤ ( |x| + |y|)2 = (T (x) + T (y))2 .

26 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

chitzian with constant k. Then, for all x ∈ R we have T (x) ≤ k|x|. Hence, for

all x 6= 0 we have k ≥ √1 . Letting x go to zero, we obtain a contradiction.

|x|

Consequently, T is not Lipschitzian.

T : X −→ X is called compact, if T (S) is a compact subset of X for any

S ⊂ X. Similarly, T : X −→ X is called totally bounded, if T maps a bounded

subset of X into the relatively compact subset of X. Finally, T : X −→ X

is called a completely continuous operator, if it is a continuous and totally

bounded operator on X.

It is clear that every compact operator is totally bounded, but the converse

may not be true. Take T : R −→ R and T (x) = x. The operator T is totally

bounded but is not compact. Also take

x x>0

F (x) =

1 x = 0.

closed set H of X and each x in X\H, there exists a continuous real-valued

function Θ such that Θ = 0 throughout H, and Θ = 1 at x.

In other terms, this condition says that x and H can be separated by a con-

tinuous function.

Notice that every pseudo-metric space is completely regular. That is, a set X

equipped with a non-negative real-valued function d : X × X −→ R+ (called

a pseudo-metric) such that, for every x, y, z ∈ X,

(i) d(x, x) = 0,

together with a special point x0 ∈ X. This point then induces a pseudo-metric

on the space of functions, given by d(f, g) = |f (x0 ) − g(x0 )| for f , g ∈ F(X).

Fundamentals 27

disjoint subsets of X, with E being closed and F being compact. Then, there

exists a continuous function Θ such that Θ = 0 throughout E and Θ = 1

throughout F .

separate contraction mapping, if there exist two functions ϕ and ψ : R+ −→

R+ satisfying the following conditions:

(ii) d(T (x), T (y)) ≤ ϕ(d(x, y)), and

is also a separate contraction mapping.

ping, but not a contraction mapping.

We consider the function f : R × [0, 1] −→ [0, 1] defined by:

x4 sin2 (t)

f (t, x) = x − + .

4 4

Let X = C(R, [0, 1]) and T : X −→ X be defined by (T x)(t) = f (t, x(t)). It is

easy to verify that the operator T is well-defined. Moreover, T is a separate

contraction mapping, but not a contraction mapping.

Another example of a separate contraction mapping which is not a strict

contraction is given in [47]. Anyway, if we consider the mapping

1 1

T : 0, √ −→ 0, √

2 2

defined by:

T (x) = x − x3 ,

contraction, taking

2

r(1 − r ) r ≤ 1

4

ϕ(r) =

3r r ≥ 1,

4

28 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

separate contraction mapping, then (I − T ) is a homeomorphism of S onto

(I − T )(S).

6 y, then by using the notations of Definition 1.2.7 we have

If x =

≥ kx − yk − ϕ(kx − yk)

Let us suppose that (I − T )−1 is not continuous. Then, there exist (I − T )(y)

and (I − T )(xn ) → (I − T )(y), but there exist ε0 > 0 and (xnk )k with ky −

xnk k ≥ ε0 . Now, for each ε > 0, there exists N such that nk > N . We have

≥ ψ(kxnk − yk)

≥ ψ(ε0 ) > 0.

is continuous. This completes the proof. Q.E.D.

The mapping T : M −→ X is said to be expansive, if there exists a constant

h > 1 such that d(T x, T y) ≥ hd(x, y) ∀ x, y ∈ M .

Proposition 1.2.1 Let (X, k.k) be a linear normed space, with M ⊂ X. Let

us assume that the mapping T : M −→ X is expansive with a constant h > 1.

Then, the inverse of the mapping F := I − T : M −→ (I − T )(M ) exists, and

we have

1

kF −1 (x) − F −1 (y)k ≤ kx − yk, x, y ∈ F (M ).

h−1

Fundamentals 29

exists. Now by taking x, y ∈ F (M ), and by using Eq. (1.1), we have the

following estimate:

1

kF −1 (x) − F −1 (y)k ≤ kx − yk.

h−1

Q.E.D.

The mapping T : M −→ X is said to be semi-expansive, if there exists Φ :

X × X −→ R+ with d(T (x), T (y)) ≥ Φ(x, y) ∀x, y ∈ M and satisfying the

following conditions:

Definition 1.3.1 A topological vector space is a vector space X over the field

K such that the space is a Hausdorff topological space, and the operations

+ : X × X −→ X and · : K × X −→ X are continuous.

Let (X, k.k) be a Banach space and let τ be the family of semi-norms

weak topology. One may call subsets of a topological vector space weakly

closed (respectively, weakly compact, etc.) if they are closed (respectively,

compact, etc.) with respect to the weak topology. In practical situations we

often face the problem of type (partial differential equation) in the weak topol-

ogy setting. All results for a Hausdorff locally convex topology induced by a

30 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

separating vector space of linear functionals hold for the weak topology of a

normed space X. In particular :

element of X, then xn ⇀ x if, and only if, ϕ(x) → ϕ(x) for each ϕ ∈ X ∗ .

Here, ⇀ denotes the weak convergence and → denotes the strong convergence

in X, respectively.

Theorem 1.3.1 [83, Theorem 13, p. 422] A convex subset of locally convex

linear topological X is X ∗ -closed if, and only if, it is closed.

Notation: Throughout this book, ⇀ will denote the weak convergence and

→ will denote the strong convergence in X, respectively.

continuous with respect to the weak topologies of X and Y .

to be weakly sequentially continuous on X if, for every sequence (xn )n with

xn ⇀ x, we have Axn ⇀ Ax.

said to be strongly continuous (or sometimes called weakly-strongly sequentially

continuous) on X if, for every sequence (xn )n with xn ⇀ x, we have Axn →

Ax.

space X into a normed space Y is norm-to-norm continuous if, and only if,

it is weak-to-weak continuous (i.e., weakly continuous).

Definition 1.3.5 Suppose that X and Y are Banach spaces. A linear operator

A from X into Y is weakly compact if A(B) is a relatively weakly compact

subset of Y whenever B is a bounded subset of X.

The collection of all weakly compact linear operators from X into Y is denoted

by W(X, Y ) or just W(X) if X = Y .

Fundamentals 31

Proposition 1.3.2 Every compact linear operator from a Banach space into

a Banach space is weakly compact.

space into a Banach space is bounded.

every bounded linear operator is weakly compact.

uous.

closed subspace of L(X, Y ), the Banach space of all bounded linear operators

from X into Y .

L(X, Y ) and that B ∈ L(Y, Z). If either A or B is weakly compact, then BA

is weakly compact.

ideal of X.

compact if every countable open covering of M contains a finite sub-covering.

A subset M is called relatively countably compact if the closure is countably

compact.

infinite subset of M has at least one accumulation point that belongs to M.

A subset M is called relatively limit-point compact if every infinite subset of

M has, at least, one accumulation point.

ery sequence in M has converging subsequence whose limit belongs to M. A

subset M is called relatively sequentially compact if every sequence in M has

convergent subsequence.

One can verify that all just presented notions of compactness and their relative

counterparts coincide in metrizable topologies. However there are examples of

non-metrizable topologies where some types of compactness are equivalent.

32 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

The most known one is the weak topology of Banach spaces. One of the

advantages of this special locally convex topology is the fact that if a set M is

weakly compact, then every weakly sequentially continuous map A : M −→

X is weakly continuous. This is an immediate consequence of the fact that

weak sequential compactness is equivalent to weak compactness (Eberlein–

Šmulian’s theorem). The Eberlein–Šmulian theorem states:

2.8.6] Let X be a normed space and let M be a subset of X. Then, the follow-

ing assertions are equivalent:

(iii) The set M is relatively weakly limit point compact.

and x0 ∈ Mw (the weak closure of M), then there is a sequence in M that

converges weakly to x0 .

linear operators is easily proved by using elementary arguments and the

Eberlein–Šmulian theorem (see Theorem 1.3.3).

X into a Banach space Y . Then, the following assertions are equivalent:

(i) The operator A is weakly compact.

denotes the closed ball in X centered at 0X with radius 1.

(iii) Every bounded sequence (xn )n in X has a subsequence (xnj ), such that

the sequence (T xnj ) converges weakly.

Theorem 1.3.4 (S. Mazur, 1933)[128, Theorem 2.5.16] The closure and the

weak closure of a convex subset of a normed space are the same. In particular,

a convex subset of a normed space is closed if, and only if, it is weakly closed.

Fundamentals 33

found in the book by N. Dunford and J. T. Schwartz [83, p. 434].

Theorem 1.3.5 The closed convex hull of a weakly compact subset of a Ba-

nach space is itself weakly compact.

The following two theorems will be important in the Part II of this book. For

a proof, the reader can also see the book by N. Dunford and J. T. Schwartz

[83, p. 434].

Theorem 1.3.6 If {f (.)} is a family of functions in L1 (S, Σ, µ) which is

weakly sequentially compact, then the family {|f (.)|} is also weakly sequentially

compact.

Theorem 1.3.7 Let (S, Σ, µ) be a positive measure space. If a set K in

L1 (S, Σ, µ) is weakly sequentially compact, then

Z

lim f (s)µ(ds) = 0

µ(E)→0 E

for a bounded set K to be weakly sequentially compact.

Let us recall Dunford’s theorem, which we will state for convenience.

Theorem 1.3.8 (Dunford) Let (Ω, Σ, µ) be a finite measure space and let X

be a Banach space such that both X and X ∗ have the Radon–Nikodym property.

A subset K of L1 (Ω, X) is relatively weakly compact if, and only if,

(i) K is bounded,

R

(iii) for each B ∈ Σ, the set { B f dµ, such that f ∈ K} is relatively weakly

compact.

The Arzelà–Ascoli theorem (see [153]) plays a crucial role in the proof of

existence of solutions for functional integral equations.

Theorem 1.3.9 (Arzelà–Ascoli’s theorem) Let (X, d) be a compact space. A

subset F of the vector space of all real, continuous functions on X, C(X) is

relatively compact if, and only if, F is:

(i) Equibounded: there is some L > 0 such that |ϕ(x)| ≤ L for all x ∈ X and

all ϕ ∈ F, and

(ii) Equicontinuous: for every ε > 0 there is a δ > 0 such that |ϕ(x)−ϕ(y)| < ε

for all ϕ ∈ F whenever |x − y| < δ, and x, y ∈ X.

34 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

As properties for linear operators, both weak compactness and complete con-

tinuity lie between compactness and boundedness, which suggests that the

two properties might be related. In general, none of them implies the other.

However, it does happen that some common Banach spaces have the property

that every weakly compact linear operator whose domain is that space is com-

pletely continuous. This property has been given a name by Grothendieck in

honor of N. Dunford and B. J. Pettis, who proved in 1940, that L1 (S, Σ, λ) has

the property when λ is the Lebesgue measure on the σ-algebra Σ of Lebesgue

measurable subsets of finite or infinite interval S in Rn , where n is a positive

integer.

Definition 1.3.7 [91] A Banach space X has the Dunford–Pettis property (in

short DP property) if, for every Banach space Y , each weakly compact linear

operator from X into Y maps weakly compact sets in X to norm compact sets

in Y .

The space L1 (S, Σ, λ), where (S, Σ, λ) is a finite measure space has the

Dunford–Pettis property. This DP property is also valid for the space C(K),

where K is a compact Hausdorff space. For further examples, we may refer

to [78] or [83], p. 494, 479, 508, and 511. Note that the DP property is not

preserved under conjugation. However, if X is a Banach space whose dual

has the DP property, then X has the DP property (see, e.g., [91]). For more

information, we refer to the paper of J. Diestel [78] which contains a survey of

the Dunford–Pettis property and related topics. The following theorem gives

a characterization of the Dunford–Pettis property [128, Theorem 3.5.18].

are equivalent :

(ii) For every sequence (xn )n in X converging weakly to 0, and every (ϕn )n

in X ∗ converging weakly to 0, the sequence (ϕn (xn ))n converges to 0.

(iii) For every sequence (xn )n in X converging weakly to some x and every

(ϕn )n in X ∗ converging weakly to some ϕ, the sequence (ϕn (xn ))n converges

to ϕ(x).

spaces is:

Fundamentals 35

property, and A ∈ W(X). Then, A2 is a compact operator.

compact linear operator on X. Then, A is strongly continuous.

Ax in X. Since X is a Dunford–Pettis space and A is weakly compact, then

the sequence (Axn )n has a convergent subsequence to Ax, say (Axρ(n) )n . We

claim that Axn → Ax in X. Suppose that this is not the case; then we can

find ε0 > 0 and a subsequence (Axρ1 (n) )n such that kAxρ1 (n) − Axk > ε0 ,

for any n ∈ N. But xρ1 (n) ⇀ x in X, so Axρ1 (n) ⇀ Ax in X. Since X is a

Dunford–Pettis space and A is weakly compact, then the sequence (Axρ1 (n) )n

has a convergent subsequence to Ax in X, say (Axρ1 (ρ2 (n)) )n . Then for ε0 ,

there exist n2 ∈ N such that for n ≥ n2 , kAxρ1 (ρ2 (n)) − Axk ≤ ε0 which is a

contradiction. This proves the claim and completes the proof. Q.E.D.

Throughout this section, X denotes a Banach space. For any r > 0, Br denotes

the closed ball in X centered at 0X with radius r, and BX denotes the closed

ball in X centered at 0X with radius 1. ΩX is the collection of all nonempty

bounded subsets of X, and Kw is the subset of ΩX consisting of all weakly

compact subsets of X. Recall that the notion of the measure of weak noncom-

pactness was introduced by De Blasi [64]; it is the map ω : ΩX −→ [0, +∞)

defined in the following way:

ω(M) = inf r > 0 : there exists K ∈ Kw such that M ⊂ K + Br ,

for all M ∈ ΩX . For more convenience, let us recall some basic properties of

ω(.) needed below (see, for example, [9, 64]) (see also [18], where an axiomatic

approach to the notion of a measure of weak noncompactness is presented).

conditions are satisfied:

36 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

(2) ω(M1 ) = 0 if, and only if, M1 w ∈ Kw , where M1 w is the weak closure of

the subset M1 .

(7) ω(M1 + M2 ) ≤ ω(M1 ) + ω(M2 ).

closed subsets of X with lim ω(Mn ) = 0, then M∞ := ∩∞n=1 Mn is nonempty

n→∞

and ω(M∞ ) = 0 i.e., M∞ is relatively weakly compact.

Remark 1.4.1 ω(BX ) ∈ {0, 1}. Indeed, it is obvious that ω(BX ) ≤ 1. Let

r > 0 be given such that there is a weakly compact K of X satisfying BX ⊂ K+

rBX . Hence, ω(BX ) ≤ rω(BX ). If ω(BX ) = 6 0, then r ≥ 1. Thus, ω(BX ) ≥ 1.

it is continuous on S and, for any weakly convergent sequence (xn )n≥0 of S,

the sequence (F xn )n≥0 has a strongly convergent subsequence in X.

reflexive, then the notions of compactness and ws-compactness are equivalent.

However, if X is not reflexive, then this equivalence does not hold.

(ii) An operator F is ws-compact if, and only if, it is continuous and maps

relatively weakly compact sets into relatively compact ones.

ws-compact. However, the converse of the previous proposition is not true in

general (even if X is reflexive). Indeed, let X = L2 (0, 1) and let F : X −→ X

be defined by: Z 1

(F x)(s) := x2 (t)dt = ||x||22 .

0

Clearly, since ∀x, y ∈ L2 (0, 1), ||F x − F y||2 ≤ ||x − y||2 ||x + y||2 , it follows

Fundamentals 37

to R, we infer that F is ws-compact. Finally, if we take the sequence defined

by:

xn (t) := cos(nπt) n ∈ N∗ ,

then by using the density of staged functions in L2 (0, 1) and the Riemann–

Lebesgue Lemma, we obtain xn ⇀ θ in L2 (0, 1). Moreover, we have:

Z 1

||F xn ||2 = (F xn )2 (t)dt

0

Z 1

= (xn )2 (t)dt

0

Z

1 1 1

= cos(2πnt)dt +

2 0 2

1

= .

2

be a:

(i) k-set-contraction with respect to the measure of weak noncompactness ω,

if F is bounded, and for any bounded subset V of S, ω(F (V )) ≤ kω(V ).

if F is a 1-set-contraction and ω(F (V )) < ω(V ), for all bounded subsets V of

S with ω(V ) > 0.

if, and only if, F is a 0-set-contraction with respect to the measure of weak

noncompactness ω. If F is a strict set-contraction, then F is condensing.

However, the converse is not true. From this, we may deduce that the strict

set-contraction is an extension of the weakly compact operator.

set-contraction:

ϕ : [0, 1] −→ [0, 1]

x −→ ϕ(x) = 1 − x

38 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

F : BX −→ BX

x −→ F (x) = ϕ(kxk)x.

let us show that

x

Let x ∈ ∂(rϕ(r)BX ). Then, x = F ϕ(r) , r 6= 1 and if r = 1, then x = 0 =

F (0). Therefore, (since X is not reflexive), we have

= rϕ(r)

= ω(rBX )ϕ(r).

that ω(rBX )ϕ(r) ≤ kω(rBX ). Hence, ϕ(r) ≤ k, which is a contradiction if we

pass to the limit as r → 0. Moreover, let B ⊂ BX such that ω(B) = d > 0,

0 < r < d, B1 = B ∩ rBX and B2 = B\rBX . Then, we have

≤ ϕ(r)ω(B)

< ω(B).

Q.E.D.

ω-contraction), if it maps bounded sets into bounded ones, and there exists a

scalar α ∈ [0, 1) such that ω(AN ) ≤ αω(N ), for all bounded subsets N ⊂ M.

Fundamentals 39

condensing with respect to the measure of weak noncompactness ω, if F is

bounded and there exist x0 ∈ S and a positive integer n0 (n0 ≥ 1) such that,

given any bounded subset V of S with ω(V ) > 0, we have

ω F (n0 ,x0 ) (V ) < ω(V ),

where

F (1,x0 ) (V ) = F (V ), and F (n0 ,x0 ) (V ) = F co {F (n0 −1,x0 ) (V ), x0 } .

Remark 1.4.5 If V is bounded and V ⊂ F (n0 ,x0 ) (V ) , then V is relatively

weakly compact. It is easy to see that a condensing operator is a convex-power

condensing operator (since n0 = 1). Therefore, the definition of the convex-

power condensing operator is the generalization of the condensing operator.

generalized Lipschitz, if there exists a function ϕ ∈ L1 ([a, b], R), such that

a.e., s ∈ [a, b] for all x, y ∈ R. The function ϕ is called the Lipschitz function

of T.

is weakly sequentially continuous and convex-power condensing with respect to

ω. If F (S) is bounded, then F has, at least, one fixed point in S.

weakly sequentially continuous map. Then, for any weakly compact subset K

of X, B(K) is weakly compact.

Proof. By using Theorem 1.3.3, it is sufficient to show that B(K) is weakly se-

quentially compact. For this purpose, let us take a bounded sequence (xn )n in

K. Since K is weakly sequentially compact, there exists a subsequence (xnk )k

of (xn )n converging weakly for some x in K. Since B is weakly sequentially

continuous, (B(xnk ))k converges weakly to Bx. Q.E.D.

The following theorem is a fundamental tool for the proofs of the existence of

solutions for several functional integral equations (see Chapters 6 and 7). A

proof of this theorem can be found in [81, Dobrakov, p. 26].

40 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

space. Let (fn )n be a bounded sequence in C(K, X), and f ∈ C(K, X). Then,

(fn )n is weakly convergent to f if, and only if, (fn (t))n is weakly convergent

to f (t) for each t ∈ K.

Definition 1.5.1 An algebra X is a vector space endowed with an inner com-

position law denoted by:

(.) : X × X −→ X

(x, y) −→ x.y,

a norm satisfying the following property, for all x, y ∈ X

kx.yk ≤ kxkkyk.

Example 6 The set of real (or complex) numbers is a Banach algebra with

a norm given by the absolute value.

space of (complex-valued) continuous functions on a locally compact (Haus-

dorff) space that vanishes at infinity. C 0 (X) is unital if, and only if, X is

compact.

Example 8 The set of all real or complex n-by-n matrices becomes a unital

Banach algebra, if we equip it with a sub-multiplicative matrix norm.

Example 9 Take the Banach space Kn with the sup-norm and define the mul-

tiplication componentwise: x.y = (x1 , ..., xn ).(y1 , ..., yn ) = (x1 y1 , ..., xn yn ).

defined on some sets (with pointwise multiplication and the sup norm) is a

unital Banach algebra.

Fundamentals 41

functions on some locally compact spaces (again with pointwise operations

and sup norm) is a Banach algebra.

space E (with functional composition as multiplication and the operator norm

as norm) is a unital Banach algebra. The set of all compact operators on E is

a closed ideal in this algebra.

tinuous functions is not necessarily weakly sequentially continuous.

Definition 1.5.2 We will say that the Banach algebra X satisfies the condi-

tion (P) if:

For any sequences {xn } and {yn } in X such that xn ⇀ x and yn ⇀ y,

(P)

then x .y ⇀ x.y.

n n

condition (P).

fying the condition (P).

then C(K, X) is also a Banach algebra satisfying the condition (P), where K

is a compact Hausdorff space.

Proof. Let {xn } and {yn } be any sequences in C(K, X), such that xn ⇀ x

and yn ⇀ y. So, for each t ∈ K, we have xn (t) ⇀ x(t) and yn (t) ⇀ y(t) (see

Theorem 1.4.1). Since X satisfies the condition (P), then

because (xn .yn )n is a bounded sequence. Moreover, this implies with Theorem

1.4.1, that

xn .yn ⇀ x.y,

which shows that the space C(K, X) verifies condition (P). Q.E.D.

fact.

42 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

algebra X satisfying the condition (P), then

n o

K.K ′ = x.y ; x ∈ K and x′ ∈ K ′

Proof. We will show that K.K ′ is weakly sequentially compact. For this, let

{xn }∞ ′ ∞ ′

n=0 be any sequence of K and let {xn }n=0 be any sequence of K . By

∞

hypothesis, there is a renamed subsequence {xn }n=0 of K such that xn ⇀

x ∈ K. Again, there is a renamed subsequence {x′n }∞ ′

n=0 of K such that

x′n ⇀ x′ ∈ K ′ . This, together with the condition (P), implies that

xn .x′n ⇀ x.x′ .

application of the Eberlein–Šmulian theorem shows that K.K ′ is weakly com-

pact. Q.E.D.

condition denoted by (m):

and kXk := sup {kxk such that x ∈ X}. In the following lemma, we will

show that Banach algebras satisfying the condition (P) verify, in a special

but important case, the condition (m) for the De Blasi’s measure of weak

noncompactness ω:

Lemma 1.5.2 For any bounded subset V of a Banach algebra X satisfying

the condition (P) and for any weakly compact subset K of X, we have

ω(V.K) ≤ ||K||ω(V ).

Proof. We may assume that ||K|| > 0. Let ε > 0 be given. From the definition

of ω, we deduce that there exists a weakly compact subset K ′ of X, such that

ε

V ⊂ K ′ + ω(V ) + BX .

||K||

Then, we have

ε

V.K ⊂ K ′ .K + ω(V ) + BX .K.

||K||

Fundamentals 43

ε

V.K ⊂ K ′ .K + ω(V ) + ||K||BX .

||K||

Now, by using Lemma 1.5.1, we have

ω(V.K) ≤ ||K||ω(V ) + ε,

ω(V.K) ≤ ||K||ω(V ).

Q.E.D.

In mathematics, a number of fixed point theorems in infinite-dimensional

spaces generalize the Brouwer fixed point theorem. They have applications,

for example, in the proof of existence theorems for differential equations. The

first result in the field was Schauder’s fixed point theorem, proved in 1930

by Juliusz Schauder. This theorem still has an enormous influence on fixed

point theory and on the theory of differential equations. Several further results

followed. Schauder’s fixed point theorem states in one version:

of a Banach space X and A is a continuous map from M to M whose image

is countably compact, then A has, at least, a fixed point.

The Tikonov (Tychonoff) fixed point theorem is applied to any locally convex

topological space X. It states :

locally convex topological space X. If A is a continuous map on M into M,

then A has, at least, a fixed point.

result in Schauder asserting the existence of a fixed point for each weakly con-

tinuous self mapping of a weakly compact, and convex subset M of a Banach

space.

44 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

ping of an r-dimensional closed simplex S into itself, then there exists an

x0 ∈ S, such that x0 = ϕ(x0 ).

The last theorem can be generalized in the following way: Let Pcl, cv (S) be the

family of all closed convex subsets of S. A point-to-set mapping x −→ Φ(x) ∈

Pcl, cv (S) of S into Pcl, cv (S) is called upper semi-continuous (in short u.s.c.)

if xn → x0 , yn ∈ Φ(xn ) and yn → y0 implying y0 ∈ Φ(x0 ). Obviously, this

condition is equivalent to saying that the graph of Φ(x) is a closed subset of

S × S, where × denotes a cartesian product. As a generalization, S. Kakutani

[109] obtained the following fixed point theorem.

to-set mapping of an r-dimensional closed simplex S into Pcl, cv (S), then there

exists an x0 ∈ S such that x0 ∈ Φ(x0 ).

Proof. Let S (n) be the n-th barycentric simplicial subdivision of S. For each

vertex xn of S (n) let us take an arbitrary point y n from Φ(xn ). Then, the

mapping xn → y n defined on all vertices of S (n) will define, if it is extended

linearly inside each simplex of S (n) , a continuous point-to-point mapping x →

ϕn (x) of S into itself. Consequently, by using Brouwer’s fixed point theorem,

there exists an xn ∈ S such that xn = ϕn (xn ). Now, if we take a subsequence

(xnv )v (v = 1, 2, ...) of (xn )n (n = 1, 2, ...) which converges to a point x0 ∈

S, then x0 is the required point. In order to prove this, let ∆n be an r-

dimensional simplex of S (n) which contains the point xn : (If xn lies on the

lower-dimensional simplex of S (n) , then ∆n is not uniquely determined. In this

case, let ∆n be any one of these simplexes). Let xn0 , xn1 , ..., xnr be the vertices

of ∆n . Then, it is clear that the sequence (xni v )v (v = 1, 2, ...) converges to x0

for i = 0, 1, ..., r, and we have

r

X

xn = λni xni

i=0

r

X

λni = 1.

i=0

Fundamentals 45

yin ∈ Φ(xni ) and

r

X

xn = ϕn (xn ) = λni yin f or n = 1, 2, ...

i=0

n′ n′

such that (yi v ) and (λi v ) (v = 1, 2, ...) converge for i = 0, 1, ..., r, and let us

′

n n′

put limv→∞ yi v = yi0 and limv→∞ λi v = λ0i for i = 0, 1, ..., r. Then, we clearly

have n r

X X

λ0i ≥ 0, λ0i = 1 and x0 = λ0i yi0 .

i=0 i=0

n′ n′ n′ n′

Since xi v → ∈

x0 , yi v Φ(xi v )

and → yi0 , for i = 0, 1, ..., r. We must have,

yi v

by using the upper semi-continuity of Φ(x), yi0 ∈ Φ(x0 ) for i = 0, 1, ..., r, and

this implies, by using the convexity of Φ(x0 ), that

r

X

x0 = λ0i yi0 ∈ Φ(x0 ).

i=0

fixed point theorem. For a proof, the reader can see [149].

of a Banach space X. If T is a completely continuous mapping from Ω into

Ω, then T has, at least, a fixed point in Ω.

convergent subsequence. A set is compact, if it is precompact and closed.

let B be a closed and convex subset of X, and let T : B −→ B be a continuous

map. Then, T has, at least, one fixed point in B if the range T (B) := {T x; x ∈

B} is precompact.

both the contraction and the Schauder’s fixed point theorems, the condition

that T maps B into itself usually constitutes the main difficulty in applications.

The central point of the Schauder fixed point theorem is the compactness of

the image T B. Quite often, one takes a bounded B and shows that T is

compact. In other cases, one simply takes a compact B (then, one has to be

very careful about the continuity of T ).

46 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

X −→ X be compact and continuous. Suppose the existence of a positive

constant M , such that

The Leray–Schauder fixed point theorem is also known as Schaefer’s fixed

point theorem. Its advantage over Schauder’s fixed point theorem for appli-

cations is that we don’t have to identify a convex and closed subset where T

maps into itself. Several problems arising from the most diverse areas of nat-

ural sciences (when modeled under the mathematical point of view) involve

the study of solutions for nonlinear equations of the form

Au + Bu = u, u ∈ M,

where M is a closed and convex subset of a Banach space X; see for example

[48, 51, 67, 68, 76]. Krasnosel’skii’s fixed point theorem appeared as a pro-

totype for solving equations of the above type. Motivated by the observation

that the inversion of a perturbed differential operator could yield the sum of

a contraction and a compact operator, M. A. Krasnosel’skii proved the next

theorem. A proof can be found in [149].

subset of a Banach space X. Suppose that A and B map M into X, and that:

(ii) A is continuous on M, and A(M) is contained in a compact subset of X,

and

Then, there exists y in M, such that

Ay + By = y.

While it is not always possible to show that a given mapping between func-

tional Banach spaces is weakly continuous, quite often its weak sequential

continuity does not create any problem. This is deduced from the fact that

the Lebesgue’s dominated convergence theorem is valid for sequences but not

for nets. A very interesting discussion (including illustrative examples) about

the different types of continuity can be found in [13]. The following version of

Schauder–Tychonoff’s theorem holds [10, Theorem 1] :

Fundamentals 47

locally convex topological vector space, and let M be a weakly compact, and

convex subset of X. Then, any weakly sequentially continuous map A : M −→

M has, at least, a fixed point.

Schauder–Tychonoff’s fixed point theorem can be applied. Now, for each

weakly closed subset E of X, A−1 (E) is sequentially closed in M , hence weakly

compact by using Eberlein–Šmulian’s theorem (Theorem 1.3.3), and A−1 (E)

is weakly closed. Hence, A is weakly continuous. Q.E.D.

An important fixed point theorem that has been commonly used in the theory

of nonlinear differential and integral equations is the following result proved

by D. W. Boyd and J. S. W. Wong in [39]. This theorem extends the contrac-

tions to nonlinear contractions, and also generalizes the Banach fixed point

principle, dating from 1922 (see for example [154]).

a nonlinear contraction. Then, A has a unique fixed point x∗ , and the sequence

(An x)n of successive iterations of A converges to x∗ for each x ∈ X.

Let X be a real Banach space with a norm k · k.

holds:

(i) X+ + X+ ⊂ X+ ,

6 {0}.

(iv) X+ =

f ≤ g if, and only if, g − f ∈ X+ , and we write f < g if g − f ∈ X+ \{0}.

48 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

a vector lattice, if for any f , g ∈ X there is sup(f, g) and inf(f, g) in X.

Especially, in a vector lattice X, there is f + := sup(f, 0), f − := inf(f, 0), and

|f | := f + + f − for all f ∈ X.

Definition 1.7.3 Let X be a vector lattice and a Banach space. X is called

a Banach lattice, if |f | ≤ |g| implies that kf k ≤ kgk.

An example of a Banach lattice is X = Lp (χ, dµ), 1 ≤ p < ∞, µ is a positive

σ-finite measure on a locally compact space χ. In this case, f ∈ X+ means

f (x) ≥ 0 µ-a.e.

Definition 1.7.4 An ideal in a vector lattice X is a linear subspace I for

which g ∈ I whenever g ∈ X and |g| ≤ |f | for some f ∈ I.

together imply that sup J ∈ I.

n o

I = f ∈ Lp (χ, dµ) : f = 0 a.e. on Y ,

Definition 1.7.6 A topological vector space X, which is also a vector lattice,

is said to have a quasi-interior point, if there is f ∈ X+ such that the ideal

generated by f is dense in X.

It is known that, if µ is σ-finite, then each of the Banach lattices

Lp (χ, (µ)), 1 ≤ p ≤ ∞ possesses quasi-interior points. In this case, f ∈ X+ is

a quasi-interior point means that f > 0 µ-a.e. For more details on cones and

positive cones and their properties, the reader can refer to the work of D. Guo

and V. Lakshmikantham [92] and of S. Heikkilä and V. Lakshmikantham [94].

let O be an open, convex, and nonempty subset of X, and let F be a subspace of

X such that F ∩ O = ∅. Then, there exists a closed subspace H of codimension

1 such that H ⊇ F and H ∩ O = ∅.

open, convex, and let O 6= ∅ be a convex subset of X. If C ∩ O = ∅, then there

exists a continuous functional ϕ on X and an α ∈ R such that, for the real

part, ℜ(ϕ(.)), of ϕ(.)

Fundamentals 49

convex, nonempty set, and let D be a closed, nonempty, and convex set. If

C ∩ D = ∅, then there exists ϕ ∈ X ′ , α, β ∈ R such that

Chapter 2

Fixed Point Theory under Weak

Topology

In the first part of this chapter, we give some variants of the Schauder and

Krasnosel’skii fixed point theorems in Dunford–Pettis spaces for weakly com-

pact operators. Precisely, if an operator A acting on a Banach space X having

the property of Dunford–Pettis, leaves a subset M of X invariant, then A

has, at least, a fixed point in M. In addition, if B is a contraction map of

M into X, Ax + By ∈ M for x, y in M and if (I − B)−1 A is a weakly com-

pact operator, then A + B has, at least, a fixed point in M. Both of these

two theorems can be used to resolve some open problems (see Chapter 5).

In the second part of this chapter, we establish new variants of fixed point

theorems in general Banach spaces. Furthermore, nonlinear Leray–Schauder

alternatives for the sum of two weakly sequentially continuous mappings are

presented. This notion of weakly sequential continuity seems to be the most

convenient in use. Moreover, it is not always possible to show that a given

operator between Banach spaces is weakly continuous. Quite often, its weakly

sequential continuity presents no problem. Finally, we establish fixed point

theorems for multi-valued maps with weakly sequentially closed graphs.

Compactness

The aim of this section is to give the Schauder and Krasnosel’skii fixed point

theorems in the case of Dunford–Pettis spaces to the class of weakly compact

operators. We first give an extension form of Schauder’s theorem. Then, we

present other results which follow by quite simple arguments.

51

52 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

Let us first recall some nice results due to A. Ben Amar, A. Jeribi, and M.

Mnif proved in [32].

Theorem 2.1.1 Let X be a Dunford–Pettis space, M be a nonempty, closed,

bounded, and convex subset of X and let A be a weakly compact linear operator

on X. If A leaves M invariant, then A has, at least, a fixed point in M.

closed convex subset and A(M) ⊂ M, then N ⊂ M. Therefore,

follows that A(M)w is weakly compact. Moreover, by using co(A(M)) ⊂

co(A(M)w ) and the Krein–Šmulian’s theorem (see Theorem 1.3.5), it follows

that co(A(M)w ) is a weakly compact set. Hence, according to Mazur’s theo-

rem (see Theorem 1.3.4) one sees that N is a weakly compact set. We claim

that A(N ) is compact in X. To see this, let (ψn )n be a sequence in A(N ).

There is a sequence (ϕn )n in N such that ψn = A(ϕn ) for each n. Since N is a

weakly compact set, it follows that (ϕn )n has a weak converging subsequence

(ϕnp )p . From the weak compactness of A, it follows that (A(ϕnp ))p converges

strongly in X. Then, (ψnp )p converges strongly in X. As a result, A(N ) is

a compact set in X. Finally, the use of Schauder’s fixed point theorem (see

Theorem 1.6.1) shows that A has, at least, one fixed point in N . Q.E.D.

Remark 2.1.1 Since K(X) ⊂ W(X), Theorem 2.1.1 is a new variant of the

Schauder’s fixed point theorem in the Dunford–Pettis space under the weak

topology.

closed, bounded, and convex subset of X. Let B : X −→ X be a continuous

map and C be a weakly compact linear operator on X. If A = BC is a weakly

compact operator on X with A leaving M invariant, then A has, at least, a

fixed point in M.

we find that N is weakly compact. Now, arguing as in the proof of Theorem

2.1.1, we can see that C(N ) is a compact set in X. Since B is a continuous

map, then BC(N ) is a compact set in X. Finally, the Schauder’s fixed point

theorem shows that A has, at least, one fixed point in N . Q.E.D.

Fixed Point Theory under Weak Topology 53

closed, bounded, and convex subset of X. Let B be a weakly compact linear

operator on X and let C : X −→ X be continuous and maps bounded sets into

bounded ones, and weakly compact sets into weakly compact ones. If A = BC

leaves M invariant, then A has, at least, a fixed point in M.

compact operator, we find that N is a weakly compact set. We claim that

A(N ) is a compact set in X. To see this, let (ψn )n be a sequence in A(N ).

There is a sequence (ϕn )n in N such that ψn = A(ϕn ) for each n. Since N

is weakly compact, it follows that (ϕn )n has a weak converging subsequence

(ϕnp )p . Hence, (C(ϕnp ))p is weakly convergent. According to the weak com-

pactness of B, it follows that (BC(ϕnp ))p converges strongly in X. Then,

(ψnp )p converges strongly in X. Therefore, A(N ) is a compact set in X. Fi-

nally, the use of Schauder’s fixed point theorem shows that A has, at least,

one fixed point in N . Q.E.D.

Let us consider the sum of a weakly compact operator and a contraction

mapping.

closed, bounded, and convex subset of X. Suppose that A and B map M into

X such that :

(iii) Ax + By ∈ M for all x, y in M, and

z = Bz + Ay

mapping of M into M. Thus, z = (I − B)−1 Ay is in M. Now, the use of

54 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

Corollary 2.1.1 for the operators A and (I − B)−1 , shows that (I − B)−1 A

has, at least, a fixed point in M. This point y is the one required. Q.E.D.

Remark 2.1.2 (i) The Theorem 2.1.2 is a new variant of the Krasnosel’skii’s

fixed point theorem in the Dunford–Pettis spaces under the weak topology.

(ii) Note that Theorem 2.1.2 remains true if we replace the assumption (iii)

by a weaker one; (if u = Bu + Av with v ∈ M , then u ∈ M ).

In the remaining part of this section, we will briefly discuss the existence of

positive solutions. Let X1 and X2 be two Banach lattice spaces, with positive

cônes X1+ and X2+ , respectively. An operator T from X1 into X2 is said to be

positive if it carries the positive cône X1+ into X2+ (i.e., T (X1+ ) ⊂ X2+ ).

bounded, and convex subset of X such that M ∩ X + =

6 ∅ and A is a positive

weakly compact linear operator on X. If A leaves M invariant, then A has,

at least, a positive fixed point in M.

subset of X + and A(M+ ) ⊂ M+ . Let N + = co(A(M+ )). Since M+ is a

closed convex subset and A(M+ ) ⊂ M+ , we get N + ⊂ M+ and therefore,

i.e., A maps N + into itself. Now, the rest of the proof is similar to that of

Theorem 2.1.1; it is sufficient to replace the set N by N + . Q.E.D.

The purpose of this section is to extend the results of the previous section to

general Banach spaces under weak topology conditions.

Theorem 2.2.1 Let X be a Banach space, M be a nonempty, closed, and

convex subset of X and let A : M −→ M be a weakly sequentially continuous

map. If A(M) is relatively weakly compact, then A has, at least, a fixed point

in M.

Fixed Point Theory under Weak Topology 55

Proof. Let N = co(A(M)) be the closed convex hull of A(M). Since A(M)

is relatively weakly compact, then N is a weakly compact convex subset of

X. Moreover,

A(N ) ⊂ A(M) ⊂ co(A(M)) = N ,

i.e., A maps N into itself. Since A is weakly sequentially continuous, and by

using the O. Arino, S. Gautier, and J. P. Penot theorem (see Theorem 1.6.9),

it follows that A has, at least, one fixed point in N . Q.E.D.

bounded, and convex subset of X. Let us assume that A = BC, where B is a

linear weakly compact operator on X and C is a nonlinear weakly sequentially

continuous operator, which maps bounded sets into bounded sets. If A(M) ⊂

M, then A has, at least, a fixed point in M.

weakly sequentially continuous and that A(M) is relatively weakly compact.

Indeed, the fact that B is linear and weakly compact implies that B is weakly

sequentially continuous. Hence, A is weakly sequentially continuous. From the

boundedness of M and the properties of C, we have C(M) is bounded. Since

B is a weakly compact operator, it follows that A(M) is relatively weakly

compact. Q.E.D.

bounded, and convex subset of X. Let us assume that A = CB, where B is a

linear weakly compact operator on X and C is a weakly sequentially continuous

operator. If A(M) ⊂ M, then A has, at least, a fixed point in M.

sequentially continuous. We claim that A(M) is relatively weakly compact.

To see this, let (yn )n be a sequence in A(M). There is a sequence (xn )n in M

such that yn = Axn for each n. Since M is bounded and B is a weakly compact

operator, (Bxn )n has a weak converging subsequence (Bxϕ(n) )n . Since C is

weakly sequentially continuous, we have (CBxϕ(n) )n is weakly convergent.

So, (yϕ(n) )n is weakly convergent. Therefore, A(M) is relatively sequentially

weakly compact. Using the Eberlein–Šmulian theorem (see Theorem 1.3.3),

we deduce the relatively weak compactness of A(M). This proves the claim.

Now, the result follows immediately from Theorem 2.2.1. Q.E.D.

56 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

and convex subset of X such that M ∩ X + 6= ∅ and A is a positive weakly

sequentially continuous map. If A leaves M invariant and if A(M) is relatively

weakly compact, then A has, at least, a positive fixed point in M.

N + = co(A(M+ )). Since M+ is a closed convex subset and A(M+ ) ⊂ M+ ,

N + ⊂ M+ and therefore,

i.e., A maps N + into itself. Moreover, using the fact that A(M+ ) is relatively

weakly compact, it follows, by using the Krein–S̆mulian’s theorem (see Theo-

rem 1.3.5), that N + is a weakly compact set. Now, the result follows from O.

Arino, S. Gautier, and J. P. Penot’s theorem (see Theorem 1.6.9). Q.E.D.

Now, we may establish a fixed point theorem which combines both the Banach

contraction mapping principle and Theorem 2.2.1.

and convex subset of X. Let us suppose that A : M −→ X and B : X −→ X

such that :

(i) B is a contraction mapping,

maps M into itself. In fact, for each y ∈ M, the equation z = Ay + Bz has a

unique solution z ∈ M, since z −→ Bz + Ay defines a contraction mapping

of M into M. Thus, z = (I − B)−1 Ay is in M. Q.E.D.

and convex subset of X. Suppose that A : M −→ X and B : X −→ X such

that :

Fixed Point Theory under Weak Topology 57

(iv) Ax + By ∈ M for all x, y ∈ M.

M. Thanks to Theorem 2.2.3, it is sufficient to prove that (I − B)−1 A is

weakly sequentially continuous. Indeed, let (un )n be a sequence in M such

that un ⇀ u in M. Since {(I − B)−1 Aun , n ∈ N} ⊂ (I − B)−1 A(M), by

assumption (iii) we get a subsequence (uρ(n) )n such that (I −B)−1 Auρ(n) ⇀ v

in M. The sequential weak continuity of B leads to B(I − B)−1 Auρ(n) ⇀ Bv.

Also, from the equality

We claim that (I − B)−1 Aun ⇀ (I − B)−1 Au. Suppose that this is not the

case, then there exists a subsequence (uρ1 (n) )n and a weak neighborhood V w

of (I − B)−1 Au such that (I − B)−1 Auρ1 (n) ∈/ V w for all n ∈ N. Moreover, we

have uρ1 (n) ⇀ u, then arguing as before, we find a subsequence (uρ1 (ρ2 (n)) )n

such that (I − B)−1 Auρ1 (ρ2 (n)) ⇀ (I − B)−1 Au, which is a contradiction. This

proves the claim and achieves the proof. Q.E.D.

Throughout this section, X denotes a Banach space. For any r > 0, Br denotes

the closed ball in X centered at 0X with radius r. ΩX is the collection of all

nonempty bounded subsets of X and Kw is the subset of ΩX consisting of all

weakly compact subsets of X. Recall that the notion of the measure of weak

noncompactness (in short MNWC) was introduced by De Blasi [64]; it is the

map ω : ΩX −→ [0, +∞) defined in the following way:

ω(M ) = inf r > 0 : there exits K ∈ Kw such that M ⊂ K + Br , (2.1)

58 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

for all M ∈ ΩX . For more convenience, we recall the basic properties of ω(.)

presented in Lemma 1.4.1 and needed below.

ditions are satisfied:

(3) ω(M1 w ) = ω(M1 ).

(8) if (Mn )n≥1 is a decreasing sequence of nonempty, bounded, and weakly

closed subsets of X with lim ω(Mn ) = 0, then M∞ := ∩∞ n=1 Mn is nonempty

n→∞

and ω(M∞ ) = 0, i.e., M∞ is relatively weakly compact.

At the beginning of this section, we will state some new fixed point theorems

of the Krasnosel’skii type for the sum of two weakly sequentially continuous

mappings. First, let us introduce the following definition:

ω-contraction) if it maps bounded sets into bounded sets, and there exist some

α ∈ [0, 1) such that ω(A(N )) ≤ αω(N ) for all bounded subsets N ⊂ M .

contraction is ω-condensing.

of a Banach space X. Suppose that A : M −→ X and B : X −→ X are such

that:

(i) A is weakly sequentially continuous,

(ii) there exists α ∈ [0, 1) such that ω(A(N )+B(N )) ≤ αω(N ) for all N ⊂ M ,

Fixed Point Theory under Weak Topology 59

(iv) (x = Bx + Ay, y ∈ M ) =⇒ x ∈ M .

Lemma 1.2.2 that the mapping I − B is a homeomorphism from X into X.

Let y be fixed in M , the map which assigns to each x ∈ X the value Bx + Ay

defines a contraction from X into X. So, by the Banach fixed point theorem,

the equation x = Ax + By has a unique solution x ∈ X. By hypothesis (iv)

we have x ∈ M . Hence, x = (I − B)−1 Ay ∈ M which, accordingly, implies the

inclusion

M1 = M and Mn+1 = co (I − B)−1 A(Mn ) . (2.3)

We claim that the sequence (Mn )n≥1 satisfies the condition of property (8) of

ω(.)(see Lemma 2.3.1). Indeed, it is clear that the sequence (Mn )n≥1 consists

of nonempty closed convex subsets of M . Using Eq. (2.3), we notice that it is

also decreasing. Now, using Eq. (2.2) and the following equality:

(I − B)−1 A(Mn ) ⊂ A(Mn ) + B co (I − B)−1 A(Mn ) ⊂ A(Mn ) + B(Mn ).

(2.5)

Combining Eq. (2.5) with the properties (1) and (6) of Lemma 1.4.1, we get

ω(Mn+1 ) ≤ αω(Mn ).

and therefore lim ω(Mn ) = 0, because α ∈ [0, 1). Now, applying property

n→∞

(8) of Lemma 1.4.1, we infer that M∞ := ∩∞

n=1 Mn is a nonempty, closed,

60 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

(I − B)−1 A(Mn ) ⊂ Mn , for all n ≥ 1, thus we get (I − B)−1 A(M∞ ) ⊂ M∞ .

Consequently, (I − B)−1 A(M∞ ) is relatively weakly compact. Now, let us

show that (I − B)−1 A : M∞ −→ M∞ is weakly sequentially continuous.

Let (xn )n≥1 be a sequence in M∞ such that xn ⇀ x in M∞ . Since

we get a subsequence (xρ(n) )n≥1 of (xn )n≥1 such that (I − B)−1 Axρ(n) ⇀ y

in M∞ . Going back to Eq. (2.4), the weak sequential continuity of the maps

A and B yields to y = By + Ax and thus y = (I − B)−1 Ax.

We claim that:

(I − B)−1 Axn ⇀ (I − B)−1 Ax.

Suppose the contrary, then there exists a subsequence (xρ1 (n) )n≥1 and a weak

neighborhood V w of (I − B)−1 Ax such that (I − B)−1 Axρ1 (n) 6∈ V w for all

n ≥ 1. Moreover, xρ1 (n) ⇀ x, then arguing as before, we find a subsequence

(xρ1 (ρ2 (n)) )n≥1 of (xρ1 (n) )n≥1 such that

which is absurd, since (I − B)−1 Axρ1 (ρ2 (n)) 6∈ V w for all n ≥ 1. Finally, (I −

B)−1 A is weakly sequentially continuous. Now, applying the Arino–Gautier–

Penot fixed point theorem (see Theorem 1.6.9), we conclude that (I − B)−1 A

has, at least, one fixed point x ∈ M∞ , that is, Ax + Bx = x. This completes

the proof. Q.E.D.

Remark 2.3.2 The result in Theorem 2.3.1 remains valid for any arbitrary

measure of weak noncompactness on X.

following well-known result of D. O’Regan.

of a Banach space X. Assume that A : M −→ M is weakly sequentially

continuous and ω-contractive, then A has, at least, a fixed point in M .

of a Banach space X. Suppose that A : M −→ X and B : X −→ X are two

mappings such that:

Fixed Point Theory under Weak Topology 61

continuous, and

(iii) (x = Bx + Ay, y ∈ M ) =⇒ x ∈ M .

Taking into account that A(M ) is relatively weakly compact and using the

subadditivity of the De Blasi measure of weak noncompactness, we get

Now, let r > 0 and let K be a weakly compact subset of M such that N ⊂

K + Br . We show that

B(N ) ⊂ B(K) + Bkr .

B is a strict contraction with a constant k then, kBx − Byk ≤ kkx − yk ≤ kr.

As a result, Bx − By ∈ Bkr . Hence, Bx ∈ B(K) + Bkr . Accordingly,

w

B(N ) ⊂ B(K) + Bkr = B(K) + Bkr ,

tially continuous and K is weakly compact. Hence, B(K) is weakly compact.

By using Eq. (2.1), we show that:

Now, combining Eqs. (2.6) and (2.7), we get ω(A(N ) + B(N )) ≤ kω(N ).

Q.E.D.

of a Banach space X. Assume that A : M −→ M is weakly sequentially

continuous. If A(M ) is relatively weakly compact, then A has, at least, a fixed

point in M .

of a Banach space X. In addition, let A : Ω −→ X be a weakly sequentially

continuous mapping and B : X −→ X satisfying:

62 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

contraction, and

(iii) (x = Bx + Ay, y ∈ Ω) =⇒ x ∈ Ω.

by Lemma 1.2.2 that (I − B p )−1 exists on X. Hence,

p−1

X

(I − B)−1 = (I − B p )−1 Bk . (2.8)

k=0

Define the mapping F := (I − B)−1 A. Since A : Ω −→ X, then from assump-

tion (iii) it follows that F : Ω −→ Ω. Since (I − B)−1 is weakly continuous

and A is weakly sequentially continuous, so F is weakly sequentially continu-

ous. Moreover, we have A maps bounded sets into relatively weakly compact

sets and (I − B)−1 is weakly continuous, then F maps bounded sets into rela-

tively weakly compact sets. Hence, F fulfills the conditions of Corollary 2.3.3.

Q.E.D.

We should notice that Theorem 2.3.2 remains true if we suppose that there

exists p ∈ N∗ such that B p is a nonlinear contraction.

space X. In addition, let A : Ω −→ X be a weakly sequentially continuous

mapping and B : X −→ X satisfying:

(ii) B is linear, bounded and there exists p ∈ N∗ such that B p is a nonlinear

contraction, and

(iii) (x = Bx + Ay, y ∈ Ω) =⇒ x ∈ Ω.

(I − B p )−1 exists on X. Now, reasoning as in the proof of Theorem 2.3.2, we

get the desired result. Q.E.D.

Fixed Point Theory under Weak Topology 63

rate contraction mappings, so Theorems 2.3.2 and 2.3.3 are two different new

generalizations of Krasnoselskii’s fixed point theorem.

space X. Assume that F : Ω −→ Ω is a weakly sequentially continuous map

and condensing with respect to ω. In addition, suppose that F (Ω) is bounded.

Then, F has, at least, a fixed point.

subsets D of Ω such that x0 ∈ D and F (D) ⊂ D. Obviously, F is nonempty,

since conv(F (Ω) ∪ {x0 }) ∈ F. We denote

\

K= D.

D∈F

for all D ∈ F and hence, F (K) ⊂ K. Therefore, K ∈ F. We will prove that

K is weakly compact. Denoting by:

F , K ⊂ K∗ . Hence, K = K∗ . Since K is weakly closed, it is sufficient to show

that K is relatively weakly compact. If ω(K) > 0, we get

compact. Now, F is weakly sequentially continuous of K into itself. Applying

Theorem 1.6.9, we conclude that F has, at least, a fixed point in K ⊂ Ω.

Q.E.D.

a Banach space (X, k.k). Suppose that A : Ω −→ X and B : X −→ X are two

weakly sequentially continuous mappings such that:

(iii) (A + B)(Ω) ⊂ Ω.

64 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

subset of X such that ω(D) = d > 0. Let ε > 0, then there exists a weakly

compact set K of X satisfying D ⊆ K + Bd+ε . So, for x ∈ D there exists

y ∈ K and z ∈ Bd+ε such that x = y + z and so

weakly compact, then B(K) is weakly compact. Therefore,

Hence, B is ω-condensing, which ends the proof of the claim. On the other

hand, it is easy to see that A + B is weakly sequentially continuous. Thanks

to Theorem 2.3.4, it suffices to show that A + B is ω-condensing. To see this,

let D be a bounded subset of Ω. Taking into account the fact that A(D) is

relatively weakly compact and using the subadditivity of the De Blasi measure

of weak noncompactness we get

6 0 then

So, if ω(B(D) =

and hence A+B is ω-condensing, which ends the proof of the theorem. Q.E.D.

We point out that Theorem 2.3.5 remains valid if we replace the assumption

(A + B)(Ω) ⊂ Ω

(x = Bx + Ay, y ∈ Ω) =⇒ x ∈ Ω.

Fixed Point Theory under Weak Topology 65

a Banach space X. Suppose that A : Ω −→ X and B : X −→ X are two

weakly sequentially continuous mappings such that:

(iii) (x = Bx + Ay, y ∈ Ω) =⇒ x ∈ Ω.

Then, there exists x ∈ Ω such that x = Ax + Bx.

Proof. Let y be fixed in Ω. The map which assigns to each x ∈ Ω the value

Bx + Ay defines a nonlinear contraction from Ω into Ω. So, using Theorem

1.6.10 together with assumption (iii), the equation x = Bx + Ay has a unique

solution x = (I − B)−1 Ay ∈ Ω. Therefore,

(I − B)−1 A(Ω) ⊂ Ω.

Let K = conv(F (Ω)) be the closed convex hull of F (Ω). Clearly, K is closed,

convex, bounded, and F (K) ⊂ K ⊂ Ω. We claim that K is weakly compact.

If it is not the case, then ω(K) > 0. Since F (Ω) ⊆ A(Ω) + BF (Ω), we obtain

Taking into account the fact that A is weakly compact and B is ω-condensing,

we obtain

ω(K) = ω(F (Ω)) ≤ ω(B(F (Ω))) < ω(F (Ω)),

which is absurd. Hence, K is weakly compact. In view of Corollary 2.3.3, it

remains to show that F : K −→ K is weakly sequentially continuous. In fact,

let (xn )n ⊂ K such that xn ⇀ x. Because F (K) is relatively weakly compact,

it follows by the Eberlein–Šmulian theorem that there exists a subsequence

(xnk )k of (xn )n such that F (xnk ) ⇀ y. The weakly sequentially continuity of

B leads to BF (xnk ) ⇀ By. Also, from the equality BF = −A + F, it results

that

−A(xnk ) + F (xnk ) ⇀ −A(x) + y.

So, y = F (x). We claim that F (xn ) ⇀ F (x). Suppose that this is not the

case, then there exists a subsequence (xϕ1 (n) )n and a weak neighborhood V w

66 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

of (I − B)−1 Ax such that (I − B)−1 Axϕ1 (n) ∈ / V w , for all n ∈ N. On the other

hand, we have xϕ1 (n) ⇀ x, then arguing as before, we find a subsequence

(xϕ1 (ϕ2 (n)) )n such that (I −B)−1 Axϕ1 (ϕ2 (n)) converges weakly to (I −B)−1 Ax,

which is a contradiction and hence F is weakly sequentially continuous. Q.E.D.

continuous mappings

At the beginning of this section, we will state some new variants of

Krasnosel’skii–Leray–Schauder for different classes of weakly sequentially con-

tinuous mappings. We will need the following nonlinear alternatives of the

Leray–Schauder type for single valued mappings.

space X. In addition, let U be a weakly open subset of Ω with θ ∈ U such that

U w is a weakly compact subset of Ω and F : U w −→ Ω is a weakly sequentially

continuous mapping. Then, either

w

(ii) there is a point x ∈ ∂Ω U (the weak boundary of U in Ω) and a λ ∈ (0, 1)

with x = λF (x).

Proof. Suppose that (ii) does not hold. We notice that this supposition is

also satisfied for λ = 0 (since θ ∈ U ). If (ii) is satisfied for λ = 1 then, in

w

this case, we have a fixed point in u ∈ ∂Ω U and there is nothing to prove. In

w

conclusion, we can consider that the supposition is satisfied for any x ∈ ∂Ω U

and any λ ∈ [0, 1]. Let D be the set defined by

n o

D = x ∈ U w such that x = λF (x), for some λ ∈ [0, 1] .

The weak sequential continuity of F implies that D is weakly sequentially

closed. For that, let (xn )n be a sequence of D such that xn ⇀ x, x ∈ U w .

For all n ∈ N, there exists a λn ∈ [0, 1] such that xn = λn F (xn ). Since

λn ∈ [0, 1], we can extract a subsequence (λnj )j such that λnj → λ ∈ [0, 1].

So, λnj F (xnj ) ⇀ λF (x). Hence, x = λF (x) and x ∈ D. Let x ∈ U w be

weakly adherent to D. Since Dw is weakly compact by the Eberlein–Šmulian

theorem, there exists a sequence (xn )n ⊂ D such that xn ⇀ x, so x ∈ D.

Hence, Dw = D and D is weakly closed. Therefore, D is weakly compact.

Fixed Point Theory under Weak Topology 67

space, then X is completely regular [146, p.16]. Since D ∩ (Ω \ U ) = ∅, then

by Lemma 1.2.1, there is a weakly continuous function ϕ : Ω −→ [0, 1], such

that ϕ(x) = 1 for x ∈ D and ϕ(x) = 0 for x ∈ Ω \ U . Let F ∗ : Ω −→ Ω be the

mapping defined by:

F ∗ (x) = ϕ(x)F (x).

w w w

Because ∂Ω U = ∂Ω U , ϕ is weakly continuous and F is weakly sequentially

continuous, we deduce that F ∗ is weakly sequentially continuous. In addition,

Let

D∗ = conv(F (U w ) ∪ {θ}).

Using the Krein–Šmulian theorem (see Theorem 1.3.5) and the weakly sequen-

tial continuity of F , it follows that D∗ is a weakly compact and convex set.

Moreover, F ∗ (D∗ ) ⊂ D∗ . Since F ∗ is weakly sequentially continuous, and by

using Theorem 1.6.9, it follows that F ∗ has, at least, a fixed point x0 ∈ Ω. If

x0 6∈ U , ϕ(x0 ) = 0 and x0 = 0, which contradicts the hypothesis θ ∈ U . Then,

x0 ∈ U and x0 = ϕ(x0 )F (x0 ), which implies that x0 ∈ D. Hence, ϕ(x0 ) = 1

and the proof is complete. Q.E.D.

Theorem 2.3.7 can be removed if we suppose that F (U w ) is relatively weakly

compact.

space X. In addition, let U be a weakly open subset of Ω with θ ∈ U and let

F : U w −→ Ω be weakly sequentially continuous and ω-condensing mapping

such that F (U w ) is bounded. Then, either

w

(ii) there is a point x ∈ ∂Ω U (the weak boundary of U in Ω) and a scalar

λ ∈ (0, 1) with x = λF (x).

Proof. Suppose that (ii) does not hold and F does not have a fixed point in

w

∂Ω U (otherwise, we have finished, i.e., (i) occurs). Let D be the set defined

by: n o

D = x ∈ U w such that x = λF (x), for some λ ∈ [0, 1] .

68 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

D ⊂ conv({θ} ∪ F (D)).

6 0 which implies

So, ω(D) =

pact. Now, we prove that D is weakly closed. Arguing as in the proof of The-

orem 2.3.7, we prove that D is weakly sequentially closed. Let x ∈ U w , and

weakly adherent to D. Since Dw is weakly compact, according to the Eberlein–

Šmulian theorem, there exists a sequence (xn )n ⊂ D such that xn ⇀ x, so

x ∈ D. Hence, Dw = D and D is weakly closed. Therefore, D is weakly com-

pact. Because X endowed with its weak topology is a Hausdorff locally convex

space, then X is completely regular [146, p.16]. Since D ∩ (Ω \ U ) = ∅, then

by Lemma 1.2.1, there is a weakly continuous function ϕ : Ω −→ [0, 1], such

that ϕ(x) = 1 for x ∈ D and ϕ(x) = 0 for x ∈ Ω \ U . Let F ∗ : Ω −→ Ω be the

mapping defined by:

F ∗ (x) = ϕ(x)F (x).

sequentially continuous, we show that F ∗ is weakly sequentially continuous.

Let X ⊂ Ω be bounded. Since

then, we have ω(F ∗ (X)) ≤ ω(F (X ∩ Ω)) ≤ ω(F (X)) and ω(F ∗ (X)) < ω(X) if

ω(X) =6 0. So, F ∗ is condensing with respect to ω. Therefore, Theorem 2.3.4

implies that F ∗ has, at least, a fixed point x0 ∈ Ω. If x0 ∈ / U , ϕ(x0 ) = 0

and x0 = 0, which contradicts the hypothesis θ ∈ U . Then, x0 ∈ U and

x0 = ϕ(x0 )F (x0 ), which implies that x0 ∈ D, and so ϕ(x0 ) = 1 and the proof

is complete. Q.E.D.

We define a subset Ω of a locally convex space X to be almost convex if, for

any neighborhood V of θ and for any finite set {w1 , ..., wn } of points of Ω,

Fixed Point Theory under Weak Topology 69

conv{z1 , ..., zn } ⊂ Ω.

convex space X, and G : K −→ K be an u.s.c. multi-function such that G(x)

is closed for all z in K and convex for all x in some dense almost convex

subset Ω of K. Then, G has, at least, a fixed point.

and symmetric sets. For each V ∈ V, let

\

{FV such that V ∈ V} 6= ∅.

of K, to show that each FV is closed and nonempty. So, let V ∈ V. Let us

define the multi-functions GV : K −→ K and RV : K −→ K by:

{(x, y) ∈ K × K such that y − x ∈ V } and V is closed. Since K is compact, it

follows that both RV and G are u.s.c. Hence, GV is u.s.c. and, in particular,

is a closed subset of K × K. Let ∆ be the diagonal in K × K. Then, FV

is obtained by projecting the compact set ∆ ∩ GV onto the domain of GV .

It follows that FV is closed. Now, let us choose z1 , ..., zm ∈ Ω such that

K ⊂ ∪{zi + V such that 1 ≤ i ≤ m}, and C = conv{z1 , ..., zm } ⊂ Ω. Let us

define HV ⊂ C × C by:

HV = GV ∩ (C × C).

For each x ∈ C, HV (x) is closed, convex (since C ⊂ Ω), and nonempty (since

G(x) + V contains some zi ). Moreover, HV is a closed subset of C × C since

GV is closed. Thus, HV has, at least, a fixed point by Kakutani’s fixed point

theorem (see Theorem 1.6.4). It belongs to FV which is then nonempty. Q.E.D.

70 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

convex space X. Let F : Ω −→ Pcl, cv (Ω) be an upper semicontinuous multi-

valued mapping such that F (Ω) is relatively compact. Then, F has, at least, a

fixed point.

graph

Theorem 2.4.2 Let Ω be a nonempty, weakly compact subset of a Banach

space X. Suppose that F : Ω −→ P(X) has a weakly sequentially closed graph

and F (Ω) is relatively weakly compact. Then, F has a weakly closed graph.

weak topology), it follows that Ω × F (Ω)w is a weakly compact subset of

X × X. Also, Gr(F ) ⊂ Ω × F (Ω)w . So, Gr(F ) is relatively weakly compact.

Let (x, y) ∈ Ω × F (Ω)w be weakly adherent to Gr(F ), then by the Eberlein–

Šmulian theorem, we can find ((xn ), (yn ))n ⊂ Gr(F ) such that yn ∈ F (xn ),

xn ⇀ x and yn ⇀ y in X. Because F has a weakly sequentially closed graph,

y ∈ F (x) and so, (x, y) ∈ Gr(F ). Therefore, Gr(F ) is weakly closed. Q.E.D.

that ϕ(X) ⊂ K and the graph Gr(ϕ) of ϕ is closed, where K is a compact set.

Then, ϕ is u.s.c.

Proof. Let us assume the contrary, i.e., ϕ is not u.s.c. Then, there exists an

open neighborhood Vϕ(x) of ϕ(x) in Y such that, for every open neighborhood

Ux of x in X, we have ϕ(Ux ) is not contained in Vϕ(x) . We take Ux = B(x, n1 ),

n = 1, 2, .... Then, for every n, we get a point xn ∈ B(x, n1 ) such that ϕ(xn )

is not contained in Vϕ(x) . Let yn be a point in Y such that yn ∈ ϕ(xn )

and yn ∈ / Vϕ(x) . Then, we have limn→∞ xn = x and (yn )n ⊂ K. Since K is

compact, we can assumes without loss of generality, that limn→∞ yn = y ∈ K.

We see that y ∈ / Vϕ(x) . Then, for every n, we have (xn , yn ) ∈ Gr(ϕ) and

(xn , yn ) → (x, y). So (x, y) ∈ Gr(ϕ) because Gr(ϕ) is a closed subset of

X × Y but it contradicts y ∈ / Vϕ(x) and the proof is completed. Q.E.D.

space X. Suppose F : Ω −→ Pcv (Ω) has a weakly sequentially closed graph

and F (Ω) is weakly relatively compact. Then, F has, at least, a fixed point.

Fixed Point Theory under Weak Topology 71

(see Theorem 1.3.5), that K is a weakly compact and convex set. We have

F (Ω) ⊂ K ⊂ Ω. Notice also that F : K −→ Pcv (K). By Theorem 2.4.2, F has

a weakly closed graph, and so F (x) is weakly closed for every x ∈ K. Thus, by

Lemma 2.4.1, F is weakly upper semicontinuous. Because X endowed with its

weak topology is a Hausdorff locally convex space, we apply Corollary 2.4.1

to ensure that F has, at least, a fixed point x ∈ K ⊂ Ω. Q.E.D.

Recall that in Theorems 2.3.2, 2.3.3, and 2.3.6 our arguments were based on

the invertibility of the mapping I − B and our strategy consists in proving the

fixed point property of the mapping (I −B)−1 A. Hence, it would be interesting

to investigate the case when I − B may not be injective.

In that line, the following result presents a critical type of Krasnoselskii’s fixed

point theorem. Having obtained these results, we shall now study the fixed

point property for a larger class of weakly sequentially continuous mappings

under weaker assumptions. Besides, we will focus on the case invertible and we

investigate this kind of generalization by looking for the multi-valued mapping

(I − B)−1 A.

space X. Suppose that A and B are weakly sequentially continuous mappings

from Ω into X such that:

(I − B)(Ω)),

(xn )n , and

(iv) for every y in the range of I − B, Dy = {x ∈ Ω such that (I − B)x = y}

is a convex set.

F : Ω −→ Ω by:

F y := (I − B)−1 Ay.

F is well defined by assumption (i).

Step 1: F (Ω) is relatively weakly compact. For any (yn )n ⊂ F (Ω), we choose

72 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

(xn )n ⊂ Ω such that yn = F (xn ). Taking into account assumption (ii), to-

gether with the Eberlein–Šmulian theorem, we get a subsequence (yϕ1 (n) )n of

(yn )n such that (I − B)yϕ1 (n) ⇀ z, for some z ∈ Ω. Thus, by assumption (iii),

there exists a subsequence yϕ1 (ϕ2 (n)) converging weakly to y0 ∈ Ω.

same way as in Theorem 2.3.6. Consequently, using Corollary 2.3.3, we get

the desired result.

Second, if I − B is not invertible, (I − B)−1 could be seen as a multi-valued

mapping. For any given y ∈ Ω, define H : Ω −→ P (Ω) by:

Hy := (I − B)−1 Ay.

hypotheses of Theorem 2.4.3.

Step 1: H(x) is a convex set for each x ∈ Ω. This is an immediate consequence

of assumption (iv).

such that xn ⇀ x and yn ∈ H(xn ) such that yn ⇀ y. By the definition of

H, we have (I − B)yn = Axn . Since A and I − B are weakly sequentially

continuous, we obtain (I − B)y = Ax. Thus y ∈ (I − B)−1 Ax.

Step 3: H(x) is closed for each x ∈ Ω. This assertion follows from Steps 1

and 2 by setting (xn )n ≡ x.

the same reasoning as the one in Step 1 of the first part of the proof.

In view of Theorem 2.4.3, we get x ∈ H(x), for some x ∈ Ω. Thus, there exists

x ∈ Ω such that x = Ax + Bx. Q.E.D.

condensing weakly sequentially continuous mapping so that B(X) is a bounded

subset of X and I − B is invertible, then the assumptions (iii) and (iv) of

Theorem 2.4.4 are satisfied. Indeed, suppose that (I − B)xn ⇀ y, for some

(xn )n ⊂ Ω and y ∈ Ω. Writing xn as xn = (I − B)xn + Bxn and using the

subadditivity of the De Blasi measure of weak noncompactness, we get

Since {(I − B)xn }w is weakly compact, we obtain ω({xn }) ≤ ω({Bxn }). Now,

Fixed Point Theory under Weak Topology 73

we show that ω({xn }) = 0. If we suppose the contrary, then using the fact that

B is ω-condensing, we obtain

and then by the Eberlein–Šmulian theorem, there exists a weakly convergent

subsequence of (xn )n . Hence, the assumption (iii) is satisfied. On the other

hand, since I − B is invertible, we have for every y in the range of I − B, the

set Dy is reduced to {(I − B)−1 y}, which is convex.

contraction so that B(X) is bounded, we get the following corollary:

nach space X. Suppose that A : Ω −→ X and B : X −→ X are two weakly

sequentially continuous mappings such that:

(iii) (x = Bx + Ay, y ∈ Ω) =⇒ x ∈ Ω.

Then, there exists x ∈ X such that x = Ax + Bx.

B)(X) = X (see Theorem 1.6.10), hence the first part of assumption (i) of

Theorem 2.4.4 is fulfilled. Moreover, we have already proved that every weakly

sequentially continuous nonlinear contraction is ω-condensing (see proof of

Theorem 2.3.3). Hence, in view of Remark 2.4.1 (ii), we deduce that B satisfies

the assumptions (iii) and (iv) of Theorem 2.4.4. Q.E.D.

Using the technique used in the proof of Theorem 2.4.4, we have the following

result.

a Banach space X. Suppose that A and B are weakly sequentially continuous

and map Ω into X such that:

(ii) (I − A)(Ω) is contained in a weakly compact subset of X,

74 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

and

convex set.

In the remaining part of this section, we prove some fixed point theorems for

a Browder class of multi-valued mappings with a weakly sequentially closed

graph, in which the operators have the property that the image of any set is,

in a certain sense, more weakly compact than the original set itself.

space X. Assume Φ is a measure of weak noncompactness on X and F : Ω −→

Pcv (Ω) has a weakly sequentially closed graph. In addition, suppose that F is

Φ-condensing and F (Ω) is bounded. Then, F has, at least, a fixed point.

convex subsets D of Ω such that x0 ∈ D and F (x) ⊂ D for all x ∈ D.

Obviously, F is nonempty since conv(F (Ω) ∪ {x0 }) ∈ F. We denote

\

K= D.

D∈F

for all D ∈ F and hence, F (x) ⊂ K. Consequently, we have that K ∈ F. We

will prove that K is weakly compact. Denoting by:

and K ⊂ K∗ . Hence K = K∗ . Since K is weakly closed, it is sufficient to show

that K is relatively weakly compact. If Φ(K) > 0, we obtain

compact. Now, F : K −→ Pcv (K) has a weakly sequentially closed graph.

From Theorem 2.4.3, F has, at least, a fixed point in K ⊂ Ω. Q.E.D.

Fixed Point Theory under Weak Topology 75

theorems

In applications, the construction of the set Ω such that F (Ω) ⊂ Ω is very

difficult and sometimes impossible. That is why we investigate maps F : Ω −→

P(X) with a weakly sequentially closed graph.

θ ∈ Ω. Assume that F : Ω −→ P(X) has a weakly sequentially closed graph

with F (Ω) being bounded. Let (xn )n ⊂ Ω and (λn )n be a real sequence. If

xn ⇀ x and λn → λ ∈ R, then the condition xn ∈ λn F (xn ) for all n implies

that x ∈ λF (x).

xn ⇀ θ (F (Ω) is bounded) and x ∈ {θ} ⊂ Ω. If λ 6= 0 then, without loss of

generality, we can suppose that λn 6= 0 for all n. So, λ−1n xn = yn for all n

implies that yn ⇀ λ−1 x. Since F has a weakly sequentially closed graph, we

have y ∈ F (x), which means that x ∈ λF (x). Q.E.D.

convex subset of X and U be a weakly open subset of Ω with θ ∈ U . Assume

that Φ is a measure of weak noncompactness on X and F : U w −→ Pcv (Ω) has

a weakly sequentially closed graph. In addition, suppose that F is Φ-condensing

and F (U w ) is bounded. Then, either

(i) F has, at least, a fixed point, or

w

(ii) there is a point x ∈ ∂Ω U (the weak boundary of U in Ω) and λ ∈ (0, 1)

with x ∈ λF (x).

Proof. Suppose that (ii) does not hold and F does not have a fixed point in

w

∂Ω U (otherwise, we have finished, i.e., (i) occurs). Let D be the set defined

by: n o

D = x ∈ U w such that x ∈ λF (x), for some λ ∈ [0, 1] .

D ⊂ conv({θ} ∪ F (D)). So, Φ(D) 6= 0 which implies the following:

n o

D ⊂ conv({θ} ∪ F (D)) = x ∈ U w such that x ∈ λF (x), for some λ ∈ [0, 1]

Now, we prove that D is weakly sequentially closed. For this, let (xn )n be a

76 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

λn ∈ [0, 1] such that xn = λn F (xn ). Since λn ∈ [0, 1], we can extract a

subsequence (λnj )j such that λnj → λ ∈ [0, 1]. We put xnj = λnj ynj , where

ynj ∈ F (xnj ). Applying Lemma 2.4.2, we deduce that x ∈ D. Let x ∈ U w

be weakly adherent to D. Since Dw is weakly compact, by the Eberlein–

Šmulian theorem (Theorem 1.3.3), there exists a sequence (xn )n ⊂ D such

that xn ⇀ x, so x ∈ D. Hence, Dw = D and D is a weakly closed subset

of the weakly compact set U w . Therefore, D is weakly compact. Because

X endowed with its weak topology is a Hausdorff locally convex space, we

deduce that X is completely regular [146, p. 16]. Since D ∩ (Ω \ U ) = ∅ then,

by Lemma 1.2.1, there is a weakly continuous function ϕ : Ω −→ [0, 1], such

that ϕ(x) = 1 for x ∈ D and ϕ(x) = 0 for x ∈ Ω \ U . Since Ω is convex,

θ ∈ Ω, and F with nonempty convex values, we can define the multi-valued

map F ∗ : Ω −→ Pcv (Ω) by:

ϕ(x)F (x), if x ∈ U w ,

F ∗ (x) =

{θ}, if x ∈ Ω \ U w .

U = ∂Ω w w

U , [0, 1] is compact, ϕ

is weakly continuous and F has a weakly sequentially closed graph. Using

Lemma 2.4.2, we notice that F ∗ has a weakly sequentially closed graph. Let

X ∈ Ω be bounded. Then, since

F ∗ (X) ⊂ conv {θ} ∪ F (X ∩ U w ) ,

we have

Φ(F ∗ (X)) ≤ Φ(X ∩ U w ) ≤ Φ(F (X))

and Φ(F ∗ (X)) < Φ(X) if Φ(X) = 6 0. So, F ∗ is Φ-condensing. Therefore, all

the assumptions of Theorem 2.4.6 are satisfied for F ∗ . Consequently, there

exists x0 ∈ Ω with x0 ∈ F ∗ (x0 ). If x0 ∈

/ U , Φ(x0 ) = 0 and x0 = θ, which

contradicts the hypothesis θ ∈ U . Then, x0 ∈ U and x0 ∈ Φ(x0 )F (x0 ), which

implies that x0 ∈ D. Hence, ϕ(x0 ) = 1 and the proof is complete. Q.E.D.

vex subset of X and U be a weakly open subset of Ω with θ ∈ U . Assume that

H : U w −→ Pcv (Ω) is a weakly completely continuous map with H(U w ) being

bounded. In addition, suppose that H satisfies the Leray–Schauder boundary

condition

w

6 λH(x) for every x ∈ ∂Ω

x= U and λ ∈ (0, 1).

w

Then, H has, at least, a fixed point in U .

Fixed Point Theory under Weak Topology 77

condensing on Ω for any measure of weak noncompactness on X. Now, it is

sufficient to apply Theorem 2.4.7. Q.E.D.

mapping having a weakly sequentially closed graph.

ble Banach space (X, k.k), M be a closed convex subset of Ω with θ ∈ M and

let H : M −→ P(Ω) be a multi-valued mapping, such that:

In addition, assume that:

{x ∈ X such that d(x, M ) ≤ δ} ⊂ Mδ here, d(x, y) = kx − yk, and

(vi) for any Kε = {x ∈ X such that d(x, M ) ≤ ε, 0 < ε ≤ δ} , if {(xj , λj )}∞

j=1

is a sequence in M × [0, 1] with xj ⇀ x ∈ ∂Kε M, λj → λ and x ∈ λH(x),

0 ≤ λ < 1, then λj H(xj ) ⊂ M for j sufficiently large, here ∂Kε M denotes the

weak boundary of M in Kε .

n o

N = x ∈ Ω such that x ∈ F r(x) .

Since r is weakly sequentially continuous, M is weakly closed, and H has a

weakly sequentially closed graph, it follows that F r has a weakly sequentially

6

closed graph. Theorem 2.4.3 implies that F r has, at least, a fixed point, so N =

∅. Next, we show that N is weakly compact. Indeed, N ⊂ F r(Ω) ⊂ H(M ), so

N is relatively weakly compact. Now, let (xn )n be a sequence of N such that

xn ⇀ x, x ∈ X. For all n ∈ N, we have xn ∈ F r(xn ) and r(xn ) ⇀ r(x) in M .

Because H has a weakly sequentially closed graph, x ∈ F r(x). Hence, x ∈ N

and N is weakly sequentially closed. Applying again the Eberlein–Šmulian

78 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

show that M ∩ N = ∅. To do this, we argue by contradiction. Suppose that

M ∩ N 6= ∅. Then, since N is compact and M is closed, we get d(N, M ) =

inf{kx − yk such that x ∈ N, y ∈ M } > 0. Thus, there exists ε, 0 < ε ≤ δ

with Kε ∩ N = ∅. Here,

n o

Kε = x ∈ X such that d(x, M ) ≤ ε .

(v), we deduce that Kε is weakly compact. Because X is separable, the weak

topology on Kε is metrizable (see [154]), and let ρ denote this metric. For

i ∈ {1, 2, ...}, let

n εo

Ui = x ∈ Kε such that ρ(x, M ) < .

i

We fix i ∈ {1, 2, ...}. Now, Ui is open in Kε , with respect to the topology

generated by ρ and so, Ui is weakly open in Kε . Also, we have

ρ

n εo

Ui w = Ui = x ∈ Kε such that ρ(x, M ) ≤

i

and n εo

∂Kε Ui = x ∈ Kε such that ρ(x, M ) = .

i

w

Since d(N, M ) > ε, we get N ∩ Ui = ∅. Applying Corollary 2.4.3, we deduce

that there exists λ ∈ (0, 1) and yi ∈ ∂Kε Ui such that yi ∈ λi F r(yi ). In

particular, since yi ∈ ∂Kε Ui , it follows that

Now, we investigate

n o

R = x ∈ X such that x ∈ λF r(x), for some λ ∈ [0, 1] .

Krein–S̆mulian theorem (see Theorem 1.3.5), we deduce that R is relatively

weakly compact. Since F r has a weakly sequentially closed graph and [0, 1]

is compact, we deduce by Lemma 2.4.2 that R is weakly sequentially closed.

Combining this result with the following:

ε

ρ(yj , M ) = , λj ∈ [0, 1] for j ∈ {1, 2, ...}

j

implies that we may assume, without loss of generality, that λj → λ0 and

w w

yj ⇀ y0 ∈ M ∩ Kε \M = ∂Kε M . Moreover, since yj ∈ λj F r(yj ) we have

Fixed Point Theory under Weak Topology 79

∅. Thus, λ0 ∈ [0, 1). But, the assumption (vi) with xj = r(yj ) ∈ M , x =

y0 = r(y0 ) ∈ ∂Kε M implies that λj F r(yj ) ⊂ M for j sufficiently large. This

contradicts Eq. (2.9). Hence, M ∩ N = ∅. As a result, there exists x ∈ M such

that x ∈ F r(x) = H(x). Q.E.D.

Since every weakly sequentially continuous single valued mapping can be iden-

tified as a multi-valued mapping having weakly sequentially closed graph, we

obtain the following corollary:

ble Banach space (X, k.k), M be a closed and convex subset of Ω with θ ∈ M

and F : M −→ Ω be a weakly sequentially continuous mapping such that

F (M ) is relatively weakly compact. In addition, suppose that:

∞

(iii) for any Kε = {x ∈ X such that d(x, M ) ≤ ε, 0 < ε ≤ δ} , if {(xj , λj )}j=1

is a sequence in M × [0, 1] with xj ⇀ x ∈ ∂Kε M, λj → λ and x = λF (x),

0 ≤ λ < 1, then, λj F (xj ) ⊂ M for j sufficiently large, here, ∂Kε M denotes

the weak boundary of M in Kε .

The first result is formulated as:

space X. In addition, let U be a weakly open subset of Ω with θ ∈ U, A :

U w −→ X weakly sequentially continuous and B : X −→ X satisfying:

contraction, and

(iii) (x = Bx + Ay, y ∈ U w ) =⇒ x ∈ Ω.

80 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

w

Then, either A + B has, at least, a fixed point or there is a point x ∈ ∂Ω U

(the weak boundary of U in Ω) and a scalar λ ∈ (0, 1) with x = Bx + λAx.

Lemma 1.2.2, (I − B p )−1 exists on X. Hence,

p−1

X

(I − B)−1 = (I − B p )−1 Bk . (2.10)

k=0

Using Eq. (2.10), we have (I − B)−1 ∈ L(X). So, (I − B)−1 is weakly contin-

uous. Let us set F := (I − B)−1 A. Since A acts from U w into X then, from

assumption (iii), the mapping F acts from U w into Ω. Since (I − B)−1 is

weakly continuous and A is weakly sequentially continuous, we deduce that F

is weakly sequentially continuous. Moreover, since A(U w ) is relatively weakly

compact and (I −B)−1 is weakly continuous, we get F (U w ) is relatively weakly

compact. Consequently, using Theorem 2.3.7 and Remark 2.3.4, we get either

w

F has, at least, a fixed point or there exists a point x ∈ ∂Ω U and a λ ∈ (0, 1)

such that x = λF (x). This yields, either A + B has, at least, a fixed point or

w

there is a point x ∈ ∂Ω U and a λ ∈ (0, 1) such that

x

= (I − B)−1 A(x). (2.11)

λ

Eq. (2.11) implies that (I − B)( λx ) = A(x). Since B is linear, we get x =

λAx + Bx. Q.E.D.

traction mappings

We start this subsection by showing that Theorem 2.5.1 remains true if we

suppose that there exists p ∈ N∗ such that B p is a nonlinear contraction.

space X. In addition, let U be a weakly open subset of Ω with θ ∈ U, A :

U w −→ X weakly sequentially continuous and B : X −→ X satisfying:

contraction, and

(iii) (x = Bx + Ay, y ∈ U w ) =⇒ x ∈ Ω.

Fixed Point Theory under Weak Topology 81

w

Then, either A + B has, at least, a fixed point or there is a point x ∈ ∂Ω U

(the weak boundary of U in Ω) and a scalar λ ∈ (0, 1) with x = Bx + λAx.

(I − B p )−1 exists on X. Now, reasoning as in the proof of Theorem 2.5.1, we

get the desired result. Q.E.D.

The next result asserts:

space X. In addition, let U be a weakly open subset of Ω with θ ∈ U, A :

U w −→ X and B : X −→ X two weakly sequentially continuous mappings

satisfying:

(i) A is weakly compact,

w

Then, either A + B has, at least, a fixed point or there is a point x ∈ ∂Ω U

(the weak boundary of U in Ω) and a scalar λ ∈ (0, 1) with x = λAx + λBx.

Proof. Let D be a bounded subset of U w such that ω(D) > 0. Taking into

account the fact that A(D) is relatively weakly compact, and using the sub-

additivity of the De Blasi measure of weak noncompactness, we get

sequentially continuous. Hence, the result follows immediately from Theorem

2.3.8. Q.E.D.

Now, let us replace the assumption (A + B)(U w ) ⊂ Ω by the following weaker

one (x = Bx + Ay, y ∈ U w ) =⇒ x ∈ Ω.

space X. In addition, let U be a weakly open subset of Ω with θ ∈ U, A :

U w −→ X and B : X −→ X two weakly sequentially continuous mappings

82 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

satisfying:

(iii) (x = Bx + Ay, y ∈ U w ) =⇒ x ∈ Ω, and

w

Then, either A + B has, at least, a fixed point or there is a point x ∈ ∂Ω U

(the weak boundary of U in Ω) and a scalar λ ∈ (0, 1) with x = λAx + λB( xλ ).

Proof. Let y be fixed in U w . The map which assigns to each x ∈ Ω the value

Bx+Ay defines a nonlinear contraction from Ω into Ω. So, taking into account

the fact that I − B is a homeomorphism together with the assumption (iii),

the equation x = Bx + Ay has a unique solution x = (I − B)−1 Ay ∈ Ω.

Therefore,

(I − B)−1 A(U w ) ⊂ Ω.

Now, let us define the mapping F : U w −→ Ω by:

case, then ω(F (U w )) > 0. Since

F (U w ) ⊂ A(U w ) + BF (U w ),

we get

ω(F (U w )) ≤ ω(A(U w )) + ω(BF (U w )).

Taking into account the fact that A(U w ) is relatively weakly compact and B

is ω-condensing (see Remark 2.3.1), we obtain

Theorem 2.3.7 and Remark 2.3.4, we still have to show that F : U w −→ Ω

is weakly sequentially continuous. In fact, let (xn )n ⊂ U w such that xn ⇀ x.

Since F (U w ) is relatively weakly compact, and using the Eberlein–Šmulian

theorem, it follows that there exists a subsequence (xnk )k of (xn )n such that

F (xnk ) ⇀ y. The weakly sequential continuity of B leads to BF (xnk ) ⇀ By.

Also, from the equality BF = −A + F, it results that

Fixed Point Theory under Weak Topology 83

Hence, y = F (x). We claim that F (xn ) ⇀ F (x). Suppose that this is not the

case, then there exists a subsequence (xϕ1 (n) )n and a weak neighborhood V w

of (I − B)−1 Ax such that (I − B)−1 Axϕ1 (n) ∈

/ V w , for all n ∈ N. Moreover, we

have xϕ1 (n) ⇀ x. Then arguing as before, we find a subsequence (xϕ1 (ϕ2 (n)) )n

such that (I − B)−1 Axϕ1 (ϕ2 (n)) converges weakly to (I − B)−1 Ax, which is

a contradiction. Hence, F is weakly sequentially continuous. Consequently,

w

either F has, at least, a fixed point or there is a point x ∈ ∂Ω U (the weak

boundary of U in Ω) and a λ ∈ (0, 1) with x = λF (x). Q.E.D.

weakly sequentially continuous mappings

Now, we state some new variants of the Leray–Schauder type fixed point

theorem for the sum of two weakly sequentially continuous mappings A and

B. In that line, we will investigate the case when I − B may not be invertible

by looking for the multi-valued mapping (I − B)−1 A.

space X. In addition, let U be a weakly open subset of Ω with θ ∈ U, A :

U w −→ X and B : Ω −→ X two weakly sequentially continuous mappings

satisfying:

(i) A(U w ) is relatively weakly compact,

(xn )n , and

(iv) for every y in the range of I − B, Dy = {x ∈ Ω such that (I − B)x = y}

is a convex set.

w

Then, either A + B has, at least, a fixed point or there is a point x ∈ ∂Ω U

x

(the weak boundary of U in Ω) and a λ ∈ (0, 1) with x = λA(x) + λB( λ ).

F : U w −→ Ω by:

F y := (I − B)−1 Ay.

F is well defined by assumption (ii).

choose (xn )n ⊂ U w such that yn = F (xn ). Taking into account assumption

84 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

subsequence (yϕ1 (n) )n of (yn )n such that (I − B)yϕ1 (n) ⇀ z, for some z ∈ Ω.

Thus, by assumption (iii), there exists a subsequence yϕ1 (ϕ2 (n)) converging

weakly to y0 ∈ Ω. Hence, F (U w ) is relatively weakly compact.

xn ⇀ x. Because F (U w ) is relatively weakly compact, and using Eberlein–

Šmulian’s theorem, it follows that there exists a subsequence (xnk )k of (xn )n

such that F (xnk ) ⇀ y, for some y ∈ Ω. The weakly sequentially continuity of

B leads to BF (xnk ) ⇀ By. Also, from the equality BF = −A + F, it results

that

−A(xnk ) + F (xnk ) ⇀ −A(x) + y.

So, y = F (x). We claim that F (xn ) ⇀ F (x). Suppose that this is not the

case, then there exists a subsequence (xϕ1 (n) )n and a weak neighborhood V w of

(I−B)−1 A(x) such that (I−B)−1 A xϕ1 (n) ∈ / V w , for all n ∈ N. Moreover, we

have xϕ1 (n) ⇀ x. Then, arguing as before, we find a subsequence (xϕ1 (ϕ2 (n)) )n

such that (I − B)−1 A(xϕ1 (ϕ2 (n)) ) converges weakly to (I − B)−1 A(x), which

is a contradiction. Hence, F is weakly sequentially continuous. Consequently,

combining Theorem 2.3.7 and Remark 2.3.4, we get either F has, at least,

w

a fixed point or there exists a point x ∈ ∂Ω U and a λ ∈ (0, 1) such that

x = λF (x). This yields, either A + B has, at least, a fixed point or there is a

w

point x ∈ ∂Ω U and a scalar λ ∈ (0, 1) such that

x

= (I − B)−1 A(x). (2.12)

λ

Eq. (2.12) implies (I − B)( xλ ) = A(x). So, x = λA(x) + λB( λx ).

multi-valued mapping. For any given y ∈ U w , define H : U w −→ P (Ω) by:

hypotheses of Theorem 2.4.7.

quence of assumption (iv).

Step 2: H has a weakly sequentially closed graph. Let (xn )n ⊂ U w such that

xn ⇀ x and yn ∈ H(xn ) such that yn ⇀ y. By the definition of H, we have

(I − B)(yn ) = A(xn ). Since A and I − B are weakly sequentially continuous,

we obtain (I − B)(y) = A(x). Thus, y ∈ (I − B)−1 A(x).

Fixed Point Theory under Weak Topology 85

using the same reasoning as in Step 1 of the first part of the proof. Hence,

H is ω-condensing. In view of Theorem 2.4.7, either H has, at least, a fixed

w

point; or there is a point x ∈ ∂Ω U and a scalar λ ∈ (0, 1) with x ∈ λH(x).

By the definition of H, the last assertion implies that either there is a point

w w

x ∈ ∂Ω U such that (I − B)(x) = A(x); or there is a point x ∈ ∂Ω U and a

x

scalar λ ∈ (0, 1) such that (I − B)( λ ) = A(x). This leads to either A + B has,

w

at least, a fixed point or there is a point x ∈ ∂Ω U and a scalar λ ∈ (0, 1) with

x

x = λA(x) + λB( λ ). Q.E.D.

space X. In addition, let U be a weakly open subset of Ω with θ ∈ U, A :

U w −→ X and B : Ω −→ X are two weakly sequentially continuous mappings

satisfying:

(ii) B is a contraction mapping such that B(Ω) is bounded, and

w

Then, either A + B has, at least, a fixed point or there is a point x ∈ ∂Ω U (the

weak boundary of U in Ω) and a scalar λ ∈ (0, 1) with x = λA(x) + λB( λx ).

Proof. The result follows immediately from Theorem 2.5.5. Indeed, since B

is a nonlinear contraction, then taking into account Remarks 2.3.1 and 2.4.1,

we get that B satisfies the assumption (iii) of Theorem 2.5.5. Moreover, we

have I − B is a homeomorphism. So, for every y in the range of I − B, the set

Dy = {x ∈ Ω such that (I − B)x = y} is reduced to {(I − B)−1 y}, which is

convex. Q.E.D.

The next theorem extends a result of H. Schaefer [145] to the case of multi-

valued mappings in the context of weak topology, dealing with the method of

a priori estimate in the Leray–Schauder theory.

valued mapping. Suppose that

(ii) there exists a closed convex, balanced, and absorbing weak neighborhood U

of θ such that the set H(mU ) is relatively weakly compact for all m ∈ N, and

(iii) the set H(x) is closed, convex and nonempty for all x ∈ X.

86 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

x ∈ λH(x) (2.13)

with its weak topology is locally convex, we get p is a weakly continuous

seminorm and U = {x ∈ X such that p(x) ≤ 1}. Clearly, θ is the unique

solution of Eq. (2.13) for λ = 0. If for λ0 ∈ (0, 1], there is no solution of Eq.

(2.13) for λ = λ0 , we consider the weakly sequentially closed multi-valued

mapping G defined by:

G(x) = λ0 H(x),

for all x ∈ X and we shall show that for any natural m there exists ym ∈

ηm H(ym ) with 0 < ηm < 1 and p(ym ) = n. To do this, let m be a natural

number and define a weakly continuous retraction rm : X −→ mU by rm (x) =

mx

x for all x ∈ mU and rm (x) = p(x) for all x such that p(x) > m. Consider the

composition Hm = G ◦ rm . In the following, we will prove that Hm satisfies

the conditions of Theorem 2.4.3.

xn ⇀ x and yn ∈ Hm (xn ) such that yn ⇀ y. Since the retraction rm is

weakly continuous, we get rm (xn ) ⇀ rm (x). On the other hand, we have yn ∈

G(rm (xn )), yn ⇀ y and G is weakly sequentially closed. So, y ∈ G(rm (x)),

i.e., y ∈ Hm (x). Consequently, Hm has a weakly sequentially closed graph.

the fact that Hm (X) = G(mU ) and the hypothesis (ii).

Step 3: Hm (x) is closed, convex, and nonempty for all x ∈ X. This is an

immediate consequence of (iii).

i.e., there exists an xm such that xm ∈ λ0 H(rm (xm )). Notice that the case

p(xm ) ≤ m cannot occur, otherwise we get xm = λ0 H(xm ) which contradicts

our assumption. Hence, p(xm ) > m and thus

rm (xm )p(xm )

= λ0 H(rm (xm )).

n

nλ0

This gives that ym = ηm H(ym ) with ym = rm (xm ), ηm = p(xm ) < 1 and

p(ym ) = n. Q.E.D.

Fixed Point Theory under Weak Topology 87

tified with a multi-valued mapping having a weakly sequentially closed graph,

we obtain the following corollary.

sequentially continuous mapping. Assume that there exists a closed, convex,

balanced, and absorbing weak neighborhood U of θ such that the set F (mU ) is

relatively weakly compact for all m ∈ N. Then, either for any λ ∈ [0, 1] there

exists an x such that

x = λF (x)

Krasnosel’skii–Schaefer type fixed point theorem in the setting of weak topol-

ogy.

sequentially continuous mappings satisfying:

(ii) there exists a closed convex, balanced and absorbing weak neighborhood U

of θ such that the set A(nU ) is relatively weakly compact for all n ∈ N,

(xnk )k of (xn )n , and

Then, either for any λ ∈ [0, 1] there exists an x ∈ X such that x = λB( xλ ) +

λAx or the set {x ∈ X : ∃ λ ∈]0, 1[, x = λB( λx ) + λAx} is unbounded.

F : X −→ X by:

F y := (I − B)−1 Ay.

a sequence in (I − B)(X) such that yn ⇀ y. By item (iii), there exists a

subsequence (xϕ(n) )n converging weakly to x′ ∈ X. The weakly sequentially

continuity of I−B leads to (I−B)xϕ(n) ⇀ (I−B)x′ . So, y = (I−B)x′ and then

x′ = (I − B)−1 y. Using the same reasoning as in the proof of Theorem 2.3.6,

88 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

Since A is weakly sequentially continuous, then it is so for F.

Step 2: F (nU ) is relatively weakly compact. The result can be seen in the

same way as in Step 1 of the first part of the proof of Theorem 2.4.4.

Consequently, using Corollary 2.5.2, we get the desired result.

Second, if I − B is not invertible, (I − B)−1 could be seen as a multi-valued

mapping. For any given y ∈ Ω, define H : X −→ P (X) by:

Hy := (I − B)−1 Ay.

H is well defined by assumption (i). Now, arguing as in the proof of the second

part of Theorem 2.4.4, we prove that H satisfies the hypotheses of Theorem

2.5.6. So, using this theorem, we get the desired result. Q.E.D.

sequentially continuous mappings satisfying:

(ii) there exists a closed convex, balanced, and absorbing weak neighborhood U

of θ such that the set A(nU ) is relatively weakly compact for all n ∈ N, and

Then, either for any λ ∈ [0, 1] there exists an x ∈ X such that x = λB( xλ ) +

λAx or the set {x ∈ X : ∃ λ ∈]0, 1[, x = λB( λx ) + λAx} is unbounded.

Proof. The result follows immediately from Theorem 2.5.7 and Remark 2.4.1

(i). Q.E.D.

weakly sequentially continuous mappings

We end this section with a Furi–Pera fixed point theorem for the sum of two

weakly sequentially continuous mappings.

space (X, k.k). Assume that M is a closed convex subset of Ω with θ ∈ M,

A : M −→ X and B : Ω −→ X two weakly sequentially continuous mappings

such that:

Fixed Point Theory under Weak Topology 89

(xn )n ,

(iii) for every y in the range of I − B, Dy = {x ∈ Ω such that (I − B)x = y}

is a convex set.

In addition, suppose that:

(iv) There exists a weakly sequentially continuous retraction r : X −→ M,

{x ∈ X such that d(x, M ) ≤ δ} ⊂ Mδ , here, d(x, y) = kx − yk, and

(vi) for any Kε = {x ∈ X such that d(x, M ) ≤ ε, 0 < ε ≤ δ} , if {(xj , λj )}∞

j=1

is a sequence in M × [0, 1] with xj ⇀ x ∈ ∂Kε M, λj → λ and x =

λA(x) + λB( λx ), 0 < λ < 1, then λj (I − B)−1 A(xj ) ⊂ M for j sufficiently

large, here ∂Kε M denotes the weak boundary of M in Kε .

Ω by:

F y := (I − B)−1 Ay.

Step 1: Arguing as in Step 1 of the first part of the proof of Theorem 2.5.5,

we get F (M ) is relatively weakly compact.

same reasoning as in Step 2 of the first part of the proof of Theorem 2.5.5, we

get F is weakly sequentially continuous.

∞

Step 3: For any Kε = {x ∈ X : d(x, M ) ≤ ε, 0 < ε ≤ δ} , if {(xj , λj )}j=1 is a

sequence in M × [0, 1] with xj ⇀ x ∈ ∂Kε M, λj → λ and x = λF (x), 0 < λ <

1, then λj F (xj ) ⊂ M for j sufficiently large. This is an immediate consequence

of assumption (vi). Consequently, taking into account the assumptions (iv)

and (v), and using Corollary 2.4.4, we deduce that there exists x ∈ M such

that x = F (x). This implies that A + B has, at least, a fixed point in M.

multi-valued mapping. For any given y ∈ M, define H : M −→ P (Ω) by:

Hy := (I − B)−1 Ay.

90 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

quence of assumption (iii).

Step 2: H has a weakly sequentially closed graph. The assumption may be

seen in the same way as the one in Step 2 of the second part of the proof of

Theorem 2.5.5.

Step 3: H(M ) is relatively weakly compact.

∞

Step 4: For any Kε = {x ∈ X : d(x, M ) ≤ ε, 0 < ε ≤ δ} , if {(xj , λj )}j=1 is

a sequence in M × [0, 1] with xj ⇀ x ∈ ∂Kε M, λj → λ and x ∈ λH(x),

0 < λ < 1, then λj H(xj ) ⊂ M for j sufficiently large. The assumption follows

from assumption (vi). In view of Theorem 2.4.8, we deduce that H has, at

least, a fixed point in M. Q.E.D.

Chapter 3

Fixed Point Theory in Banach

Algebras

the condition (P) (see Definition 1.5.2). The central goal is to prove some

new fixed point theorems under a weak topology setting for maps acting on

a nonempty, closed, and convex subset of a Banach algebra satisfying or not

the condition (P). Our main conditions are formulated in terms of weak se-

quential continuity, dealing with three nonlinear operators. Moreover, no weak

continuity conditions are required for this work. In addition, some fixed results

using the notion of WC–Banach algebras are discussed.

In 1988, B. C. Dhage in [66] proved a fixed point theorem involving three

operators in a Banach algebra by combining the Banach’s fixed point theorem

with Schauder’s fixed point principle.

Theorem 3.1.1 Let S be a closed, convex, and bounded subset of a Banach

algebra X and let A, B, C : S −→ S be three operators such that:

−1

(ii) I−C

A exists on B(S), I being the identity operator on X,

(iii) B is completely continuous, and

(iv) Ax.By + Cx ∈ S ∀ x, y ∈ S.

Ax.Bx + Cx = x (3.1)

91

92 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

Remark 3.1.1 Notice that the symbol I−CA means the mapping defined by:

I −C

(x) = (x − Cx).(Ax)−1 ,

A

where (Ax)−1 denotes the inverse of Ax in the Banach algebra X.

and convex subset of X. Let A, C : X −→ X and B : S −→ X be three

operators such that:

−1

(i) I−C

A exists on B(S),

−1

(ii) I−C

A B is weakly sequentially continuous,

−1

(iii) I−C

A B(S) is relatively weakly compact, and

(iv) x = Ax.By + Cx =⇒ x ∈ S, for all y ∈ S.

Proof. From assumption (i), it follows that, for each y in S, there exists a

unique xy ∈ X such that

I −C

xy = By. (3.2)

A

or, equivalently

Axy .By + Cxy = xy . (3.3)

Since the hypothesis (iv) holds, then xy ∈ S. Therefore, we can define

N : S −→ S

−1

I −C

y −→ N y = By.

A

By using the hypotheses (ii), (iii), combined with Theorem 2.2.1, we conclude

that N has, at least, a fixed point y in S. Hence, y verifies Eq. (3.1). Q.E.D.

Theorem 3.1.3 Let S be a nonempty, closed, convex, and bounded subset of

a Banach algebra X, and let A : X −→ X, B : S −→ X be two operators such

that:

Fixed Point Theory in Banach Algebras 93

I −1

(ii) A exists on B(S), I being the identity operator on X,

(iv) x = Ax.By =⇒ x ∈ S, for all y ∈ S.

Then, the operator equation Ax.Bx = x has a solution whenever M Φ(r) < r,

r > 0 where M = kB(S)k.

−1

I

T = B,

A

where I represents the identity operator on X. The conclusion of the theorem

follows if we show that T is well defined and also maps S into itself. Since

I −1

I −1

A exists on B(S), the composition A B is a well-defined map from

S into X. We claim that

−1

I

B : S −→ S. (3.4)

A

In order to prove this, it is sufficient to show that

I

B(S) ⊂ (S). (3.5)

A

For this purpose, let y ∈ S be fixed and let us define the operator

(

Ay : X −→ X

x −→ Ax.By.

For any x1 , x2 ∈ X, by using hypothesis (i), we have

Hence, by applying a fixed point theorem of Boyd and Wong (see Theorem

1.6.10), there exists a unique point x∗ in X, such that

94 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

I

x∗ = By.

A

This proves the claim (3.5) and consequently, (3.4). It is easy to check that

I −1

A is well defined on B(S). Since T is a composition of a continuous and

a completely continuous operator, then it is a completely continuous operator

on S. Now, we may apply Schauder’s fixed point theorem in order to deduce

the desired result. Q.E.D.

a Banach algebra X, and let A : X −→ X, B : S −→ X be two operators,

such that:

I

(ii) A is well defined and one to one,

(iv) x = Ax.By =⇒ x ∈ S, for all y ∈ S.

where M = kB(S)k.

orem 3.1.3. Let us consider the equation

x = Ax.By,

I

x = By.

A

Moreover, this also implies that

I

A x = kByk.

Proposition 3.1.1 Let S be a nonempty, closed, convex, and bounded subset

of a Banach algebra X such that S = {y ∈ X, kyk ≤ r} for some real number

r > 0. Let A : X −→ X, B : S −→ X be two operators satisfying the

hypotheses (i)–(iii) of Theorem 3.1.3. Further, if

I

kxk ≤

A x , (3.7)

Fixed Point Theory in Banach Algebras 95

closed, and convex subset of X. Let A, C : X −→ X and B : S −→ X be three

operators such that:

(ii) A is regular on X, i.e., A maps X into the set of all invertible elements

of X, and

−1

Then, I−C A exists on B(S) whenever M φA (r) + φC (r) < r, for r > 0.

(

ϕy : X −→ X

x −→ ϕy (x) = Ax.By + Cx.

Let x1 , x2 ∈ X. The use of the assumption (i) leads to

Now, by applying a fixed point theorem of Boyd and Wong (see Theorem

1.6.10), we deduce that there exists a unique element xy ∈ X such that

ϕy (xy ) = xy .

Hence, xy verifies Eq. (3.3) and so, by virtue of the hypothesis (ii), xy verifies

−1

Eq. (3.2). Therefore, the mapping I−C A is well defined on B(S), and

−1

I −C

By = xy ,

A

In what follows, we will combine Theorem 3.1.2 and Proposition 3.1.2 in order

to obtain the following fixed point theorems in Banach algebras.

96 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

operators such that:

(i) A and C are D-Lipschitzian with the D-functions φA and φC respectively,

(ii) A is regular on X,

−1

(v) I−C

A is weakly compact on B(S), and

(vi) x = Ax.By + Cx =⇒ x ∈ S, for all y ∈ S.

Then, Eq. (3.1) has, at least, one solution in S whenever M φA (r)+φC (r) < r,

for all r > 0.

I−C −1

Proof. From Proposition 3.1.2, it follows that A exists on B(S). By

virtue of assumption (vi), we obtain

−1

I −C

B(S) ⊂ S.

A

Moreover, the use of the hypotheses (iv) and (v) implies that

−1

I −C

B(S)

A

−1

I −C

B

A

such that un ⇀ u in S. By virtue of the assumption (iii), we have

Bun → Bu.

I−C −1

Since A is a continuous mapping on B(S), we deduce that

−1 −1

I −C I −C

Bun → Bu.

A A

−1

This shows that I−CA B is weakly sequentially continuous. Finally, an ap-

plication of Theorem 2.2.1 shows that Eq. (3.1) has a solution in S. Q.E.D.

Fixed Point Theory in Banach Algebras 97

algebra X. Let A, C : X −→ X and B : S −→ X be three operators such that:

(i) A and C are D-Lipschitzian with the D-functions φA and φC , respectively,

(iii) A is regular on X,

−1

(iv) I−CA is weakly sequentially continuous on B(S), and

Then, Eq. (3.1) has, at least, one solution in S whenever M φA (r)+φC (r) < r,

for all r > 0.

Proof. Similarly to the proof of the preceding Theorem 3.1.4, we show that

I−C −1

A exists on B(S), and

−1

I −C

B(S) ⊂ S.

A

−1

Since I−CA and B are weakly sequentially continuous, then by composi-

tion, we show that

−1

I −C

B

A

is weakly sequentially continuous. Finally, we claim that

−1

I −C

B(S)

A

is relatively weakly compact. To see this, let {un } be any sequence in S, and

let −1

I −C

vn = Bun .

A

Since B(S) is relatively weakly compact, we deduce that there is a renamed

subsequence {Bun } weakly converging to an element w. This fact, together

with hypothesis (iv), implies that

−1 −1

I −C I −C

vn = Bun ⇀ w.

A A

−1

We infer that I−C A B(S) is sequentially relatively weakly compact. An

application of Eberlein–Šmulian’s theorem (see Theorem 1.3.3) implies that

−1

I −C

B(S)

A

98 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

is relatively weakly compact, which proves our claim. The result is deduced

immediately from Theorem 3.1.2. Q.E.D.

In [70], B. C. Dhage gave a proof of the next theorem in the case of a Lips-

chitzian mapping. Here, we give a proof for the case of D-Lipschitzian maps.

algebra X, and let A, C : X −→ X and B : S −→ X be three operators such

that:

(i) A and C are D-Lipschitzian with the D-functions φA and φC , respectively,

(ii) B is completely continuous, and

(iii) x = Ax.By + Cx =⇒ x ∈ S, for all y ∈ S.

Then, the operator A.B+C has, at least, a fixed point in S whenever M φA (r)+

φC (r) < r, for r > 0 and IdR − M φA + φC is strictly increasing, where

M = kB(S)k.

(

Ay : X −→ X

x −→ Ax.By + Cx.

ψ given by:

ψ(r) = M φA (r) + φC (r) < r, for r ∈ R+ .

To see this, let us observe that

≤ M φA + φC (kx1 − x2 k)

Wong (see Theorem 1.6.10), we deduce that there exists a unique point z ∈ X

such that

Ay (z) = z

or, equivalently

Az.By + Cz = z.

Since the hypothesis (iii) holds for all y ∈ S, then we have z ∈ S. Let us

define a mapping (

N : S −→ X

y −→ z

Fixed Point Theory in Banach Algebras 99

Az.By + Cz = z, y ∈ S.

Now, let us show that N is continuous. To do this, let {yn } be any sequence

in S converging to a point y and set zn = N yn . Since S is closed, then y ∈ S.

Moreover, let us notice that

Hence,

L ≤ (M φA + φC ) L + kAN yk lim supkByn − Byk,

n

where

L := lim supkN yn − N yk.

n

lim kN yn − N yk = 0

n→+∞

compact operator on S. In fact, for any point z ∈ S, we have

kz − ak

kAzk ≤ kAak + φA (kz − ak) < kAak + ≤ c,

M

where

diam(S)

c = kAak +

M

for some point a in S. Let ε > 0 be given. Since B(S) is a totally bounded

subset, there exists a subset Y = {y1 , . . . , yn } of points in S such that

n

[

B(S) ⊂ Bδ (wi ),

i=1

ball in X centered at wi of radius δ. Therefore, for any y in S, we have a yk

in Y such that

ckByk − Byk < ε − M φA (ε) + φC (ε) . (3.8)

100 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

We also have

< (M φA + φC )(kzk − zk) + ckByk − Byk.

Then,

IdR − M φA + φC (kN yk − N yk) < ckByk − Byk.

kN yk − N yk < ε.

n

[

N (S) ⊂ Bε (zi ),

i=1

continuous operator on S and N (S) is totally bounded. Summing up, N is

completely continuous on S. Hence, an application of Schauder’s fixed point

theorem shows that N has, at least, a fixed point in S.

Then, by using the definition of N , we obtain

x = N x = Ax.Bx + Cx

Now, if A, B, and C are maps on a bounded, closed, and convex nonempty

subset S of a Banach algebra X into itself, and if the following assumption

holds

−1 −1

I −C I

(ℵ) = (I − C)−1 ,

A A

a Banach algebra X, and let A, B, and C : S −→ S be three operators such

that:

Fixed Point Theory in Banach Algebras 101

I −1

(ii) A exists on B(S) satisfying (ℵ), I being the identity operator on X,

(iv) Ax.By + Cx ∈ S, for all x, y ∈ S.

Then, the operator A.B+C has, at least, a fixed point in S whenever M φA (r)+

φC (r) < r, where M = kB(S)k.

N : S −→ S

−1

I −C

x −→ Bx.

A

Since φC (r) < r for all r > 0, then (I − C)−1 exists on S. Again, the operator

I −1

A exists in view of the hypothesis (ii). By using the assumption (ℵ), we

deduce that −1

I −C

exists on B(S).

A

Let us show that N is well defined. It is sufficient to prove that

I −C

B(S) ⊂ (S).

A

where M φA (r) + φC (r) < r for all r > 0. Hence, by applying a fixed point

theorem of Boyd and Wong (see Theorem 1.6.10), we deduce that there exists

a unique point x∗ ∈ S, such that

or, equivalently

I −C

By = x∗ .

A

102 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

−1

Hence, I−C

A B defines a mapping

−1

I −C

B : S −→ S.

A

−1

Next, let us show that the operator I−C

A is continuous. For this purpose,

let {yn } be any sequence in B(S) converging to a point y, and let

−1

x = I −C

(yn )

n A

−1

I −C

x= (y).

A

So,

xn = Axn .yn + Cxn

x = Ax.y + Cx.

Now, we have

≤ (M φA + φC )(kxn − xk) + kAxkkyn − yk.

I−C −1

This shows that lim kxn − xk = 0 and consequently, A is continuous

n→+∞

on B(S). From the hypothesis (iii), it follows that N is completely continu-

ous on S into itself. Hence, an application of Schauder’s fixed point theorem

implies that N has, at least, a fixed point in S. Q.E.D.

I −1 I

Remark 3.1.2 Note that A exists if A is well defined and one-to-one

I

on X. Further, A is well defined, if A is regular, i.e., A maps S into the set

of all invertible elements of X.

condition (P)

Theorem 3.1.8 Let X be a Banach algebra satisfying condition (P). Let S

be a nonempty, closed, and convex subset of X. Let A, C : X −→ X and

B : S −→ X be three operators such that:

Fixed Point Theory in Banach Algebras 103

(ii) A is regular on X,

−1

(v) I−C

A is weakly compact on B(S), and

Then, Eq. (3.1) has, at least, one solution in S whenever M φA (r)+φC (r) < r,

for all r > 0.

I−C −1

Proof. Similarly to the proof of Theorem 3.1.4, we may deduce that A

exists on B(S),

−1

I −C

B(S) ⊂ S,

A

and −1

I −C

B(S)

A

is relatively weakly compact. In view of Theorem 2.2.1, it is sufficient to es-

tablish that −1

I −C

B

A

is weakly sequentially continuous. For this purpose, let {un } be a weakly

convergent sequence of S to a point u in S. Now, we define the sequence {vn }

of the subset S by:

−1

I −C

vn = Bun .

A

−1

Since I−CA B(S) is relatively weakly compact, then there is a renamed

subsequence such that

−1

I −C

vn = Bun ⇀ v.

A

Therefore, from the assumption (iii), and in view of condition (P), we deduce

that v verifies the following equation

v − Cv = Av.Bu,

104 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

or, equivalently

−1

I −C

v= Bu.

A

Next, we claim that the whole sequence {un } verifies

−1

I −C

Bun = vn ⇀ v.

A

Indeed, let us suppose that this is not the case. Then, there is V w , a weakly

neighborhood of v, satisfying for all n ∈ N, the existence of an N ≥ n such

that vN ∈ / V w . Hence, there is a renamed subsequence {vn } verifying the

property

for all n ∈ N, vn ∈/ V w. (3.9)

However,

−1

I −C

for all n ∈ N, vn ∈ B(S).

A

Again, there is a renamed subsequence such that

vn ⇀ v ′ .

−1

I −C

v′ = Bu,

A

and consequently,

v = v′ ,

−1

I −C

B

A

Corollary 3.1.2 Let X be a Banach algebra satisfying condition (P), and let

S be a nonempty, closed, and convex subset of X. Let A, C : X −→ X and

B : S −→ X be three operators such that:

(ii) A is regular on X,

Fixed Point Theory in Banach Algebras 105

(iv) A(S), B(S), and C(S) are relatively weakly compact, and

Then, Eq. (3.1) has, at least, one solution in S whenever M φA (r)+φC (r) < r,

for all r > 0.

−1

I −C

B(S)

A

let −1

I −C

vn = Bun . (3.10)

A

Since B(S) is relatively weakly compact, then there is a renamed subsequence

{Bun } weakly converging to an element w. Moreover, by using Eq. (3.10), we

get

vn = Avn .Bun + Cvn . (3.11)

subsequence such that Avn ⇀ x and Cvn ⇀ y. Hence, in view of the condition

(P) and Eq. (3.11), we obtain

vn ⇀ x.w + y.

I −C

B(S)

A

is sequentially relatively weakly compact. By applying the Eberlein–Šmulian

−1

theorem (see Theorem 1.3.3), we deduce that I−C A B(S) is relatively

weakly compact. Q.E.D.

Now, we may briefly discuss the existence of positive solutions. Let X1 and X2

be two Banach algebras, with positive closed cones X1+ and X2+ , respectively.

An operator G from X1 into X2 is said to be positive if it carries the positive

cone X1+ into X2+ i.e., G(X1+ ) ⊂ X2+ .

106 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

Theorem 3.1.9 Let X be a Banach algebra satisfying condition (P) and let

S be a nonempty, closed, and convex subset of X such that S + = S ∩ X + =

6 ∅.

Let A, C : X −→ X and B : S −→ X be three operators such that:

(ii) A is regular on X,

(iv) A(S + ), B(S + ), and C(S + ) are relatively weakly compact, and

Then, Eq. (3.1) has, at least, one solution in S + whenever M + φA (r)+φC (r) <

r, for all r > 0, where M + = kB(S + )k.

Proposition 3.1.2, it follows that

−1

I −C

A

−1

I −C

B(S + ) ⊂ S + .

A

N : S + −→ S +

−1

I −C

y −→ N y = By.

A

Now, by applying Corollary 3.1.2, we deduce that N has, at least, a fixed

point in S + . As a result, by using the definition of N , Eq. (3.1) has a solution

in S + . Q.E.D.

In the remainder of this chapter, ω denotes the De Blasi measure of weak

noncompactness.

Fixed Point Theory in Banach Algebras 107

weakly closed subset of X. Suppose that there exists a weakly sequentially con-

tinuous operator F : Ω −→ Ω. Let x0 ∈ Ω. If the following implication:

holds for every subset V of Ω, then F has, at least, one fixed point in Ω.

n=0 by the formula

the set S is relatively weakly sequentially compact. Therefore, there exists a

renamed subsequence {xn }∞ n=0 such that xn ⇀ x ∈ Ω. Since F is weakly

sequentially continuous, it follows that F (xn ) = xn+1 converges weakly to

both x and F x, so that F x = x. Q.E.D.

and closed subset of X. Suppose there is an operator F : Ω −→ Ω which is

weakly sequentially continuous and condensing with respect to ω. In addition,

assume that F (Ω) is bounded. Then, F has, at least, one fixed point in Ω.

recursively. Let us fix an arbitrary x0 in Ω. Let

Q0 ⊆ Q1 ⊆ ... ⊆ Qn ⊆ ... ⊆ Ω.

∞

[

Let Q = Qn . Since Qn−1 ⊆ Qn for n = 1, 2, ...., hence, Q is convex. Now,

n=0

we claim that Q = co ({x0 } ∪ F (Q)). Let us denote by Q∗ = co ({x0 } ∪ F (Q)).

Since F (Qn ) ⊆ Q for n = 0, 1, 2, ...., then,

∞

[

F (Q) = F (Qn ) ⊆ Q,

n=0

{x0 } ∪ F (Q) ⊆ Q.

108 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

Q∗ ⊆ Q. (3.13)

∞

[

Q= co ({x0 } ∪ F (Qn−1 )) ⊆ co ({x0 } ∪ F (Q)) = Q∗ . (3.14)

n=1

Q∗ = Q.

Qw = Q = co ({x0 } ∪ F (Q)).

quently, Qw is weakly compact. Hence, F : Qw −→ Ω is weakly continuous

(see [10]). Knowing that F (Qw ) ⊆ F (Q)w ⊆ Qw (⊆ Ω), we may apply the

Arino–Gautier–Penot theorem (see Theorem 1.6.9) (consider the locally con-

vex topological vector space S = (S, w) and note that F : Qw −→ Qw is

continuous where Qw is a compact, convex subset of S) to infer that F has,

at least, one fixed point in Qw . Q.E.D.

Gautier–Penot theorem, we can prove that Theorem 3.1.11 is a consequence

of Theorem 3.1.10. In fact, since Ω is a nonempty, convex, and closed subset

of X then, Ω is a nonempty and weakly closed subset of X. Now, let V be a

subset of Ω such that V = F (V ) ∪ {x0 }. The use of a property of the measure

ω leads to ω(V ) = ω(F (V )). Since F is a condensing map with respect to ω,

we must have ω(V ) = 0. Therefore, V is relatively weakly compact. By using

Eberlein–Šmulian’s theorem (see Theorem 1.3.3), it follows that V is weakly

sequentially relatively compact. Now, by applying Theorem 3.1.10, we deduce

that there exists x ∈ Ω such that x = F (x).

Remark 3.1.4 Under the assumptions of the above Theorem 3.1.11, the set

of fixed points of F belonging to Ω, is relatively weakly compact.

Fixed Point Theory in Banach Algebras 109

In the remainder of this section, we assume that the Banach space X has the

structure of a Banach algebra satisfying the condition (P).

operator F : Ω −→ X is of the form F x = Ax + Lx.U x, where:

noncompactness ω, and

Now, by using the hypothesis (ii) and in view of Lemma 1.5.2, we deduce that

ω(F (V )) ≤ γω(L(V ))

≤ λγω(V ).

the measure ω. Q.E.D.

By combining Theorems 3.1.11 and 3.1.12, we get the following fixed point

result:

let us suppose that the operator F : Ω −→ X is of the form F x = Ax+ Lx.U x,

where:

(i) L : Ω −→ X is weakly sequentially continuous on Ω and λ-set-contraction

with respect to the measure of weak noncompactness ω,

compact, and

(iii) Ax + Lx.U x ∈ Ω, x ∈ Ω.

110 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

If F (Ω) = (A + L.U )(Ω) and U (Ω) are bounded subsets of X, then F has, at

least, one fixed point in Ω whenever 0 ≤ λγ < 1, where γ := ||U (Ω)||.

Notice that when the scalar λ (used in the previous theorem) vanishes, we

have the following result:

suppose that the operator F : Ω −→ X is of the form F x = Ax + Lx.U x,

where:

weakly compact, and

(ii) Ax + Lx.U x ∈ Ω, x ∈ Ω.

If F (Ω) = (A + L.U )(Ω) and U (Ω) are bounded subsets of X, then F has, at

least, one fixed point in Ω.

operator F : Ω −→ X is of the form F x = Ax + Lx.U x, where:

(ii) A, U : Ω −→ X are weakly compact.

to ω.

3.1.12, one has

w

ω(F (V )) ≤ ω(L(V ).U (V ) )

≤ γω(L(V )).

Then,

ω(F (V )) ≤ ω(L(V )).

also a condensing map with respect to ω. Q.E.D.

pose that the operator F : Ω −→ X is of the form F x = Ax + Lx.U x, where:

Fixed Point Theory in Banach Algebras 111

map with respect to the measure of weak noncompactness ω,

(ii) A and U : Ω −→ X are weakly sequentially continuous on Ω and also

weakly compact, and

(iii) Ax + Lx.U x ∈ Ω, x ∈ Ω.

If F (Ω) = (A + L.U )(Ω) and U (Ω) are bounded subsets of X, then F has, at

least, one fixed point in Ω whenever 0 ≤ γ ≤ 1, where γ := ||U (Ω)||.

Notice that, there is a relation between α-Lipschitzian and λ-set-contraction

maps with respect to ω:

α and is weakly sequentially continuous on X, then L is α-set-contraction with

respect to ω.

ε > 0 be given. From the definition of ω, it follows that there exists a weakly

compact subset K of X such that V ⊂ K + (ω(V ) + α−1 ε)BX . Then, L(V ) ⊂

L(K) + α(ω(V ) + α−1 ε)BX , since L is α Lipschitzian. Knowing that K is

weakly compact and that L is weakly sequentially continuous on X, then

L : K −→ X is weakly continuous. Hence, L(K) is weakly compact. We infer

that

ω(L(V )) ≤ αω(V ) + ε,

and since ε is arbitrary, this implies that

ω(L(V )) ≤ αω(V ).

Q.E.D.

following result:

Theorem 3.1.16 Let Ω be a nonempty subset of X and suppose that the

operator F : Ω −→ X is of the form F x = Ax + Lx.U x, where:

(i) L : X −→ X is Lipschitzian with a Lipschitz constant α and is weakly

sequentially continuous on X, and

respect to ω whenever αγ < 1.

112 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

with respect to ω. Now, our desired result follows immediately from Theorem

3.1.12. Q.E.D.

of X. Let A, L, and U be three operators such that:

sequentially continuous on X,

weakly compact, and

(iii) Ax + Lx.U x ∈ Ω, ∀x ∈ Ω.

Then, Eq. (3.1) has, at least, one fixed point in Ω whenever αγ < 1, where

γ := ||U (Ω)||.

Proof. We will show that the operator F satisfies all the conditions of Theo-

rem 3.1.11, where F is defined by:

F : Ω −→ X

x −→ F x = Ax + Lx.U x.

First, since A, L, and U are weakly sequentially continuous on Ω, and ac-

cording to condition (P), we infer that F is weakly sequentially continuous.

Clearly, F is a strict set-contraction with respect to ω, since αγ < 1. It fol-

lows that F is a condensing map with respect to ω. Finally, the use of the

hypothesis (iii) implies that F (Ω) ⊆ Ω and consequently, F (Ω) is bounded.

Then, Theorem 3.1.11 allow us to reach the desired result. Q.E.D.

a weakly compact operator on X, and suppose that x0 ∈ X. If there ex-

ists a nonempty, convex, closed, and bounded subset Ω of X such that

γ := ||U (Ω)|| < 1, and x0 + x.U x ∈ Ω, for each x ∈ Ω, then the equation

x = x0 + x.U x (3.15)

map x0 , then the desired result is deduced immediately from the preceding

Theorem 3.1.17. Q.E.D.

Fixed Point Theory in Banach Algebras 113

In what follows, we will discuss the existence of positive solutions for Eq.

(3.1) in an ordered Banach algebra (X, ||.||, ≤) satisfying condition (P), with

a positive closed cone X + . We recall that X + verifies (i) X + + X + ⊆ X + ,

(ii) λX + ⊆ X + for all λ ∈ R+ , (iii) {−X + } ∩ X + = {0}, where 0 is the

zero element of X, and (iv) X + · X + ⊆ X + , where “·” is a multiplicative

composition in X. We recall the following lemma proved in [72].

u1 , u2 , v1 , v2 ∈ K are such that u1 ≤ v1 and u2 ≤ v2 , then u1 .u2 ≤ v1 .v2 .

that Ω+ = Ω ∩ X + 6= ∅. Let A, L, U : Ω+ −→ X be three operators such that:

(ii) A(Ω+ ), L(Ω+ ), and U (Ω+ ) are relatively weakly compact, and

(iii) Ax + Lx.U x ∈ Ω+ , x ∈ Ω+ .

use of assumption (ii) implies that (A + L.U )(Ω+ ) and U (Ω+ ) are bounded

subsets of X. Now, we may apply Corollary 3.1.3 to infer that Eq. (3.1) has a

solution in Ω+ . Q.E.D.

that Ω+ = Ω ∩ X + =

6 ∅. Suppose that the operator F : Ω −→ X is of the form

F x = Ax + Lx.U x, where:

(i) L : Ω+ −→ X is weakly sequentially continuous on Ω+ and is a condensing

map with respect to the measure of weak noncompactness ω,

weakly compact, and

(iii) Ax + Lx.U x ∈ Ω+ , ∀x ∈ Ω+ .

has, at least, one fixed point in Ω+ whenever 0 ≤ γ + ≤ 1, where γ + :=

sup ||U x|| = ||U (Ω+ )||.

x ∈ Ω+

114 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

of X such that: Ω+ = Ω ∩ X + 6= ∅. Let A, L, and U be three operators such

that:

sequentially continuous on X,

(ii) A, and U : Ω+ −→ X are weakly sequentially continuous on Ω+ and are

weakly compact, and

(iii) Ax + Lx.U x ∈ Ω+ , x ∈ Ω+ .

Then, Eq. (3.1) has a solution x in Ω+ whenever αγ + < 1, where γ + :=

||U (Ω+ )||.

To close this section, we will prove the existence of positive solutions for Eq.

(3.15) in the Banach algebra C(K, X), the space of continuous functions from

K into X, endowed with the sup-norm ||.||∞ defined by ||f ||∞ := sup{||f (t)|| :

t ∈ K}, where K is a compact Hausdorff space. In the remainder of this

section, we suppose that X + verifies the following condition (H):

normal. It is known that if the cone X + is normal, then every order-bounded

subset is bounded in norm. We denote the cone of nonnegative functions in

C(K, X) by C+ (K) (i.e., C+ (K) = C(K, X + )) and for f1 , f2 ∈ C(K, X), we

will say that f1 ≤ f2 or (f2 ≥ f1 ) provided that f2 − f1 ∈ C+ (K). A map

F : C(K, X) −→ C(K, X) will be called isotone if f1 ≤ f2 , then F (f1 ) ≤ F(f2 ).

compact, and is an isotone map of C+ (K) into itself. For an arbitrary x0 in

C+ (K), define a sequence {xn }∞

n=0 by:

xn+1 = x0 + xn .U xn , n = 0, 1, 2, ....

n ∈ N

{xn }∞

n=0 of C+ (K) which is weakly convergent to a point x in C+ (K), and x

is a solution of Eq. (3.15) satisfying

Fixed Point Theory in Banach Algebras 115

F : C+ (K) −→ C+ (K)

x −→ F x = x0 + x.U x.

Then,

xn+1 = F xn , n = 0, 1, 2, ....

Hence, F maps the subset Q = {x0 , x1 , x2 , ....} into itself. Proceeding by

induction and using the fact that U is isotone together with Lemma 3.1.1, we

get for each t ∈ K:

that ω(F (Q)), the measure of weak noncompactness of F (Q), is just ω(Q).

Now, observe that F is a strict set-contraction with respect to ω, since α = 1

and 0 ≤ γ < 1. Hence, ω(Q) = 0. This, in turn, shows that Q is relatively

weakly compact. By using Eberlein–Šmulian’s theorem (Theorem 1.3.3), we

deduce that Q is weakly sequentially relatively compact. Consequently, there

is a renamed subsequence {xn }∞ n=0 which converges weakly to a point x in

+

C+ (K) (since X and consequently C+ (K) are weakly closed convex). This

fact, together with (3.16) leads to

Since U is weakly sequentially continuous, and using the fact that the Banach

algebra C(K, X) satisfies condition (P), we infer that F is weakly sequentially

116 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

that F x = x. Now, it remains to prove that xn ≤ x, for n = 0, 1, 2, .....

To show it, let us denote by {xϕ(n) }∞n=0 the subsequence in C+ (K) such that

xϕ(n) ⇀ x. Then, {xϕ(n) }∞n=0 is bounded. By using Dobrakov’s theorem (see

Theorem 1.4.1), we deduce that, for each t ∈ K : xϕ(n) (t) ⇀ x(t). Now, let us

fix an arbitrary n ∈ N. Then, for all p ≥ n, we get

Hence,

xϕ(p) (t) − xn (t) ∈ X + .

Therefore,

x(t) − xn (t) ∈ X + , as p → ∞.

This implies that

xn (t) ≤ x(t),

which leads to

xn ≤ x.

As a result, x satisfies the conclusion of Theorem 3.1.21, which completes the

proof. Q.E.D.

Let U : Ω −→ C+ (K) be weakly sequentially continuous and a weakly compact

operator. If U (Ω) is bounded, then the equation:

x0 = x + x.U x (3.17)

has, at least, one fixed point in Ω whenever γ := sup ||U x||∞ < 1.

x ∈ Ω

bound ||x0 || of the Banach algebra C(K, X). Eq. (3.17) is equivalent to the

equation

x = x0 + x.(−U x).

Let us fix x ∈ Ω. By definition, we have x ∈ C+ (K) and U x ∈ C+ (K). Then,

x.U x ∈ C+ (K).

x(t).U x(t) ∈ X + ,

Fixed Point Theory in Banach Algebras 117

and then,

x0 (t) − (x0 (t) − x(t).U x(t)) ∈ X + ,

x0 (t) ≥ x0 (t) − x(t).U x(t),

or, equivalently

x0 ≥ x0 + x.(−U x). (3.18)

get

x.U x ≤ x0 .U x,

x.U x ≤ x0 . (3.19)

x0 + x.(−U x) ∈ Ω,

for each x ∈ Ω. Now, the use of Corollary 3.1.4 allows us to achieve the proof.

Q.E.D.

Assume that U : Ω −→ C+ (K) is such that:

(iii) U is weakly compact.

Proof. The existence of the solution is proved in the above Theorem 3.1.22.

Now, we have to show its uniqueness. For this purpose, let us assume that x1

and x2 are two solutions of Eq. (3.17). Hence, it follows that

x1 + x1 .U x1 = x2 + x2 .U x2 .

Thus,

x1 − x2 = x2 .(U x2 − U x1 ) + (x2 − x1 ).U x1 .

118 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

Then,

Since (α||x0 || + γ) < 1, we must have x1 = x2 , which achieves the proof of the

uniqueness of the solution. Q.E.D.

Remark 3.1.5 The element x0 is invertible if, and only if, the solution x

of Eq. (3.17) is invertible. Indeed, Eq. (3.17) is equivalent to the equation

x0 = x(I +U x) where I represents the identity operator defined by Ix = x, x ∈

C+ (K). Since γ := sup ||U y||∞ < 1, then ||U x||∞ < 1 and consequently,

y ∈ Ω

P∞

(I + U x) is invertible (we recall that (I + U x)−1 = n=0 (−1)n (U x)n ).

In this section, we will prove some fixed point theorems for the sum and the

product of nonlinear weakly sequentially continuous operators acting on a

WC–Banach algebra. The main goal is to establish new variants of Theorem

3.1.1 for three operators acting on WC–Banach algebras, without using the

sequential condition (P). These new results are due to A. Jeribi, B. Krichen,

and B. Mefteh (see [105]).

First, let us recall the following definition.

Banach algebra, if the product W.W ′ of arbitrary weakly compact subsets W

and W ′ of X is weakly compact.

Even if X is a WC–Banach algebra, the set C(K, X) of all continuous functions

from K to X is also a WC–Banach algebra, where K is a compact Hausdorff

space. The proof is based on Dobrakov’s theorem (see Theorem 1.4.1).

Fixed Point Theory in Banach Algebras 119

algebra X. Then, we have the following inequality

WC–Banach algebra X. Let r and t be fixed numbers with r > ω(M ) and

t > ω(M ′ ). Then, we can find two weakly compact subsets W1 and W2 of X,

such that

M ⊂ W1 + Br , (3.20)

and

M ′ ⊂ W2 + Bt . (3.21)

Now, let z ∈ M.M ′ . Then, z can be represented in the form z = x.y with

x ∈ M and y ∈ M ′ . In view of (3.20) and (3.21), there exist w1 ∈ W1 ,

w2 ∈ W2 , u ∈ Br , and v ∈ Bt such that x = w1 + u and y = w2 + v. Hence,

we get

Hence, keeping in mind the fact that X is a WC–Banach algebra, and in view

of the definition of the De Blasi measure of weak noncompactness ω, we obtain

the following inequality.

ω(M.M ′ ) ≤ kM kt + kM ′ kr + rt.

Q.E.D.

120 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

Now, we are ready to state our first fixed point theorem in WC–Banach algebra

in order to provide the existence of solutions for the operator equation

x = Ax.Bx + Cx.

If (xn )n∈N ⊆ D(A) is a weakly convergent sequence in X, then

(A0 )

(Ax )

n n∈N has a strongly convergent subsequence in X.

a WC–Banach algebra X, and let A, C : X −→ X and B : S −→ X be three

weakly sequentially continuous operators, satisfying the following conditions:

−1

(i) I−C

A exists on B(S),

(iii) B is an ω-β-contraction,

(iv) C is an ω-α-contraction, and

γβ

whenever 1−α < 1, where γ = kA(S)k.

x = Ax.Bx + Cx

I − C −1

T := B.

A

From assumption (i), it follows that, for each y ∈ S, there is a unique xy ∈ X

such that

I −C

xy = By,

A

or, in an equivalent way,

Fixed Point Theory in Banach Algebras 121

well defined. In order to achieve the proof, we will apply Theorem 2.3.4. Hence,

we only have to prove that the operator T : S −→ S is weakly sequentially

continuous and ω-condensing. Indeed, let us consider (xn )n∈N as a sequence

in S which is weakly convergent to x. In this case, the set {xn : n ∈ N}

is relatively weakly compact, and since B is weakly sequentially continuous,

then {Bxn : n ∈ N} is also relatively weakly compact. By using the following

equality

combined with the facts that A(S) is relatively weakly compact and C is a

ω-α-contraction, we obtain the following:

ω {T xn : n ∈ N} ≤ ω {A(T xn )Bxn : n ∈ N} + ω {C(T xn ) : n ∈ N}

≤ αω {T xn : n ∈ N}

< ω {T xn : n ∈ N} .

a subsequence (xni )i∈N of (xn )n∈N such that T xni ⇀ y. Going back to Eq.

(3.22), to the weak sequential continuity of A, B, and C, and to the fact that A

verifies (A0 ), shows that there exists a subsequence (xnij )j∈N of (xni )i∈N such

that T xnij = A(T xnij )Bxnij + C(T xnij ) and then, y = T x. Consequently,

T xnij ⇀ T x. Now, we claim that T xn ⇀ T x. Let us suppose the contrary.

Then, there exist a subsequence (xni )i∈N of (xn )n∈N and a weak neighborhood

V w of T x, such that T xni 6∈ V w for all i ∈ N. Since (xni )i∈N converges weakly

to x, then arguing as before, we may extract a subsequence (xnij )k∈N of

k

(xni )i∈N , such that T xnij ⇀ T x, which is absurd, since T xnij 6∈ V w , for

k k

all k ∈ N. As a result, T is weakly sequentially continuous. Next, we will

prove that T is ω-condensing. For this purpose, let M be a subset of S with

ω(M) > 0. By using Eq. (3.22), we infer that

122 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

The properties of ω in Lemmas 1.4.1 and 3.2.1, when combined with the

assumptions (ii), (iii), and (iv) on A, B, and C, allow us to show that

and then,

γβ

ω(T (M)) ≤ ω(M).

1−α

This inequality means, in particular, that T is ω-condensing. Q.E.D.

a WC–Banach algebra X, and let A, C : X −→ X and B : S −→ X be three

weakly sequentially continuous operators satisfying the following conditions:

−1

(i) I−C

A exists on B(S),

(iii) A(S), B(S), and C(S) are relatively weakly compact, and

Then, the operator equation x = Ax.Bx + Cx has, at least, one solution in S.

−1

I −C

T (S) := B(S)

A

is relatively weakly compact. By using both Lemmas 1.4.1 and 3.2.1, and

knowing the weak compactness of A(S), B(S), and C(S), we infer that

This shows that ω(T (S)) = 0. Hence, T (S) is relatively weakly compact. The

use of Theorem 3.2.1 achieves the proof. Q.E.D.

a WC–Banach algebra X, and let A, C : X −→ X and B : S −→ X be three

weakly sequentially continuous operators satisfying the following conditions:

Fixed Point Theory in Banach Algebras 123

(i) B is a ω-δ-contraction,

where φC (r) < (1 − δQ)r for r > 0 and Q = kA(S)k,

and

Then, the operator equation x = Ax.Bx + Cx has, at least, one solution in S

whenever LφA (r) + φC (r) < r, where L = kB(S)k.

ϕy : X −→ X,

x−→ ϕy (x) = Ax.By + Cx.

≤ LφA (kx1 − x2 k) + φC (kx1 − x2 k).

Now, an application of Boyd’s and Wong’s fixed point theorem (see Theorem

1.6.10) shows the existence of a unique point xy ∈ X, such that

ϕy (xy ) = xy .

I − C −1

T := B : S −→ X

A

is well defined. Moreover, the use of assumption (iv) allows us to have T (S) ⊂

S. By using arguments similar to those used in the proof of Theorem 3.2.1, we

can deduce that the operator is weakly sequentially continuous. By applying

Theorem 2.3.4, it is sufficient to check that T is ω-condensing. In order to

achieve this, let M be a subset of S with ω(M) > 0. By using Eq. (3.22), we

have

T (M) ⊂ A(T (M))B(M) + C(T (M)).

124 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

Making use of Lemmas 1.4.1 and 3.2.1 together with the assumptions on A,

B, and C, enables us to have

which implies that ω(T (M)) = 0. Otherwise, by using the inequality φC (r) <

(1 − δQ)r for r > 0, we have

achieves the proof. Q.E.D.

a Banach algebra X, and let C : X −→ X and B : S −→ X be two weakly

sequentially continuous operators satisfying the following conditions:

(ii) B(S) is relatively weakly compact, and

(iii) (x = By + Cx, y ∈ S) =⇒ x ∈ S.

If we only take the function φC (r) = ζr, where ζ ∈ [0, 1 − δ) in the above

theorem, we obtain the following corollary:

a Banach algebra X, and let C : X −→ X and B : S −→ X be two weakly

sequentially continuous operators satisfying the following conditions:

(ii) B is a ω-δ-contraction, and

(iii) (x = By + Cx, y ∈ S) =⇒ x ∈ S.

Fixed Point Theory in Banach Algebras 125

Involving Three Operators

In what follows, we are going to give some nonlinear alternatives of the Leray–

Schauder type in a Banach algebra involving three operators.

X, let U ⊂ Ω be a weakly open set (with respect to the weak topology of Ω)

such that 0 ∈ U , and also let U w be a weakly compact subset of Ω. Let A,

C : X −→ X and B : U w −→ X be three operators satisfying the following

conditions:

(ii) A is regular on X, i.e., A maps X into the set of all invertible elements

of X,

(v) x = Ax.By + Cx ⇒ x ∈ Ω for all y ∈ U w , and

(vi) ( I−C

A )

−1

is weakly sequentially continuous on B(U w ).

Then, either

w

(b) there is an element u ∈ ∂Ω (U ) such that λA( uλ ).Bu + λC( uλ ) = u for some

0 < λ < 1.

φy (x) = Ax.By + Cx

126 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

X. Therefore, an application of Theorem 1.6.10 shows that φy has a unique

fixed point, say x in X. This means that there exists a unique x ∈ X, such

that

Ax.By + Cx = x.

By using the hypothesis (v), it is clear that x ∈ Ω. So, there exists a unique

x ∈ Ω such that

Ax.By + Cx = x.

By virtue of the hypothesis (ii), there exists a unique x ∈ Ω such that

I −C

x = By

A

and then,

−1

I −C

x= By.

A

Hence, ( I−C

A )

−1

B : U w −→ Ω is well defined. Since B is weakly sequentially

continuous on U w , and since ( I−C

A )

−1

is weakly sequentially continuous on

w I−C −1

B(U ), so by composition, we have ( A ) B is weakly sequentially contin-

uous on U w . Now, an application of Theorem 2.3.7 implies that either

(c) ( I−C

A )

−1

B has, at least, a fixed point, or

A )

−1

Bu.

A )

−1

B.

I−C

−1

Then, x = A Bx, which implies that

Ax.Bx + Cx = x.

Next, let us suppose that there exist an element u ∈ ∂Ω (U ) and a real number

−1

λ ∈]0, 1[ such that u = λ I−C

A Bu. Then,

−1

I −C u

Bu = ,

A λ

so that u u

λA .Bu + λC = u.

λ λ

This completes the proof. Q.E.D.

Notice that this result remains true even when C ≡ 0, and we get a nonlinear

alternative of the Leray–Schauder type in a Banach algebra for the product

of two operators.

Fixed Point Theory in Banach Algebras 127

let U ⊂ Ω be a weakly open set (with respect to the weak topology of Ω) such

that 0 ∈ U and also let U w be a weakly compact subset of Ω. Let A : X −→ X

and B : U w −→ X be two operators satisfying the following conditions:

(ii) A is regular on X,

I −1

(vi) ( A ) is weakly sequentially continuous on B(U w ).

Then, either

(b) there is an element u ∈ ∂Ω (U ) such that λA( uλ )Bu = u for some 0 < λ < 1.

Now, we may give some Leray–Schauder results for maps acting on Banach

algebras satisfying condition (P).

satisfying the condition (P) and let U ⊂ Ω be a weakly open set (with respect

to the weak topology of Ω) such that 0 ∈ U . Moreover, let A, C : X −→ X

and B : U w −→ X be three operators satisfying the following:

(ii) A is regular on X,

(iv) M ΦA (r) + ΦC (r) < r for r > 0,

quentially continuous on U w , and

(vii) ( I−C

A )

−1

B(U w ) is relatively weakly compact.

Then, either

128 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

(b) there is an element u ∈ ∂Ω (U ) such that λA( uλ ).Bu + λC( uλ ) = u for some

0 < λ < 1.

( I−C

A )

−1

B is well defined from U w to Ω, it suffices to establish that ( I−C

A )

−1

B

w

is weakly sequentially continuous on U . To see this, Let {un } be a weakly

convergent sequence of U w to a point u in U w . Now, let us define the sequence

{vn } of the subset Ω by:

−1

I −C

vn = Bun .

A

Since ( I−C

A )

−1

B(U w ) is relatively weakly compact, so there is a renamed

subsequence such that

−1

I −C

vn = Bun ⇀ v.

A

However, the subsequence {vn } verifies vn − Cvn = Avn .Bun . Therefore, from

assumption (vi) and in view of condition (P), we deduce that v verifies the

following equation

v − Cv = Av.Bu,

or equivalently,

−1

I −C

v= Bu.

A

Next, we claim that the whole sequence {un } verifies

−1

I −C

Bun = vn ⇀ v.

A

Indeed, let us suppose that this is not the case. So, there is V w , a weakly

neighborhood of v satisfying, for all n ∈ N, the existence of an N ≥ n such

that vN ∈ / V w . Hence, there is a renamed subsequence {vn } verifying the

property:

/ V w.

for all n ∈ N, { vn } ∈ (3.24)

−1

B(U w ). Again, there is a renamed

subsequence such that vn ⇀ v ′ . According to the preceding, we have v ′ =

( I−C

A )

−1

Bu and consequently, v ′ = v, which is in contradiction with Property

3.24. This shows that ( I−C

A )

−1

B is weakly sequentially continuous. In view of

Remark 2.3.4, an application of Theorem 2.3.7 implies that either

Fixed Point Theory in Banach Algebras 129

(e) ( I−C

A )

−1

B has, at least, a fixed point, or

A )

−1

Bu.

A )

−1

B.

I−C −1

Then, x = ( A ) Bx, which implies that

Ax.Bx + Cx = x.

w

Second, let us suppose that there exist an element u ∈ ∂Ω (U ) and a real

I−C −1

number λ ∈]0, 1[ such that u = λ( A ) Bu. Then,

−1

I −C u

Bu = ,

A λ

λA .Bu + λC = u.

λ λ

This completes the proof. Q.E.D.

Notice that this result remains true when C ≡ 0, and we get the following

results :

satisfying the condition (P), and let U ⊂ Ω be a weakly open set (with respect

to the weak topology of Ω) such that 0 ∈ U . Moreover, let A : X −→ X and

B : U w −→ X be two operators satisfying the following:

(i) A is D-Lipschitzian with the D-function ΦA ,

(ii) A is regular on X,

(v) x = Ax.By =⇒ x ∈ Ω for all y ∈ U w ,

continuous on U w , and

I −1

(vii) ( A ) B(U w ) is relatively weakly compact.

Then, either

w

(b) there is u ∈ ∂Ω (U ) such that λA( uλ ).Bu = u for some 0 < λ < 1.

130 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

satisfying the condition (P), and let U ⊂ Ω be a weakly open set (with respect

to the weak topology of Ω) such that 0 ∈ U . Besides, let A, C : X −→ X and

B : U w −→ X be three operators satisfying the following:

(ii) A is regular on X,

tially continuous on U w , and

Then, either

(b) there is u ∈ ∂Ω (U ) such that λA( uλ ).Bu + λC( uλ ) = u for some 0 < λ < 1.

A )

−1

B(U w )

is relatively weakly compact. To do this, let {un } be any sequence in (U w ),

and let I − C −1

vn = Bun . (3.25)

A

Since B(U w ) is relatively weakly compact, then there is a renamed subse-

quence {Bun } which is weakly converging to an element w. Moreover, by

using Eq. (3.25), we obtain

A )

−1

B(U w ), so by using the assumption (vi),

there is a renamed subsequence such that Avn ⇀ x and Cvn ⇀ y. Hence, in

view of both condition (P) and the last equation, we obtain

vn ⇀ x.w + y.

−1

B(U w ) is relatively weakly sequentially compact.

An application of the Eberlein–Šmulian theorem shows that ( I−CA )

−1

B(U w )

is relatively weakly compact. Q.E.D.

Fixed Point Theory in Banach Algebras 131

satisfying the condition (P), and let U ⊂ Ω be a weakly open set (with respect

to the weak topology of Ω) such that 0 ∈ U . Moreover, let A : X −→ X and

B : U w −→ X be two operators satisfying the following:

(ii) A is regular on X,

continuous on U w , and

Then, either

(b) there is u ∈ ∂Ω (U ) such that λA( uλ ).Bu = u for some 0 < λ < 1.

In this section, our main interest is dealing with some fixed point results for

convex-power condensing operators. Throughout this section, S is a nonempty,

closed, and convex subset of X. Let us first recall the following result proved

by R. P. Agarwal, D. O’Regan, and M. A. Taoudi in [5].

and convex-power condensing with respect to ω. If F (S) is bounded, then F

has, at least, one fixed point in S.

and convex-power condensing with respect to ω. If F (S) is bounded, then the

set A of fixed points of F is nonempty and weakly compact in S.

132 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

Proof. Using the preceding Theorem 3.4.1, the set A is nonempty. Now, let

us prove that A is weakly compact in S. Indeed, since A = F (A) ⊂ F (S),

then A is bounded. Moreover,

A ⊂ co{F (2,x0 ) (A), x0 }.

Consequently,

A ⊂ F (3,x0 ) (A).

The continuation of this procedure leads to:

sequentially weak continuity of F , A is sequentially weakly closed. By using

the Eberlein–Šmulian theorem (see Theorem 1.3.3), it follows that A is a

weakly closed subset of S. As a result, A is weakly compact in S. Q.E.D.

tor. If there exist x0 ∈ S, k ∈ [0, 1), and a positive integer n0 (n0 ≥ 1) such

that, for any bounded subset V ⊂ S, we have

ω F (n0 ,x0 ) (V ) ≤ kω(V )

and if we assume that F (S) is bounded, then F has, at least, one fixed point

in S.

ws-compactness of the operator F instead of weakly sequentially continuous.

Moreover, they generalize this result as follows:

with 0 ∈ int S. Let F : S −→ X be a ws-compact operator and convex-

power condensing about 0 and n0 with respect to ω. If F (S) is bounded and

F (∂S) ⊂ S, then F has, at least, a fixed point in S.

Theorem 3.4.4 Let X be a Banach space, and let ψ be a regular and set

additive measure of weak noncompactness on X. Let C be a nonempty, closed,

and convex subset of X, x0 ∈ C, and let n0 be a positive integer. Suppose that

F : C −→ C is ψ-convex-power condensing about x0 and n0 . If F is ws-

compact and if F (C) is bounded, then F has, at least, a fixed point in C.

Fixed Point Theory in Banach Algebras 133

Proof. Let

T

The set F is nonempty since C ∈ F . Set M = A∈F A. Now, let us show

that, for any positive integer n, we have

M = co F (n,x0 ) (M ) ∪ {x0 } . P(n)

subset of C and F (M ) ⊂ M . Thus, M ∈ F. This implies that

co (F (M ) ∪ {x0 }) ⊂ M.

Hence,

F (co (F (M ) ∪ {x0 })) ⊂ F (M ) ⊂ co (F (M ) ∪ {x0 }) .

Consequently,

co (F (M ) ∪ {x0 }) ∈ F.

Hence,

M ⊂ co (F (M ) ∪ {x0 }) .

As a result, co (F (M ) ∪ {x0 }) = M . This shows that P(1) holds. Let n be

fixed, and suppose that P(n) holds. This implies that

F (n+1,x0 ) (M ) = F (co F (n,x0 ) (M ) ∪ {x0 } = F (M ).

Consequently,

co F (n+1,x0 ) (M ) ∪ {x0 } = co (F (M ) ∪ {x0 }) = M.

As a result,

co F (n0 ,x0 ) (M ) ∪ {x0 } = M.

Knowing that F (C) is bounded also implies that M is bounded. By using the

properties of the measure of weak noncompactness, we get

ψ(M ) = ψ co F (n0 ,x0 ) (M ) ∪ {x0 } = ψ F (n0 ,x0 ) (M ) ,

relatively compact. To do this, let us consider a sequence (yn )n ∈ F (M ). For

each n ∈ N, there exists xn ∈ M with yn = F xn . Now, the Eberlein–Šmulian

theorem (Theorem 1.3.3) guarantees the existence of a subsequence S of N so

134 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

(F xn )n∈S has a strongly convergent subsequence. Thus, F (M ) is relatively

compact. Keeping in mind that F (M ) ⊂ M , the result follows from Schauder’s

fixed point theorem. Q.E.D.

Theorem 3.4.5 Let X be a Banach space, and let ψ be a regular set additive

measure of weak noncompactness on X. Let Q be a closed and convex subset

of X with 0 ∈ Q, and let n0 be a positive integer. Assume that F : X −→ X

is ws-compact and ψ-convex-power condensing about 0 and n0 and that F (Q)

is bounded, and

if {(xj , λj )} is a sequence in ∂Q × [0, 1] converging to (x, λ) with

x = λF (x) and 0 < λ < 1, then λ F (x ) ∈ Q for a sufficiently large j.

j j

there exists a continuous retraction r : X −→ Q with r(z) ∈ ∂Q

for z ∈ X\Q and r(D) ⊂ co(D ∪ {0}) for any bounded subset D of X.

(3.26)

Then, F has, at least, a fixed point.

n o

B = x ∈ X such that x = F r(x) .

First, let us show that B =

rF (Q) is bounded since F (Q) is bounded and r(F (Q)) ⊂ co(F (Q) ∪ {0}).

Clearly, rF is continuous since F and r are continuous. Now, let us show

that rF is ws-compact. For this purpose, let (xn )n be a sequence in Q which

converges weakly to some x ∈ Q. Since F is ws-compact, then there exists a

subsequence S of N, so that (F xn )n∈S converges strongly to some y ∈ X. The

continuity of r guarantees that the sequence (rF xn )n∈S converges strongly to

ry. This proves that rF is ws-compact. Our next task is to show that rF is

ψ-convex-power condensing about 0 and n0 . To do so, let A be a subset of Q.

In view of Eq. (3.26), we have

(rF )(1,0) (A) = rF (A) = rF (1,0) (A) ⊂ co(F (1,0) (A) ∪ {0}).

Hence,

Fixed Point Theory in Banach Algebras 135

(rF )(2,0) (A) = rF co((rF )(1,0) (A) ∪ {0})

= rF co(rF (1,0) (A) ∪ {0})

⊂ rF co(F (1,0) (A) ∪ {0})

= rF (2,0) (A),

(rF )(n0 ,0) (A) = rF co((rF )(n0 −1,0) (A) ∪ {0})

⊂ rF co(rF (n0 −1,0) (A) ∪ {0})

⊂ rF co(F (n0 −1,0) (A) ∪ {0})

and n0 and by using the condition (3.26), we get

ψ (rF )(n0 ,0) (A) ≤ ψ rF (n0 ,0) (A)

≤ ψ co F (n0 ,0) (A) ∪ {0}

≤ ψ F (n0 ,0) (A)

< ψ(A),

whenever ψ(A) > 0. Invoking Theorem 3.4.4, we infer that there exists y ∈ Q

with rF (y) = y. Let z = F (y). So, F r(z) = F r(F (y)) = F (y) = z. Thus,

z ∈ B and B =6 ∅. In addition, B is closed, since F r is continuous. Moreover,

we claim that B is compact. Q.E.D.

Next, we will also generalize this result as follows:

int S 6= ∅ and fix x0 ∈ int S. Let F : S −→ X be a ws-compact operator

and convex-power condensing about x0 and n0 with respect to ω. If F (S) is

bounded and F (∂S) ⊂ S (the condition of Rothe type), then F has, at least,

one fixed point in S.

136 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

mapping

F1 : S1 −→ X

x −→ F1 (x) = F (x + x0 ) − x0 .

then F1 is ws-compact. Our next task is to prove that F1 is convex-power

condensing about 0 and n0 with respect to the measure of weak noncompact-

ness ω. To do so, let V be an arbitrary bounded subset of S1 with ω(V ) > 0.

Then,

(1,0)

F1 (V ) = F1 (V ) = F (V + x0 ) − x0 = F (1,x0 ) (V + x0 ) − x0 .

(n−1,0)

F1 (V ) ⊂ F (n−1,x0 ) (V + x0 ) − x0 .

Then,

(n−1,0)

F1 (V ) ⊂ co {F (n−1,x0 ) (V + x0 ), x0 } − x0 .

Consequently,

(n−1,0)

F1 (V ) ∪ {θ} ⊂ co {F (n−1,x0 ) (V + x0 ), x0 } − x0 .

Hence,

(n−1,0)

co {F1 (V ), 0} ⊂ co {F (n−1,x0 ) (V + x0 ), x0 } − x0 .

Thus,

(n,0) (n−1,0)

F1 (V ) = F1 co {F1 (V ), 0}

⊂ F1 co {F (n−1,x0 ) (V + x0 ), x0 } − x0

= F co {F (n−1,x0 ) (V + x0 ), x0 } − x0

= F (n,x0 ) (V + x0 ) − x0 .

Fixed Point Theory in Banach Algebras 137

(n ,0)

ω F1 0 (V ) ≤ ω F (n0 ,x0 ) (V + x0 ) − x0

= ω F (n0 ,x0 ) (V + x0 )

Theorem 3.4.3, we infer that F1 has, at least, a fixed point x1 in S1 , i.e.,

x1 ∈ S1 and F1 (x1 ) = x1 ,

or equivalently,

F (x1 + x0 ) = x1 + x0 , where x = x1 + x0 ∈ S.

Q.E.D.

Theorem 3.5.1 Let F : S −→ S be a weakly sequentially continuous operator

and ω-convex-power condensing. If F (S) is bounded, then the set A of fixed

points of F is nonempty and weakly compact in S.

Proof. By using the preceding Theorem 3.4.1, the set A is nonempty. Now,

let us prove that A is weakly compact in S. Since A = F (A) ⊂ F (S), then A

is bounded. Moreover,

A ⊂ co{F (2,x0 ) (A), x0 },

and consequently,

A ⊂ F (3,x0 ) (A).

138 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

tinuity of F , we deduce that A is weakly sequentially closed. By using the

Eberlein–Šmulian theorem (Theorem 1.3.3), it follows that A is a weakly

closed subset of S. As a result, A is weakly compact in S. Q.E.D.

tor. If there exist x0 ∈ S, k ∈ [0, 1), and a positive integer n0 (n0 ≥ 1) such

that, for any bounded subset V ⊂ S, we have

ω F (n0 ,x0 ) (V ) ≤ kω(V ),

and if we assume that F (S) is bounded, then F has, at least, one fixed point

in S.

int S 6= ∅ and fix x0 ∈ int S. Let F : S −→ X be a ws-compact operator and ω-

convex-power condensing about x0 and n0 . If F (S) is bounded and F (∂S) ⊂ S

(the condition of Rothe type), then F has, at least, a fixed point in S.

mapping

F1 : S1 −→ X

x −→ F1 (x) = F (x + x0 ) − x0 .

then F1 is ws-compact. Our next task is to prove that F1 is ω-convex-power

condensing about 0 and n0 . To do so, let V be an arbitrary bounded subset

of S1 with ω(V ) > 0. Then,

(1,0)

F1 (V ) = F1 (V ) = F (V + x0 ) − x0 = F (1,x0 ) (V + x0 ) − x0 .

(n−1,0)

F1 (V ) ⊂ F (n−1,x0 ) (V + x0 ) − x0 ,

(n−1,0)

F1 (V ) ⊂ co {F (n−1,x0 ) (V + x0 ), x0 } − x0 .

Fixed Point Theory in Banach Algebras 139

Consequently,

(n−1,0)

F1 (V ) ∪ {θ} ⊂ co {F (n−1,x0 ) (V + x0 ), x0 } − x0 .

Hence,

(n−1,0)

co {F1 (V ), 0} ⊂ co {F (n−1,x0 ) (V + x0 ), x0 } − x0 .

Thus,

(n,0) (n−1,0)

F1 (V ) = F1 co {F1 (V ), 0}

⊂ F1 co {F (n−1,x0 ) (V + x0 ), x0 } − x0

= F co {F (n−1,x0 ) (V + x0 ), x0 } − x0

= F (n,x0 ) (V + x0 ) − x0 .

(n ,0)

ω F1 0 (V ) ≤ ω F (n0 ,x0 ) (V + x0 ) − x0

= ω F (n0 ,x0 ) (V + x0 )

preceding Theorem 3.4.3, we deduce that F1 has, at least, a fixed point x1 in

S1 , i.e.,

x1 ∈ S1 and F1 (x1 ) = x1 ,

or equivalently,

F (x1 + x0 ) = x1 + x0 ,

where x = x1 + x0 ∈ S. Q.E.D.

Next, we have:

be a ws-compact operator and ω-convex-power condensing about x0 and n0 . If

F (U ) is bounded and F (U ) ⊂ S, then either

(i) F has, at least, a fixed point in U , or

140 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

and U − x0 , respectively, we may assume that 0 ∈ U and that F is ω-convex-

power condensing about 0 and n0 . Now, let us suppose that (ii) does not hold

and that F has no fixed points in ∂U (otherwise, we have finished). Then,

x 6= λF (x), for all x ∈ ∂U and λ ∈ [0, 1]. Now, let us consider

is closed. By hypothesis, Q ∩ ∂U = ∅. Therefore, by using Urysohn’s lemma,

there exists a continuous map ρ : U −→ [0, 1], with ρ(Q) = 1 and ρ(∂U ) = 0.

Let us define T by:

ρ(x)F (x), if x ∈ U

T (x) =

0, if x ∈ S\U .

Since ∂U ⊂ ∂U and since ρ, F are continuous, then T is continuous. Now,

let us show that T : S −→ S is ws-compact. For this purpose, let (xn )n∈N

be any sequence in S which converges weakly to some x ∈ S. Without loss

of generality, we may assume that (xn )n∈N in U and T (xn ) = ρ(xn )F (xn ),

n ∈ N. Then, ρ(xn )n∈N is a sequence in [0, 1]. Hence, there exists a subsequence

ρ(xϕ(n) )n∈N which converges to some α ∈ [0, 1]. Moreover, since F is ws-

compact, then there exists a subsequence F (xϕ◦ψ(n) )n∈N which converges to

some y ∈ S. Thus, the sequence T (xϕ◦ψ(n) )n∈N converges to αy ∈ S. This

proves that T is ws-compact. Next, let us show that T is ω-convex-power

condensing about 0 and n0 . First, we note that T (S) ⊂ co (F (U ) ∪ {θ}).

Then, T (S) is bounded. Let V be an arbitrary bounded subset of S with

ω(V ) > 0. We show that, according to the mathematical induction method,

for all positive integers n, we have

n o

T (n,0) (V ) ⊂ co Fe (n,0) (V ∩ U ), {0} . (3.27)

Notice that

T (V ) ⊂ co (F (V ∩ U ), {0}), (3.28)

which implies that

T (2,0) (V ) ⊂ T co F (V ∩ U ), {0} .

n o

T (2,0) (V ) ⊂ co Fe (2,0) (V ∩ U ), {0} .

Fixed Point Theory in Banach Algebras 141

n o

T (n,0) (V ) ⊂ co Fe (n,0) (V ∩ U ), {0} .

Then, n o

T (n+1,0) (V ) ⊂ T co Fe (n,0) (V ∩ U ), {0} .

n o

T (n+1,0) (V ) ⊂ co Fe (n+1,0) (V ∩ U ), {0} .

This proves the claim. Hence, by using both (3.27) and the defining properties

of ω, we have

ω T (n0 ,0) (V ) ≤ ω Fe(n0 ,0) (V ∩ U ) .

F is ws-compact, then F (V ∩ U ) is relatively compact. Therefore, by using

Mazur’s theorem (see Theorem 1.3.5), co F (V ∩ U ), {0} is compact. Thus,

co F (V ∩ U ), {0} ∩ U is compact. Since F is continuous, then Fe(2,0) (V ∩

U ) is compact. By induction, for all positive

integers n,we get Fe(n,0) (V ∩ U )

is relatively compact. Consequently, ω Fe (n0 ,0) (V ∩ U ) = 0. As a result,

ω T (n0 ,0) (V ) < ω(V ).

ω T (n0 ,0) (V ) < ω(V ∩ U ) ≤ ω(V ).

Now, we may invoke Theorem 3.4.3 in order to conclude that T has, at least, a

fixed point x in S, i.e., T (x) = x. If x ∈ Q, then x ∈ U and T (x) = F (x) = x.

If x ∈

/ Q, then T (x) = 0. (Otherwise, x = ρ(x)F (x) ∈ Q). As a result,

/ Q. Q.E.D.

142 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

Thus,

Q ⊂ co F (2,0) (Q) ∪ {0} .

Q ⊂ co F (n,0) (Q) ∪ {0} .

deduce the desired result.

Question 3:

−1

If A is not invertible, I−C

I−C

A could be seen as a multi-valued map-

ping. This case is not discussed in all the theorems of this chapter. To our

knowledge, this question is still open.

Chapter 4

Fixed Point Theory for BOM on

Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

In this chapter, we are concerned with fixed point theorems for a 2 × 2 block

operator matrix with nonlinear entries (in short BOM) acting on a product of

two Banach spaces or Banach algebras. We are also interested with the case

where these entries are assumed nonlinear multi-valued operators.

Fixed Point Theorems for BOM

Let Ω (resp. Ω′ ) be a nonempty, closed, and convex subset of a Banach space

X (resp. Y ). We consider the 2 × 2 block operator matrix (in short BOM)

!

A B

L= , (4.1)

C D

in the space X × Y , that is, the nonlinear operator A maps Ω into X, B from

Ω′ into X, C from Ω into Y and D from Ω′ into Y . The aim of this section

is to discuss the existence of fixed points for the block operator matrix (4.1)

by imposing some conditions on the entries which are, in general, nonlinear

operators. This discussion is based on the invertibility or not of the diagonal

terms of I − L.

Assume that:

(H1 ) The operator I − A is invertible and (I − A)−1 B(Ω′ ) ⊂ Ω,

(H2 ) S := C(I − A)−1 B is an operator with a closed graph and the subset

143

144 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

and

the following conditions are equivalent.

of x and there exists an open neighborhood V of y, such that f (U ) ∩ V = ∅.

\

f (K) = {f (U ) such that U is an open neighborhood of K}.

\

f −l (C) = {f −1 (V ) such that V is an open neighborhood of C}.

Proof. (i) ⇔ (ii) is trivial and follows immediately from the definition of the

product topology. Note that (ii) can be rewritten in the following forms:

\

{f (x)} = {f (U ) such that U is an open neighborhood of x}

for each x ∈ X; or

\

f −1 (y) = {f −1 (V ) such that V is an open neighborhood of y}

for each y ∈ Y . Since compact sets “ behave” like points, we obtain (ii) ⇔ (iii)

and (ii) ⇔ (iv). Q.E.D.

∅, then there is an open neighborhood U of K and also an open neighborhood

V of C, such that f −1 (V ) ∩ U = ∅ = V ∩ f (U ).

Proof. For (i), use (iii) from Theorem 4.1.1; for (ii), use (iv) from Theorem

4.1.1; for (iii), use both (iii) and (iv) from Theorem 4.1.1. Q.E.D.

Fixed Point Theory for BOM on Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras 145

Proof. Because closed subsets of a compact space are compact, the result

follows immediately from Corollary 4.1.1. Q.E.D.

Y has a closed graph and J(X) is a compact set of Y . Then, J is continuous.

space X. Suppose that J maps K into K, and that

Proof. The proof of Theorem 4.1.2 follows from both Corollary 4.1.3 and the

Schauder’s fixed point theorem. Q.E.D.

Theorem 4.1.3 Under assumptions (H1 )–(H4 ), the block operator matrix

(4.1) has, at least, a fixed point in Ω × Ω′ .

and using Corollary 4.1.3, it follows that S is continuous on Ω′ . Now, let M

be a bounded subset of Ω′ . Obviously from (H2 ), the set S(M ) is relatively

compact. Then, by hypothesis (H3 ), (I − D)−1 S(M ) is relatively compact.

According to Schauder’s fixed point theorem, there exists y0 ∈ Ω′ , such that

(I − D)−1 Sy0 = y0 .

! !

−1 x0 x0

Let x0 := (I − A) By0 . Hence, L = . Q.E.D.

y0 y0

separate contraction mapping satisfying C(Ω) ⊂ (I − D)(Ω′ ), then the block

operator matrix (4.1) has, at least, a fixed point in Ω × Ω′ .

146 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

onto (I − D)(Ω′ ). Then, (H3 ) is satisfied and the result follows from Theorem

4.1.2. Q.E.D.

is a semi-expansive mapping satisfying C(Ω) ⊂ (I − D)(Ω′ ), then the block

operator matrix (4.1) has, at least, a fixed point in Ω × Ω′ .

we show that (I − D)−1 : (I − D)(Ω′ ) −→ Ω′ is continuous. Let (yn )n∈N and

y in (I − D)(Ω′ ), such that yn → y. Then, there exist αn , α ∈ Ω′ such that

yn = (I − D)(αn ) and y = (I − D)(α). Now,

≥ Φ(αn , α).

the assumption (H3 ) is satisfied and the result follows from Theorem 4.1.2.

Q.E.D.

At the end of this section, we will treat only the case of invertibility of I − A.

The other case is similar, just simply exchanging the roles of A and D, and

B and C.

for the operator S + D allows us to get the following result:

Theorem 4.1.4 If the entries satisfy the following assumptions:

(ii) S := C(I − A)−1 B is a contraction map,

Then, the block operator matrix (4.1) has, at least, a fixed point in Ω × Ω′ .

In this subsection, we discuss the existence of fixed points for the following

perturbed block operator matrix by laying down some conditions on the en-

tries, using Krasnosel’skii’s theorem.

Fixed Point Theory for BOM on Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras 147

! !

A1 B P1 0

Le = + . (4.2)

C D1 0 P2

into X, C from Ω into Y , and D and P2 from Ω′ into Y . Suppose that the

operator (4.2) fulfills the following assumptions:

(H5 ) The operator I − A1 (resp. I − D1 ) is invertible from Ω into X, (resp.

from Ω′ into Y ),

(H8 ) For every x1 , x2 ∈ Ω, y1 , y2 ∈ Ω′ , (I − A1 )−1 P1 x1 + (I − A1 )−1 By2 ∈ Ω

Theorem 4.1.5 Under the previous four assumptions (H5 )–(H8 ), the block

operator matrix (4.2) has, at least, a fixed point in Ω × Ω′ .

! ! !

A1 + P1 B x x

= . (4.3)

C D1 + P2 y y

! ! ! !

P1 B x I − A1 0 x

= .

C P2 y 0 I − D1 y

! ! ! !

(I − A1 )−1 0 P1 B x x

=

0 (I − D1 )−1 C P2 y y

or, equivalently

! ! !

(I − A1 )−1 P1 (I − A1 )−1 B x x

= .

(I − D1 )−1 C (I − D1 )−1 P2 y y

! ! !

x x x

Z1 + Z2 = ,

y y y

148 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

where !

(I − A1 )−1 P1 0

Z1 =

0 (I − D1 )−1 P2

and !

0 (I − A1 )−1 B

Z2 = .

(I − D1 )−1 C 0

Obviously, from (H6 ) the operator matrix Z2 is completely continuous, and

from (H7 ) the map Z1 is a contraction. Using (H8 ) and Krasnosel’skii’s the-

orem, it follows that the operator matrix (4.2) has, at least, a fixed point in

Ω × Ω′ . Q.E.D.

Let A be a nonlinear operator from X into itself. Let us denote by ω the

measure of weak noncompactness of De Blasi (see Lemma 1.4.1). We introduce

the following conditions:

If (xn )n∈N is a weakly convergent sequence in X, then

(A1)

(Axn )n∈N has a strongly convergent subsequence in X,

and

if (xn )n∈N is a weakly convergent sequence in X, then

(A2)

(Axn )n∈N has a weakly convergent subsequence in X.

Remark 4.2.1 (i) Operators satisfying (A1) or (A2) are not necessarily

weakly continuous.

(ii) The map A satisfies (A1) if, and only if, it maps relatively weakly compact

sets into relatively compact ones.

(iii) The assumption (A1) is weaker than the weakly-strongly sequentially con-

tinuity of the operator A.

Fixed Point Theory for BOM on Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras 149

(v) The map A satisfies (A2) if, and only if, it maps relatively weakly compact

sets into relatively weakly compact ones (use the Eberlien-S̆mulian theorem

1.3.3).

(vi) The condition (A2) holds true for every bounded linear operator.

space X. Assume that A : M −→ M is a continuous map which verifies

(A1). If A(M) is relatively weakly compact, then there exists x ∈ M such

that Ax = x.

closed convex subset of X satisfying A(M) ⊂ M, we obtain C ⊂ M and there-

fore, A(C) ⊂ A(M) ⊂ co(A(M)). This shows that A maps C into itself. By

hypothesis, A(M) is relatively weakly compact. Hence, applying the Krein–

Šmulian theorem (see Theorem 1.3.5), one sees that C is weakly compact too.

Let (θn )n be a sequence in C. Then, it has a weakly convergent subsequence,

say (θnk )k . By hypothesis, (Aθnk )k has a strongly convergent subsequence and

therefore, A(C) is relatively compact. Now, the use of Schauder’s fixed point

theorem concludes the proof. Q.E.D.

a Banach space X. Assume that A : M −→ M is a continuous map satisfying

(A1). If A is ω-contractive, then there exists x ∈ M such that Ax = x.

Proof. Let M1 = M and Mn+1 = co(A(Mn )). It is clear that the sequence

(Mn )n consists of nonempty, closed, convex decreasing subsets of M. Since A

is ω-contractive, then, for some β ∈ [0, 1), we have

limn→∞ ω(Mn ) = 0. Using the property (8) of Lemma 1.4.1, we infer that

N := ∩∞ n=1 Mn is a nonempty, closed, convex, and weakly compact subset of

M. Moreover, we can easily verify that A(N ) ⊂ N . Accordingly, A(N ) is rel-

atively weakly compact. Now, the use of Theorem 4.2.1 concludes the proof.

Q.E.D.

150 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

of a Banach space X. Suppose that A : M −→ X and B : X −→ X such that:

(i) A is continuous, A(M) is relatively weakly compact and A satisfies (A1),

for some τ ∈ (0, 1). This shows that (I − B)−1 exists and is continuous on

X. Let y be fixed in M, the map which assigns to each x ∈ X the value

Bx + Ay defines a contraction from X into X. So, according to assumption

(iii), the equation x = Bx + Ay has a unique solution x = (I − B)−1 Ay in

M. Therefore,

Mn+1 = co((I − B)−1 A(Mn )). We claim that the sequence (Mn )n satisfies the

conditions of property (8) of Lemma 1.4.1. Indeed, it is clear that the sequence

(Mn )n consists of nonempty, closed, and convex subsets of M. Using Eq. (4.4)

one sees that it is also decreasing. Moreover, since

Accordingly,

(use the Properties (1) and (7) of Lemma 1.4.1). Since A(M) is relatively

weakly compact, then we get

Fixed Point Theory for BOM on Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras 151

with a constant τ , one sees that

weakly compact. Accordingly,

ω(B(Mn )) ≤ ω(Mn )

and so

ω(Mn+1 ) ≤ τ ω(Mn ).

By induction, it follows that

and therefore, limn→∞ ω(Mn ) = 0 because τ ∈ (0, 1). This proves the claim.

Now, making use of the Property (8) of Lemma 1.4.1, we infer that N :=

∩∞

n=1 Mn is a nonempty, closed, convex, and weakly compact subset of M.

Moreover, it is easily seen that

(I − B)−1 A(N ) ⊂ N .

Consequently,

(I − B)−1 A(N )

is relatively weakly compact. Finally, from the properties of A and the conti-

nuity of (I − B)−1 , it follows that the map (I − B)−1 A verifies the condition

(A1 ). Now, the use of Theorem 4.2.1 achieves the proof. Q.E.D.

Remark 4.2.2 From the proof of Theorem 4.2.3, it follows that if a mapping

A : X −→ X is a contraction and satisfies (A2), then A is ω-contractive.

In the remaining part of this section, we will use the notations and results

of Section 4.1 in order to develop a general matrix fixed point theory under

weak topology. As above, the discussion will be based on the invertibility or

not of the diagonal terms of I − L.

In this subsection, we assume that:

152 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

is relatively weakly compact,

(H11 ) C is a continuous operator satisfying (A2),

on (I − D)(Ω′ ) and satisfies (A2), and

Theorem 4.2.4 Under the assumptions (H9 )–(H13 ), the block operator ma-

trix (4.1) has, at least, a fixed point in Ω × Ω′ .

For this, let (yn )n∈N be a sequence in Γ(Ω′ ). There exists a sequence (xn )n∈N ⊂

Ω′ such that yn = Γxn for all n ∈ N, because ((I − A)−1 Bxn )n∈N ⊂ (I −

A)−1 B(Ω′ ) and (I − A)−1 B(Ω′ ) is relatively weakly compact. Then, accord-

ing to the Eberlien-S̆mulian theorem (see Theorem 1.3.3), ((I − A)−1 Bxn )n∈N

has a weakly convergent subsequence. Moreover, using the fact that C and

(I − D)−1 verify (A2 ), the sequence (yn )n∈N also has a weak converging sub-

sequence. Consequently, Γ(Ω′ ) is relatively weakly compact.

Let (xn )n∈N be a weakly convergent sequence of Ω′ . Since (I − A)−1 B satisfies

(A1 ), it follows that ((I − A)−1 Bxn )n∈N has a strongly convergent subse-

quence. By the continuity of the operator C and (I − D)−1 , (Γxn )n∈N also

has a strongly convergent subsequence, that is, Γ satisfies (A1 ).

as we claimed, and there exists y0 ∈ Ω′ such that

Γy0 = y0 .

! !

x0 x0

Let x0 := (I − A)−1 By0 , hence L = . Q.E.D.

y0 y0

Fixed Point Theory for BOM on Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras 153

In these other cases, we will also assume that Ω and Ω′ are bounded. As above,

we will treat only the case of invertibility of I − A. The other case is similar,

just simply exchanging the roles of A and D, and B and C.

(H16 ) D is a continuous operator satisfying (A1) and ω-α-contractive for some

α ∈ [0, 1 − k), and

Theorem 4.2.5 Under the assumptions (H14 )–(H17 ), the block operator ma-

trix (4.1) has, at least, a fixed point in Ω × Ω′ .

Remark 1.2.2 and Lemma 1.2.2 that the mapping I − S is a homeomorphism

from Ω′ into (I − S)(Ω′ ). Let y ′ be fixed in Ω′ , the map which assigns to each

y ∈ Ω′ the value Sy + Dy ′ defines a contraction from Ω′ into Ω′ . So, by the

Banach fixed point theorem, the equation y = Sy + Dy ′ has a unique solution

y = (I − S)−1 Dy ′ in Ω′ . Therefore,

(I − S)−1 D(Ω′ ) ⊂ Ω′ .

4.2.2. It is clear that T is continuous and satisfies (A1). Now, let us check that

T is ω-β-contractive for some β ∈ [0, 1). To do this, let N be a subset of Ω′ .

Using the following equality

we infer that

ω(T (N )) ≤ ω(D(N ) + ST (N )).

The properties of ω(.) in Lemma 1.4.1 and the assumptions on S and D imply

that

ω(T (N )) ≤ ω(D(N )) + ω(ST (N )) ≤ αω(N ) + kω(T (N )),

and therefore,

α

ω(T (N )) ≤ ω(N ).

1−k

154 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

α

This inequality means that T is ω-β-contractive with β := 1−k . Consequently,

T satisfies the hypotheses of Theorem 4.2.2 as we claimed. Hence, such an

operator has, at least, a fixed point in Ω′ , and the block operator matrix (4.1)

has, at least, a fixed point in Ω × Ω′ . Q.E.D.

In this subsection, we discuss the existence of fixed points for the following

perturbed block operator matrix by laying down some conditions on the en-

tries.

! !

A1 B P1 0

Le = + . (4.5)

C D1 0 P2

Assume that the nonlinear operators A1 and P1 map Ω into X, B from Ω′

into X, C from Ω into Y , and D1 and P2 from Ω′ into Y . Suppose that the

operator (4.5) respects the following assumptions:

(H18 ) The operator I − A1 (resp. I − D1 ) is invertible from Ω into X (resp.

from Ω′ into Y ),

and verify (A1 ),

(H20 ) (I − A1 )−1 P1 and (I − D1 )−1 P2 are contraction maps and verify (A2 ),

and

D1 )−1 P2 (Ω′ ) ⊂ Ω′ .

Theorem 4.2.6 Under the above assumptions (H18 )–(H21 ), the block opera-

tor matrix (4.5) has, at least, a fixed point in Ω × Ω′ .

Proof. By using the assumption (H18 ) and the same decomposition used in

the proof of Theorem 4.1.5, the following equation

! ! !

A1 + P1 B x x

=

C D1 + P2 y y

! ! !

x x x

Z1 + Z2 = ,

y y y

Fixed Point Theory for BOM on Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras 155

where !

(I − A1 )−1 P1 0

Z1 = ,

0 (I − D1 )−1 P2

and !

0 (I − A1 )−1 B

Z2 = .

(I − D1 )−1 C 0

a weakly compact operator and satisfies A1 . To see this, let (xn , yn ) n∈N

be a sequence in Ω × Ω′ . Since (I − A1 )−1 B is weakly compact, the se-

quence (I − A1 )−1 Byn n∈N has a weakly convergent subsequence, say (I −

A1 )−1 Bynk k∈N . Moreover, the sequence (I − D1 )−1 Cxnk k∈N has a weak

converging subsequence say (I −D1 )−1 Cxnkj j∈N . Then, Z2 (xnkj , ynkj ) j∈N

is a weakly convergent subsequence of Z2 (xn , yn ) n∈N , hence Z2 is a weakly

compact operator. We also show that the operator matrix Z2 verifies (A1 )

and from (H20 ) the operator matrix Z1 is a contraction which satisfies (A2 ).

From the assumption (H21 ) and Theorem 4.2.3, it follows that the operator

matrix (4.5) has, at least, a fixed point in Ω × Ω′ . Q.E.D.

In this section, we are concerned with fixed point results on Banach algebras

of operators defined by a 2 × 2 block operator matrix

!

A B.B ′

L= , (4.6)

C D

where the entries of the matrix are generally nonlinear operators defined on

a Banach algebra. The operators occurring in the representation (4.6) are

nonlinear, and our assumptions are as follows: A maps a bounded, closed,

convex, and nonempty subset S of a Banach algebra X into X, B, and B ′

from another bounded, closed, convex, and nonempty subset S ′ of a Banach

algebra Y into X, C from S into Y , and D from S ′ into Y.

algebra X and let A, B, B ′ , C, D : S −→ X, be five operators such that:

156 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

tively,

(ii) I − D is one-to-one such that (I − D)−1 is Lipschitzian with a Lipschitz

constant δ on C(S),

T ′ = B ′ (I − D)−1 C.

Then, the block operator matrix (4.6) has, at least, a fixed point in S × S

whenever α + βδγM < 1, where M = kT ′ (S)k.

Proof. Let y ∈ S be any fixed point and let us define a mapping ϕy on S into

itself by:

ϕy (x) = Ax + T x.T ′y.

Notice that ϕy is a contraction on S, since we have

kϕy (x1 ) − ϕy (x2 )k ≤ α + βγδM kx1 − x2 k

there is a unique point x∗ in S such that

ϕy (x∗ ) = x∗

or,

x∗ = Ax∗ + T x∗ .T ′ y.

Let us define the operator

N : S −→ S

y −→ N (y) = z,

z = Az + T z.T ′y.

S converging to a point y. Then, we have

Fixed Point Theory for BOM on Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras 157

Hence,

kN yn − N yk ≤ α + βγδM kN yn − N yk + kT (N y)kkT ′yn − T ′ yk.

lim kN yn − N yk = 0.

n→+∞

is a compact operator on S. For this purpose let z ∈ S, then we have

kT zk ≤ kT ak + M βγδkz − ak ≤ c,

given. Since C(S) is a totally bounded subset and B ′ (I − D)−1 is a continuous

operator then, T ′ (S) is a totally bounded subset. Consequently, there exists

a subset Y = {y1 , . . . , yn } of S, such that

n

[

T ′ (S) ⊂ Br (wi ),

i=1

1− α+Mβγδ

where r = c ε and wi = T ′ yi . So, for any y ∈ S, we have

yk ∈ Y such that

1 − (α + M βγδ)

kT ′ yk − T ′ yk < ε.

c

Therefore,

kN yk − N yk = kzk − zk

≤ (α + M βγδ)kzk − zk + ckT ′yk − T ′ yk.

Then,

c

kN yk − N yk ≤ kT ′ yk − T ′ yk < ε.

1 − (α + M βγδ)

Since y ∈ S was arbitrary,

n

[

N (S) ⊂ Bε (ki ),

i=1

158 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

completely continuous on S into itself. Now, an application of Schauder’s fixed

point theorem shows that N has, at least, a fixed point in S. Consequently,

we deduce that the operator equation

x = Ax + T x.T ′ x

achieve the proof of Theorem 4.3.1. Q.E.D.

algebra X and let A, B, B ′ , C, and D : S −→ S, be five operators satisfying:

tively,

φψ ,

−1

(iv) TI exists on T ′ (S), and

T ′ = B ′ (I − D)−1 C.

Then, the block operator matrix (4.6) has, at least, a fixed point in S × S

whenever M φB ◦ φψ ◦ φC (r) + φA (r) < r, where M = kT ′ (S)k.

x = Ax + T x.T ′ x

has a solution in S. Now, the use of equation y = (I − D)−1 Cx leads the block

operator matrix (4.6) to have a fixed point in S × S. Q.E.D.

constant contraction k and C is Lipschitzian with constant γ and C(S) ⊂

(I − D)(X), then the inverse operator (I − D)−1 C exists and is Lipschitzian

γ

with constant 1−k .

a Banach algebra X and let S ′ be a nonempty, convex, closed, and bounded

subset of a Banach space Y. Let A : S −→ X, B, B ′ : S ′ −→ X, C : S −→ Y ,

Fixed Point Theory for BOM on Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras 159

Lipschitzian with D-functions φA and φC , respectively,

B ′ (I − D)−1 C.

Then, the operator matrix (4.6) has, at least, a fixed point in S × S ′ whenever

βM ′

1−k φC (r) + φA (r) < r, where M = kT (S)k.

Proof. It is easy to verify that the inverse operator (I − D)−1 exists and

1

is Lipschitzian with the Lipschitz constant 1−k on (I − D)(S ′ ) in view of

hypothesis (ii) and hypothesis (iii). Now, since C is D-Lipschitzian, then it is

continuous on S and from hypothesis (iv), it follows that T ′ = B ′ (I − D)−1 C

is completely continuous. Let y ∈ S be fixed and let us define a mapping

ϕy : S −→ S

x −→ Ax + T x.T ′ y.

βM

1−k φC . Hence, by the fixed point theorem of Boyd and Wong (see Theorem

1.6.10), it follows that there is a unique point x∗ in S such that

x∗ = Ax∗ + T x∗ .T ′ y.

N : S −→ S

y −→ N y = z

the proof of Theorem 3.1.6, we get N is a continuous and compact operator

on S. Hence, an application of Schauder’s fixed point theorem shows that N

has, at least, a fixed point x in S. Then, by the definition of N , we have

160 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

In what follows, we will combine Theorems 3.1.7 and 4.3.3 in order to get the

following fixed point theorem in a Banach algebra.

subset of a Banach algebra X (resp. Y ) and let R = S ∩ S ′ (assumed

nonempty). Let A, B, C, D, B ′ : R −→ R be five operators such that:

(i) The operator B is Lipschitzian with a constant β, and A and C are D-

Lipschitzian with the functions φA and φC , respectively,

(iv) B ′ is continuous and C is compact,

−1

(v) TI exists on R, and

T ′ = B ′ (I − D)−1 C.

Then, the block operator matrix (4.6) has at, least, a fixed point in R × R

βM

whenever 1−k φC (r) + φA (r) < r if r > 0, where M = kT ′ (S)k.

Theorem 1.6.10, we infer that (I −D)−1 exists and is continuous on R. In view

of Theorem 4.3.3, it is sufficient to prove that the equation x = Ax + T x.T ′ x

inR. To do this, the operator T is D-Lipschitzian with the

has a solution

β

D-function 1−k φC . Let

N : R −→ R

I − A −1 (4.7)

y −→ T ′ y.

T

From the hypothesis φA (r) < r, for all r > 0, it follows that the operator

(I − A)−1 exists and is continuous on R. Therefore, the operator

−1 −1

I −A I −1

= (I − A)

T T

exists on R. We show that the operator N given by Eq. (4.7) is well defined.

We claim that −1

I −A

T ′ : R −→ R.

T

Fixed Point Theory for BOM on Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras 161

I −A

T ′ (R) ⊂ (R).

T

≤ ψ(kx1 − x2 k),

βM

where ψ(r) = 1−k φC (r) + φA (r) < r, if r > 0. From Theorem 1.6.10, it follows

that there is a unique point x∗ ∈ R such that

ϕy (x∗ ) = x∗ .

Or, also

I −A

x∗ = T ′ y.

T

−1

I −A

Hence, T ′ defines a mapping

T

−1

I −A

T ′ : R −→ R.

T

sequence in R such that xn → x and let

yn = T ′ (xn ) and y = T ′ (x)

−1 −1

I −A I −A

zn = (yn ) and z= (y).

T T

zn = Azn + T zn .yn

z = Az + T z.y.

162 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

So,

kzn − zk ≤ ψ(kzn − zk) + kT zkkyn − yk,

β

where ψ(r) = 1−k φC (r) + φA (r) < r, for r > 0. Taking the supremum limit

in the above inequality shows that N is continuous. Therefore, the operator

I−A −1

T is continuous on T ′ (S). Moreover, from hypothesis (iv), it follows

that N is a compact operator on R, and consequently it is completely contin-

uous. Now, use the vector y = (I − D)−1 Cx to solve the problem. Q.E.D.

Note that the hypothesis (iv) of Theorem 4.3.4 is very strong and can be

replaced by a milder one. We state the following result.

a Banach algebra X and, let A, C : S −→ X and B, B ′ , D : X −→ X be five

operators satisfying:

(i) A, B, and C are D-Lipschitzian with the D-functions φA , φB , and φC ,

respectively,

−1

(iii) I−AT exists on T ′ (S) and C(S) ⊂ (I − D)(S),

(iv) D is a contraction with a constant k, and

T ′ = B ′ (I − D)−1 C.

Then, the block operator matrix (4.6) has, at least, a fixed point in S × S

whenever M φB ◦ L 1−k

1 ◦ φC (r) + φA (r) < r for r > 0, where M = kT ′(S)k.

is D-Lipschitzian with the D-function φB ◦ L 1−k 1 ◦ φC . From the assumption

(iii), it follows that, for each y ∈ S, there exists a unique point x ∈ S, such

that

I −A

x = T ′ y,

T

or also, x = Ax + T x.T ′ y. Since the hypothesis (v) holds, then x ∈ S. There-

fore, we can define N : S −→ S by:

−1

I −A

N (x) = T ′ (x).

T

Fixed Point Theory for BOM on Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras 163

This map is continuous. To see this, let {xn } be any sequence in S such that

xn → x and let

′

yn = T xn

and y = T ′x

−1 −1

I −A I −A

zn = (yn ) and z = (y).

T T

Then,

yn = T ′ xn and y = T ′x

z = Az + T z .y and z = Az + T z.y.

n n n n

where ψ(r) = M φB ◦ L 1−k1 ◦ φC (r) + φA (r) < r. Now, taking the supremum

limit in the above inequality shows that N is continuous. Moreover,

−1

I −A

N (S) ⊂ B ′ (S).

T

−1

Now, the continuity of the operator I−A T combined with hypothesis (ii),

allow N (S) to be a relatively compact subset. Again, an application of

Schauder’s fixed point theorem completes this proof. Q.E.D.

An interesting corollary of Theorem 4.3.5 is as follows:

nach algebra X and let A, C : S −→ X and B, B ′ , D : X −→ X be five

operators such that:

tively,

(iv) B ′ is continuous,

−1

(v) I−A

T exists on B ′ (X), and

(vi) x = Ax + T x.T ′ z =⇒ x ∈ S, ∀ z ∈ S, where T = B(I − D)−1 C and

T ′ = B ′ (I − D)−1 C.

Then, the block operator matrix (4.6) has, at least, a fixed point in S × X

whenever φB ◦ L 1−k

1 ◦ φC (r) + φA (r) < r if r > 0, where M = kT ′ (S)k.

164 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

Proof. The proof follows from both Theorem 4.3.5 and Schauder’s fixed point

theorem. Q.E.D.

At the beginning of this section, we are going to discuss a fixed point theorem

for the operator matrix (4.6) involving the concept of the De Blasi measure

of weak noncompactness in Banach algebras satisfying condition (P).

The following result gives sufficient conditions to the block operator matrix

(4.6) acting on a product of Banach algebras satisfying condition (P) to have

a fixed point.

of X, and let A, C : S −→ X, and B, B ′ , D : X −→ X be five operators

satisfying:

(ii) D is linear, bounded, and there exists a strictly positive integer p such that

Dp is a separate contraction on X,

Then, the block operator matrix (4.6) has, at least, one fixed point in S × X.

Proof. From the assumption (ii) and Lemma 1.2.2, we infer that the operator

(I − Dp )−1 exists on X and

p−1

X

(I − D)−1 = (I − Dp )−1 Dk .

k=0

F : S −→ S

(4.8)

x −→ Ax + B(I − D)−1 Cx · B ′ (I − D)−1 Cx.

that X is a Banach algebra satisfying condition (P) and using assumption

(iii), we show that F is weakly sequentially continuous on S. Besides, since

Fixed Point Theory for BOM on Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras 165

it follows from assumption (i) that F (S) is relatively weakly compact. Accord-

ingly, the operator F has, at least, a fixed point x in S in view of Theorem

2.2.1. So, the vector y = (I − D)−1 Cx solves the problem. Q.E.D.

Remark 4.3.2 Theorem 4.3.6 remains true if we suppose that there exists a

strictly positive integer p such that Dp is a nonlinear contraction.

Notice that the proof of Theorem 4.3.6 is based on the linearity of the operator

D. Hence, it would be interesting to investigate the case when D is not linear.

of X, and let A, C : S −→ X, and B, B ′ , D : X −→ X be five weakly

sequentially continuous operators satisfying:

(iii) Ax + B(I − D)−1 Cx · B ′ (I − D)−1 Cx ∈ S for all x ∈ S.

Then, the block operator matrix (4.6) has, at least, one fixed point in S × X.

on X. We first claim that (I − D)−1 C(S) is relatively weakly compact. If it

is not the case, then d = β (I − D)−1 C(S) > 0. Using

and taking into account that C(S) is a relatively weakly compact subset of

X, we get

β (I − D)−1 C(S) ≤ β D(I − D)−1 C(S) . (4.10)

Bd+ε . From assumption (ii), it follows that

pact subset. Consequently, β D(I − D)−1 C(S) ≤ φ(d + ε). Since ε > 0 is

arbitrary,

β D(I − D)−1 C(S) ≤ φ(d) < d = β (I − D)−1 C(S) . (4.11)

166 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

β (I − D)−1 C(S) ≤ β D(I − D)−1 C(S) < β (I − D)−1 C(S)

(I − D)−1 C

One can show that

B(I − D)−1 C(S)

and

B ′ (I − D)−1 C(S)

are relatively weakly compact. It follows that the product

the operator (I − D)−1 C is weakly sequentially continuous which is also true

for the operator F already defined in Eq. (4.8). Indeed, let (θn )n be a sequence

in S which converges weakly to θ. Since

(I − D)−1 C(S)

(I − D)−1 Cθnk ⇀ ρ.

Therefore, the use of equality Eq. (4.9) combined with the weak sequential

continuity of C and D yields ρ = Cθ + Dρ. Consequently, ρ = (I − D)−1 Cθ.

Hence,

(I − D)−1 Cθnk ⇀ (I − D)−1 Cθ.

Moreover, taking into account that X satisfies the condition (P), and using

the weak sequential continuity of B and B ′ , we get

B(I − D)−1 Cθnk .B ′ (I − D)−1 Cθnk ⇀ B(I − D)−1 Cθ.B ′ (I − D)−1 Cθ.

Fixed Point Theory for BOM on Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras 167

w

(I −D)−1 Cθ and a subsequence (θnj )j of (θn )n such that (I −D)−1 Cθnj 6∈ U ,

for all j ≥ 1. Since (θnj )j converges weakly to θ, and arguing as before, we

may extract a subsequence (θnjk )k of (θnj )j such that

w

This is impossible since (I − D)−1 Cxnjk 6∈ U , ∀k ≥ 1. As a result, the

operator (I − D)−1 C is weakly sequentially continuous which is also valid for

F. In addition, the use of both Lemma 1.5.1 and assumption (i) leads to the

situation where the operator F is β-condensing. Now, applying Theorem 2.3.4

shows that F has a fixed point x in S. Hence, the vector y = (I − D)−1 Cx

solves the problem. Q.E.D.

Now, we may combine Theorem 4.3.7 and Lemma 3.1.3 to obtain the following

fixed point theorem.

of X, and let A, C : S −→ X, and B, B ′ , D : X −→ X be five weakly

sequentially continuous operators satisfying:

Then, the block operator matrix (4.6) has, at least, one fixed point in S × X.

By the same arguments used in the proof of Theorem 4.3.7, we have the

following result:

X, and let A, C : S −→ X, and B, B ′ , D : X −→ X be five operators satis-

fying:

(i) B and C are Lipschitzian with the Lipschitz constants α and γ, respec-

tively,

tinuous, and

168 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

Then, the block operator matrix (4.6) has, at least, one fixed point in S × S

provided 0 ≤ αM < 1, where M = kB ′ (I − D)−1 C(S)k.

exists on (I − D)(X), and for all x, y ∈ (I − D)(X), we have

1

k(I − D)−1 x − (I − D)−1 yk ≤ kx − yk.

h−1

Then, (I − D)−1 is continuous, and by using assumption (iv), the operator

B(I − D)−1 C is sequentially weakly continuous on S. Moreover, the map-

ping (I − D)−1 C is a contraction on S in view of assumption (iii). Thus,

(I − D)−1 C(S) is bounded. Now, the use of assumption (ii) and Eberlein–

Šmulian’s theorem (see Theorem 1.3.3) shows that B ′ (I − D)−1 C(S) is a

relatively weakly compact subset of X. Similarly to the proof of Theorem

4.3.7, we show that the operator F defined in Eq. (4.8) is weakly sequentially

continuous and β-condensing. Indeed,

β (F (S)) ≤ β(A(S)) + β B(I − D)−1 C(S) · B ′ (I − D)−1 C(S) .

Taking into account that A(S) is relatively weakly compact, and using Lemma

1.5.2, we get

β (F (S)) ≤ M β B(I − D)−1 C(S) .

6 0, we have

So, if β(S) =

αγ

β (F (S)) ≤ M β(S) < β(S).

h−1

Hence, the operator F is β-condensing. Now, the result follows from Theorem

2.3.4. Q.E.D.

the same problem.

a Banach algebra X satisfying condition (P), and let A, C : S −→ X, B, B ′ ,

D : X −→ X be five weakly sequentially continuous operators satisfying:

(i) B and C are Lipschitzian with the Lipschitz constants α and γ, respectively,

(ii) C is weakly compact and C(S) ⊂ (I − D)(S),

(iii) A and D are two contractions with constants k and k ′ , respectively, and

Fixed Point Theory for BOM on Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras 169

Then, the block operator matrix (4.6) has, at least, a fixed point in S × S

αγ ′ −1 C(S)w k > 1.

whenever 0 ≤ k + 1−k ′ M < 1, where M = kB (I − D)

Proof. Notice that the map (I − D)−1 exists and is continuous. Our next task

is to show that the mapping F defined in Eq. (4.8) respects all conditions of

Lemma 1.4.2. We first claim that (I − D)−1 C(S) is relatively weakly compact.

If not, then β (I − D)−1 C(S) > 0. It is easy, in view of Eq. (4.9), to see that

β((I − D)−1 C(S)) ≤ β(C(S)) + β(D(I − D)−1 C(S)) ≤ β(D(I − D)−1 C(S)).

Let r > β((I − D)−1 C(S)). Then, there exists 0 ≤ r0 < r and K ∈ W(X)

such that

(I − D)−1 C(S) ⊂ K + Br0 .

Arguing as above, we get

β((I − D)−1 C(S)) ≤ β(D(I − D)−1 C(S)) < β((I − D)−1 C(S)),

one in the proof of Theorem 4.3.7 leads to the weak sequential continuity of

the maps B(I − D)−1 C and B ′ (I − D)−1 C, which is also true for F. Moreover,

the operator F is convex-power condensing. Indeed, it is easy to see that

using the sub-additivity of the De Blasi measure of weak noncompactness, we

get

β (F (S)) ≤ β (A(S)) + β B(I − D)−1 C(S) · B ′ (I − D)−1 C(S)w .

The use of assumption (iv), Lemma 3.1.3 and Lemma 1.5.2, leads to

β (F (S)) ≤ kβ (S) + kB ′ (I − D)−1 C(S)w kβ B(I − D)−1 C(S) .

170 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

αγ

1−k′ ,

αγ

β (F (S)) ≤ k + M β(S).

1 − k′

Letting x0 ∈ S and a positive integer n ≥ 1, then

β F (n,x0 ) (S) = β F co F (n−1,x0 ) (S), {x0 }

αγ

≤ k + M 1−k ′ β co F (n−1,x0 ) (S), {x0 }

n

αγ

≤ k + M 1−k ′ β(S).

αγ

Since 0 < k + M 1−k ′ < 1, F is a convex power condensing operator. Now, we

may apply Lemma 1.4.2 to infer that F has, at least, one fixed point x in S.

Consequently, the vector y = (I − D)−1 Cx solves the problem. Q.E.D.

the operator D has, at least, a fixed point.

In what follows, we will study a fixed point for the block operator matrix (4.6)

in the case where X is a commutative Banach algebra satisfying the condition

(P). Before stating the main result, we need the following lemma.

Lemma 4.4.1 Let S be a nonempty, convex, and closed subset of X, and let

A, C : S −→ X and B, B ′ , D : X −→ X be five operators such that:

respectively,

(iii) T is regular on T ′ (S), i.e., T maps S into the set of all invertible elements

of X included in T ′ (S), where T = B(I − D)−1 C and T ′ = B ′ (I − D)−1 C,

Fixed Point Theory for BOM on Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras 171

−1

Then, I−A T exists on T ′

(S), whenever M φB ◦ 1

1−k φC (r) + φA (r) < r

for r > 0.

and for any x, y ∈ S, we have

kT x − T yk ≤ φB k(I − D)−1 Cx − (I − D)−1 Cyk

1

≤ φB ◦ 1−k φC (kx − yk).

1

1−k φC . Now, let y be a fixed point in S, and let us define a mapping

ϕy : S −→ S

x −→ Ax + T x · T ′ y.

ϕ + φA . Hence, an application of Theorem 1.6.10 shows that there is a unique

point xy ∈ S such that ϕy (xy ) = xy . Or in an equivalent way:

Axy + T xy · T ′ y = xy .

I −A

xy = T ′ y.

T

I−A −1

Thus, the mapping T is well defined and the desired result is deduced.

Q.E.D.

In the following result, we will combine Theorem 2.3.4 and Lemma 4.4.1.

X, and let A, C : S −→ X and B, B ′ , D : X −→ X be five operators satisfy-

ing:

tively.

h √ h

(iii) D is a contraction with a constant k ∈ 0, 3−2 5 ,

172 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

(vi) x = Ax + T x · T ′ y ; y ∈ S =⇒ x ∈ S, and

n o

1

(vii) max M1 φB ◦ 1−k φC (r) + φA (r), M2 αφC (r) ≤ kr, for r > 0,

where M1 = kT ′ (S)k > k and M2 = kT (S)k > 1.

Then, the block operator matrix (4.6) has, at least, a fixed point in S × S.

Proof. By using our assumptions, it is easy to verify that B(I − D)−1 C and

B ′ (I − D)−1 C are two contractions on S, and consequently T (S) and T ′ (S)

are two bounded subsets. The use of Lemma 4.4.1 and the Browder’s fixed

−1

point theorem [44] shows that the operator I−AT exists on T ′ (S). Define

a mapping

N : S −→ X

−1 (4.12)

I −A

x −→ T ′ x.

T

Now, in view of Lemma 1.4.2, it is sufficient to prove that the operator N is

weakly sequentially continuous and convex-power condensing and that N (S)

is bounded.

We will show that N is weakly sequentially continuous on S. To do so, let

(xn )n be any sequence in S weakly converging to a point x in S. In view of

hypothesis (v), one has

Cxn → Cx.

Keeping in mind the continuity of (I − D)−1 and B ′ , we get

−1

Moreover, the operator I−A T is continuous on T ′ (S). Indeed, let (xn )n be

any sequence in T ′ (S) converging to a point x, and let

−1

I −A

yn = xn

T

−1

y = I −A

x.

T

Or, which is equivalent:

yn = Ayn + T yn · xn

y = Ay + T y · x.

Fixed Point Theory for BOM on Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras 173

Then,

≤ kAyn − Ayk + kT yn · xn − T y · xn k + kT y · xn − T y · xk

1

≤ kxn k φB ◦ 1−k φC + φA (kyn − yk) + kT ykkxn − xk

1

≤ M1 φB ◦ 1−k φC + φA (kyn − yk) + M2 kxn − xk.

Consequently,

1

lim supkyn − yk ≤ M1 φB ◦ φC + φA (lim supkyn − yk).

n 1−k n

n

I−A −1

T is continuous on T ′ (S). Accordingly,

−1 −1

I −A I −A

B ′ (I − D)−1 Cxn → B ′ (I − D)−1 Cx in X.

T T

uous.

Let x1 , x2 ∈ S and y1 , y2 ∈ S such that y1 = N x1 and y2 = N x2 . Then,

y1 = Ay1 + T y1 · T ′ x1

y = Ay + T y · T ′ x

2 2 2 2

M2 α

1

≤ φA + M1 φB ◦ 1−k φC (ky1 − y2 k) + φC (kx1 − x2 k)

1−k

k

≤ kky1 − y2 k + kx1 − x2 k.

1−k

This implies that

k

kN x1 − N x2 k ≤ kx1 − x2 k.

(1 − k)2

174 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

k

β(N (S)) ≤ β(S).

(1 − k)2

k

From assumption (iii), it follows that 0 ≤ (1−k) 2 < 1. Consequently, N is

Lemma 1.4.2. Q.E.D.

Now, we may combine Theorem 2.2.1 and Lemma 4.4.1 in order to obtain the

following fixed point theorem in Banach algebra.

of X, and let A, C : S −→ X and B, B ′ , D : X −→ X be five operators

satisfying:

respectively,

(ii) B ′ is continuous on S,

(v) C is strongly continuous and C(S) ⊂ (I − D)(S), and

Then, the

block operator

matrix (4.6) has, at least, a fixed point in S 2 whenever

1

M φB ◦ 1−k φC (r) + φA (r) < r for r > 0, where M = kT ′ (S)k.

Proof. Similarly to the proof of Theorem 4.4.1, we show that the operator N

defined in Eq. (4.12) is weakly sequentially continuous. Moreover, taking into

account that S is weakly compact and using the Eberlein–Šmulian theorem

(see Theorem 1.3.3), we deduce that N (S) is relatively weakly compact. Hence,

from Theorem 2.2.1, we prove that the equation N x = x has, at least, one

solution in S. Consequently, the use of the vector y = (I − D)−1 Cx solves the

problem. Q.E.D.

Fixed Point Theory for BOM on Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras 175

In this section, we are concerned with the fixed point results on Banach alge-

bras of the block operator matrix Eq. (4.6), where the entries of the matrix

are assumed to be nonlinear multi-valued operators defined on Banach alge-

bras. Our assumptions are as follows: A maps a bounded, closed, convex, and

nonempty subset S of a Banach algebra X into the classes of all closed, con-

vex, and bounded subsets of X, denoted by Pcl, cv, bd (X), B, B ′ from X into

Pcl, cv, bd (X), C from S into X and D from X into X. Let us introduce the

following definition.

Definition 4.5.1 A point (u, v) ∈ X × X is called a fixed point of the multi-

valued block operator matrix (4.6), if

u ∈ Au + Bv · B ′ v, and

(4.13)

v = Cu + Dv.

In what follows, let X be a Banach algebra and let Pp (X) denote the class

of all nonempty subsets of X with the property p. Thus, Pcl (X), Pbd (X),

Pcp (X), and Pcv (X) denote, respectively, the classes of all closed, bounded,

compact, and convex subsets of X. Similarly, Pcl, bd (X) and Pcp, cv (X) denote,

respectively, the classes of all closed-bounded and compact-convex subsets of

X. Recall that a correspondence Q : X −→ Pp (X) is called a multi-valued

operator or multi-valued mapping on X into X. A point x ∈ X is called a

fixed point of Q if, x ∈ Qx and the set of all fixed points of Q in X is denoted

by FQ . For the sake of convenience, we denote Q(A) = ∪x∈A Qx for a subset

A of X. For x ∈ X and A, B ∈ Pcl (X) we denote by:

D(x, A) := inf{kx − yk ; y ∈ A}.

Let us define a function dH : Pcl (X) × Pcl (X) −→ R+ by:

dH (A, B) = max{sup D(a, B), sup D(A, b)}.

a∈A b∈B

dH (A, {0}). The concept of Hausdorff metric was used by many authors in

order to prove the fixed point and the coincidence point results in the setting

of metric spaces. Let Q : X −→ Pp (X) be a multi-valued map. For any subset

A of X, we define

Q− (A) = {x ∈ X ; Q(x) ∩ A =

6 ∅} and Q+ (A) = {x ∈ X ; Q(x) ⊂ A}.

176 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

(resp. upper semi-continuous ) if Q− (A) (resp. Q+ (A)) is an open set in X

for every open subset U of X.

at a point x ∈ X if, and only if, for every sequence {xn }∞n=0 in X which

converges to x, and for each y ∈ Q(x), there exists a sequence yn ∈ Q(xn )

such that (yn ) converges to y.

lower semi-continuous at x0 if, and only if, for ε > 0, there exists η > 0 such

that Q(x0 ) ⊂ V (Q(x), ε) for all x ∈ Bη (x0 ), where V (Q(x), ε) is a closed

neighborhood of Q(x) in X. Q is called H-lower semi-continuous on X if

it is H-lower semi-continuous at each point x0 of X. Similarly, Q is called

H-upper semi-continuous at x0 ∈ X if, and only if, for ε > 0, there exists

η > 0 such that Q(x) ⊂ V (Q(x0 ), ε) for all x ∈ Bη (x0 ). Q is called H-upper

semi-continuous on X, if it is H-upper semi-continuous at each point x0 of

X.

semi-continuous as well as H-upper semi-continuous on X.

semi-continuous, but the converse may not be true.

Let us recall the following definition.

bounded if Q(S) is a totally bounded subset of X for all bounded subsets S of X.

Again, Q is called completely continuous on X, if it is upper semi-continuous

and totally bounded on X.

Before reaching the major part of the main fixed point results for this section,

let us state the useful lemmas for the sequel.

Fixed Point Theory for BOM on Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras 177

erator. Then, for any bounded subset S of X, we deduce that Q(S) is bounded.

Using the notion of Hausdorff metric, in 1969, H. Covitz and S. B. Nadler, Jr.

[58] proved a set-valued version of the Banach contraction principle. We now

consider some known results which will be used in the following sections.

Theorem 4.5.1 [58] Let (X, d) be a complete metric space, and let T : X −→

Pcl (X) be a multi-valued contraction. Then, the fixed point set FT of T is a

nonempty and closed subset of X.

The following result is due to L. Rybinski [143] and will be useful in the sequel.

X, and let Y be a metric space. Assume that the multi-valued operator Q :

S × Y −→ Pcl, cv (S) satisfies the following conditions:

(i) dH (Q(x1 , y), Q(x2 , y)) ≤ qkx1 − x2 k for all (x1 , y), (x2 , y) ∈ S × Y, where

q < 1, and

F (f (x, y), y) for each (x, y) ∈ S × Y.

Pbd, cl (X) be two multi-valued contractions with the same constant a. Then,

1

dH (FQ1 , FQ2 ) ≤ sup {dH (Q1 (x), Q2 (x)) ; x ∈ X} .

1−a

Proof. Notice that the fixed point sets FQi , i = 1, 2 are nonempty and closed

(see [75]). Write K = sup {dH (Q1 (x), Q2 (x)) ; x ∈ X} and assume that it is

finite. Let ε be an arbitrary strictly positive real. Next, choose c > 0 such

that,

X∞

c iai−1 < 1

i=1

and set ε1 = c(1 − a)ε. Let x0 ∈ FQ1 . Since dH (Q1 (x0 ), Q2 (x0 )) ≤ K, we may

choose x1 ∈ Q2 (x0 ) such that kx1 − x0 k ≤ K + ε. As

kx2 − x1 k ≤ akx1 − x0 k + ε1 .

178 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

Proceeding by induction, we can define a sequence (xn )n∈N such that xn+1 ∈

Q2 (xn ) and

kxn+1 − xn k ≤ an kx1 − x0 k + nan−1 ε1 .

It follows that,

n+1

X n+1

X +∞

X

kxi − xi−1 k ≤ ai kx1 − x0 k + iai−1 (ε1 )

i=m i=m i=m

m +∞

X

a

≤ kx1 − x0 k + iai−1 (ε1 ) → 0.

1−a i=m

n→∞

we infer that x∗ ∈ FQ2 . Moreover,

∞

X

kx0 − xk ≤ kxi+1 − xi k

i=0

X∞

1

≤ kx1 − x0 k + iai−1 (ε1 )

1−a i=1

1

≤ (K + 2ε) .

1−a

Q.E.D.

We think that this result remains true if we replace the two multi-valued con-

tractions by two multi-valued nonlinear D-contractions with the same subad-

ditive D-function. In fact, we may have:

Question 4:

Let X be a Banach space and Q1 , Q2 : X → Pbd, cl (X) be two multi-valued

nonlinear D-contractions with the same subadditive D-function φ. Is there

0 ≤ a < 1 such that:

1

dH (FQ1 , FQ2 ) ≤ sup {dH (Q1 (x), Q2 (x)) ; x ∈ X}?

1−a

Theorem 4.5.3 Let S be a closed, convex, and bounded subset of the Banach

algebra X, and let A, C : X −→ Pcl, cv, bd (X) and B : S −→ Pcp, cv (X) be

three multi-valued operators such that:

Fixed Point Theory for BOM on Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras 179

(i) A and C are multi-valued Lipschitzian operators with the Lipschitz con-

stants q1 and q2 , respectively,

(ii) B is a lower semi-continuous and compact operator,

Theorem 4.5.4 Let S be a closed, convex, and bounded subset of the Banach

algebra X, and let A : S −→ Pcl, cv, bd (X), B : X −→ Pcl, cv, bd (X), B ′ :

X −→ Pcp, cv (X), C : S −→ X, and D : X −→ X be five multi-valued

operators satisfying:

(ii) C and D are Lipschitzian with the constants q and k such that q + k < 1,

(iii) C(S) ⊆ (I − D)(S),

Then, the multi-valued block operator matrix (4.6) has, at least, a fixed point

whenever, ψ1 (r) + M ψ2 (r) < αr, r > 0 and α ∈ [0, 1[, where M = k ∪

B ′ (S)kP = sup{kB ′ xkP ; x ∈ S}.

y ∈ S and let us define a multi-valued operator T : S −→ Pcl, cv (S) by:

180 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

fixed y ∈ S. Let x1 , x2 ∈ S. Then,

q

≤ ψ1 (kx1 − x2 k) + M ψ2 1−k kx1 − x2 k

≤ (ψ1 + M ψ2 )(kx1 − x2 k)

≤ αkx1 − x2 k,

the multi-valued operator Ty (·) is a contraction on S. Hence, when we apply

Covitz–Nadler’s fixed point theorem [58], we notice that the fixed point set

FTy = x ∈ S such that x ∈ Ax + B(I − D)−1 Cx · B ′ (I − D)−1 Cy

both hypothesis (iii) and Theorem 4.5.2 shows the existence of a continuous

mapping f : S × S −→ S such that

f (x, y) ∈ A(f (x, y)) + B(I − D)−1 C(f (x, y)) · B ′ (I − D)−1 Cy. (4.14)

G : S −→ Pcl (S)

g : S −→ S

and

y −→ FTy

x −→ f (x, x).

g(x) = f (x, x) ∈ A(f (x, x)) + B(I − D)−1 C(f (x, x)) · B ′ (I − D)−1 Cx

only have to demonstrate that G is continuous and totally bounded on S. In

Fixed Point Theory for BOM on Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras 181

q

kB(I − D)−1 C(z)kP ≤ kB(I − D)−1 C(a)kP + ψ2 1−k kz − ak

kz−ak

≤ kB(I − D)−1 C(a)kP + M

≤ η,

where

diam(S)

η = kB(I − D)−1 C(a)kP + , (4.15)

M

for some fixed point a in S. Let ε > 0 be given. Since B ′ (I − D)−1 C is totally

bounded on S, then there exists a subset Y = {y1 , . . . , yn } of points in S, such

that

′ −1 1−α

B (I − D) C(S) ⊂ {w1 , . . . , wn } + B 0, ε

η

n

[

1−α

⊂ B wi , ε ,

i=1

η

w with a radius r. Then, for each y ∈ S, there is an element yk ∈ Y such that

1−α

dH B ′ (I − D)−1 Cy, B ′ (I − D)−1 Cyk < ε.

η

This implies that

1

≤ sup{dH (Ty (x), Tyk (x))}

1 − α x∈S

1

≤ kB(I − D)−1 CxkP dH (Π′ y, Π′ yk )

1−α

η 1−α

< ε

1−α η

≤ ε.

182 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

Therefore, for each u ∈ G(y), there exists uk ∈ G(yk ) such that ku − uk k < ε,

and thereby, for each y ∈ Y, one has

[n

G(y) ⊆ B(uk , ε),

i=1

n

[

g(S) ⊂ G(S) ⊆ B(uk , ε)

i=1

and so, h is a completely continuous operator on S. Now, all the assumptions

of Schauder’s fixed point theorem are satisfied by the mapping h. As a result,

there exists u ∈ S such that u = h(u). From Eq. (4.14), it follows that

u = h(u) ∈ A(h(u)) + B(I − D)−1 C(h(u)) · B ′ (I − D)−1 Cu.

The vector v = (I − D)−1 Cu completes this proof. Q.E.D.

vided in the following multi-valued fixed point theorem.

Theorem 4.5.5 Let S be a closed, convex, and bounded subset of the Banach

algebra X and let A, B : X −→ Pcl, cv, bd (X), B ′ : X −→ Pcp, cv (X) and

C : S −→ X and D : X −→ X be five multi-valued operators satisfying:

(ii) C and D are Lipschitzian with the constants q and k such that q + k < 1,

Then, the multi-valued block operator matrix (4.6) has, at least, a fixed point

whenever ψ1 (r) + M ψ2 (r) < αr, where α ∈ [0, 1[ and M = k ∪ B ′ (S)kP .

T (x, y) = Ax + B(I − D)−1 Cx · B ′ (I − D)−1 Cy.

By following the same procedures as in the proof of Theorem 4.5.4, it can be

proved that Ty is a multi-valued contraction on X. When we apply Covitz–

Nadler’s fixed point theorem, we reach the result that the fixed point set

n o

FTy = x ∈ X such that x ∈ Ax + B(I − D)−1 Cx · B ′ (I − D)−1 Cy

Fixed Point Theory for BOM on Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras 183

(v), we notice that FTy ⊂ S for each y ∈ S. Now, let us define the mappings

G and g as in the proof of Theorem 4.5.4. It follows that g is a continuous

mapping having the property that

g(y) = f (y, y) ∈ A(f (y, y)) + B(I − D)−1 C(f (y, y)) · B ′ (I − D)−1 Cy,

for each y ∈ S. Once again, we proceed with the same arguments as in the

proof of Theorem 4.5.4. Then, we can show that there exists u ∈ S such that

space is a nonnegative real number α(S) defined by:

n n

[ o

α(S) = inf r > 0 ; S ⊆ Si , diam(S) ≤ r ∀i

i=1

a bounded subset S of X is a nonnegative real number β(S) defined by:

n

[

β(S) = inf{r > 0; S ⊆ B(xi , r), for some xi ∈ X},

i=1

set-Lipschitz, if there is a continuous nondecreasing function ψ : R+ −→ R+

such that β(Q(A)) ≤ ψ(β(A)) for all A ∈ Pcl, bd (X) with Q(A) ∈ Pcl, bd (X)

where ψ(0) = 0. Sometimes, we call the function ψ a D-function of Q on X. In

the special case where ψ(r) = kr, k > 0, Q is called a k-set-Lipschitz mapping,

and if k < 1, then Q is called a k-set-contraction on X. Further, if ψ(r) < r

for r > 0, then Q is called a nonlinear D-set-contraction on X.

Theorem 4.5.6 [75] Let S be a nonempty, closed, convex, and bounded subset

of a Banach space X, and let Q : S −→ Pcl, cv (S) be a closed and nonlinear

D-set-contraction. Then, Q has, at least, a fixed point.

β(S2 )kS1 kP .

184 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

Lemma 4.5.6 [6] Let α and β be, respectively, the Kuratowskii and Hausdorff

measure of noncompactness in a Banach space X. Then, for any bounded

subset S of X, we have α(S) ≤ 2β(S).

Now, we can use Theorem 4.5.6, together with Lemma 4.5.5, in order to reach

the following fixed point theorem.

Theorem 4.5.7 Let S be a closed, convex, and bounded subset of the Banach

algebra X, and let A, B, B ′ : X −→ Pbd, cv (X), and C, D : S −→ X be five

multi-valued operators satisfying:

(ii) C and D are Lipschitzian with constants q and k, respectively, such that

q + k < 1,

(iv) B ′ is an upper semi-continuous and totally bounded operator, and

Then, the multi-valued block operator matrix (4.6) has, at least, a fixed point

whenever M ψ2 (r) + ψ1 (r) < αr, where α ∈ [0, 21 [ and M = k ∪ B ′ (S)kP .

T : S −→ PP (S)

x −→ Ax + B(I − D)−1 Cx · B ′ (I − D)−1 Cx.

Obviously, T x is a convex subset of S for each x ∈ S in view of hypothesis

(iv). Therefore, from Lemma 4.5.5, it follows that

β(T x) = β Ax + B(I − D)−1 Cx · B ′ (I − D)−1 Cx

≤ β(Ax) + β B(I − D)−1 Cx · B ′ (I − D)−1 Cx

≤ β(Ax) + β B(I − D)−1 Cx kB ′ (I − D)−1 CxkP

≤ α(Ax) + α B(I − D)−1 Cx kB ′ (I − D)−1 CxkP

q

≤ ψ1 α({x}) + ψ2 α({ 1−k x}) kB ′ (I − D)−1 CxkP

In order to show that the map T : S −→ Pcv, cp (S) is closed, let {xn } be a

Fixed Point Theory for BOM on Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras 185

point y. It is sufficient to prove that y ∈ T x. Now, for any x, z ∈ S, we have

dH (T x, T z) ≤ δ(x, z) + dH Πx · Π′ x, Πz · B ′ (I − D)−1 Cz

q

≤ ψ1 (kx − zk) + M ψ2 1−k kx − zk + ηdH (Π′ x, Π′ z)

where η was defined in Eq. (4.15), δ(x, z) := dH (Ax, Az), Π := B(I −D)−1 C,

and Π′ := B ′ (I − D)−1 C. Since B ′ is upper semi-continuous, then

dH (Π′ xn , Π′ x) → 0, whenever xn → x.

erator T is H-upper semi-continuous on S. Since the multi-valued map T

is compact-valued, then it is upper semi-continuous on S. Consequently, the

multi-valued T : S −→ Pcp, cv (S) is closed on S. Finally, let us demonstrate

that T is a nonlinear D-set-contraction on S. For this purpose, let S1 ⊂ S be

arbitrary. Then, S1 is bounded. Notice that A(S1 ) and (I − D)−1 C(S1 ) are

also bounded. Since B ′ is compact, then the set B ′ (I −D)−1 C(S1 ) is relatively

compact and hence is bounded in X. Since

β, we obtain

≤ (ψ1 + M ψ2 ) (α(S1 ))

186 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

ping on S into itself. Applying Theorem 4.5.6, we deduce that T has, at least,

a fixed point. Q.E.D.

integral inclusions (see Chapter 7), is introduced in the following theorem.

Theorem 4.5.8 Let S be a closed, convex, and bounded subset of the Banach

algebra X, and let S ′ be a closed, convex, and bounded subset of the Banach

space Y. Let A : S −→ X, B : S ′ −→ X, C : S −→ Y , D : S ′ −→ Y and

B ′ : S ′ −→ Pcp, cv (X) be five multi-valued operators satisfying:

(iv) Ax + B(I − D)−1 Cx · B ′ (I − D)−1 Cx ⊆ S, for all x ∈ S.

Then, the multi-valued block operator matrix (4.6) has, at least, a fixed point

whenever q1−k

2 q3

M + q1 < 12 , where M = k ∪ B ′ (I − D)−1 C(S)kP .

is multi-valued Lipschitzian mapping with the constant 2k (see [98]). Once

again,

Ax + B(I − D)−1 Cx · B ′ (I − D)−1 Cx

is a convex and closed subset of X for each x ∈ S, and when we apply Theorem

4.5.7, we reach the desired conclusion. Q.E.D.

Part II

Applications in

Mathematical Physics and

Biology

187

Chapter 5

Existence of Solutions for Transport

Equations

This chapter deals with some open problems carried from [99, 115, 116, 117,

118] concerning the existence of solutions on L1 spaces to nonlinear boundary

value problems derived from three models. The first one deals with nonlinear

one-dimensional stationary transport equations arising in the kinetic theory

of gas where we must describe the interaction of gas molecules with solid walls

bounding the region where the gas follows. The second one, introduced by J.

L. Lebowitz and S. I. Rubinow [121] in 1974, models microbial populations by

age and cycle length formalism. The third one, introduced by M. Rotenberg

[142] in 1983, describes the growth of a cell population. These three models can

be transformed into a fixed point problem which has two types of equations.

The first type involves a nonlinear weakly compact operator on L1 spaces. The

second type deals with two nonlinear operators depending on the parameter

λ, say, ψ = A1 (λ)ψ + A2 (λ)ψ where A1 (λ) is a weakly compact operator on

L1 spaces and A2 (λ) is a (strict) contraction mapping for a large enough Reλ.

Consequently, Schauder’s (resp. Krasnosel’skii’s) fixed point theorem [149]

cannot be used in the first (resp. second) type of equation. This is essentially

due to the lack of compactness.

5.1.1 Leakage of energy at the boundary of the slab

The first purpose of this section is to give some existence results for the sta-

tionary model presented in [14] on L1 spaces :

189

190 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

Z

∂ψ

v3 − λψ(x, v) + V(x, v, ψ(x, v)) = r(x, v, v ′ , ψ(x, v ′ )) dv ′ in D, (5.1)

∂x K

K, r(., ., ., .) and V(., ., .) are nonlinear functions of ψ, and λ is a complex

number. The main point in this equation is the nonlinear dependence of the

functions r(x, v, v ′ , ψ(x, v ′ )) on ψ. This equation describes the asymptotic be-

havior of the energy distribution inside the channel in the variables x and v.

The unknown of this equation is a scalar function ψ(x, v) which represents

the energy density. The boundary conditions are modeled by:

where Di (resp. D0 ) is the incoming (resp. outgoing) part of the space bound-

ary and which is given by:

for

K 0 = K ∩ {v3 < 0}, K 1 = K ∩ {v3 > 0}.

We will treat the problem (5.1)–(5.2) in the following functional setting. Let

X = L1 (D, dxdv),

:= X1i ⊕ X2i

endowed with the norm :

kψ i , X i k = kψ1i , X1i k + kψ2i , X2i k

Z Z

= |ψ(0, v)||v3 | dv + |ψ(1, v)||v3 | dv

K1 K0

and

X 0 := L1 (D0 , |v3 |dv) ∼ L1 (D10 , |v3 |dv) ⊕ L1 (D20 , |v3 |dv)

:= X10 ⊕ X20

endowed with the norm :

kψ 0 , X 0 k = kψ10 , X10 k + kψ20 , X20 k

Z Z

= |ψ(0, v)||v3 | dv + |ψ(1, v)||v3 | dv ,

K0 K1

Existence of Solutions for Transport Equations 191

where ∼ means the natural identification of these spaces. Now, let us introduce

the boundary operator H by:

H : X10 ⊕ X20 −→ X1i ⊕ X2i

! ! !

u 1 H 11 H 12 u1

H

=

u2 H21 H22 u2

for j, k ∈ {1, 2}, Hjk : Xk0 −→ Xji , Hjk ∈ L(Xk0 , Xji ), defined such that, on

natural identification, the boundary conditions can be written as ψ i = H(ψ 0 ).

Let us define the streaming operator TH with a domain including the following

boundary conditions:

TH : D(TH ) ⊂ X −→ X

∂ψ

ψ −→ TH ψ(x, v) = v3 (x, v) + σ(x, v)ψ(x, v)

∂x

∂ψ

D(TH ) = ψ ∈ X, v3 ∈ X, ψ i ∈ X i , ψ 0 ∈ X 0 and ψ i = H(ψ 0 ) ,

∂x

where ψ 0 = ψ|D0 = (ψ10 , ψ20 )⊤ , ψ i = ψ|Di = (ψ1i , ψ2i )⊤ and ψ10 , ψ20 , ψ1i , ψ2i are

given by:

ψ1i (v) = ψ(0, v), v ∈ K1

ψ2i (v) = ψ(1, v), v ∈ K0

ψ10 (v) = ψ(0, v), v ∈ K0

0

ψ2 (v) = ψ(1, v), v ∈ K 1.

distributional sense. Note that, if ψ ∈ D(TH ), then it is absolutely continuous

with respect to x. Hence, the restrictions of ψ to Di and D0 are meaningful.

o

Note also that D(TH ) is dense in X because it contains C0∞ (D).

192 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

Let σ be the real defined by:

Thus, for Reλ < σ, the solution of Eq. (5.3) is formally given by:

Rx Z x Rx

−

σ(s,v)−λ

ds 1 −

σ(s,v)−λ

ds

ψ(x, v) = ψ(0, v) e 0 |v3 |

+ e x′ |v3 |

ϕ(x′ , v) dx′ , v ∈ K 1

|v3 | 0

(5.4)

R1 Z 1 Rx

− σ(s,v)−λ

ds 1 − σ(s,v)−λ

ds

ψ(x, v) = ψ(1, v) e x |v3 |

+ e x′ |v3 |

ϕ(x′ , v) dx′ , v ∈ K 0

|v3 | x

(5.5)

whereas, ψ(1, v) and ψ(0, v) are given by:

R1 Z 1 R1

−

σ(s,v)−λ

ds 1 −

σ(s,v)−λ

ds

ψ(1, v) = ψ(0, v) e 0 |v3 |

+ e x′ |v3 |

ϕ(x′ , v) dx′ , v ∈ K 1

|v3 | 0

(5.6)

R1 Z 1 R x′

− σ(s,v)−λ

ds 1 − σ(s,v)−λ

ds

ψ(0, v) = ψ(1, v) e 0 |v3 |

+ e 0 |v3 |

ϕ(x′ , v) dx′ , v ∈ K 0 .

|v3 | 0

(5.7)

In order to allow the abstract formulation of Eqs. (5.4)–(5.7), let us define the

following operators depending on the parameter λ :

Mλ : X i −→ X 0 , Mλ u := (Mλ+ u, Mλ− u), with

R

− 1 σ(s,v)−λ ds

(Mλ+ u(0, v) := u(1, v) e 0 |v3 | , v ∈ K 0;

R 1 σ(s,v)−λ

(M − u(1, v) := u(0, v) e− 0 |v3 | ds , v ∈ K 1;

λ

Bλ : X i −→ X, Bλ u := χK 0 (v)Bλ+ u + χK 1 (v)Bλ− u, with

R

− x σ(s,v)−λ ds

(Bλ− u)(x, v) := u(0, v) e 0 |v3 | , v ∈ K 1;

R

(B + u)(x, v) := u(1, v) e− x1 σ(s,v)−λ

|v3 | ds

, v ∈ K 0;

λ

Gλ : X −→ X 0 , Gλ u := (G+ −

λ ϕ, Gλ ϕ), with

Z

1 R σ(s,v)−λ

1 − x1 ds

G−

λ ϕ := e |v3 |

ϕ(x, v) dx, v ∈ K 1;

|v3 | 0

Z 1 R σ(s,v)−λ

G+ ϕ := 1

− x

e 0 |v3 |

ds

ϕ(x, v) dx, v ∈ K 0;

λ

|v3 | 0

Existence of Solutions for Transport Equations 193

and

Cλ : X −→ X, Cλ ϕ := χK 0 (v)Cλ+ ϕ + χK 1 (v)Cλ− ϕ, with

Z x R

− 1 − x σ(s,v)−λ ds

Cλ ϕ := e x′ |v3 | ϕ(x′ , v) dx′ , v ∈ K 1 ;

|v3 |

Z0 1 R

1 − x σ(s,v)−λ ds

Cλ+ ϕ := e x′ |v3 | ϕ(x′ , v) dx′ , v ∈ K 0 ,

|v3 | x

where χK 0 (.) and χK 1 (.) denote, respectively, the characteristic functions of

the sets K 0 and K 1 . Let λ0 denote the real defined by:

σ, if kHk ≤ 1

λ0 :=

σ − log(kHk), if kHk > 1.

A simple calculation shows that the above operators are bounded on their

respective spaces. In fact, for Reλ < σ , the norms of the operators Mλ , Bλ ,

1 1

Cλ , and Gλ are bounded above, respectively, by eReλ−σ , σ−Reλ , σ−Reλ and

1. By using these operators and the fact that ψ must satisfy the boundary

conditions, we deduce that Eqs. (5.6) and (5.7) are written in the space X 0

in the operator form, as follows:

ψ 0 = Mλ Hψ 0 + Gλ ϕ.

U(λ) := I − Mλ H (which is the case if Reλ < λ0 , see the norm estimate

of Mλ H). This gives

X

ψ 0 = {U(λ)}−1 Gλ ϕ = (Mλ H)n Gλ ϕ. (5.8)

n≥0

ψ = Bλ Hψ 0 + Cλ ϕ.

X

ψ= Bλ H(Mλ H)n Gλ ϕ + Cλ ϕ.

n≥0

Proposition 5.1.1 {λ ∈ C such that Reλ < λ0 } ⊂ ̺(TH ), and for Reλ <

λ0 , we have X

(TH − λ)−1 = Bλ H(Mλ H)n Gλ + Cλ , (5.9)

n≥0

194 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

f : [0, 1] × K × C −→ C

(x, v, u) −→ f (x, v, u).

linear operator F by:

F : X −→ X

Z (5.10)

ψ −→ ξ(x, v, v ′ )ψ(x, v ′ ) dv ′ .

K

Let us notice that the operator F acts only on the variables v ′ , so x may be

viewed merely as a parameter in [0, 1]. Hence, we may consider F as a function

where Z = L(L1 (K; dv)) denotes the set of all bounded linear operators on

L1 (K; dv). In the following, we will make the assumptions:

− the function F (.) is strongly measurable,

− there exists a compact subset C ⊂ L(L1 (K; dv)) such that:

(B2 )

F (x) ∈ C a.e. on [0, 1],

− F (x) ∈ K(L1 (K; dv)) a.e.,

where K(L1 (K; dv)) denotes the set of all compact operators on L1 (K; dv).

Obviously, the second assumption of (B2 ) implies that

using (5.11), we have

Z Z

|(F ψ)(x, v)| dv ≤ kF (.)kL∞ ((0,1),Z) |ψ(x, v)| dv

K K

and therefore,

Existence of Solutions for Transport Equations 195

Z 1 Z Z 1 Z

|(F ψ)(x, v)| dvdx ≤ kF (.)kL∞ ((0,1),Z) |ψ(x, v)| dvdx.

0 K 0 K

The interest of the operators in the forms which satisfy (B2 ) lies in the fol-

lowing lemma.

Lemma 5.1.1 Let F be a linear operator given by (5.10) and assume that

(B2 ) holds. Then, F can be approximated, in the uniform topology, by a se-

quence (Fn )n of linear operators with kernels of the form

n

X

ηi (x)θi (v)βi (v ′ ),

i=1

Proof. Let C ∗ = C ∩K(L1 (K; dv)). By using the second and third assumptions

of (B2 ), C ∗ is a nonempty and closed subset of C. Then, C ∗ is a compact set

of Z. Let ε > 0, there exist F1 , . . . , Fm such that (Fi )i ⊂ C ∗ and

C⊂ ∪ B(Fi , ε),

1≤i≤m

S

Let C1 = B(F1 , ε), and for m ≥ 2, Cm = B(Fm , ε) − Ci . Clearly,

S 1≤i≤m−1

Ci ∩ Cj = ∅ if i = 6 j and C ∗ ⊂ Ci . Let 1 ≤ i ≤ m and let us denote

1≤i≤m

by Ii the set:

S

Hence, we have Ii ∩ Ij = ∅ if i 6= j and (0, 1) = Ii . Now, let us

1≤i≤m

consider the following step function from (0, 1) to Z defined by:

m

X

S(x) = χIi (x)Fi ,

i=1

where χIi (.) denotes the characteristic function of Ii . Obviously, S(.) satis-

fies the hypothesis (B2 ). Then, using (5.10), we get F − S ∈ L∞ ((0, 1), Z).

Moreover, an easy calculation leads to

kF − SkL∞ ((0,1),Z) ≤ ε .

196 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

Hence, we infer that the operator F may be approximated (in the uniform

topology) by operators of the form

n

X

U (x) = ηi (x)Fi ,

i=1

where ηi ∈ L∞ ((0, 1); dx) and Fi ∈ K(L1 (K; dv)). Moreover, each compact

operator Fi is a limit (for the norm topology) of a sequence of finite rank

operators because L1 (K; dv) admits a Schauder’s basis. Q.E.D.

The following lemma is fundamental for the sequel.

Lemma 5.1.2 Assume that (B2 ) holds. Then, for any λ ∈ C satisfying Reλ <

λ0 , the operator (TH − λ)−1 F is weakly compact on X.

Proof. Let λ be such that Reλ < λ0 . In view of Eq. (5.9), we have

X

(TH − λ)−1 F = Bλ H(Mλ H)n Gλ F + Cλ F .

n≥0

P n

In order to conclude, it is sufficient to show that n≥0 Bλ H(Mλ H) Gλ F

and Cλ F are weakly compact on X. We claim that Gλ F and Cλ F are weakly

compact on X. By using Lemma 5.1.1, we only need to prove the result for

an operator whose kernel is in the form:

ξ(x, v, v ′ ) = η(x)θ(v)β(v ′ ),

where η ∈ L∞ ([0, 1]; dx), θ ∈ L1 (K; dv), β ∈ L∞ (K; dv). Let ϕ ∈ X. Then,

for v ∈ K1 we have

Z Z 1 R

1 − 1 σ(s,v)−λ ds

(G−λ F ϕ)(v) = η(x)θ(v)e x |v3 | β(v ′ ) ϕ(x, v ′ ) dxdv ′

K 0 |v3 |

= Jλ Uλ ϕ,

Uλ : X −→ L

Z 1 ([0, 1]; dx)

ϕ −→ β(v) ϕ(x, v) dv

K

Existence of Solutions for Transport Equations 197

and

0

Jλ : L1 ([0, 1]; dx) −→ X2

Z 1 R

1 − 1 σ(s,v)−λ

ds

ψ −→ η(x)θ(v)e x |v3 |

ψ(x) dx .

0 |v3 |

bounded set of L1 ([0, 1]; dx), and let ψ ∈ O. We have

Z Z

|Jλ ψ(v)| |v3 | dv ≤ kηk kψk |θ(v)| dv,

E E

infer that the set Jλ (O) is weakly compact, since lim |θ(v)| dv = 0, (θ ∈

|E|→0 E

L1 (K; dv)), where |E| is the measure of E. A similar reasoning allows us to

reach the same result for the operators G+

λ F and Cλ F . Q.E.D.

Now, let us recall some facts concerning the superposition operators required

below. A function f : D × C −→ C is said to satisfy the Carathéodory condi-

tions on D × C, if

(x, v) −→ f (x, v, u) is measurable on D for all u ∈ C,

u −→ f (x, v, u) is continuous on C a.e. (x, v) ∈ D.

on the set of functions { ψ : D −→ C } , by:

generated by f . In Lp spaces, the Nemytskii’s operator has been extensively

investigated (see, for example, [110] and the bibliography therein). However,

it is useful to recall the following result which states a basic fact for these

operators in Lp spaces.

tinuous and takes bounded sets into bounded sets. Moreover, if p2 < ∞, then

there exist a constant b > 0 and a positive function a ∈ Lp2 such that

p1

|f (x, y)| ≤ a(x) + b|y| p2 a.e in x, for all y ∈ R.

198 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

f satisfies the Carathéodory conditions and there exist a constant

(B3 ) k > 0 and a positive function h ∈ X such that :

|f (x, v, ψ(x, v))| ≤ h(x, v) + k|ψ(x, v)| a.e. in x, for all ψ ∈ X.

We note that (B3 ) implies that Nf acts from L1 into L1 . Then, by using

Proposition 5.1.2, we deduce that Nf is continuous and takes bounded sets

into bounded sets. Let r be a positive real and set

Theorem 5.1.1 Let (B1 )–(B3 ) be satisfied. Then, for each r > 0 , there ex-

ists a real λ1 < 0 such that, for all λ satisfying Reλ < λ1 , the boundary value

problem

Z

∂ψ

v

3 ∂x + σ(x, v)ψ(x, v) − λψ(x, v) = ξ(x, v, v ′ )f (x, v ′ , ψ(x, v ′ )) dv ′ in D,

K

i

ψ = H(ψ 0 ), λ ∈ C

(5.13)

has, at least, one solution on Br .

Proof. Let λ be a complex number such that Reλ < λ0 . Then, according to

Eq. (5.9), (TH −λ) is invertible and therefore, the problem may be transformed

into

ψ = F (λ)ψ

ψ i = H(ψ 0 ),

where F (λ)ψ = (TH − λ)−1 F Nf ψ. First, let us check that, for a suitable

λ, F (λ) is continuous and leaves Br invariant. It is clear that F (λ) is contin-

uous. By using Eq. (5.9), we have

X

(TH − λ)−1 = Bλ H(Mλ H)n Gλ + Cλ .

n≥0

Existence of Solutions for Transport Equations 199

Then, X

k(TH − λ)−1 k ≤ kBλ kkHkkMλHkn kGλ k + kCλ k

n≥0

X

≤ kBλ kkHkkGλ k kMλ Hkn + kCλ k

n≥0

kHk 1 1

≤ +

σ − Reλ 1 − kMλ Hk σ − Reλ

kHk 1 1

≤ +

σ − Reλ

1 − kMλ kkHk σ − Reλ

1 kHk

≤ + 1 . (5.14)

σ − Reλ 1 − eReλ−σ kHk

kF k kHk

kF(λ)ψk ≤ + 1 kNf ψk

σ − Reλ 1 − eReλ−σ kHk

kF k kHk

≤ + 1 (khk + kr).

σ − Reλ 1 − eReλ−σ kHk

kHk kHk

<

1− eReλ−σ kHk 1 − eε−σ kHk

and therefore,

1 kHk

kF(λ)ψk ≤ + 1 kF k(khk + kr)

σ − Reλ 1 − eε−σ kHk

= Q(Reλ),

where

1 kHk

Q(t) = + 1 kF k(khk + kr).

σ−t 1 − eε−σ kHk

lim Q(t) = 0. Hence, there exists λ1 such that Q(λ1 ) ≤ r and therefore,

t→−∞

kF(λ)ψk ≤ r for Reλ ≤ λ1 . This shows that Fλ leaves Br invariant. Now,

let O be a weakly compact subset of X, and we claim that Nf (O) is weakly

compact in X. To see this, let (ψn )n be a sequence in O. Then, (ψn )n has a

weak converging subsequence (ψnp )p . In particular, the set Ω = {(ψnp )p } is

200 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

(use Theorem 1.3.6). Next, by applying Theorem 1.3.7, we notice that

Z

lim |ψ(x, v)| dxdv = 0

|E|→0 E

Z Z Z

|(Nf ψ)(x, v)| dxdv ≤ h(x, v) dxdv + k |ψ(x, v)| dxdv.

E E E

Hence, Z

lim |(Nf ψ)(x, v)| dxdv = 0,

|E|→0 E

Z

lim h(x, v) dxdv = 0.

|E|→0 E

Now, by using Theorem 1.3.7, we may conclude that the family (Nf ψnp ) is

weakly compact in X. Thus, (Nf ψnp )p is weakly convergent and Nf (O) is

weakly compact. Finally, the use of Theorem 2.1.1 and Corollary 2.1.2 for the

bounded closed convex subset Br , shows that F (λ) has, at least, one fixed

point in Br ∩ D(TH ). Q.E.D.

In the following, we will focus our attention on the existence of positive solu-

tions to the boundary value problem (5.13). Let us notice that our functional

spaces X, Di , and D0 are Banach lattice spaces. Their positive cônes will be

denoted, respectively, by X + , Di+ , and D0+ .

are positive, then for each r > 0, the boundary value problem (5.13) has, at

least, one solution in Br+ .

Proof. Let λ be a real such that λ < min(0, σ). Using the fact that the

operators Mλ , Bλ , Gλ , Cλ , and F are positive and Eq. (5.8), we deduce that

(TH − λ)−1 F is positive. Now, the remaining part of the proof is similar to

that of Theorem 5.1.1; it suffices to replace the set N := co(F (λ)(Br )) by

N + := co(F (λ)(Br+ )). Q.E.D.

Existence of Solutions for Transport Equations 201

Proposition 5.1.4 Let (B1 )–(B3 ) be satisfied and assume that H and F are

positive. If there exist τ > 0 and 0 6= ψ0 ∈ Br+ such that :

(i) ψ0 ∈

/ N (F ) where N (F ) is the null space of F ,

Then, there exists λ1 < 0 such that, for any λ < λ1 , there is η > 0 such that

the boundary value problem

Z

∂ψ

v3 ∂x (x, v) + σ(x, v)ψ(x, v) − λψ(x, v) = η

ξ(x, v, v ′ )f (x, v ′ , ψ(x, v ′ )) dv ′ ,

K

i

ψ = H(ψ 0 )

has, at least, one solution ψ ∗ ∈ Br+ satisfying kψ ∗ k = r.

there is a constant λ1 < 0, such that for all λ ≤ λ1 , the operator F (λ) maps

Br+ into itself. We first claim that

Indeed, since Nf satisfies the assumption (ii), it follows from (5.9) and the

P

positivity of n≥0 Bλ H(Mλ H)n Gλ , that

it follows, from the positivity of Cλ and the fact that it is the resolvent of the

linear operator T0 (i.e., H = 0), that

Hence,

kF(λ)(ψ)k ≥ τ kCλ F ψ0 k for all ψ ∈ Br+ .

This proves the claim. Consequently, for each λ ≤ λ1 , we define the operator

G(λ) on Br+ by:

F (λ)(ψ)

G(λ)(ψ) = r for all ψ ∈ Br+ .

kF(λ)(ψ)k

Next, let us prove that G(λ) is a weakly compact operator on Br+ . Indeed, set

m = inf{kF(λ)ψk, ψ ∈ Br+ } > 0. Then,

r

0 ≤ G(λ)(ψ) ≤ F (λ)(ψ) for all ψ ∈ Br+ .

m

202 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

subset of X + and therefore, by using Lemma 5.1.2, we deduce that F (λ)(Br+ )

is weakly compact. Moreover, by using Theorem 1.3.7, we may conclude that

Z

lim (F (λ)ψ)(x, v) dxdv = 0,

|E|→0 E

r

0 ≤ G(λ)(ψ) ≤ F (λ)(ψ) for all ψ ∈ Br+ ,

m

we find that

Z Z

r

0≤ (G(λ)ψ)(x, v) dxdv ≤ (F (λ)ψ(x, v)) dxdv, for all ψ ∈ Br+ .

E m E

Thus, Z

lim (G(λ)ψ)(x, v) dxdv = 0,

|E|→0 E

uniformly for ψ in Br+ , and G(λ)(Br+ ) is weakly compact. Finally, the use of

Theorem 2.1.1 and Remark 2.1.2 for the bounded closed convex set Br+ shows

that G(λ) has, at least, a fixed point ψ ∗ in Br∗ satisfying kψ ∗ k = r. Setting

r

η = kF (λ)(ψ ∗ )k , we get

(TH − λ)−1 F Nf (ψ ∗ ) = η −1 ψ ∗ .

Z

∂ψ ∗

v3 (x, v) + σ(x, v)ψ ∗ (x, v) − λψ ∗ (x, v) = η ξ(x, v, v ′ )f (x, v ′ , ψ ∗ (x, v ′ ) dv ′ .

∂x K

This completes the proof. Q.E.D.

value problem

Our main interest here is dealing with the existence of solutions for the more

general nonlinear boundary value problem (5.1)–(5.2). We need the following

hypothesis

H is a bounded linear operator from X 0 into X i

and for each r > 0, V(., ., .) satisfies:

(B4 )

|V(x, v, ψ1 (x, v)) − V(x, v, ψ2 (x, v))| ≤ |ρ(x, v)||ψ1 − ψ2 | for every

(ψ1 , ψ2 ) ∈ Br , where ρ ∈ L∞ (D) and NV acts from Br into Br .

Existence of Solutions for Transport Equations 203

∂ψ

D(TbH ) ∋ ψ −→ TbH ψ(x, v) = v3 (x, v),

∂x

D(TbH ) = ψ ∈ X, v3 ∂ψ ∈ X, ψ i ∈ X i , ψ 0 ∈ X 0 and ψ i = H(ψ 0 ) ,

∂x

where ψ|Di := ψ i and ψ|D0 := ψ 0 . Since H is linear, TbH is a closed densely de-

fined linear operator. Moreover, easy calculations can show that the resolvent

set of ̺(TbH ) contains the half plane {Reλ < λ0 }, λ0 is calculated by taking

σ = 0 denoted by λ00 and defined by:

0, if kHk ≤ 1

λ00 :=

− log(kHk), if kHk > 1.

X

(TbH − λ)−1 = Bλ0 H(Mλ0 H)n G0λ + Cλ0 ,

n≥0

where Bλ0 , Mλ0 , G0λ , and Cλ0 are the bounded linear operators derived from

Bλ , Mλ , Gλ , and Cλ by taking σ = 0. Their norms are bounded above, respec-

−1 −1

tively, by Reλ , eReλ , 1, and Reλ . These observations lead to the estimate

−1 kHk

k(TbH − λ)−1 k ≤ +1 (5.15)

Reλ 1 − eReλ kHk

for any λ in the half plane Reλ < λ00 . Let ε < 0 and let λ be such

that Reλ < min(ε, λ00 ). Since λ ∈ ̺(TbH ), we can consider the operators

F (λ)ψ = (TbH − λ)−1 F Nf and H(λ) = (TbH − λ)−1 N−V . Now, let us check

that, for a suitable λ, the operator H(λ) is a contraction mapping on Br .

Indeed, let ψ1 , ψ2 ∈ Br . We have

kH(λ)ψ1 − H(λ)ψ2 k = k(TbH − λ)−1 N−V (ψ1 ) − (TbH − λ)−1 N−V (ψ2 )k

≤− kN−V (ψ1 ) − N−V (ψ2 )k.

Reλ

Moreover, according to (B4 ), we have

1 + kHk(1 − kHkeε)−1

kH(λ)ψ1 − H(λ)ψ2 k ≤ kρk∞ kψ1 − ψ2 k

Reλ

≤ Q̂(Reλ)kψ1 − ψ2 k, (5.16)

204 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

ε −1

where Q̂(t) = kρk∞ 1+kHk(1−kHke

t

)

. Therefore, the function Q̂ has the same

properties as Q defined in the proof of Theorem 5.1.1. Thus, there is λ2 < 0

such that, for Reλ < λ2 , we have

Now, we need the following hypothesis.

(B5 ) For λ such that Reλ < λ2 , (I−H(λ))−1 F (λ) is a weakly compact operator.

Theorem 5.1.2 Let (B1 )–(B5 ) be satisfied. Then, there exists λ∗ < 0 such

that, for each λ satisfying Reλ < λ∗ , the boundary value problem (5.1)–(5.2)

has, at least, one solution in Br .

Proof. Let ε < 0 and let λ be such that Reλ < min(ε, λ00 ). Since λ ∈ ̺(TbH ),

the problem (5.1)–(5.2) may be written in the form

ψ = F (λ)ψ + H(λ)ψ,

ψ i = H(ψ 0 ).

ϕ, ψ ∈ Br . According to (B4 ) and Inequation (5.15), we have

−1

kF(λ)ϕ + H(λ)ψk ≤ Θ(kHk, ε) {r (kρk∞ + kkF k) + kN−V (0)k + kF kkhk}

Reλ

:= Q∗ (Reλ),

where

kHk

Θ(kHk, ε) := +1 .

1 − eε kHk

Therefore, the function Q∗ has the same properties as Q defined in the proof

of Theorem 5.1.1. Thus, there is λ3 < 0 such that, for Reλ < λ3 , F (λ)ϕ

+ H(λ)ψ ∈ Br . Let λ∗ := min(ε, λ00 , λ2 , λ3 ). As a summary, the above steps

show that, for any λ satisfying Reλ < λ∗ , the operators F (λ) and H(λ) satisfy

the hypotheses of Theorem 2.1.2 on the nonempty bounded, closed and convex

subset Br . Hence, the problem (5.1)–(5.2) has a solution in Br . Q.E.D.

where

L : L1 ([0, 1] × K) −→ L∞ ([0, 1] × K)

Existence of Solutions for Transport Equations 205

(

f : [0, 1] × K × C −→ C

(x, v, u) −→ f (x, v, u).

defines a continuous linear operator F by:

F : X −→ X

Z (5.18)

ψ −→ F ψ(x, v) = κ(x, v, v ′ )ψ(x, v ′ ) dv ′ .

K

Note that

Z

dx ⊗ dµ − ess sup |κ(x, v, v ′ )|dv ′ = kF k < ∞.

(x,v ′ )∈[0,1]×K K

F is said to be regular if {κ(x, ., v ′ ) such that (x, v ′ ) ∈ [0, 1] × K} is a rela-

tively weakly compact subset of L1 (K, dx).

We assume that:

∞ (R ) is a nondecreasing func-

tion.

The interest of the operators in the form that satisfies (B7 ) lies in the following

lemma which can be found in [23, Lemma 7.11].

continuous linear map and let f : [0, 1] × K × C −→ C be a map satisfying the

hypothesis (B7 ). Then, the map

Proof. For more simplicity, we will restrict ourselves to finite measure spaces.

We will use Dunford’s theorem, (see Theorem 1.3.8). Let un ⇀ u in L1 ([0, 1]×

K, dxdv). According to Eberlein–Šmulian’s theorem, the set K = {u, un }∞ n=1

206 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

in L1 ([0, 1] × K, dxdv). Clearly, Nf ◦ L(K) is bounded. Hence,

The last inequality also shows that Nf ◦ L(K) is uniformly integrable. Since

[0, 1] × K is reflexive, we get item (iii) of Dunford’s theorem (Theorem 1.3.8)

for free. Hence, Nf ◦ L(K) is relatively weakly compact in L1 ([0, 1] × K, dxdv).

Q.E.D.

N−V is weakly sequentially continuous and acts from Br into Br ,

|V(x, v, ψ1 (x, v)) − V(x, v, ψ2 (x, v))| ≤ |ρ(x, v)| |ψ1 − ψ2 |, for every

(B8 )

(ψ1 , ψ2 ) ∈ Br , where r > 0, Br := {ψ ∈ X such that kψk ≤ r} ,

and ρ ∈ L∞ (D).

Let λ be a complex number such that Reλ < λ00 . Then, according to Propo-

sition 5.1.1, the mapping TH − λ is invertible and therefore, the problem

(5.1)–(5.2) is equivalent to the following fixed point problem:

ψ = F (λ)ψ + H(λ)ψ

ψ ∈ D(T ), Reλ < λ ,

H 00

where

F (λ) := (TH − λ)−1 F Nf L

H(λ) := (T − λ)−1 N .

H −V

Theorem 5.1.3 Assume that (B6 )–(B8 ) hold and that F is a regular operator

on X. Let Ur be a weakly open subset of Br with 0 ∈ Ur . In addition, suppose

that

ψ

[for any solution ψ ∈ X to ψ = αF (λ)ψ + αH(λ) a.e., 0 < α < 1,

α

w

we have ψ ∈

/ ∂Br

Ur (the weak boundary of Ur in Br )] holds.

Then, for a small enough Reλ, the problem (5.1)–(5.2) has a solution in Urw .

Existence of Solutions for Transport Equations 207

Proof. We first check that, for a suitable λ, F (λ) and H(λ) are weakly se-

quentially continuous. Indeed, we have N−V is weakly sequentially contin-

uous and for Reλ < λ00 , the linear operator (TH − λ)−1 is bounded. So,

H(λ) := (TH − λ)−1 N−V is weakly sequentially continuous, for Reλ < λ00 .

Moreover, we have F (λ) := (TH − λ)−1 F Nf L is weakly sequentially contin-

uous for Reλ < λ00 . Second, by using the hypothesis (B7 ), we show that

Nf L(Urw ) is a bounded subset of X. So, from Lemma 5.1.2, we deduce that

infer that H(λ) is a contraction on Br , for Reλ < min(λ00 , λ1 ), where λ1 < 0.

Now, we may show that for a suitable λ, we have F (λ)(Urw ) + H(λ)(Br ) ⊂ Br .

To do so, let ϕ ∈ Urw and ψ ∈ Br . Then, we have

−1 −1 kHk

k(TH − λ) k ≤ 1+ ,

Reλ 1 − eReλkHk

for Reλ < λ00 . So, for Reλ < min(λ00 , λ1 , ε), ε < 0, Inequality (5.19) implies

that

−1 kHk

kF(λ)(ϕ) + H(λ)(ψ)k ≤ 1+ (kF k kAk khk∞ + M (r))

Reλ 1 − eεkHk

= G(Reλ),

where

−1 kHk

G(t) := 1+ (kF k kAk khk∞ + M (r)) .

t 1 − eεkHk

Clearly, G is continuous, strictly increasing in t, t < 0 and satisfies

limt→−∞ G(t) = 0. Hence, there exists λ2 < min(λ00 , λ1 , ε) such that for

Reλ < λ2 , we have F (λ)(ϕ) + H(λ)(ψ) ∈ Br . Consequently, for Reλ < λ2 ,

the mappings F (λ) and H(λ) satisfy the assumptions of Corollary 2.5.1 on

the nonempty bounded, closed, and convex subset Br . Hence, the problem

(5.1)–(5.2) has a solution in Urw for all λ such that Reλ < λ2 . Q.E.D.

208 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

Cell Population

In this section, we study the solution of the stationary nonlinear model arising

in the theory of growing cell population:

Z b

∂ψ

v (µ, v) + λψ(µ, v) + σ(µ, v, ψ(µ, v)) = r(µ, v, v ′ , ψ(µ, v ′ ))dv ′ (5.20)

∂µ a

where µ ∈ [0, 1], v, v ′ ∈ [a, b] with 0 ≤ a < b < ∞, σ(., ., .) and r(., ., ., .) are

nonlinear functions of ψ and λ is a complex number. This equation describes

the number density ψ(µ, v) of cell population as a function of the degree of

maturation µ and the maturation velocity v. The degree of maturation is

defined so that µ = 0 at birth and µ = 1 at the death of a cell. The boundary

conditions are modeled by:

0 1

where Γ0 = {0} × [a, b] and Γ1 = {1} × [a, b]. ψ|Γ (resp. ψ|Γ ) denotes the

0 1

restriction of ψ to Γ0 (resp. Γ1 ) whereas K is a nonlinear operator from a

suitable function space on Γ1 to a similar one on Γ0 . In [142], M. Rotenberg

studied essentially the Fokker–Plank approximation of Eq. (5.20) for which he

obtained numerical solutions. Using an eigenfunction expansion technique, C.

Van der Mee and P. Zweifel [152] obtained analytical solutions for a variety of

linear boundary conditions. Using J. L. Lebowitz and S. I. Rubinow’s bound-

ary conditions (see [121] or [142]), M. Boulanouar and L. Leboucher [38] proved

that the associated Cauchy problem to the Rotenberg model is governed by

a positive C 0 -semigroup and they gave sufficient conditions guaranteeing its

irreducibility. Recently, K. Latrach and A. Jeribi [117, 118] obtained several

existence results for the boundary value problem (5.20)–(5.21) in Lp spaces

with 1 < p < ∞. The analysis which started in [118] was based essentially on

compactness results established only for 1 < p < ∞. This analysis used the

Schauder and Krasnosel’skii fixed point theorems. Due to the lack of compact-

ness in L1 spaces, this approach failed in the L1 context (which represents the

convenient and natural setting of the problem) and therefore, the solvability

of the problem (5.20)–(5.21) remained open in the L1 framework [118].

Existence of Solutions for Transport Equations 209

In the following, we will present some existence results of the stationary model

(5.20)–(5.21) in L1 spaces. The main points in this framework are the non-

linearity of the boundary condition K and the nonlinear dependence of the

function r(., ., ., .) on ψ. More specifically, we suppose that

where

L : L1 ([0, 1] × [a, b]) −→ L∞ ([0, 1] × [a, b])

tion defined by:

f : [0, 1] × [a, b] × C −→ C

(µ, v, u) −→ f (µ, v, u)

where A ∈ L1 ([0, 1] × [a, b]) and h ∈ L∞ (R+ ). The function κ(., ., .) is a mea-

surable function from [0, 1] × [a, b] × [a, b] into R, satisfying the condition,

Let us consider the following problem:

Z b

∂ψ

v (µ, v) + σ(µ, v)ψ(µ, v) + λ ψ(µ, v) = r(µ, v, v ′ , ψ(µ, v ′ ))dv ′ (5.22)

∂µ a

ψ|Γ = K ψ|Γ , (5.23)

0 1

where σ(., .) ∈ L∞ ([0, 1] × [a, b]), λ is a complex number, Γ0 = {0} × [a, b] and

Γ1 = {1} × [a, b]. ψ|Γ (resp. ψ|Γ ) denotes the restriction of ψ to Γ0 (resp.

0 1

Γ1 ) whereas K is a nonlinear operator from a suitable function space on Γ1

to a similar one on Γ0 . Let

210 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

spaces

X 0 := L1 ({0} × [a, b]; vdv),

endowed with their natural norms. Let W be the space defined by:

∂ψ

W = ψ ∈ X such that v ∈X .

∂µ

It is well known (see [52], [53] or [63]) that any ψ in W has traces on the

spatial boundaries {0} and {1} which belong respectively to the spaces X 0

and X 1 . We define the free streaming operator SK by:

SK : D(SK ) ⊂ X −→ X

∂ψ

ψ −→ SK ψ(µ, v) = −v (µ, v) − σ(µ, v)ψ(µ, v)

∂µ

D(SK ) = ψ ∈ W such that ψ 0 = K(ψ 1 ) ,

0 1

operator

K : X 1 −→ X 0

u −→ Ku

satisfying the following conditions:

(B9 ) there exists α > 0 such that

from X 1 into X 0 and

(λ − SK )ψ = g. (5.25)

and λ ∈ C. Let σ be the real defined by:

Existence of Solutions for Transport Equations 211

For Reλ > −σ, the solution of Eq. (5.25) is formally given by:

Z

1

Rµ ′ ′ 1 µ − v1 Rµµ′ (λ+σ(τ,v))dτ

ψ(µ, v) = ψ(0, v) e− v 0 (λ+σ(µ ,v))dµ + e ϕ(µ′ , v) dµ′ .

v 0

(5.26)

Accordingly, for µ = 1, we get

Z

1

R1 ′ ′ 1 1 − v1 Rµ1′ (λ+σ(τ,v))dτ

ψ(1, v) = ψ(0, v) e− v 0 (λ+σ(µ ,v))dµ + e ϕ(µ′ , v) dµ′ .

v 0

(5.27)

Let the following operators Pλ , Qλ , Πλ , and Rλ be defined by:

Pλ : X 0 −→ X 1

R1

u −→ (Pλ u)(1, v) := u(0, v) e− v

1

0

(λ+σ(µ′ ,v))dµ′

;

Qλ : X 0 −→ X

Rµ

u −→ (Qλ u)(µ, v) := u(0, v) e− v

1

0

(λ+σ(µ′ ,v))dµ′

;

1

Πλ : X −→ X

Z 1 R1

1 1

u −→ (Πλ u)(1, v) := e− v µ′

(λ+σ(τ,v))dτ

u(µ′ , v) dµ′ ;

v 0

and finally,

Rλ : X −→ X

Z µ Rµ

1 − v1 (λ+σ(τ,v))dτ

u −→ (Rλ u)(µ, v) := e µ′ u(µ′ , v) dµ′ .

v 0

Clearly, for λ satisfying Reλ > −σ, the operators Pλ , Qλ , Πλ , and Rλ are

bounded. It is not difficult to check that

1

kPλ k ≤ e− b (Reλ+σ) , (5.28)

and

kQλ k ≤ (Reλ + σ)−1 . (5.29)

Moreover, by making some simple calculations, we may show that

kΠλ k ≤ 1, (5.30)

and

kRλ k ≤ (Reλ + σ)−1 . (5.31)

212 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

ψ 1 = Pλ ψ 0 + Πλ g. (5.32)

ψ 1 = Pλ Kψ 1 + Πλ g.

X 1 . By using (B9 ) and (5.28), we deduce that

Reλ+σ

kPλ Kϕ1 − Pλ Kϕ2 k ≤ α e− b kϕ1 − ϕ2 k ∀ϕ1 , ϕ2 ∈ X 1 . (5.33)

u = Pλ Ku + f, f ∈ X 1, (5.34)

where u is the unknown function, and let us define the operator A(λ,f ) on X 1

by:

A(λ,f ) : X 1 −→ X 1 ,

u −→ (A(λ,f ) u)(1, v) := Pλ Ku + f.

From the estimate (5.33), it follows that

Reλ+σ

kA(λ,f ) ϕ1 − A(λ,f ) ϕ2 k = kPλ Kϕ1 − Pλ Kϕ2 k ≤ α e− b kϕ1 − ϕ2 k. (5.35)

mapping and therefore, Eq. (5.34) has a unique solution

u(λ,f ) = u.

(

Wλ : X 1 −→ X 1

f −→ u(λ,f ) = u,

where u is the solution of Eq. (5.34). Arguing as in the proof of Lemma 2.1

and Proposition 2.1 in [118], we deduce the following result :

(i) for every λ satisfying Reλ > −σ + b log(α), the operator Wλ is continuous

and maps bounded sets into bounded ones and satisfying the following estimate

Reλ+σ

kWλ f1 − Wλ f2 k ≤ (1 − αe−( b )

)−1 kf1 − f2 k (f1 , f2 ∈ X 1 ). (5.36)

Existence of Solutions for Transport Equations 213

and (λ − SK )−1 is given by:

Moreover, (λ−SK )−1 is continuous on X and maps bounded sets into bounded

ones.

the form

Wλ f = Pλ K(Wλ f ) + f

and therefore,

Reλ+σ

≤ α e− b kWλ f1 − Wλ f2 k + kf1 − f2 k

for any f1 , f2 ∈ X 1 . This leads to the following estimate

Reλ+σ

−1

kWλ f1 − Wλ f2 k ≤ 1 − α e− b kf1 − f2 k

which proves the continuity of Wλ . The second part of the lemma follows from

the estimate

Reλ+σ

−1

kWλ f k ≤ 1 − α e− b kf k + kWλ (0)k.

(ii) Since Reλ > max(−σ, −σ + b log(α)), the solution of the problem (5.32)

is given by:

ψ 1 = Wλ Πλ g. (5.38)

ψ = Qλ Kψ 1 + Rλ g.

ψ = Qλ KWλ Πλ g + Rλ g

(λ − SK )−1 = Qλ KWλ Πλ + Rλ .

The second assertion follows from the boundedness of the linear operators Qλ ,

Πλ , Rλ and from (i). Q.E.D.

214 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

For our subsequent analysis, we need the following hypothesis

where

L : L1 ([0, 1] × [a, b]) −→ L∞ ([0, 1] × [a, b])

is a continuous linear map and f is a measurable function defined by:

f : [0, 1] × [a, b] × C−→ C

(µ, v, u)−→ f (µ, v, u).

The function κ(., ., .) is a measurable function from [0, 1] × [a, b] × [a, b] into

R. It defines a continuous linear operator B by:

B : X −→ X

Z b

(5.39)

ϕ −→ Bϕ(µ, v) = κ(µ, v, v ′ )ϕ(µ, v ′ ) dv ′ .

a

Note that

Z b

dµ ⊗ dv − ess-sup |κ(µ, v, v ′ )| dv ′ = kBk < ∞.

(µ,v)∈[0,1]×[a,b] a

be a regular operator if {κ(µ, ., v ′ ) such that (µ, v ′ ) ∈ [0, 1] × [a, b]} is a rela-

tively weakly compact subset of L1 ([a, b], dµ).

Remark 5.2.1 Definition 5.2.1 asserts that, for every µ ∈ [0, 1],

Z b

f ∈ L1 ([a, b]) −→ κ(µ, v, v ′ )f (v ′ ) dv ′ ∈ L1 ([a, b])

a

µ ∈ [0, 1].

Let the operator B be defined by (5.39) and let κ+ (., ., .) (resp. κ− (., ., .))

denote the positive part (resp. the negative part) of κ(., ., .):

Z b

B ± : ψ −→ B ± ψ(µ, v) := κ± (µ, v, v ′ )ψ(µ, v ′ ) dv ′ .

a

Existence of Solutions for Transport Equations 215

Clearly,

B = B+ − B−.

Now, let |B| denote the following nonnegative operator:

|B| := B + + B −

i.e.,

Z b

|B| ϕ(µ, v) = |κ| (µ, v, v ′ )ϕ(µ, v ′ ) dv ′ , ϕ ∈ X.

a

Remark 5.2.2 Thanks to Dunford–Pettis criterion, the following assertions

are equivalent:

be two positive radon measures on RN with a common support V . Let

be defined by:

1 1

K : L (Ω × V, dxdµ(v)) −→ L (Ω × V, dxdν(v))

Z (5.40)

ψ −→ κ(x, v, v ′ )ψ(x, v ′ ) dµ(v ′ ),

V

Z

dx ⊗ dµ − ess sup |κ(x, v, v ′ )|dν(v) = kKk < ∞. (5.41)

(x,v ′ )∈Ω×V V

Theorem 5.2.1 [126] Let B ∈ L L1 ([0, 1] × [a, b], dµdv) , be a regular and

nonnegative operator. Then, there exists (Bm )m ⊂ L L1 ([0, 1] × [a, b], dµdv)

such that:

L L1 ([a, b], dv) .

(iii) limm→+∞ kB − Bm k = 0.

216 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

satisfying (5.41) and {κ(x, ., v ′ ) such that (x, v ′ ) ∈ Ω× V }, is a relatively weak

compact subset of L1 (V, dν). According to Takac’s version of Dunford–Pettis

criterion, we have

Z

lim sup |κ(x, v, v ′ )|dν(v) = 0, (5.42)

m→∞ (x,v ′ )∈Ω×V Sm (x,v ′ )

where

Z

Km (ϕ) = κm (x, v, v ′ )ϕ(x, v ′ ) dµ(v ′ ) ∈ L1 (Ω × V, dxdν(v)),

V

with

Clearly,

0 ≤ Km ≤ K.

Z

kK − Km k ≤ dx ⊗ dµ − ess sup |κ(x, v, v ′ ) − κm (x, v, v ′ )|dν(v).

(x,v ′ )∈Ω×V V

Z Z

∆m (x, v, v ′ )dν(v) = ∆m (x, v, v ′ )dν(v)

V {κ(x,v,v ′ )≥mχBm (v)}

Z

≤ κ(x, v, v ′ )dν(v),

{κ(x,v,v ′ )≥mχBm (v)}

where ∆m (x, v, v ′ ) := |κ(x, v, v ′ )−κm (x, v, v ′ )|. Then, according to Eq. (5.42),

we have

lim kK − Km k = 0.

m→∞

Existence of Solutions for Transport Equations 217

Z

Km ϕ(x, v) ≤ mχBm (v) ϕ(x, v ′ )dµ(v ′ ),

V

which proves the second assertion and achieves the proof. Q.E.D.

Remark 5.2.3 Let us clarify the point (ii) of Theorem 5.2.1. This asserts

that, for any m ∈ N, there exists a nonnegative fm ∈ L1 ([a, b], dv) such that,

for any ϕ ∈ L1 ([0, 1] × [a, b], dµdv), ϕ ≥ 0, we have

Z b

Bm ϕ(µ, v) ≤ fm (v) ϕ(µ, v ′ ) dv ′ .

a

Proposition 5.2.1 [82] Let (Ω, Σ, µ) be a σ-finite, positive measure space and

let S and T be two bounded linear operators on L1 (Ω, dµ). Then, the following

assertions hold:

L(L1 (Ω, dµ)).

also weakly compact.

compact on X, for Reλ > max(−σ, −σ + b log(α)).

cording to (5.30), we have

b log(α))}. According to Theorem 5.2.1 and Proposition 5.2.1 (i), it is suf-

ficient to prove the result when B is dominated by a rank-one operator

in L L1 ([a, b], dv) . Moreover, by using both Remark 5.2.3 and Proposition

5.2.1 (ii), we may assume that B itself is a rank-one collision operator in

L L1 ([a, b], dv) . This asserts that B has a kernel

218 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

Z

1 1 − v1 Rµ1′ (λ+σ(τ,v))dτ

(Πλ Bϕ)(v) = e Bϕ(µ′ , v) dµ′

v 0

Z Z

1 1 b − v1 Rµ1′ (λ+σ(τ,v))dτ

= e κ1 (v)κ2 (v ′ )ϕ(µ, v ′ ) dµdv ′ , a < v < b

v 0 a

= Jλ Uλ ϕ,

where Uλ and Jλ denote the following bounded operators

Uλ : X −→ L1 ([0, 1]; dµ)

Z b

ϕ −→ κ2 (v) ϕ(µ, v) dv,

a

and

1

Jλ : L1 ([0, 1]; dµ) −→ X

Z

1 1 − v1 Rµ1′ (λ+σ(τ,v))dτ

ψ −→ e κ1 (v) ψ(µ) dµ.

v 0

bounded set of L1 ([0, 1]; dµ), and let ψ ∈ O. We have

Z Z

|Jλ ψ(v)| v dv ≤ kψk |κ1 (v)| dv,

E E

for all measurable subsets E of [a, b]. Next, by applying Theorem 1.3.7, we de-

R

duce that the set Jλ (O) is weakly compact, since lim|E|→0 E |κ1 (v)| dv = 0,

(κ1 ∈ L1 ([a, b]; dv)) where |E| represents the measure of E. A similar reason-

ing allows us to reach the same result for the operator Rλ B. Q.E.D.

pact on X, for Reλ > max(−σ, −σ + b log(α)).

(λ − SK )−1 B = Qλ KWλ Πλ B + Rλ B.

that Qλ KWλ Πλ B is weakly compact. Since Qλ is linear, it suffices to show

that KWλ Πλ B is weakly compact. To do so, let O be a bounded subset of X.

By using both hypothesis (B9 ) and Inequality (5.36), we show that

Z Z Z

|KWλ f (v)| v dv ≤ |K(0)(v)| + α |Wλ (0)(v)| v dv + αζ(λ) |f (v)| v dv

E E E

Existence of Solutions for Transport Equations 219

Reλ+σ

−1

ζ(λ) = 1 − αe−( b ) .

Now, by applying Theorem 1.3.7 again and the fact that Πλ B(O) is weakly

compact, we conclude that KWλ Πλ B is weakly compact. This proves the

claim and completes the proof. Q.E.D.

Throughout this section, our main interest is dealing with the existence results

for the boundary value problem (5.22)–(5.23). For this purpose, we use the

notations and the preliminary results presented in the above section.

below. A function f : [0, 1] × [a, b] × C −→ C is a weak Carathéodory map, if

the following conditions are satisfied:

(µ, v) −→ f (µ, v, u) is measurable on [0, 1] × [a, b] for all u ∈ C

u −→ f (µ, v, u) is sequentially weakly continuous on C a.e. (µ, v)

Notice that, if f is a weak Carathéodory map, then we can define the operator

Nf on the set of functions ψ : [0, 1] × [a, b] −→ C by:

Theorem 5.2.3 Assume that (B9 ), (B10 ), and (B11 ) hold. If B is a regular

collision operator on X, then for each r > 0, there is λr > 0 such that, for

each λ satisfying Re(λ) > λr , the problem (5.22)–(5.23) has, at least, one

solution in Br .

Proof. Let λ be a complex number such that Reλ > max(−σ, −σ + b log(α)).

Then, according to Lemma 5.2.1 (ii), λ − SK is invertible and therefore, the

problem (5.22)–(5.23) may be transformed into

ψ = F (λ)ψ, ψ 0 = Kψ 1 ,

220 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

where

F (λ) = (λ − SK )−1 BNf L.

Let r > 0. We first check that, for a suitable λ, F (λ) is weakly sequentially

continuous, leaves Br invariant, and F (λ)(Br ) is relatively weakly compact.

By using Lemma 5.1.3, we show that Nf L is weakly sequentially continuous.

By using both Lemma 5.2.2 and Proposition 1.3.8, we deduce that Πλ B and

Rλ B are strongly continuous. The continuity of the operator Qλ KWλ ensures

that (λ − SK )−1 B is strongly continuous. So, F (λ) is weakly sequentially

continuous. Moreover, since f satisfies (B11 ), then for all ψ ∈ X, we have:

σ+Reλ

kK(0)k + αkWλ (0)k kBkkAkkhk∞(1 + α(1 − αe−( b )

)−1 )

≤ + .

σ + Reλ σ + Reλ

Let ε > max(−σ, −σ + b log(α)). For Reλ > ε, we have

σ+Reλ σ+ε

(1 − αe−( b )

)−1 ≤ (1 − αe−( b ) )−1

and therefore,

σ+ε

kK(0)k + αkWλ (0)k kBkkAkkhk∞(1 + α(1 − αe−( b ) )−1 )

kF(λ)(ψ)k ≤ +

σ + Reλ σ + Reλ

= Q(Reλ),

where

σ+ε

kK(0)k + αkWλ (0)k kBkkAkkhk∞(1 + α(1 − αe−( b ) )−1 )

Q(t) = + .

σ+t σ+t

Clearly, Q(.) is continuous, strictly decreasing in t, t > 0 and satisfies

lim Q(t) = 0. Hence, there exists λ0 , such that Q(λ0 ) ≤ r and therefore,

t→+∞

kF(λ)ψk ≤ r for Reλ ≥ λ0 . This shows that Fλ leaves Br invariant. Since

Nf L(Br ) is a bounded subset of X, it follows from the weak compactness of

(λ − SK )−1 B (see Theorem 5.2.2), that

is relatively weakly compact. Finally, the use of Theorem 2.2.1 shows that

F (λ) has, at least, one fixed point in Br . Q.E.D.

Existence of Solutions for Transport Equations 221

Let us discuss the existence of positive solutions to the boundary value prob-

lem. For this purpose, we make the hypothesis:

(B12 ) K[(X 1 )+ )] ⊂ (X 0 )+ ,

X 0 ). Let r > 0. We define the set Br+ by Br+ := Br ∩ X + .

Theorem 5.2.4 Assume that (B9 ), (B10 ), (B11 ), and (B12 ) hold. If B is a

regular positive operator and Nf L(X + ) ⊂ X + , then for each r > 0, there is

λr > 0 such that for all λ > λr , the problem (5.22)–(5.23) has, at least, one

solution in Br+ .

Proof. Let λ be real such that λ > max(−σ, −σ + b log(α)). In order to prove

that the operator (λ − SK )−1 B carries elements of X + onto elements of X + ,

it suffices to establish that Wλ is positive, i.e., Wλ ((X 1 )+ ) ⊂ (X 1 )+ . For this

purpose, let f ∈ (X 1 )+ and consider the sequence in (X 1 )+ defined by:

(

u0 = 0

un+1 = A(λ,f ) (un ).

un ∈ (X 1 )+ . Moreover, since the operator A(λ,f ) is a contraction mapping, it

follows from Banach’s fixed point theorem, that un → Wλ (f ). We claim that

Wλ (f ) is positive. To this end, from hypothesis (B9 ) and (5.35), we have

h σ+Reλ

in 1 − [αe−( σ+Reλ

b ) p

]

|un+p (v) − un (v)| ≤ αe−( b ) σ+Reλ |u1 (v)| .

1 − αe −( b )

So, un (v) converges to u(v) almost everywhere, v ∈ [a, b] and we have u(v) ≥ 0.

Now, as un converges to Wλ (f ) on X 1 and un (v) converges to u(v) a.e. v ∈

[a, b], we get from [148, Chapter 2, Lemma 3.9], Wλ (f ) = u which is positive.

Now, the result follows from Theorem 2.2.2. Q.E.D.

Theorem 5.2.5 Let the hypotheses (B9 ), (B10 ), (B11 ) and (B12 ) be satisfied

and suppose that B is a regular positive operator and that there is c > 0 and

0 6= ψ0 ∈ Br+ such that

(i) ψ0 ∈

/ N (B), where N (B) denotes the kernel of B,

222 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

Then, for each λ > max(−σ, −σ + b log(α)), there is η > 0 such that the

problem

Z b

∂ψ

v (µ, v) + σ(µ, v)ψ(µ, v) + λψ (µ, v) = η r(µ, v, v ′ , ψ(µ, v ′ ))dv ′ ,

∂µ a

ψ 0 = K(ψ 1 )

Proof. Arguing as in the proof of Theorem 5.2.4, we show that the operator

Then, it follows from (5.37) the estimate

positivity of Rλ and the fact that Rλ is the resolvent of the operator S0 (i.e.,

K = 0), we deduce that

Accordingly,

Therefore,

inf{kF(λ)ψk, ψ ∈ Br+ } > 0. (5.43)

Let us define the operator Λ(λ) by:

rF (λ)ψ

Λ(λ)ψ = for all ψ ∈ Br+ .

kF(λ)ψk

By using (5.43) and the fact that F (λ) is weakly sequentially continuous, we

infer that Λ(λ) is weakly sequentially continuous on X. In fact, let a sequence

(fn )n such that fn ⇀ f on X. We have, for l ∈ X ′ , where X ′ denotes the dual

of X,

r

l(Λ(λ)fn ) = l(F (λ)fn ).

kF(λ)fn k

Existence of Solutions for Transport Equations 223

Since F (λ) is weakly sequentially continuous, we deduce that l(F (λ)fn ) con-

verges to l(F (λ)f ). Moreover,

Rλ B (see Lemma 5.2.2) and Proposition 1.3.8, we deduce that Πλ BNf Lfn

converges to Πλ BNf Lf on X. By using the continuity of the operator

Qλ KWλ , we infer that F (λ)fn converges on X to F (λ)f . Hence, l(Λ(λ)fn )

r

converges to kF (λ)f k l(F (λ)f ). So, Λ(λ)fn ⇀ Λ(λ)f and Λ(λ) is weakly se-

quentially continuous on Br+ and takes Br+ into itself. We claim that Λ(λ)(Br+ )

is relatively weakly compact. Indeed, set

Then,

r

0 ≤ Λ(λ)ψ ≤ F (λ)ψ for all ψ ∈ Br+ .

m

Since Br+ is a bounded convex subset of X + , then Nf L(Br+ ) is a bounded

subset of X + and therefore, by using Theorem 5.2.2, we show that F (λ)(Br+ )

is weakly compact. Moreover, by using Theorem 1.3.7, we may conclude that

Z

lim (F (λ)ψ)(µ, v) dµdv = 0,

|E|→0 E

r

0 ≤ Λ(λ)ψ ≤ F (λ)ψ for all ψ ∈ Br+ ,

m

we find that

Z Z

r

0≤ (Λ(λ)ψ)(µ, v) dµdv ≤ (F (λ)ψ)(µ, v) dµdv, for all ψ ∈ Br+ .

E m E

Hence, Z

lim (F (λ)ψ)(µ, v) dµdv = 0,

|E|→0 E

uniformly for ψ in Br+ , and Λ(λ)(Br+ ) is weakly compact. Finally, the use of

Theorem 2.2.1 shows that Λ(λ) has, at least, a fixed point ψ ∗ in Br+ satisfying

r

kψ ∗ k = r. Setting η = kF (λ)ψ ∗ k , we obtain

Consequently,

ψ ∗ ∈ D(SK ) ∩ Br ,

224 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

and

∂ψ ∗

v (µ, v) + σ(µ, v)ψ ∗ (µ, v) + λψ ∗ (µ, v)

∂µ

Z b

=η κ(µ, v, v ′ )f (µ, v ′ , L(ψ ∗ )(µ, v ′ ))dv ′

a

In the following, we are concerned with the existence of solutions for the more

general nonlinear boundary value problem

Z b

∂ψ

v

+ σ(µ, v, ψ(µ, v)) + λψ(µ, v) = r(µ, v, v ′ , ψ(µ, v ′ ))dv ′

∂µ a

(5.44)

ψ 0 = K(ψ 1 ), λ ∈ C.

When dealing with this problem, some technical difficulties arise. So, we need

the following assumptions:

where L(X 1 , X 0 ) denotes the set of all bounded linear operators from X 1 into

X 0 , ρ(., .) ∈ L∞ ([0, 1] × [a, b], dµdv), and Nσ acts from Br into Br . Let us

define the free streaming operator SeK by:

SeK : D(SeK ) ⊂ X −→ X

∂ψ

ψ −→ SeK ψ(µ, v) = −v (µ, v)

∂µ

D(SeK ) = ψ ∈ W such that ψ 0 = K(ψ 1 ) .

Theorem 5.2.6 Let r > 0. If (B10 ), (B11 ), and (B13 ) are satisfied, and if B

is a regular collision operator on X, then there exists λ0 > 0 such that, for all

λ satisfying Reλ > λ0 , the problem (5.44) has, at least, one solution in Br .

Proof. Since K is linear (according to (B13 )), the operator SeK is linear too

and by using Lemma 5.2.1, we infer that

Existence of Solutions for Transport Equations 225

where ̺(SeK ) denotes the resolvent set of SeK . Let λ be such that Reλ >

max(0, b log(kKk)). Then, by using the linearity of the operator (λ − SeK )−1 ,

the problem (5.44) may be written in the following form:

ψ = (λ − SeK )−1 Nσ ψ + (λ − SeK )−1 BNf Lψ

= H(λ)ψ + Fe(λ)ψ

ψ ∈ D(SeK ), Reλ > max(0, b log(kKk)),

where

H(λ) := (λ − SeK )−1 Nσ

and

Fe(λ) := (λ − SeK )−1 BNf L.

Let us check that, for a suitable λ, the operator H(λ) is a contraction mapping.

Indeed, let ψ1 , ψ2 in X. Then, we have

( )

1 kKk

k(λ − SeK ) k ≤

−1

1+ Reλ . (5.45)

Reλ 1 − kKke− b

Therefore, we have

( )

kρk∞ kKk

kH(λ)ψ1 − H(λ)ψ2 k ≤ 1+ Reλ kψ1 − ψ2 k

Reλ 1 − kKk e− b

= Ξ(Reλ) kψ1 − ψ2 k.

and

lim Ξ(x) = 0.

x→∞

So, there exists λ1 ∈]max(0, b log(kKk)), ∞[ such that Ξ(λ1 ) < 1. Hence, for

Reλ ≥ λ1 , H(λ) is a contraction mapping. Now, let ϕ and ψ be two elements

of Br . Then, we have

226 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

e

kH(λ)ϕ + F(λ)ψk ≤ k(λ − SeK )−1 BNf Lψk + k(λ − SeK )−1 Nσ ϕk

where M (r) denotes the upper bound of Nσ on Br . By using the estimate

(5.45), we get

" #

e 1 kKk

kH(λ)ϕ + F (λ)ψk ≤ [kBk kAkkhk∞ + M (r)] 1 + Reλ

Reλ 1 − kKk e− b

= G(Reλ),

where G(.) has the same properties as Ξ(.). Arguing as above, we show that

there exists λ2 > max (0, b log(kKk)) such that, for Reλ > λ2 , G(λ) < r.

Accordingly, for Reλ ≥ λ2 ,

H(λ)ϕ + Fe(λ)ψ ∈ Br

operator

(I − H(λ))−1 Fe(λ)

is weakly sequentially continuous on X. In fact,

deduce that (λ − SeK )−1 B is strongly continuous. The continuity of the op-

erator (I − H(λ))−1 and the sequentially weak continuity of Nf L imply the

sequentially weak continuity of (I − H(λ))−1 Fe(λ). Finally, we claim that

(I − H(λ))−1 Fe(λ)

Z Z

|Nf L(ϕ)(µ, v)| dµdv ≤ khk∞ |A(µ, v)| dµdv,

E E

Z

lim |Nf L(ϕ)(µ, v)| dµdv = 0,

|E|→0 E

Existence of Solutions for Transport Equations 227

Br . Since, Nf L is weakly compact, there exists a subsequence (xρ(n) )n

such that Nf L(xρ(n) ) is weakly convergent. Since (λ − SeK )−1 B is a lin-

ear weakly compact operator and since X is a Dunford–Pettis space, then

Proposition 1.3.8 allows us to deduce that (λ − SeK )−1 BNf L(xρ(n) ) is con-

vergent. The continuity of the operator (I − H(λ))−1 implies that (I −

H(λ))−1 Fe(λ)(xρ(n) ) is convergent. Hence, (I − H(λ))−1 Fe(λ) is weakly com-

pact and so, (I − H(λ))−1 Fe(λ)(Br ) is relatively weakly compact. Obviously,

if λ0 = max(λ1 , λ2 ), then for all λ satisfying Reλ ≥ λ0 , the operators H(λ)

and Fe(λ) satisfy the conditions of Theorem 2.2.3. Consequently, the problem

(5.44) has a solution ψ in Br , for all λ such that Reλ ≥ λ0 . Q.E.D.

Chapter 6

Existence of Solutions for Nonlinear

Integral Equations

We start this chapter by studying the existence of solutions for some variants

of Hammerstein’s integral equation. Next, we investigate the existence of so-

lutions for several nonlinear functional integral and differential equations, in

the Banach algebra C([0, T ], X), where X is a Banach algebra satisfying the

condition (P). An application of Leray–Schauder type fixed point theorem

under the weak topology is given.

Equation

6.1.1 Hammerstein’s integral equation

The objective of this section is to prove the existence of a solution for the

following nonlinear integral equation

Z t

x(t) = f (t, x(t)) + λ g(s, x(s))ds, x ∈ C(J, X), (6.1)

0

where J = [0, T ], λ ∈ ( 21 , 1), (X, k.k) is a reflexive Banach space, C(J, X) is the

Banach space of all continuous functions from J into X endowed with the sup-

norm k.k∞ , defined by kxk∞ = sup {kx(t)k; t ∈ J}, for each x ∈ C(J, X), and

f and g satisfy some conditions. Let us suppose that the functions involved

in Eq. (6.1) satisfy the following conditions:

(i) f is a nonlinear contraction with respect to the second variable, i.e., there

exists a continuous nondecreasing function ϕ : R+ −→ R+ satisfying

229

230 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

C(J, X).

continuous.

(J4 ) For all x ∈ C(J, X), g(., x(.)) is Pettis integrable on J.

from [0, +∞) to (0, +∞) such that kg(t, x)k ≤ α(t)φ(|kxk − kf (0, 0)k|)

for a.e. t ∈ [0, T ] and all x ∈ X. Further, we assume that

RT R +∞ dr

0 α(s)ds < kf (0,0)k φ(r) .

Theorem 6.1.1 Assume that the assumptions (J1 )–(J5 ) hold. Then, Eq.

(6.1) has, at least, one solution x ∈ C(J, X).

Proof. We set

Z t Z t

dr

β(t) = and b(t) = β −1 α(s)ds .

kf (0,0)k φ(r) 0

Then,

Z b(t) Z t

dr

= α(s)ds. (6.2)

kf (0,0)k φ(r) 0

Clearly, Ω is a closed convex and bounded subset of C(J, X). Let us consider

the nonlinear mappings A, B : C(J, X) −→ C(J, X) defined as follows:

Z t

(Ax)(t) = f (0, 0) + λ g(s, x(s))ds,

0

and

(Bx)(t) = f (t, x(t)) − f (0, 0).

Existence of Solutions for Nonlinear Integral Equations 231

In the following, we will prove that A and B satisfy the assumptions of The-

orem 2.3.6. For this purpose, we need four steps:

Step 1: Let us check that A(Ω) ⊂ Ω, A(Ω) is weakly equicontinuous and

A(Ω) is relatively weakly compact. (i) Let x ∈ Ω be an arbitrary point. We

will prove that Ax ∈ Ω. Let t ∈ J. Without loss of generality, we may assume

that (Ax)(t) 6= 0. According to Hahn–Banach’s theorem, there exists xt ∈ X ∗

such that kxt k = 1 and k(Ax)(t)k = xt ((Ax)(t)). By using assumption (J5 )

and Eq. (6.2), we get

Z t

k(Ax)(t)k = xt f (0, 0) + λ g(s, x(s))ds

0

Z t

≤ kf (0, 0)k + λ α(s)φ(kx(s)k)ds

0

Z t

≤ kf (0, 0)k + λ α(s)φ(b(s))ds

0

Hence, Ax ∈ Ω.

(ii) Let ε > 0; x ∈ Ω; x∗ ∈ X ∗ ; t, t′ ∈ J such that t ≤ t′ and t′ − t ≤ ε. Let

us show that kx∗ ((Ax)(t) − (Ax)(t′ )) k ≤ ε. We have

Z Z t′

t

′

k(Ax)(t) − (Ax)(t )k = λ
g(s, x(s))ds − g(s, x(s))ds

0 0

Z t′

≤ kg(s, x(s))kds.

t

Z t′

′

k(Ax)(t) − (Ax)(t )k ≤ α(s)φ(b(s))ds ≤ |b(t) − b(t′ )|.

t

A(Ω)(t) = {(Ax)(t); x ∈ Ω}

cording to Arzelà–Ascoli’s theorem theorem (see Theorem 1.3.9), we deduce

that A(Ω) is relatively weakly compact.

232 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

To do so, let (xn )n ⊂ Ω such that xn ⇀ x ∈ Ω. Taking into account both

Dobrakov’s theorem (see Theorem 1.4.1) and the fact that (xn )n is bounded,

we deduce that xn (t) ⇀ x(t) in X, for all t ∈ J. From the assumption (J3 ),

we get g(t, xn (t)) ⇀ g(t, x(t)) in X, for all t ∈ J. So, by using (J5 ) and the

dominated convergence theorem, we infer that (Axn )(t) ⇀ (Ax)(t) in X. Since

(Axn )n is bounded (A(Ω) ⊂ Ω), then Axn ⇀ Ax in C(J, X). Consequently, A

is weakly sequentially continuous.

Let x, y ∈ C(J, X). Using the assumption (J1 ) (i), we infer that

≤ ϕ (kx(t) − y(t)k)

≤ ϕ (kx − yk∞ ) ,

kBx − Byk∞ ≤ ϕ(kx − yk∞ ).

Hence, B is a nonlinear contraction.

Step 4: (x = Bx + Ay, y ∈ Ω) =⇒ x ∈ Ω.

First, we claim that k(I − B)x(t)k ≥ kx(t)k − ϕ(kx(t)k) for every x ∈ C(J, X)

and t ∈ J. Indeed, taking into account the assumption (J1 ) (i), we get

(J1 ) (iii) implies that

show that kx(t)k ≤ kf (0, 0)k + b(t), for all t ∈ J. Without loss of generality,

we may suppose that x(t) = 6 0. So, Inequality (6.4) and assumption (J1 ) (ii)

imply that k(I − B)x(t)k ≥ λkx(t)k, for all t ∈ J. Consequently, we have

1

kx(t)k ≤ k((I − B)x)(t)k

λ

1

≤ k(Ay)(t)k ,

λ

Existence of Solutions for Nonlinear Integral Equations 233

1−λ

kx(t)k ≤ b(t) + kf (0, 0)k

λ

< b(t) + kf (0, 0)k,

The following integral equation represents a natural generalization of Eq. (6.1).

Z

ψ(t) = g(t, L2 ((ψ(t))) + λ k(t, s)f (s, L1 (ψ(s)))ds, (6.5)

Ω

on a measurable subset Ω of RN with values in a finite dimensional Ba-

nach space X. Here, g is Lipschitzian with respect to the second variable,

while f (., .) (resp. k(., .)) is a nonlinear (resp. measurable) function and

Li : L1 (Ω, X) −→ L∞ (Ω, X), i = 1, 2, are continuous linear maps. Let Ω

be a domain of RN and let X and Y be two Banach spaces. A function

f : Ω × X −→ Y is said to be weak Carathéodory, if:

(i) For any x ∈ X, the map t −→ f (t, x) is measurable from Ω into Y , and

(ii) for almost all t ∈ Ω, the map x −→ f (t, x) is weakly sequentially contin-

uous from X into Y .

Let m(Ω, X) be the set of all measurable functions ψ : Ω −→ X. If f is a weak

Carathéodory function, then f defines a mapping Nf : m(Ω, X) −→ m(Ω, Y )

by Nf ψ(t) := f (t, ψ(t)), for all t ∈ Ω. This mapping is called the Nemytskii’s

operator associated to f .

Nf is not weakly continuous. In fact, even in the scalar case, only linear

functions generate weakly continuous Nemytskii’s operators in L1 spaces (see

for example [9, 130]).

The following result will play a crucial role in our application; for further

details and proofs, we may refer to [23].

234 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

Lp (Ω, X) −→ L∞ (Ω, X) be a continuous linear map. Let f : Ω × X −→ X be

a weak Carathéodory map satisfying

∞ (R+ ). Then, if either q > 1 or p = q = 1, the

map ζ := Nf ◦ L : L (Ω, X) −→ Lq (Ω, X) is weakly sequentially continuous.

p

Let X be a reflexive Banach space. First, we observe that Eq. (6.5) may be

written in the following form:

ψ = Aψ + Bψ,

the Nemytskii’s operator associated to the function g(., .) and A := λCNf L1

is the product operator of the linear map L1 and the Nemytskii’s operator

associated to f (., .) and the linear integral operator λC. Note that λ ∈ C and

C is the operator defined from L1 (Ω, X) into L1 (Ω, X) by:

Z

Cψ(t) = k(t, s)ψ(s)ds.

Ω

and g is Lipschitzian with respect to the second variable, i.e., there

exists

an α ∈ R+ such that kg(t, x) − g(t, y)k ≤ αkx − yk for all t ∈ Ω and

x, y ∈ X.

conditions and there exist functions Ai ∈ L1 (Ω, X) and hi ∈ Lloc

∞ (R+ ),

i = 1, 2, such that

kf (t, x)k ≤ A1 (t)h1 (kxk) and kg(t, x)k ≤ A2 (t)h2 (kxk).

(J9 ) Li : L1 (Ω, X) −→ L∞ (Ω, X), i = 1, 2, represent continuous linear maps.

(J10 ) αµ(Ω)kL2 k ∈ (0, 1), where kL2 k denotes the norm of the map L2 and

µ(Ω) is the Lebesgue’s measure of Ω.

The following definition and lemma give a characterization of β(M ) for any

bounded subset M of L1 (Ω, X0 ) (see [9]).

Existence of Solutions for Nonlinear Integral Equations 235

subset of L1 (Ω, X0 ). We call the following real number

( Z )

π1 (M ) = lim sup sup kψ(t)kdt : meas(D) ≤ ε ,

ε→0 ψ∈M D

Lebesgue measure.

be a compact subset of RN . If M is a bounded subset of L1 (Ω, X0 ), then

β(M ) = π1 (M ).

compact subset of RN . Assume that the conditions (J6 )–(J10 ) are satisfied.

Then, Eq. (6.5) has, at least, one solution in L1 (Ω, X).

Proof. Notice that Eq. (6.5) can be written in the following form

ψ = Aψ + Bψ.

on L1 (Ω, X). Indeed, from Lemma 6.1.1, we prove that Ng L2 and Nf L1 are

weakly sequentially continuous on L1 (Ω, X). Moreover, using [40], we deduce

that C is weakly sequentially continuous on L1 (Ω, X) which ends the first

claim.

Claim 2: Let ψ, ϕ ∈ L1 (Ω, X). From the assumption (J6 ), it follows that

Z

kBψ − BϕkL1 (Ω,X) = kg(t, L2 (ψ(t))) − g(t, L2 (ϕ(t)))kX dt

Ω

Z

≤ α kL2 (ψ(t)) − L2 (ϕ(t))kX dt

Ω

L1 (Ω, X).

236 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

( )

|λ|kCkkA1 kkh1 k∞ + kξk

r0 = min , |λ|kCkkA1 kkh1 k∞ + kA2 kkh2 k∞ .(6.6)

1 − αkL2 k

r ≥ r0 .

bounded subset of Br and let ε be a positive real number. For any nonempty

subset D of Ω, and for all ψ ∈ S, we have

Z Z

Nf L1 ψ(t) dt ≤ kA1 (t)kh1 (kL1 ψ(t)k)dt

D D

Z

≤ kh1 k∞ kA1 (t)kdt

D

Moreover, by using Theorem 1.3.7, we may conclude that

Z

lim sup kh1 k∞ kA1 (t)kdt : meas(D) ≤ ε = 0.

ε→0 D

Besides, since λC is bounded, we deduce that ω(AS) = 0 and then, AS is

relatively weakly compact, too. To end the proof, we may apply Corollary

3.2.2, and we show that the operator A + B has, at least, a fixed point in Br ,

for all r ≥ r0 ; equivalently, Eq. (6.5) has a solution in Br . Q.E.D.

Existence of Solutions for Nonlinear Integral Equations 237

Remark 6.1.2 We should notice that the equality of Lemma 6.1.2, which

is fundamental in the proof of Theorem 6.1.2, was established for bounded

subsets of the space of Lebesgue integrable functions with values in a finite-

dimensional Banach space [9]. Moreover, finite dimensional Banach spaces

are reflexive (as required in Lemma 6.1.1). This justifies the assumption that

X must be a finite-dimensional Banach space.

Question 5:

At this point we don’t know whether or not Theorem 6.1.2 holds for reflex-

ive infinite-dimensional Banach spaces.

In this section, we are concerned with the study of solutions for some func-

tional integral equations (in short FIE). These solutions belong to the Banach

algebra C(J, X). More precisely, let (X, ||.||) be a Banach algebra satisfying

the condition (P). Let J = [0, 1] be the closed and bounded interval in R,

the set of all real numbers. Let C(J, X) be the Banach algebra of all continu-

ous functions from [0, 1] to X, endowed with the sup-norm || ||∞ , defined by

||f ||∞ = sup{||f (t)|| ; t ∈ [0, 1]}, for each f ∈ C(J, X). Recall that C(J, X) is

also a Banach algebra satisfying the condition (P)(see Proposition 1.5.1).

ness in FIEs

Let us consider the following functional integral equation:

" Z σ(t) ! #

x(t) = a(t) + (T x)(t) q(t) + p(t, s, x(ζ(s)), x(η(s)))ds · u (6.7)

0

for all t ∈ J, where J is the interval [0, 1] and X is a Banach algebra satisfying

the condition (P). The functions a, q, σ, ζ, η are continuous on J; T , p(., ., ., .)

are nonlinear functions and u is a nonvanishing vector of X.

Remark 6.2.1 Notice that the FIE (6.7) contains several special types of

functional integral equations in C(J, R):

238 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

(1) If we take: ζ(s) = s; η(s) = λs, 0 < λ < 1 and u = 1, then the existence

results are reduced to those proved in [50] for the nonlinear integral equation:

Z !

σ(t)

x(t) = a(t) + (T x)(t) q(t) + p(t, s, x(s), x(λs))ds , 0 < λ < 1.

0

(2) If we take: q(t) = 0; σ(t) = 1; ζ(s) = s; η(s) = λs, 0 < λ < 1 and u = 1,

then the existence results are reduced to those proved for functional integral

equations of Urysohn type:

Z 1

x(t) = a(t) + (T x)(t) p(t, s, x(s), x(λs))ds, 0 < λ < 1.

0

1, then existence results are reduced to those proved for the classical linear

Volterra integral equation on bounded interval in [46]:

Z t

x(t) = a(t) + k(t, s)x(s)ds.

0

k(t, s)f (s, x) and u = 1, then the existence results are reduced to those proved

for the nonlinear integral equation of Volterra–Hammerstein type:

Z t

x(t) = a(t) + k(t, s)f (s, x(s))ds.

0

(5) If we take a(t) = 0; (T x)(t) = f (t, x(ν(t))); p(t, s, x, y)) = g(s, y) and u =

1, then the existence results are reduced to those proved in [77] for the nonlin-

ear integral equation:

Z !

σ(t)

x(t) = f (t, x(ν(t))) q(t) + g(s, x(η(s)))ds .

0

(6) If we take η(s) = λs, 0 < λ < 1, then existence results are reduced to these

proved in [26] for the nonlinear integral equation:

Z !

σ(t)

x(t) = a(t) + (T x)(t) q(t) + p(t, s, x(s), x(λs))ds · u, 0 < λ < 1.

0

Next, we will prove the existence of solutions for the FIE (6.7) under some

suitable conditions. For this purpose, let us assume that the functions involved

in the FIE (6.7) satisfy the following conditions:

Existence of Solutions for Nonlinear Integral Equations 239

and weakly compact.

such as the partial function t −→ p(t, s, x, y) is continuous uniformly for

(s, x, y) ∈ J × X 2 .

and kyk ≤ r0 ,

(b) kukkT xk∞ ≤ 1 for each x ∈ C(J, X) such that kxk∞ ≤ r0 , and

Theorem 6.2.1 Under the assumptions (J11 )–(J16 ), the FIE (6.7) has, at

least, one solution x = x(t) which belongs to the space C(J, X).

Proof. Recall that C(J, X) verifies the condition (P). Let us define the subset

S of C(J, X) by:

Obviously, S is nonempty, closed, convex, and bounded subset of C(J, X). Let

us consider three operators A, L, and U defined on S by:

(Ax)(t) = a(t),

(Lx)(t) = (T x)(t), and

" Z #

σ(t)

(U x)(t) = q(t) + p(t, s, x(ζ(s)), x(η(s)))ds · u.

0

We will prove that the operators A, L, and U satisfy all the conditions of

Theorem 3.1.3.

compact.

240 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

L(S) is relatively weakly compact.

(iii) In order to prove that U satisfies all the conditions of Theorem 3.1.3, we

have to demonstrate that U maps S into C(J, X). For this purpose, let (tn )n≥0

be any sequence in J converging to a point t in J. Then, we have

k(U x)(tn ) − (U x)(t)k ≤ |q(tn ) − q(t)| kuk+

"Z Z σ(t) #

σ(tn )

p(tn , s, x(ζ(s)), x(η(s)))ds − p(t, s, x(ζ(s)), x(η(s)))ds .u

0 0

"Z #

σ(tn )

≤ ∆n + |p(tn , s, x(ζ(s)), x(η(s))) − p(t, s, x(ζ(s)), x(η(s)))| ds kuk

0

Z

σ(tn )

+ |p(t, s, x(ζ(s)), x(η(s)))| ds kuk

σ(t)

Z 1

≤ ∆n + |p(tn , s, x(ζ(s)), x(η(s))) − p(t, s, x(ζ(s)), x(η(s)))| ds kuk

0

where ∆n = |q(tn ) − q(t)|. Since tn → t, then (tn , s, x(ζ(s)), x(η(s))) →

(t, s, x(ζ(s)), x(η(s))), for all s ∈ J. Taking into account the hypothesis (J15 ),

we obtain

for all t, s ∈ J. Now, we can apply the dominated convergence theorem and

also the fact that assumption (J13 ) hold. Hence, we get

(U x)(tn ) → (U x)(t) in X.

It follows that

U x ∈ C(J, X).

Next, we will prove that U is weakly sequentially continuous on S. For this

purpose, let (xn )n≥0 be any sequence in S weakly converging to a point x in S.

Then, {xn }∞n=0 is bounded. We can apply Dobrakov’s theorem (see Theorem

1.4.1) to get

∀t ∈ J, xn (t) ⇀ x(t).

Existence of Solutions for Nonlinear Integral Equations 241

Hence, by using assumptions (J15 )–(J16 ) and also the dominated convergence

theorem, we obtain

lim Γn = Γ,

n→∞

where Z σ(t)

Γn = p(t, s, xn (ζ(s)), xn (η(s)))ds

0

and Z σ(t)

Γ= p(t, s, x(ζ(s)), x(η(s)))ds.

0

Which implies that

lim Γn · u = Γ · u.

n→∞

Hence,

(U xn )(t) → (U x)(t).

Thus,

(U xn )(t) ⇀ (U x)(t).

Since {U xn }∞

n=0 is bounded by kuk(kqk∞ + M ), then we can again apply

Dobrakov’s theorem (see Theorem 1.4.1) to obtain

U xn ⇀ U x.

prove that U is weakly compact. Since S is bounded by r0 , it is sufficient to

prove that U (S) is relatively weakly compact.

Step 1: By definition,

U (S) := {U x : kxk∞ ≤ r0 }.

show it, let (xn )n≥0 be any sequence in S. Then, we have (U xn )(t) = rn (t) · u,

where Z σ(t)

rn (t) = q(t) + p(t, s, xn (ζ(s)), xn (η(s)))ds.

0

Since |rn (t)| ≤ (kqk∞ + M ) and (rn (t))n≥0 is an equibounded real sequence,

so, there is a renamed subsequence such that

rn (t) → r(t),

242 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

rn (t) · u → r(t) · u,

and consequently,

(U xn )(t) → (q(t) + r(t)) · u.

U (S)(t) is relatively compact in X.

x ∈ S; x∗ ∈ X ∗ ; t, t′ ∈ J such that t ≤ t′ and t′ − t ≤ ε. Then,

Z Z σ(t′ )

σ(t)

+ p(t, s, x( ζ(s)), x(η(s)))ds − p(t′ , s, x(ζ(s)), x(η(s)))ds |x∗ (u)|

0 0

"Z #

σ(t′ )

′ ∗ ′

≤ |q(t) − q(t )||x (u)| + |p(t , s, x(ζ(s)), x(η(s)))|ds |x∗ (u)|

σ(t)

"Z #

σ(t)

+ |p(t, s, x(ζ(s)), x(η(s))) − p(t′ , s, x(ζ(s)), x(η(s)))|ds |x∗ (u)|

0

where

Now, notice that from the above-obtained estimate, taking into account the

hypothesis (J15 ) and in view of the uniform continuity of the functions q, p,

and σ on the set J, it follows that w(q, ε) → 0, w(p, ε) → 0 and w(σ, ε) → 0

as ε → 0. Now, we can apply Arzelà–Ascoli’s theorem (see Theorem 1.3.9)

to get that U (S) is sequentially relatively weakly compact of X. Again an

application of Eberlein–Šmulian’s theorem (see Theorem 1.3.3) shows that

U (S) is relatively weakly compact.

Existence of Solutions for Nonlinear Integral Equations 243

show it, let x ∈ S. Then, by using (J16 ), for all t ∈ J, one has

≤ r0 .

From the last inequality and taking the supremum over t, we obtain

and consequently,

Ax + Lx.U x ∈ S.

Hence, the FIE (6.7) has a solution in the space C(J, X). Q.E.D.

X : kxk ≤ r0 } is not compact. Therefore, the restriction of p on J 2 × Ar0 2 is

not uniformly continuous. Thus, we note that the operator U in the FIE (6.7)

is not necessarily continuous on S.

(ii) When X is finite-dimensional, the subset U (S) ⊂ C(J, X) is relatively

compact if, and only if, it is weakly equicontinuous on J and U (S)(J) is rel-

atively compact in X (see for instance Corollary A.2.3 in [153, p. 299]) if,

and only if, it is weakly equicontinuous on J and U (S)(J) is relatively weakly

compact in X if, and only if, U (S) is relatively weakly compact.

In this subsection, we will study two examples using regular mappings.

" Z σ(t) ! #

x(t) = a(t) + (T1 x)(t) q(t) + p(t, s, x(s), x(λs))ds .u , 0 < λ < 1,

0

(6.8)

for all t ∈ J, where u =

6 0 is a fixed vector of X and the functions a, q, σ, p,

T1 are given, while x = x(t) is an unknown function.

244 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

We will prove the existence of solutions for FIE (6.8) under some suitable con-

ditions. Suppose that the functions involved in FIE (6.8) verify the following

conditions:

(J17 ) a : J −→ X is a continuous function.

arbitrary fixed s ∈ J and x, y ∈ X, the partial function t −→ p(t, s, x, y)

is continuous uniformly for (s, x, y) ∈ J × X × X.

||x|| ≤ r0 and ||y|| ≤ r0 ,

(b) kT1 xk∞ ≤ 1 − kak r0

∞ 1

kuk for each x ∈ C(J, X), and

Theorem 6.2.2 Under the assumptions (J17 )–(J22 ), FIE (6.8) has, at least,

one solution x = x(t) which belongs to the space C(J, X).

A, B, and C defined on C(J, X) by:

" Z #

σ(t)

(Bx)(t) = q(t) + p(t, s, x(s), x(λs))ds .u, 0 < λ < 1, and

0

(Cx)(t) = a(t).

Existence of Solutions for Nonlinear Integral Equations 245

We will prove that the operators A, B, and C satisfy all the conditions of

Corollary 3.1.3. (i) From assumption (J20 )(a), it follows that A is Lipschitzian

with a Lipschitzian constant α. Clearly, C is Lipschitzian with a Lipschitzian

constant 0.

(ii) From assumption (J20 )(b), it follows that A is regular on C(J, X).

(iii) Since C is constant, then C is weakly sequentially continuous on S. From

assumption (J20 )(c), A is weakly sequentially continuous on S. Now, let us

show that B is weakly sequentially continuous on S. Firstly, we verify that

if x ∈ S, then Bx ∈ C(J, X). Let {tn } be any sequence in J converging to a

point t in J and denote ωn,x,t := k(Bx)(tn ) − (Bx)(t)k. Then,

"Z Z σ(t) #

σ(tn )

ωn,x,t =
p(tn , s, x(s), x(λs))ds − p(t, s, x(s), x(λs))ds .u

0 0

"Z #

σ(tn )

≤ |p(tn , s, x(s), x(λs)) − p(t, s, x(s), x(λs))|ds kuk

0

Z

σ(tn )

+ |p(t, s, x(s), x(λs))|ds kuk

σ(t)

Z 1

≤ |p(tn , s, x(s), x(λs)) − p(t, s, x(s), x(λs)|ds kuk

0

+(r0 − kqk∞ )|σ(tn ) − σ(t)| kuk.

Since tn → t, then (tn , s, x(s), x(λs)) → (t, s, x(s), x(λs)), for all s ∈ J. Taking

into account the assumption (J21 ), we obtain

ϕ : J −→ R

s −→ ϕ(s) = 2(r0 − kqk∞ ).

the assumption (J18 ), we obtain

(Bx)(tn ) → (Bx)(t).

246 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

It follows that

Bx ∈ C(J, X).

it, let {xn } be any sequence in S weakly converging to a point x in S. So,

from the assumptions (J21 )–(J22 ) and the dominated convergence theorem,

we get

Z 1 Z 1

lim p(t, s, xn (s), xn (λs))ds = p(t, s, x(s), x(λs)),

n→∞ 0 0

Z 1 Z 1

lim p(t, s, xn (s), xn (λs))ds .u = p(t, s, x(s), x(λs))ds .u.

n→∞ 0 0

Hence,

(Bxn )(t) → (Bx)(t).

Bxn ⇀ Bx.

(iv) We will prove that A(S), B(S), and C(S) are relatively weakly compact.

Since S is bounded by r0 and taking into account the hypothesis (J20 )(d), it

follows that A(S) is relatively weakly compact. Now, let us show that B(S)

is relatively weakly compact.

show it, let {xn } be any sequence in S. We have (Bxn )(t) = rn (t).u, where

R1

rn (t) = q(t) + 0 p(t, s, xn (s), xn (λs))ds. Since |rn (t)| ≤ r0 and (rn (t)) is a

real sequence, then there is a renamed subsequence such that

Existence of Solutions for Nonlinear Integral Equations 247

rn (t).u → r(t).u,

and consequently,

(Bxn )(t) → (q(t) + r(t)).u.

We conclude that B(S)(t) is sequentially relatively compact in X. Then,

B(S)(t) is sequentially relatively weakly compact in X.

x ∈ S; x∗ ∈ X ∗ ; t, t′ ∈ J such that t ≤ t′ , t′ − t ≤ ε and if we denote

τ (x, t) := |x∗ ((Bx)(t) − (Bx)(t′ ))|, then

Z Z σ(t′ )

σ(t)

τ (x, t) = p(t, s, x(s), x(λs))ds − p(t , s, x(s), x(λs))ds kx∗ (u)k

′

0 0

"Z #

σ(t)

≤ |p(t, s, x(s), x(λs)) − p(t′ , s, x(s), x(λs))|ds kx∗ (u)k

0

"Z #

σ(t′ )

+ |p(t , s, x(s), x(λs))|ds kx∗ (u)k

′

σ(t)

Br0 }, and w(σ, ε) = sup{|σ(t) − σ(t′ )| : t, t′ ∈ J; |t − t′ | ≤ ε}. Taking into

account the hypothesis (J21 ), and in view of the uniform continuity of the

function σ on the set J, it follows that w(p, ε) → 0 and w(σ, ε) → 0 as ε → 0.

An application of Arzelà–Ascoli’s theorem (see Theorem 1.3.9), allow us to

conclude that B(S) is sequentially weakly relatively compact in X. Again, an

application result of Eberlein–Šmulian’s theorem (see Theorem 1.3.3) shows

that B(S) is relatively weakly compact. Since C(S) = {a}, hence C(S) is

relatively weakly compact.

(v) Finally, it remains to prove the hypothesis (v) of Corollary 3.1.3. For this

purpose, let x ∈ C(J, X) and y ∈ S such that

x = Ax.By + Cx,

248 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

Then,

kak∞

≤ 1− r0 + kak∞

r0

= r0 .

From the last inequality and taking the supremum over t, we obtain

kxk∞ ≤ r0 ,

all the requirements of Corollary 3.1.3. Thus, FIE (6.8) has a solution in

C(J, X). Q.E.D.

" Z σ(t) ! #

x(t) = a(t)x(t)+(T2 x)(t) q(t) + p(t, s, x(s), x(λs))ds .u , 0 < λ < 1,

0

(6.9)

for all t ∈ J, where u =6 0 is a fixed vector of X and the functions a, q, σ,

p, T2 are given, while x in C(J, X) is an unknown function. Suppose that the

functions a, q, σ, p, and the operator T2 verify the following conditions:

−1

(c) TI2 is well defined on C(J, X), and

−1

I

(d) T2 is weakly sequentially continuous on C(J, X).

arbitrary fixed s ∈ J and x, y ∈ X, the partial function t −→ p(t, s, x, y)

is continuous uniformly for (s, x, y) ∈ J × X × X.

Existence of Solutions for Nonlinear Integral Equations 249

||x|| ≤ r0 and ||y|| ≤ r0 ,

kak∞ 1

(b) kT2 xk∞ ≤ 1 − for each x ∈ C(J, X), and

r0 kuk

(c) αr0 kuk < 1.

Theorem 6.2.3 Under the assumptions (J23 )–(J28 ), FIE (6.9) has, at least,

one solution x = x(t) which belongs to the space C(J, X).

" Z #

σ(t)

(Bx)(t) = q(t) + p(t, s, x(s), x(λs))ds .u, 0 < λ < 1, and

0

(Cx)(t) = a(t)x(t).

We will check that the operators A, B, and C satisfy all the conditions of

Theorem 3.1.5.

(i) From assumption (J26 )(a), the map A is Lipschitzian with a constant α.

Next, we must show that C is Lipschitzian on C(J, X). To do it, let us fix

arbitrarily x, y ∈ C(J, X). If we take an arbitrary t ∈ J, then we get

From the last inequality and taking the supremum over t, we obtain

(ii) Arguing as in the proof of Theorem 6.2.2, we show that B is weakly

sequentially continuous on S and B(S) is relatively weakly compact.

(iii) From assumption (J26 )(b), it follows that A is regular on C(J, X).

−1

(iv) Let us show that I−C A is weakly sequentially continuous on B(S).

For this purpose, let x, y ∈ C(J, X) such that

I −C

(x) = y,

A

250 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

or equivalently,

(1 − a)x

= y.

T2 x

Since kak∞ < 1, then (1 − a)−1 exists on C(J, X). Hence,

I

(x) = (1 − a)−1 y.

T2

This implies, from assumption (J26 )(c), that

−1

I

x= ((1 − a)−1 y).

T2

Thus,

−1 −1

I −C I

(x) = ((1 − a)−1 x)

A T2

for all x ∈ C(J, X). Now, let {xn } be a weakly convergent sequence of B(S)

to a point x in B(S). Then,

(1 − a)−1 xn ⇀ (1 − a)−1 x,

−1 −1

I −1 I

((1 − a) xn ) ⇀ ((1 − a)−1 x).

T2 T2

Hence, we conclude that

−1 −1

I −C I −C

(xn ) ⇀ (x).

A A

(v) Finally, by using a similar reasoning as in the last point of Theorem 3.1.5,

we prove that the condition (v) of Theorem 3.5.1 is fulfilled. As a result,

we conclude that the operators A, B, and C satisfy all the requirements of

Theorem 3.1.5. Q.E.D.

Remark 6.2.3 Let us notice that the operator C in FIE (6.9) does not satisfy

the condition (iv) of Corollary 3.1.3. In fact, if we take X = R and a ≡ 21 ,

then (Cx)(t) = 12 x(t). Thus,

n1 o

C(S) = x : kxk∞ ≤ r0 = B r20 .

2

Since C(J, R) is infinite-dimensional, then C(S) is not relatively compact. Fur-

thermore, R is finite-dimensional. Hence, C(S) is not relatively weakly com-

pact [153].

Existence of Solutions for Nonlinear Integral Equations 251

(P), with a positive closed cone X + . Suppose that the assumptions (J23 )–

(J28 ) hold. Also, assume that:

−1

I

T2 is a positive operator from the positive cone C(J, X + ) of C(J, X) into

itself.

Then, FIE (6.9) has, at least, one positive solution x in the cone C(J, X + ).

Proof. Let

S + := {x ∈ S, x(t) ∈ X + for all t ∈ J}.

Obviously, S + is nonempty, closed, and convex. Similarly to the proof of The-

orem 6.2.3, we show that:

(i) A and C are Lipschitzian with a Lipschitzian constant α and kak∞ , re-

spectively.

(ii) A is regular on C(J, X).

(iv) Because S + is a subset of S, then we have A(S + ), B(S + ), and C(S + ) are

relatively weakly compact.

(v) Finally, we will show that the hypothesis (v) of Theorem 3.5.3 is satisfied.

In fact, let us fix arbitrarily x ∈ C(J, X) and y ∈ S + , such that

x = Ax.By + Cx.

equation implies that:

Hence,

x(t)(1 − a(t))

for all t ∈ J, = (By)(t).

(T2 x)(t)

Since for all t ∈ J, ka(t)k < 1, it follows that (1 − a(t))−1 exists in X, and

+∞

X

(1 − a(t))−1 = an (t).

n=0

Since a(t) belongs to the closed positive cone X + , then (1−a(t))−1 is positive.

252 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

Also, we verify that for all t ∈ J, (By)(t) is positive. Therefore, the map ψ

defined on J by:

" Z σ(t) ! #

ψ(t) = (1 − a(t))−1 q(t) + p(t, s, x(s), x(λs))ds .u

0

belongs to the positive cone C(J, X + ) of C(J, X). Then, B maps C(J, X + ) into

itself. Knowing that

" Z σ(t) ! #

I −1

x (t) = (1−a(t)) q(t) + p(t, s, x(s), x(λs))ds .u = ψ(t),

T2 0

I

x= (ψ).

T2

Hence, x ∈ C(J, X + ) and consequently, x ∈ S + . Q.E.D.

6.2.3.

Let C(J, R) = C(J) denote the Banach algebra of all continuous real-valued

functions on J with norm kxk∞ = sup |x(t)|. Clearly, C(J) satisfies the con-

t∈J

dition (P). Let b : J −→ R be continuous and nonnegative, and let us define

T2 by:

T2 : C(J) −→ C(J)

1

x −→ T2 x = .

1 + b|x|

We obtain the following functional integral equation:

" Z σ(t) #

1

x(t) = a(t)x(t)+ q(t) + p(t, s, x(s), x(λs))ds , 0 < λ < 1.

1 + b(t)|x(t)| 0

(6.10)

Let us check all the conditions of Theorem 6.2.3 for the above FIE (6.10):

1 1

|(T2 x)(t) − (T2 y)(t)| = −

1 + b(t)|x(t)| 1 + b(t)|y(t)|

b(t)||y(t)| − |x(t)||

=

(1 + b(t)|x(t)|) (1 + b(t)|y(t)|)

≤ kbk∞ |x(t) − y(t)|.

Existence of Solutions for Nonlinear Integral Equations 253

−1

(c) Let us show that TI2 exists on C(J). For this purpose, let x, y ∈ C(J)

such that

I

x = y,

T2

or equivalently,

x(1 + b|x|) = y,

which implies

|x|(1 + b|x|) = |y|,

and then,

√

( b|x|)2 + |x| = |y|.

For each t0 ∈ J such that b(t0 ) = 0, we have x = y. Then, for each t ∈ J such

that b(t) > 0, we obtain

!2

p 1 1

b(t)|x(t)| + p = + |y(t)|,

2 b(t) 4b(t)

s

p 1 1

b(t)|x(t)| = − p + + |y(t)|,

2 b(t) 4b(t)

and then, r

1 1

b(t)|x(t)| = − + + |y(t)|b(t).

2 4

Consequently,

y(t) y(t)

x(t) = = q .

1 + b(t)|x(t)| 1

+ 1

+ b(t)|y(t)|

2 4

Notice that the equality is also verified for each t such that b(t) = 0. Let us

consider the function F defined by the expression

254 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

F : C(J) −→ C(J)

x

x −→ F (x) = q .

1 1

2 + 4 + b|x|

It is easy to verify that for all x ∈ C(J), we have

I I

◦ F (x) = F ◦ (x) = x.

T2 T2

We conclude that −1

I x

(x) = q .

T2 1

+ 1

+ b|x|

2 4

−1

(d) It is an easy exercise to show that T2 and TI2 are weakly sequentially

continuous on B(S).

−1

Remark 6.2.4 One can easily check that TI2 is a positive operator from

the positive cone C(J, R+ ) of C(J, R) into itself.

Let us consider the following example of functional integral equation in E =

C(J, X).

"Z #

σ1 (t)

x(t) = f (t, x(ν(t))) + k(t, s)x(s)ds [(q(t) + Λ(t)) · u] (6.11)

0

Z σ2 (t)

for all t ∈ J, where Λ(t) = p(t, s, x(ζ(s)), x(η(s)))ds and u is a nonva-

0

nishing vector of X.

Notice that, in 2006, this FIE (6.11) was studied in the Banach algebra C(J, R)

by B. C. Dhage [73].

In what follows, we will assume that the functions involved in FIE (6.11) verify

the following conditions:

constants α, β satisfying for all t ∈ J, the operator

ft : X −→ X

x −→ ft (x) = f (t, x)

Existence of Solutions for Nonlinear Integral Equations 255

with |ft (0)| ≤ β.

such as the partial function t −→ p(t, s, x, y) is continuous uniformly

for (s, x, y) ∈ J × X 2 .

||x|| ≤ r0 and ||y|| ≤ r0 , and

Theorem 6.2.4 Under the hypotheses (J29 )–(J34 ), FIE (6.11) has, at least,

one solution x = x(t) which belongs to the space C(J, X).

S := {y ∈ C(J, X) : kyk∞ ≤ r0 },

where

β

r0 := .

1 − α − (M + kqk∞ ) kukk0

Obviously, S is a nonempty, closed, convex, and bounded subset of C(J, X).

Let us consider three operators A, L, and U defined on S by:

Z σ1 (t)

(Lx)(t) = k(t, s)x(s)ds, and

0

" Z #

σ2 (t)

(U x)(t) = q(t) + p(t, s, x(ζ(s)), x(η(s)))ds · u.

0

We will prove that the operator F = A + L.U satisfies all the conditions of

Theorem 2.3.4. (i) For all x ∈ S, and by composition, we obtain Ax ∈ C(J, X).

256 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

≤ αkx(ν(t)) − y(ν(t))k

≤ αkx − yk∞ .

From the last inequality and taking the supremum over t, we get

show that A is weakly sequentially continuous on S. To do so, let (xn )n≥0

be any sequence in S weakly converging to a point x in S. Then, {xn }∞

n=0 is

bounded. We can apply Dobrakov’s theorem (see Theorem 1.4.1) in order to

get

∀t ∈ J, xn (t) ⇀ x(t).

In view of the hypothesis (J29 ), we have

Since {Axn }∞n=0 is bounded by β + αr0 , then by again using Dobrakov’s the-

orem (see Theorem 1.4.1), we infer that A is weakly sequentially continuous

on S.

(ii) We will verify that L maps S into C(J, X). For this purpose, let t, t′ ∈ J

such that t ≤ t′ and t′ − t ≤ ε. Then, we have

Z Z σ1 (t′ )

σ1 (t)

′
′

k(Lx)(t) − (Lx)(t )k =
k(t, s)x(s)ds − k(t , s)x(s)ds

0 0

Z Z

σ1 (t) ′

σ1 (t )

≤
k(t, s)x(s)ds − k(t, s)x(s)ds

0 0

Z Z σ1 (t )

σ1 (t )

′ ′

′

+
k(t, s)x(s)ds − k(t , s)x(s)ds

0 0

Z 1

≤ r0 |k(t, s) − k(t′ , s)|ds + k0 r0 |σ1 (t) − σ1 (t′ )|

0

where

Existence of Solutions for Nonlinear Integral Equations 257

This shows that L maps S into C(J, X). Next, since kLx−Lyk∞ ≤ k0 kx−yk∞

and L is linear, then L is weakly sequentially continuous on S.

(iii) Similarly to the proof of Theorem 6.2.4, we can prove that U maps S

into C(J, X) and is weakly sequentially continuous on S. Thus, F maps S into

C(J, X) and F is weakly sequentially continuous on S.

(iv) Knowing that A is Lipschitzian with a constant α, L is Lipschitzian with

a constant k0 and that U is weakly compact [27] and bounded by (M +

kqk∞ )kuk. In view of Lemmas 1.5.2 and 3.1.3, we can prove, for any bounded

subset V of S, that

to the measure of weak noncompactness ω.

(v) Finally, it remains to prove that Ax + Lx.U x ∈ S, for all x ∈ S. To show

it, let x ∈ S. Then, by using (J29 ) and (J34 ), for all t ∈ J, we have

≤ r0 .

From the last inequality and taking the supremum over t, we obtain

and consequently,

Ax + Lx.U x ∈ S.

We conclude that the operator F fulfills all the requirements of Theorem 2.3.4.

Hence, FIE (6.11) has a solution in the space C(J, X). Q.E.D.

Let us consider the following example of nonlinear functional integral equation

in C(J, X).

Z t

x(t) = a(t) + f (t, x(t)) q(t) + b(t − s)p(t, s, x(s), x(λs))ds , 0 < λ ≤ 1.

0

(6.12)

258 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

In what follows, we will assume that the functions involved in FIE (6.12) verify

the following conditions:

continuous on J × Br . Moreover, we assume that, for all t ∈ J, the

operator

ft : X −→ X

x −→ ft (x) = f (t, x)

is weakly sequentially continuous, and weakly compact on X.

pt,s : X 2 −→ X

(x, y) −→ pt,s (x, y) = p(t, s, x, y)

is strongly continuous, and

(b) For all r > 0, p is bounded and uniformly continuous on J 2 × Br2 .

Mr 1

(J38 ) lim sup < , where

r→+∞ r kf k∞ kbk∞

(J39 ) There exist two constants αi > 0 (i = 1, 2) such as, for any bounded

and equicontinuous sets Vi ⊂ E (i = 1, 2), (t, s) ∈ J 2 and λ ∈ (0, 1], we

have:

Theorem 6.2.5 Under the assumptions (J35 )–(J39 ), FIE (6.12) has, at

least, one solution x = x(t) which belongs to the space C(J, X).

Proof. The use of the assumption (J38 ) leads to the existence of 0 < r′ <

1 ∗ ∗ ′

kf k∞ kbk∞ and r0 > 0 such that for all r ≥ r0 , we have Mr < r r. Now, let us

define the subset Br0 of C(J, X) by:

Existence of Solutions for Nonlinear Integral Equations 259

where

r0 := max r0∗ , (kak∞ + kf k∞kqk∞ )(1 − kf k∞ kbk∞ r′ )−1 .

(Ax)(t) = a(t),

(Lx)(t) = f (t, x(t)), and

Z t

(U x)(t) = q(t) + b(t − s)p(t, s, x(s), x(λs))ds, 0 < λ ≤ 1.

0

We will prove that the operator F = A + L.U satisfies all the conditions of

Corollary 3.5.1.

(i) Clearly, for all x ∈ Br0 , Ax ∈ C(J, X). By using (J36 ), we show that L

maps Br0 into C(J, X). Now, let us prove that U maps Br0 into C(J, X). For

this purpose, let x ∈ Br0 and let (tn )n≥0 be any sequence in J converging to

a point t in J. Then,

k(U x)(tn ) − (U x)(t)k ≤ ∆n (t)

Z tn Z t

+
b(t n − s)p(t n , s, x(s), x(λs))ds − b(t − s)p(t, s, x(s), x(λs))ds

0 0

Z tn

≤ ∆n (t) + kb(tn − s)p(tn , s, x(s), x(λs)) − b(t − s)p(t, s, x(s), x(λs))kds

Z tn 0

+ kb(t − s)p(t, s, x(s), x(λs))kds

t

≤ ∆n (t) + Mr0 kbk∞ |tn − t|

Z 1

+ kb(tn − s)p(tn , s, x(s), x(λs)) − b(t − s)p(t, s, x(s), x(λs))kds,

0

dominated convergence theorem, that

Z 1

kb(tn − s)p(tn , s, x(s), x(λs)) − b(t − s)p(t, s, x(s), x(λs))kds → 0.

0

(ii) Let us show that F (Br0 ) ⊂ Br0 . To do it, let x ∈ Br0 . Then, for all t ∈ J,

we have

kF (x(t))k ≤ kak∞ + kf k∞ (kqk∞ + kbk∞ Mr0 )

260 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

(iii) Now, let us prove that F is weakly sequentially continuous on Br0 . For

this purpose, let (xn )n≥0 be any sequence in Br0 weakly converging to a point

x in Br0 . Then, {xn }∞n=0 is bounded. We can apply Dobrakov’s theorem (see

Theorem 1.4.1) which allows us to get

∀t ∈ J, xn (t) ⇀ x(t).

Since {Lxn }∞

n=0 is bounded by kf k∞ , then by again using Dobrakov’s theorem

(see Theorem 1.4.1), we infer that L is weakly sequentially continuous on Br0 .

Moreover, for all (t, s) ∈ J 2 and λ ∈ (0, 1), we have

Hence,

Knowing that

Z t Z t

lim b(t − s)p(t, s, xn (s), xn (λs))ds = b(t − s)p(t, s, x(s), x(λs))ds.

n→∞ 0 0

∀t ∈ J, (U xn )(t) → (U x)(t),

and so,

(U xn )(t) ⇀ (U x)(t).

Since {U xn }∞

n=0 is bounded by kqk∞ + kbk∞ Mr0 , then we can again apply

Dobrakov’s theorem (see Theorem 1.4.1) to show that U , and consequently

F , are weakly sequentially continuous on Br0 .

Existence of Solutions for Nonlinear Integral Equations 261

prove that there exist a positive integer n0 ≥ 1 and k ∈ (0, 1) such that, for

any subset V ⊂ S,

ω F (n0 ,x0 ) (V ) ≤ kω(V ).

Q.E.D.

To do this, we need to recall the following well-known lemmas:

(b) ω(V ) = ω(V (J)) = max ω(V (t)), where V (J) = {x(t) : x ∈ V, t ∈ J}.

t∈J

Then, co{V, x0 } is equicontinuous on C(J, X).

Lemma 6.2.3 Under assumption (J37 )(b) of Theorem 6.2.5, for all t ∈ J,

Proof. Let t,s1 ,s2 ∈ J, t ≥ si (i = 1, 2) and x ∈ Br0 . Then, for all ε > 0, we

have

where

w(b, ε) := sup{|b(t) − b(t′ )| : t, t′ ∈ J; |t − t′ | ≤ ε},

ε; x, y, x′ , y ′ ∈ Br0 ; kx − x′ k ≤ ε and ky − y ′ k ≤ ε}. Now, we are ready

to prove that F : S −→ S is convex-power condensing with respect to the

measure of weak noncompactness ω. We first show that F (Br0 ) ⊂ C(J, X) is

262 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

t′ − t ≤ ε, then

k(F x)(t) − (F x)(t′ )k ≤ n(t, t′ ) + kf (t, x(t))(U x)(t) − f (t′ , x(t′ ))(U x)(t′ )k

where n(t, t′ ) = ka(t) − a(t′ )k. Hence, F (Br0 ) is equicontinuous on C(J, X).

By using Lemma 6.2.2, we deduce that S is equicontinuous. Notice that, for

any V ⊂ S, F (n,x0 ) (V ) ⊂ S is bounded and equicontinuous. Then, by using

Lemma 6.2.1, we infer that

ω F (n,x0 ) (V ) = max ω F (n,x0 ) (V )(t) , n = 1, 2, ...

t∈J

For all t ∈ J, and taking into account the assumption (J36 ), one has

ω(f (t, V )) = ω(ft (V )) ≤ ω ft (V )w = 0.

Now, from (J39 ) and Lemmas 6.2.1, 6.2.2, 6.2.3, and for all t ∈ J, it follows

that

Z t

≤ kf k∞ ω q(t) + b(t − s)p(t, s, V (s), V (λs))ds

0

Z t

≤ kf k∞ ω{q(t)} + ω b(t − s)p(t, s, V (s), V (λs))ds

0

Z t

≤ kf k∞ ω b(t − s)p(t, s, V (s), V (λs))ds

0

Z t

≤ kf k∞ kbk∞ ω p(t, s, V (s), V (λs))ds ,

0

where Θ(x0 , t) = ω F (1,x0 ) (V ) (t) . The use of the mean value theorem [7,

Theorem V. 10.4.] leads to

Z t

p(t, s, V (s), V (λs))ds ⊂ t co{p(t, s, V (s), V (λs)), s ∈ J}.

0

Existence of Solutions for Nonlinear Integral Equations 263

Therefore,

Z t

ω p(t, s, V (s), V (λs))ds ≤ tω (co{p(t, s, V (s), V (λs)), s ∈ J})

0

≤ t(α1 + α2 )ω(V ).

As a result,

ω F (1,x0 ) (V ) (t) ≤ tkf k∞ kbk∞ (α1 + α2 )ω(V ).

Therefore, by using the method of mathematical induction for all positive inte-

gers n and t ∈ J, and since F (n,x0 ) (V ) ⊂ S ⊂ Br0 is bounded and equicontin-

uous, then ft is weakly compact and the use of assumption (J39 ) and Lemmas

6.2.1, 6.2.2, 6.2.3 leads to

kf kn kbkn (α + α )n

∞ ∞ 1 2

ω F (n,x0 ) (V ) (t) ≤ ω(V ).

n!

From the last inequality and taking the maximum over t, we obtain

kf kn kbkn (α + α )n

∞ ∞ 1 2

ω F (n,x0 ) (V ) ≤ ω(V ).

n!

However, it is easy to show that

kf kn∞ kbkn∞ (α1 + α2 )n

→ 0.

n!

Then, there exists a positive integer n0 such that

kf kn∞0 kbkn∞0 (α1 + α2 )n0

k= < 1.

n0 !

We conclude that the operator F fulfills all the requirements of Corollary

3.5.1. Thus, FIE (6.12) has a solution in the space C(J, X). Q.E.D.

We consider the following nonlinear functional differential equation (in short,

FDE) in C(J) := C(J, R). For t ∈ J and 0 < λ < 1

′ Z t

x ∂p

− q1 (t) = (t, s, x(s), x(λs))ds + p(t, t, x(t), x(λt)) (6.13)

T2 x 0 ∂t

264 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

x(0) = ζ ∈ R, (6.14)

where the functions q1 , p and the operator T2 are given with q1 (0) = 0, while

x = x(t) is an unknown function. By a solution of FDE (6.13)–(6.14), we mean

an absolutely continuous function x : J −→ R that satisfies the two equations

(6.13)–(6.14) on J. The existence result for FDE (6.13)–(6.14) is:

(b) T2 is regular on C(J),

−1

(c) TI2 is well defined on C(J),

−1

(d) TI2 is weakly sequentially continuous on C(J), and

(e) for all x ∈ C(J), we have k(T2 x)k∞ ≤ 1.

an arbitrary fixed s ∈ J and for x, y ∈ R; the partial function t −→

p(t, s, x, y) is C 1 on J.

|ζ|

|p(t, s, y, z)| ≤ r0 − kq1 k∞ − , and

|(T2 x)(0)|

equation:

Z t

ζ

x(t) = (T2 x)(t) q1 (t) + + p(t, s, x(s), x(λs))ds , t ∈ J, 0 < λ < 1.

(T2 x)(0) 0

(6.15)

Existence of Solutions for Nonlinear Integral Equations 265

Notice also that FIE (6.15) represents a particular case of FIE (6.12) with for

ζ

all t ∈ J; σ(t) = t, a(t) = 0, u = 1 and q(t) = q1 (t) + (T2 x)(0) . Therefore, we

Rt

have for all t ∈ J; (Ax)(t) = (T2 x)(t), (Bx)(t) = q(t) + 0 p(t, s, x(s), x(λs))ds

and C(x)(t) = 0. Now, we must prove that the operators A, B, and C satisfy

all the conditions of Theorem 3.5.1. Similarly to the proof of the preceding

Theorem 6.2.4, we obtain:

(ii) B is weakly sequentially continuous on S and B(S) is relatively weakly

compact, where S = Br0 := {x ∈ C(J), kxk∞ ≤ r0 }.

−1 I −1

(iv) I−C

A = T2 is weakly sequentially continuous on B(S). It remains

to prove the assumption (v) of Theorem 3.1.5. First, we have to show that

M = kB(S)k ≤ r0 . To do it, let us fix an arbitrary x ∈ S. Then, for t ∈ J, we

get

Z t

|ζ|

|(Bx)(t)| ≤ |q1 (t)| + + |p(t, s, x(s), x(λs))|ds

|(T2 x)(0)| 0

Z 1

|ζ|

≤ |q1 (t)| + + |p(t, s, x(s), x(λs))|ds

|(T2 x)(0)| 0

|ζ| |ζ|

≤ kq1 k∞ + + r0 − kq1 k∞ −

|(T2 x)(0)| |(T2 x)(0)|

= r0 .

kBxk∞ ≤ r0 .

Thus,

M ≤ r0 .

Consequently,

αM + β = αM ≤ αr0 < 1.

Next, let us fix an arbitrary x ∈ C(J) and let y ∈ S such that

x = Ax.By + Cx,

or, equivalently

for all t ∈ J, x(t) = (T2 x)(t)(By)(t).

266 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

Then,

|x(t)| ≤ kT2 xk∞ kByk∞ ,

|x(t)| ≤ kByk∞ .

|x(t)| ≤ r0 ,

kxk∞ ≤ r0 .

Theorem 3.1.5, we show that FIE (6.15) has, at least, one solution in C(J).

Q.E.D.

FIEs

In this section, we are dealing with the following nonlinear functional integral

equation:

h Z σ(t) i

x(t) = a(ν(t)) + (T x)(t) q(t) + p(t, s, g(x(ξ(s))), h(x(η(s))))ds .u

0

(6.16)

for all t ∈ J, where u =

6 0 is a fixed vector of X and the functions a, ν, q, σ,

ξ, η, p, g, h, and T are given while x = x(t) is an unknown function.

(J45 ) ν, σ, ξ, η : J −→ J are continuous.

Existence of Solutions for Nonlinear Integral Equations 267

(c) T is weakly sequentially continuous on C(J, X), and

(J48 ) The functions g, h : X −→ X are weakly sequentially continuous on X

such that for each r > 0, g and h map the bounded subset rBX into

itself,

such that for an arbitrary fixed s ∈ J and x, y ∈ X, the partial function

t −→ p(t, s, x, y) is continuous uniformly for (s, x, y) ∈ J × X × X, and

(a) |p(t, s, x, y)| ≤ M for each t, s ∈ J; x, y ∈ X such that kxk ≤ r0 and

kyk ≤ r0 ,

Let us define the subset Ω of C(J, X) by:

of Ω such that 0 ∈ U . In order to better understand FIE (6.16), let us consider

two operators A and C defined on Ω and another operator B defined on U w

as follows:

(Ax)(t) = (T x)(t),

h Z σ(t) i

(Bx)(t) = q(t) + p(t, s, g(x(ξ(s))), h(x(η(s))))ds .u, and

0

(Cx)(t) = a(ν(t)).

x = Ax.Bx + Cx.

268 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

Theorem 6.4.1 Suppose that the assumptions (J44 )–(J50 ) hold. Let Ω = Br0

and let U be a weakly open subset of Ω such that 0 ∈ U . In addition, suppose

that, for any solution x to the equation x = λA( xλ )Bx + λC( xλ ) for some

0 < λ < 1, we have x ∈/ ∂Ω (U ). Then, the FIE (6.16) has a solution in U .

Proof. We will prove that the operators A, B, and C satisfy all the conditions

of Theorem 3.3.3.

(i) From assumption (J47 )(a), it follows that A is Lipschitzian with a constant

α. It is clear that C is Lipschitzian with a constant 0.

(ii) From assumption (J47 )(b), it follows that A is regular on C(J, X).

(iv) We will show that the hypothesis (iv) of Theorem 3.3.3 is satisfied. In

fact, we fix arbitrarily x ∈ C(J, X) and y ∈ U w such that

x = Ax.By + Cx,

≤ kak∞ + k(By)(t)kk(T x)k∞

≤ r0 .

From the last inequality, and taking the supremum over t, we obtain

k(Ax).(By) + (Cx)k∞ ≤ r0 ,

and consequently,

(Ax).(By) + (Cx) ∈ Ω.

C(J, X). Since C is constant, then C is weakly sequentially continuous on Ω.

Now, we show that B is weakly sequentially continuous on U w . Firstly, we

verify that if x ∈ U w , then Bx ∈ C(J, X). For this, let {tn } be any sequence

in J converging to a point in J. Then,

Existence of Solutions for Nonlinear Integral Equations 269

k(Bx)(tn ) − (Bx)(t)k

hZ σ(t) i

≤ |q(tn ) − q(t)|kuk + |p(t, s, g(x(ξ(s))), h(x(η(s))))|ds kuk

σ(tn )

hZ σ(tn ) i

+ |p(tn , s, g(x(ξ(s))), h(x(η(s)))) − p(t, s, g(x(ξ(s))), h(x(η(s))))|ds kuk

0

hZ 1 i

+ |p(tn , s, g(x(ξ(s))), h(x(η(s)))) − p(t, s, g(x(ξ(s))), h(x(η(s))))|ds kuk.

0

for all t, s ∈ J. Now, we can apply the dominated convergence theorem and

since assumption (J46 ) holds, we get

(Bx)(tn ) → (Bx)(t).

It follows that

Bx ∈ C(J, X).

be any sequence in U w weakly converging to a point x ∈ U w . Then, {xn } is

bounded. By applying Theorem 3.5.2, we get

xn (t) → x(t), ∀t ∈ J.

So, by using assumptions (J48 )–(J50 ) and the dominated convergence theo-

rem, we obtain:

Z σ(t) Z σ(t)

p(t, s, g(xn (ξ(s))), h(xn (η(s))))ds → p(t, s, g(x(ξ(s))), h(x(η(s))))ds

0 0

as n → ∞, which implies that

270 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

Z σ(t)

lim q(t) + p(t, s, g(xn (ξ(s))), h(xn (η(s))))ds .u

n→∞ 0

Z σ(t)

= q(t) + p(t, s, g(x(ξ(s))), h(x(η(s))))ds .u.

0

Hence,

(Bxn )(t) → (Bx)(t) in X

and so,

(Bxn )(t) ⇀ (Bx)(t) in X.

It is clear that the sequence {Bxn } is bounded by (kqk∞ + M )kuk. Then, by

using Theorem 3.5.2, we get

(Bxn ) ⇀ (Bx).

(J47 )(d), it follows that A(Ω) is relatively weakly compact. Since C(Ω) = {a},

then C(Ω) is relatively weakly compact. It remains to prove that B(U w ) is

relatively weakly compact. By definition,

show it, let {xn } be any sequence in U w . Then, we have (Bxn )(t) = rn (t).u,

where Z σ(t)

rn (t) = q(t) + p(t, s, g(xn (ξ(s))), h(xn (η(s))))ds.

0

It is clear that |rn (t)| ≤ (kqk∞ +M ) and {rn (t)} is a real sequence, so, by using

Bolzano–Weirstrass’s theorem, there is a renamed subsequence such that

rn (t) → r(t),

which implies

rn (t).u → r(t).u,

and consequently,

(Bxn )(t) → r(t).u.

Existence of Solutions for Nonlinear Integral Equations 271

Then, B(U w )(t) is sequentially relatively weakly compact in X. Now, we have

to prove that B(U w ) is weakly equicontinuous on J. For this purpose, let

ε > 0; x ∈ U w ; x∗ ∈ X ∗ ; t, t′ ∈ J such that t ≤ t′ and t′ − t ≤ ε. Then,

kx∗ ((Bx)(t) − (Bx)(t′ ))k ≤ |q(t) − q(t′ )||x∗ (u)|

Z σ(t) Z σ(t′ )

+ χ(t, s)ds − χ(t′ , s)ds|x∗ (u)|

0 0

h Z σ(t) i Z σ(t′ )

′ ∗

+ χ(t, s) − χ(t , s)ds |x (u)| + χ(t′ , s)ds|x∗ (u)|

0 σ(t)

where

w(p, ε) := sup{|p(t, s, x, y)) − p(t, s, x, y)| : t, t′ , s ∈ J; |t − t′ | ≤ ε; x, y ∈ Ω},

and

Taking into account the hypothesis (J49 ), and in view of the uniform conti-

nuity of the functions q and σ, it follows that w(q, ε) → 0, w(p, ε) → 0, and

w(σ, ε) → 0 when ε → 0. Hence, the application of Arzelà–Ascoli’s theorem

(see Theorem 1.3.9) implies that B(U w ) is sequentially relatively weakly com-

pact in E. Now, the use of Eberlein–Šmulian’s theorem (see Theorem 1.3.3)

allows B(U w ) to be relatively weakly compact. Hence, all the conditions of

Theorem 3.3.3 are satisfied and then its application ensures that either conclu-

sion (a) or (b) holds. By using the fact that, for any solution x to the equation

x = λA( λx )Bx + λC( xλ ) for some 0 < λ < 1, x ∈ / ∂Ω (U ), we can deduce that

conclusion (b) is eliminated and hence Eq. (6.16) has a solution in U . Q.E.D.

Chapter 7

Two-Dimensional Boundary Value

Problems

The first aim of this chapter is to give some existence results for a struc-

tured problem on Lp -space (1 ≤ p < ∞) under abstract boundary conditions

of Rotenberg’s model type. Next, several coupled systems of nonlinear func-

tional integral equations with bounded or unbounded domains in Banach al-

gebras are considered. Finally, some existence results for coupled systems of

perturbed functional differential inclusions of initial and boundary value prob-

lems are studied. We should mention that all the involved operator equations

are generated by block matrices with the dimensions 2 × 2. Also considered

are both single-valued and multi-valued operators acting in Banach algebras

satisfying the so-called condition (P).

Let us consider the following problem in Lp -space (1 < p < ∞) under bound-

ary conditions of Rotenberg’s model type [142].

∂ ! !

−v − σ1 (µ, v, .) R12 ψ1 ψ1

∂µ

∂ =λ (7.1)

R21 −v − σ2 (µ, v, .) ψ2 ψ2

∂µ

ψi | = Ki ψi | , i = 1, 2, (7.2)

Γ0 Γ1

Z b

where Rij ψj (µ, v) = rij (µ, v, v ′ , ψj (µ, v ′ ))dv ′ , (i, j) ∈ {(1, 2), (2, 1)}, µ ∈

a

273

274 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

[0, 1], v, v ′ ∈ [a, b] with 0 ≤ a < b < ∞, σi (., ., .), i = 1, 2, rij (., ., ., .)

being nonlinear operators, λ is a complex number, Γ0 = {0} × [a, b] and

Γ1 = {1} × [a, b]. We denote by ψi | (resp. ψi | ) the restriction of ψi to

Γ0 Γ1

Γ0 (resp. Γ1 ) while Ki represent nonlinear operators from a suitable function

space on Γ1 to a similar one on Γ0 . The main point in Eq. (7.1) of the proposed

model is the nonlinear dependence of the functions rij (µ, v, v ′ , ψj (µ, v ′ )) on

ψj . More specifically, we suppose that

rij (µ, v, v ′ , ψ(µ, v ′ )) = kij (µ, v, v ′ )f (µ, v ′ , ψ(µ, v ′ )); (i, j) ∈ {(1, 2), (2, 1)},

(

f : [0, 1] × [a, b] × C −→ C

(µ, v, u) −→ f (µ, v, u)

with kij (., ., .), (i, j) ∈ {(1, 2), (2, 1)} representing measurable functions from

[0, 1] × [a, b] × C into C.

In this subsection, we consider a particular version of (7.1)-(7.2), where each

σi does not depend on the density of the population i.

∂ ! !

−v − σ1 (µ, v)I R12 ψ1 ψ1

∂µ

∂ =λ (7.3)

R21 −v − σ2 (µ, v)I ψ2 ψ2

∂µ

ψi | = Ki ψi | , i = 1, 2 (7.4)

Γ0 Γ1

where σi (., .) ∈ L∞ ([0, 1] × [a, b]) and λ is a complex number. We will focus

on the existence of solutions for the last boundary value problem (7.3)–(7.4).

For this purpose, let

where 0 ≤ a < b < ∞; 1 < p < ∞. We denote by Xp0 and Xp1 , the following

boundary spaces

Xp0 := Lp ({0} × [a, b]; vdv)

Two-Dimensional Boundary Value Problems 275

and

Xp1 := Lp ({1} × [a, b]; vdv),

endowed with their natural norms. In what follows, Wp denotes the partial

Sobolev space defined by:

∂ψ

Wp = ψ ∈ Xp such that v ∈ Xp .

∂µ

SKi : D(SKi ) ⊂ Xp −→ Xp

∂ψ

ψ −→ SKi ψ(µ, v) = −v (µ, v) − σi (µ, v)ψ(µ, v)

∂µ

D(SKi ) = ψ ∈ Wp such that ψ 0 = Ki (ψ 1 ) ,

0 1

boundary operators

Ki : Xp1 −→ Xp0

u −→ Ki u

satisfying the following conditions:

Ki from Xp1 into Xp0 , and the estimate:

and λ ∈ C. Let σ be the real defined by:

For Reλ > −σ, the solution of Eq. (7.5) is formally given by:

Z

1

Rµ ′ ′ 1 µ − v1 Rµµ′ (λ+σi (τ,v))dτ

ψi (µ, v) = ψi (0, v) e− v 0 (λ+σi (µ ,v))dµ + e g(µ′ , v) dµ′ .

v 0

276 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

R1

Z 1 R1

− v1 (λ+σi (µ′ ,v))dµ′ 1 1

ψi (1, v) = ψi (0, v) e 0 + e− v µ′

(λ+σi (τ,v))dτ

g(µ′ , v) dµ′ .

v 0

(7.6)

Let us consider the following operators:

Pi,λ : Xp0 −→ Xp1

R1

u −→ (Pi,λ u)(1, v) := u(0, v) e− v

1

0

(λ+σi (µ′ ,v))dµ′

;

Qi,λ : Xp0 −→ Xp

Rµ

u −→ (Qi,λ u)(µ, v) := u(0, v) e− v

1

0

(λ+σi (µ′ ,v))dµ′

;

1

Πi,λ : Xp −→ Xp

Z 1 R1

1 1

u −→ (Πi,λ u)(1, v) := e− v µ′

(λ+σi (τ,v))dτ

u(µ′ , v) dµ′ ;

v 0

and finally,

Ri,λ : Xp −→ Xp

Z µ Rµ

1 − v1 (λ+σi (τ,v))dτ

u −→ (Ri,λ u)(µ, v) := e µ′ u(µ′ , v) dµ′ .

v 0

Clearly, for λ satisfying Reλ > −σ, the operators Pi,λ , Qi,λ , Πi,λ , and Ri,λ

are bounded. It is not difficult to check that

1

kPi,λ k ≤ e− b (Reλ+σ) (7.7)

and

1

kQi,λ k ≤ (p(Reλ + σ))− p . (7.8)

Moreover, some simple calculations using the Hölder inequality show that

1

kΠi,λ k ≤ (Reλ + σ)− q , (7.9)

and

kRi,λ k ≤ (Reλ + σ)−1 . (7.10)

Two-Dimensional Boundary Value Problems 277

Notice that the operator Pi,λ Ki in Eq. (7.11) is defined from Xp1 into Xp1 . Let

ϕ1 , ϕ2 ∈ Xp1 . From both (R1 ) and Eq. (7.7), it follows that

Reλ+σ

kPi,λ Ki ϕ1 − Pi,λ Ki ϕ2 k ≤ αi e− b kϕ1 − ϕ2 k ∀ϕ1 , ϕ2 ∈ Xp1 . (7.12)

where u is an unknown function and let us define the operator A(i,λ,ϕ) on Xp1

by:

A(i,λ,ϕ) : Xp1 −→ Xp1 ,

u −→ (A(i,λ,ϕ) u)(1, v) := Pi,λ Ki u + ϕ.

From Eq.(7.12), it follows that

Reλ+σ

kA(i,λ,ϕ) ϕ1 − A(i,λ,ϕ) ϕ2 k = kPi,λ Ki ϕ1 − Pi,λ Ki ϕ2 k ≤ αi e− b kϕ1 − ϕ2 k.

tion mapping and therefore, by using Theorem 1.2.1, Eq. (7.13) has a unique

solution

u(i,λ,ϕ) = ui .

Let Wi,λ be the nonlinear operator defined by:

Wi,λ ϕ = ui , (7.14)

where ui is the solution of Eq. (7.13). Now, we have the following result:

Lemma 7.1.1 Assume that (R1 ) holds. Then,

(i) for every λ satisfying Reλ > −σ + b log(αi ), i = 1, 2, the operator Wi,λ is

continuous and map bounded sets into bounded ones and satisfies the following

estimate

Reλ+σ

kWi,λ ϕ1 − Wi,λ ϕ2 k ≤ (1 − αi e−( b )

)−1 kϕ1 − ϕ2 k; ϕ1 , ϕ2 ∈ Xp1 , i = 1, 2.

(ii) If Reλ > max(−σ, −σ + b log(αi )), then the operators (λ − SKi ) are in-

vertible and (λ − SKi )−1 is given by:

Moreover, (λ − SKi )−1 are continuous on Xp and map bounded sets into

bounded ones.

278 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

Proof. By the definition of Wi,λ , Eq. (7.14) may be written in the form:

and thus

Reλ+σ

≤ αi e− b kWi,λ ϕ1 − Wi,λ ϕ2 k + kϕ1 − ϕ2 k

for any ϕ1 , ϕ2 ∈ Xp1 . This leads to the estimate:

Reλ+σ

−1

kWi,λ ϕ1 − Wi,λ ϕ2 k ≤ 1 − αi e−( b ) kϕ1 − ϕ2 k, i = 1, 2

The second part of the assertion (i) follows from the estimate:

Reλ+σ

−1

kWi,λ ϕk ≤ 1 − αi e−( b ) kϕk + kWi,λ (0)k.

(ii) Since Reλ > max(−σ, −σ + b log(αi )), the solution of Eq. (7.11) is given

by:

ψi1 = Wi,λ Πi,λ g. (7.15)

Observe that the solution of Eq. (7.5) may be written as:

from which we infer that (λ − SKi ) is invertible and

The second part of assertion (ii) follows from the boundedness of the linear

operators Qi,λ , Πi,λ , Ri,λ and from assertion (i). Q.E.D.

In what follows, and for our subsequent analysis, we need the following as-

sumption:

(R2 ) rij (µ, v, v ′ , ψ(µ, v ′ )) = kij (µ, v, v ′ )f (µ, v ′ , ψ(µ, v ′ )); (i, j) ∈ {(1, 2), (2, 1)},

f : [0, 1] × [a, b] × C −→ C

(µ, v, u) −→ f (µ, v, u),

Two-Dimensional Boundary Value Problems 279

where kij (., ., .), (i, j) ∈ {(1, 2), (2, 1)} are measurable functions from [0, 1] ×

[a, b] × C into C which defines a bounded linear operator Bij by:

Bij : Xp −→ Xp

Z b (7.16)

ψ −→ kij (µ, v, v ′ )ψ(µ, v ′ )dv ′ .

a

Notice that the operators Bij , (i, j) = (1, 2), (2, 1) act only on the velocity v,

so µ may be simply seen as a parameter in [0, 1]. Then, we will consider Bij

as a function

- The function Bij (.) is measurable, i.e., if O is an open subset of

L(Lp ([a, b]; dv)), then{µ ∈ [0, 1] such thatBij (µ) ∈ O} is measurable,

(R3 ) - there exists a compact subset C ⊂ L(Lp ([a, b]; dv)) such that

Bij (µ) ∈ C a.e. on [0, 1], and

-Bij (µ) ∈ K(Lp ([a, b]; dv)) a.e. on [0, 1],

where K(Lp ([a, b], dv)) stands for the class of compact operators on

Lp ([a, b], dv).

Lemma 7.1.2 Assume that Bij satisfies the hypothesis (R3 ). Then, Bij can

by approximated, in the uniform topology, by a sequence (Bij,n )n of operators

of the form:

n

X

′

κij,n (µ, v, v ) = ηs (µ)θs (v)βs (v ′ ),

s=1

where ηs (.) ∈ L∞ ([0, 1], dµ), θs (.) ∈ Lp ([a, b], dv) and βs (.) ∈ Lq ([a, b], dv) (q

denotes the conjugate of p).

Lemma 7.1.3 Let p ∈ (1, ∞) and assume that (R1 ) holds. If Bij , (i, j) ∈

{(1, 2), (2, 1)} satisfies (R3 ), then for any λ ∈ C such that Reλ >

max(−σ, −σ + b log(αi )), the operators (λ − SKi )−1 Bij are completely con-

tinuous on Xp .

280 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

Proof. Let λ be such that Reλ > max(−σ, −σ + b log(αi )). By using Lemma

7.1.1 and the boundedness of Bij (as a linear operator), we infer that (λ −

SKi )−1 Bij is continuous and maps bounded sets into bounded sets. In view

of the assertion (ii) of Lemma 7.1.1 we have

In order to complete the proof it is sufficient to show that Qi,λ Ki Wi,λ Πi,λ Bij

and Ri,λ Bij are completely continuous on Xp . We claim that Πi,λ Bij and

Ri,λ Bij are compact. Indeed, since Bij satisfies (R3 ) it follows from Lemma

7.1.2 that Bij can be approximated, in the uniform topology by a sequence

(Bij,n )n of finite rank operators on Lp ([a, b]; dv) which converges, in the op-

erator norm, to Bij . Then it suffices to establish the result for a finite rank

operator. So, we infer from the linearity and the stability of the compactness

by summation that it suffices to prove the result for an operator Bij whose

kernel is in the form:

where ηij (.) ∈ L∞ ([0, 1], dµ), θij (.) ∈ Lp ([a, b], dv) and βij (.) ∈ Lq ([a, b], dv)

(here, q denotes the conjugate of p). In a way similar to Lemma 5.1.2 we

achieve the proof. Q.E.D.

Now, let us recall some facts concerning superposition operators required be-

low. Recall f : [0, 1] × [a, b] × C −→ C is a Carathéodory function, if the

following conditions are satisfied

(µ, v) −→ f (µ, v, u) is measurable on [0, 1] × [a, b] for all u ∈ C

u −→ f (µ, v, u) is continuous on C a.e. (µ, v) ∈ [0, 1] × [a, b].

Nf on the set of functions ψ : [0, 1] × [a, b] −→ C by:

(Nf ψ)(µ, v) = f (µ, v, ψ(µ, v)) for every (µ, v) ∈ [0, 1] × [a, b].

We assume that:

Two-Dimensional Boundary Value Problems 281

Theorem 7.1.1 Assume that (R1 ) and (R2 ) hold. If Bij , (i, j) ∈

{(1, 2), (2, 1)} satisfy (R3 ) on Xp , then for each r > 0, there is λr > 0 such

that, for each λ satisfying Re(λ) > λr , the problem (7.3)–(7.4) has, at least,

one solution in Br × Br .

Proof. Let λ be a complex number such that Reλ > max(−σ, −σ + b log(α))

with α = max(α1 , α2 ). Then, according to Lemma 7.1.1 (ii), we deduce that

λ−SKi is invertible and therefore, the problem (7.3)–(7.4) may be transformed

into

! !

ψ1 ψ1

= L(λ) , ψi0 = Ki ψi1 , i = 1, 2,

ψ2 ψ2

where !

SK1 − (λ − 1)I B12 Nf

L(λ) = .

B21 Nf SK2 − (λ − 1)I

Let r > 0. We first check that, for a suitable λ, Υ(λ) := (λ − SK1 )−1 B12 Nf

leaves Br invariant. Let kψ2 k ≤ r. From Lemma 7.1.1 and Eqs (7.7)–(7.10),

we have

" #

1 1 α1

≤ + 1 Reλ+σ kB12 kM (r) + Σ(Reλ),

Reλ + σ p p 1 − α1 e− b

" #

α1 kW1,λ (0)k + kK1 (0)k

Σ(Reλ) = 1 1 .

(Reλ + σ) p p p

Reλ+σ ε+σ

(1 − α1 e− b )−1 ≤ (1 − α1 e− b )−1 .

Therefore,

" #

1 1 α1

kΥ(λ)(ψ2 )k ≤ + 1 ε+σ kB12 kM (r) + Σ(Reλ).

Reλ + σ p 1 − α1 e− b

p

282 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

Let 0 < δ < α11 . From Eq. (7.8), there exists λr such that for any λ satisfying

Reλ > max(−σ, −σ + b log(α), λr ), we have kP1,λ k ≤ δ. Then, by using (R1 ),

we deduce that

It follows that

δkK1 (0)k

kW1,λ (0)k ≤ .

1 − δα1

Therefore,

" #

1 1 α1 e

kΥ(λ)(ψ2 )k ≤ + 1 ε+σ kB12 kM (r) + Σ(Reλ),

Reλ + σ p 1 − α1 e− b

p

≤ Q(Reλ),

where

" # " α1 δ

#

1 1 α1 ( 1−δα + 1)kK1 (0)k

Q(t) = + kB12 kM (r) + 1

,

t + σ p p1 1 − α1 e− ε+σ

b

1 1

(t + σ) p p p

and " #

α1 δ

( 1−δα + 1)kK1 (0)k

e

Σ(Reλ) = 1

1 1 .

(Reλ + σ) p p p

Clearly, Q(.) is continuous strictly decreasing in t > 0 and satisfies

lim Q(t) = 0. Hence, there exists λ′r , such that Q(λ′r ) ≤ r. Obviously, if

t→+∞

Reλ ≥ λ′r , then (λ − SK1 )−1 B12 Nf maps Br into itself and (R1 ) is satisfied.

Clearly, from Lemma 7.1.3, the operator S(λ) = B21 Nf (λ − SK1 )−1 B12 Nf

is continuous, and so has a closed graph. Now, we claim that S(λ)(Br ) is

relatively compact. Indeed, Nf (Br ) is a bounded subset of Xp . From Lemma

7.1.3, it follows that Or := (λ−SK1 )−1 B12 Nf (Br ) is relatively compact. Since

B21 Nf is continuous, B12 Nf (Or ) is compact and so, S(λ)(Br ) is relatively

compact. For Reλ ≥ max(λr , λ′r ) and kψ2 k ≤ r, we have

kS(λ)(ψ2 )k ≤ r.

By using Lemma 7.1.1, we deduce that there exists λ′′r ≥ max(λr , λ′r ) such

that, for any Reλ ≥ λ′′r , we have ∆(λ)ψ2 := (λ − SK2 )−1 S(λ)ψ2 ∈ Br . The

result follows from Theorem 1.6.5. Q.E.D.

Two-Dimensional Boundary Value Problems 283

Theorem 7.1.2 Assume that (R1 ), (R2 ), and (R4 ) hold. If Bij , (i, j) ∈

{(1, 2), (2, 1)} satisfy (R3 ) on Xp , then for each r > 0, there is λr > 0 such

that, for each λ satisfying Re(λ) > λr , the problem (7.3)–(7.4) has a unique

solution in Br × Br .

Proof. Let λ be a complex number such that Reλ > max(−σ, −σ + b log(α))

with α = max(α1 , α2 ) and let ψ1 , ψ2 ∈ Xp . Using the same notations as in

the above proof, we have

where " #

1 1 1

F1 (Reλ) = + 1 Reλ+σ

Reλ + σ p p 1 − α1 e− b

is a continuous, positive, and strictly decreasing function on ]0, +∞[ satisfying

lim F1 (t) = 0. By the same way, we have

t→+∞

" #

1 1 1

k∆(λ)ψ1 − ∆(λ)ψ2 k ≤ + 1 Reλ+σ kS(λ)ψ1 − S(λ)ψ2 k

Reλ + σ p 1 − α2 e− b

p

≤ F2 (Reλ)kS(λ)ψ1 − S(λ)ψ2 k,

]0, +∞[ satisfying lim F1 (t) = 0. Then, we have

t→+∞

conclude that there exists a complex number λ1 such that λ1 > max(−σ, −σ+

b log(α)) and

kB21 kkB12 kkhk2∞ F1 (Reλ)F2 (Reλ) < 1 for any Reλ ≥ λ1 . (7.18)

∆(λ) is a contraction mapping on Br and maps Br into itself. Hence, the use

of Banach’s fixed point theorem (see Theorem 1.2.1) allows us to conclude

that there exists a unique ψ2 in Br , such that ∆(λ)ψ2 = ψ2 . Let us take

ψ1 := Υ(λ)ψ2 . By using

! the same argument as in the above proof, ψ1 lies

ψ1

in Br and so, is a unique fixed point for the problem (7.3)–(7.4) in

ψ2

Br × Br . Q.E.D.

284 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

Now, let us discuss the existence of solutions for the more general nonlinear

boundary problem (7.1)–(7.2). When dealing with this problem, some techni-

cal difficulties arise. So, we need the following assumption:

where L(Xp1 , Xp0 ) denotes the set of all bounded linear operators from Xp1 into

Xp0 , ωi (., .) ∈ L∞ ([0, 1] × [a, b], dµdv) and Nσi acts from Br into Br .

SbKi : D(SbKi ) ⊂ Xp → Xp

∂ψ

ψ → SbKi ψ(µ, v) = −v (µ, v)

∂µ

D(SbKi ) = ψ ∈ Wp such that ψ 0 = Ki (ψ 1 ) .

Theorem 7.1.3 Assume that (R2 ), (R4 ), and (R5 ) hold. If Bij , (i, j) ∈

{(1, 2), (2, 1)} satisfy (R3 ) on Xp , then for each r > 0, there is λr > 0 such

that, for each λ satisfying Re(λ) > λr , the problem (7.1)–(7.2) has, at least,

one solution in Br × Br .

Proof. Since Ki , i = 1, 2 are linear in view of (R5 ), the operators SbKi are

linear, too. By using Lemma 7.1.1, we deduce that

{λ ∈ C such that Reλ > max(0, b log kK1 k, b log kK2 k)} ⊂ ̺(SbKi ),

where ̺(SbKi ) denotes the resolvent set of SbKi . Let λ be a complex number

such that Reλ > max(0, b log kK1 k, b log kK2 k). Then, by using the linearity

of the operator (λ − SbKi )−1 , the problem (7.1)–(7.2) may be written in the

following form:

! !

ψ1 b ψ1

= L(λ) , ψi ∈ D(SbKi ), i = 1, 2,

ψ2 ψ2

where

!

b SbK1 − (λ − 1)I + Nσ1 B12 Nf

L(λ) = .

B21 Nf SbK2 − (λ − 1)I + Nσ2

Two-Dimensional Boundary Value Problems 285

! ! !

ψ1 ψ1 ψ1

= G1 (λ) + G2 (λ) , ψi ∈ D(SbKi ), i = 1, 2 (7.19)

ψ2 ψ2 ψ2

where !

(λ − SbK1 )−1 Nσ1 0

G1 (λ) = ,

0 (λ − SbK2 )−1 Nσ2

and !

0 (λ − SbK1 )−1 B12 Nf

G2 (λ) = .

b

(λ − SK2 )−1 B21 Nf 0

Let us check that, for a suitable λ, the operator G1 (λ) is a contraction mapping.

! !

ψ1 ϕ1

Indeed, let , ∈ Xp . Then, for each i = 1, 2, we have

ψ2 ϕ2

k(λ − SbKi )−1 (Nσi ϕi − Nσi ψi )k ≤ k(λ − SbKi )−1 kkNσi ϕi − Nσi ψi k.

1 γ

k(λ − SbKi )−1 k ≤ 1+ Reλ , i = 1, 2, (7.20)

Reλ 1 − γe− b

where γ = max(kK1 k, kK2 k). Moreover, by taking into account the assump-

tion on σi (., ., .), we get

! (7.19) and

ϕ1 ψ1

(7.20), we infer that, for V = and W = , we have

ϕ2 ψ2

! !

(λ − SbK1 )−1 Nσ1 ϕ1 (λ − SbK1 )−1 Nσ1 ψ1

∆(λ, V, W ) = −

(λ − SbK2 )−1 Nσ1 ϕ2 (λ − SbK2 )−1 Nσ1 ψ2

! !

1 γ ϕ ψ1

1

≤ 1+ Reλ kωk∞ −

Reλ 1 − γe− b ϕ2 ψ2

! !

ϕ ψ1

1

≤ Ξ(Reλ) − ,

ϕ2 ψ2

where

∆(λ, V, W ) := kG1 (λ)V − G1 (λ)W k

286 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

and

1 γ

Ξ(t) := 1+ t kωk∞ .

t 1 − γe− b

Let us notice that Ξ is a continuous and strictly decreasing function defined

on ]0, ∞[ and

lim Ξ(t) = 0.

t→∞

Hence, there exists λ1 ∈] max (0, b log kK1 k, b log kK2 k), ∞[ such that

Ξ(λ1 ) < 1 and so, for Reλ ≥ λ1 , G1 (λ) is a contraction mapping. By using

Lemma 7.1.1 and arguing as in the proof of Theorem 7.1.1, we can show that

the operator G2 (λ) is completely continuous on Xp . Theorem 4.1.4 achieves

the proof. Q.E.D.

Question 6:

What happens if the reproduction rules are not generated by a bounded

linear operator Ki from Xp1 to Xp0 ? To our knowledge, this question is not

yet developed.

Now, let us discuss the existence of positive solutions for our boundary value

+ −

problem. Let Bij be defined by Eq. (7.16) and let kij (., ., .) (resp. kij (., ., .))

denote the positive part (resp. the negative part) of kij (., ., .) :

+ −

kij (µ, v, v ′ ) = kij (µ, v, v ′ ) − kij (µ, v, v ′ ) (µ, v, v ′ ) ∈ [0, 1] × [a, b] × [a, b].

Z b

± ± ±

Bij : ψ −→ Bij ψ(µ, v) := kij (µ, v, v ′ )ψ(µ, v ′ ) dv ′ .

a

Clearly,

+ −

Bij = Bij − Bij .

+ −

|Bij | := Bij + Bij

i.e.,

Z b

|Bij |ψ(µ, v) = |kij |(µ, v, v ′ )ψ(µ, v ′ ) dv ′ , ψ ∈ Xp .

a

Assume that

Two-Dimensional Boundary Value Problems 287

where (Xp1 )+ (resp. (Xp0 )+ ) denotes the positive cone of the space Xp1 (resp.

Xp0 ). Let r > 0. We define the set Br+ by Br+ := Br ∩ Xp+ .

Theorem 7.1.4 Assume that (R1 ), (R2 ), (R3 ), (R4 ), and (R6 ) hold. If Bij

is a positive operator and if Nf (Xp+ ) ⊂ Xp+ , then for each r > 0, there is

λr > 0 such that for all λ > λr , the problem (7.1)–(7.2) has, at least, one

solution in Br+ .

Proof. Obviously, the operators Pi,λ , Πi,λ , Qi,λ , and Ri,λ are bounded and

positive. Accordingly, by using arguments similar to those used in the proof

of Theorem 5.2.4, we can reach the desired result. Q.E.D.

The aim of this section is to apply Theorems 4.2.4 and 4.2.6 in order to discuss

the existence results for the two-dimensional boundary value problem (7.3)–

(7.4) in the Banach space L1 × L1 . For this purpose, let us first specify the

functional setting of the problem. Let us consider

X := L1 ([0, 1] × [a, b]; dµdv),

where 0 ≤ a < b < ∞. Let us denote by X 0 and X 1 the following boundary

spaces

X 1 := L1 ({1} × [a, b]; vdv),

endowed with their natural norms. Let W be the space defined by:

∂ψ

W = ψ ∈ X such that v ∈X .

∂µ

It is well known (see, for example, [52, 53, 63]) that any ψ in W has traces

on the spatial boundary {0} and {1} which belong, respectively, to the spaces

X 0 and X 1 .

As in Section 7.1.1, we define the free streaming operator SKi , i = 1, 2, by:

SKi : D(SKi ) ⊂ X −→ X,

∂ψi

ψi −→ SKi ψi (µ, v) = −v (µ, v) − σi (µ, v)ψi (µ, v),

∂µ

D(SKi ) = ψi ∈ W such that ψi0 = Ki (ψi1 ) ,

288 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

where σi (., .) ∈ L∞ ([0, 1] × [a, b]), ψi0 = ψi|Γ , ψi1 = ψi|Γ and Ki , i = 1, 2,

0 1

represent the following nonlinear boundary operators

(

Ki : X 1 −→ X 0 ,

u −→ Ki u,

Ki from X 1 into X 0 , and the following estimate:

Following the same reasoning as in the previous subsection, our first task is

to determine a solution ψi ∈ D(SKi ), where g is given in X and λ ∈ C.

Let σ be the real defined by:

For Reλ > −σ, the solution of Eq. (7.21) is formally given by:

Z

R

− v1 0µ (λ+σi (µ′ ,v))dµ′ 1 µ − v1 Rµµ′ (λ+σi (τ,v))dτ

ψi (µ, v) = ψi (0, v) e + e g(µ′ , v) dµ′ .

v 0

Accordingly, for µ = 1, we get

R1

Z 1 R1

− v1 (λ+σi (µ′ ,v))dµ′ 1 1

ψi (1, v) = ψi (0, v) e 0 + e− v µ′

(λ+σi (τ,v))dτ

g(µ′ , v) dµ′ .

v 0

(7.22)

Let us introduce the following operators:

Pi,λ : X 0−→ X 1

R1

u −→ (Pi,λ u)(1, v) := u(0, v) e− v

1

0

(λ+σi (µ′ ,v))dµ′

,

Qi,λ : X 0−→ X

Rµ

u −→ (Qi,λ u)(µ, v) := u(0, v) e− v

1

0

(λ+σi (µ′ ,v))dµ′

,

Two-Dimensional Boundary Value Problems 289

1

Πi,λ : X−→ X

Z 1 R1

1 1

u −→ (Πi,λ u)(1, v) := e− v µ′

(λ+σi (τ,v))dτ

u(µ′ , v) dµ′ ,

v 0

and finally,

Ri,λ : X−→ X

Z µ Rµ

1 − v1 (λ+σi (τ,v))dτ

u −→ (Ri,λ u)(µ, v) := e µ′ u(µ′ , v) dµ′ .

v 0

Clearly, for λ satisfying Reλ > −σ, the operators Pi,λ , Qi,λ , Πi,λ , and Ri,λ ,

i = 1, 2, are bounded. It is not difficult to check that

1

kPi,λ k ≤ e− b (Reλ+σ) , (7.23)

and

kQi,λ k ≤ (Reλ + σ)−1 . (7.24)

kΠi,λ k ≤ 1, (7.25)

and

kRi,λ k ≤ (Reλ + σ)−1 . (7.26)

Notice that the operator Pi,λ Ki appearing in Eq. (7.27), is defined from X 1

into X 1 . Let ϕ1 , ϕ2 ∈ X 1 . From (R7 ) and the estimate (7.23), we have

Reλ+σ

kPi,λ Ki ϕ1 − Pi,λ Ki ϕ2 k ≤ αi e− b kϕ1 − ϕ2 k. (7.28)

u = Pi,λ Ki u + ϕ, ϕ ∈ X 1 , (7.29)

290 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

by:

A(i,λ,ϕ) : X 1 −→ X 1 ,

u −→ (A(i,λ,ϕ) u)(1, v) := Pi,λ Ki u + ϕ.

From the estimate (7.28), it follows that

Reλ+σ

kA(i,λ,ϕ) ϕ1 − A(i,λ,ϕ) ϕ2 k = kPi,λ Ki ϕ1 − Pi,λ Ki ϕ2 k ≤ αi e− b kϕ1 − ϕ2 k.

mapping and therefore, Eq. (7.29) has a unique solution

u(i,λ,ϕ) = ui .

Wi,λ ϕ = ui , (7.30)

where ui is the solution of Eq. (7.29). Arguing as in the proof of Lemma 7.1.1,

we have the following result:

Lemma 7.2.1 Assume that (R7 ) holds. Then,

(i) For every λ satisfying Reλ > −σ + b log(αi ), i = 1, 2, the operator Wi,λ

is continuous and maps bounded sets into bounded ones and satisfying the

following estimate

Reλ+σ −1

kWi,λ ϕ1 − Wi,λ ϕ2 k ≤ 1 − αi e−( b ) kϕ1 − ϕ2 k for all ϕ1 , ϕ2 ∈ X 1 .

(ii) If Reλ > max(−σ, −σ+b log(αi )), then the operator (λ−SKi ) is invertible

and (λ − SKi )−1 is given by:

Moreover, (λ−SKi )−1 is continuous on X and maps bounded sets into bounded

ones.

In what follows and for our subsequent analysis, we need the following hy-

pothesis:

where f and kij (., ., .), (i, j) ∈ {(1, 2), (2, 1)}, are defined as in the previous

subsection. We should also recall that the linear operator Bij is defined by:

Bij : X −→ X

Z b (7.31)

ψj −→ kij (µ, v, v ′ )ψj (µ, v ′ )dv ′ .

a

Two-Dimensional Boundary Value Problems 291

Definition 7.2.1 Let Bij , (i, j) ∈ {(1, 2), (2, 1)}, be the operator de-

fined by Eq. (7.31). Then, Bij is said to be a regular operator if

kij (µ, ., v ′ ) such that (µ, v ′ ) ∈ [0, 1] × [a, b] is a relatively weakly compact

subset of L1 ([a, b]; dµ).

Let us recall the following result, which states a basic fact for the theory of

these operators on L1 spaces (see [57]).

operator Ng acts from L1 into L1 , then Ng is continuous and takes bounded

sets into bounded ones. Moreover, there is a constant k > 0 and a positive

function h(.) ∈ L1 such that

We recall the following lemma established in [119] which will play a crucial

role below.

Lemma 7.2.3 If condition (R10 ) holds true, then for every weakly convergent

sequence (ψn )n , there exists a weakly convergent subsequence of Nf ψn .

G := {(ψn )n , n ∈ N} is sequentially weakly compact and therefore ω(G) = 0.

On the other hand Lemma 7.2.2 implies that there exists k > 0 and h(.) ∈ X

such that

|f (x, ξ, ψn (x, ξ))| ≤ h(x, ξ) + k|ψn (x, ξ)|.

So, Z Z Z

Nf ψn (x, ξ)dxdξ ≤ h(x, ξ)dxdξ ≤ k |ψn (x, ξ)|dxdξ

∆ ∆ ∆

for all measurable subsets of ∆ of [−a, a] × [−1, 1]. This together with Lemma

6.1.2 implies that ω(Nf (G)) ≤ kω(G) and therefore, by Lemma 1.4.1, Nf (G)

is relatively weakly compact. This completes the proof. Q.E.D.

Now, we are ready to state the first existence result of this section.

292 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

Theorem 7.2.1 Assume that (R7 )–(R10 ) hold. If B12 is a regular collision

operator on X, then for each r > 0, there is λr > 0 such that, for each λ

satisfying Re(λ) > λr , the problem

∂

! !

−v − σ1 (µ, v)I R12

∂µ ψ1 ψ1

∂ =λ , (7.32)

R21 −v − σ2 (µ, v)I ψ2 ψ2

∂µ

ψi | = Ki ψi | , i = 1, 2, (7.33)

Γ0 Γ1

Proof. Let λ be a complex number such that Reλ > max(−σ, −σ + b log(α))

with α = max(α1 , α2 ). Then, according to Lemma 7.2.1, we infer that λ − SKi

is invertible and therefore, the problem (7.32)–(7.33) may be transformed into

! !

ψ1 ψ1

Lλ = , ψi0 = Ki ψi1 , i = 1, 2,

ψ2 ψ2

where !

SK1 − (λ − 1)I B12 Nf

Lλ = .

B21 Nf SK2 − (λ − 1)I

Claim 1: Let r > 0. First, we check that, for a suitable λ, the operator

Sλ := (λ − SK1 )−1 B12 Nf leaves Br invariant. Let ψ ∈ Br . From both Lemma

7.2.1 and the estimates (7.23)–(7.26), we have

" #

α1 kB12 kM (r) α1 kW1,λ (0)k + kK1 (0)k

≤ 1+ Reλ+σ + ,

1 − α1 e − b Reλ + σ Reλ + σ

For Reλ > ε, we have

Reλ+σ ε+σ

(1 − α1 e− b )−1 ≤ (1 − α1 e− b )−1 .

Therefore,

α1 kB12 kM (r) α1 kW1,λ (0)k + kK1 (0)k

kSλ ψk ≤ 1 + ε+σ + .

1 − α1 e− b Reλ + σ Reλ + σ

Two-Dimensional Boundary Value Problems 293

Let 0 < δ < α11 . From the estimate (7.23), there exists λ1 such that for any

λ satisfying Reλ > max(−σ, −σ + b log(α), λ1 ), we have kP1,λ k ≤ δ. Then, by

using the assumption (R7 ), we deduce that

It follows that

δkK1 (0)k

kW1,λ (0)k ≤ .

1 − δα1

Therefore,

α1 δ

α1 kB12 kM (r) 1−δα1 + 1 kK1 (0)k

kSλ ψk ≤ 1+ ε+σ +

1 − α1 e− b Reλ + σ Reλ + σ

≤ Q(Reλ),

where

α1 δ

α1 kB12 kM (r) ( 1−δα 1

+ 1)kK1 (0)k

Q(t) = 1 + + .

1 − α1 e − ε+σ

b t+σ t+σ

lim Q(t) = 0. Hence, there exists λ2 , such that Q(λ2 ) ≤ r. Obviously, if

t→+∞

Reλ ≥ max(λ1 , λ2 ), then (λ − SK1 )−1 B12 Nf maps Br into itself.

Now, let us recall the following conditions (introduced in Chapter 4), which

will be needed in the sequel.

If (ψn )n∈N is a weakly convergent sequence in L1 , then

(A1 )

(Aψn )n∈N has a strongly convergent subsequence in L1

and

if (ψn )n∈N is a weakly convergent sequence in L1 , then

(A2 )

(Aψn )n∈N has a weakly convergent subsequence in L1 .

294 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

compact on X. Now, let us check that Sλ satisfies the condition (A1 ). For

this, let (ψn )n∈N be a weakly convergent sequence of X. Using the fact that

Nf satisfies (A2 ), we deduce that (Nf ψn )n∈N has a weakly convergent subse-

quence, say (Nf ψnk )k∈N . Moreover, by using the fact that Π1,λ B12 R1,λ B12

are weakly compact, the assumption (A1 ), and Lemma 7.2.1, we deduce that

(λ−SK1 )−1 B12 is weakly-strongly sequentially continuous. Hence, (Sλ ψnk )k∈N

converges strongly in X and so, Sλ satisfies the assumption (A1 ).

satisfies the condition A2 . To do so, let (ψn )n∈N be a weakly convergent se-

quence of X. By using the fact that Nf satisfies the condition (A2 ), we in-

fer that (Nf ψn )n∈N has a weakly convergent subsequence, say (Nf ψnk )k∈N .

Moreover, the continuity of the linear operator B21 shows that it is weakly

continuous on X (see [40]). So, (B21 Nf ψnk )k∈N converges weakly in X. Then,

B21 Nf satisfies the assumption (A2 ).

Claim 4: Clearly, from Lemma 7.2.1, we deduce that (λ − SK2 )−1 exists and

is continuous on X. Now, let us check that (λ − SK2 )−1 satisfies the condition

(A2 ). For this, let (ψn )n∈N be a weakly convergent sequence of X. By using

the fact that (W2,λ Π2,λ ψn )n∈N is a bounded sequence and that K2 is a weakly

compact operator on X 1 , we infer that (K2 W2,λ Π2,λ ψn )n∈N has a weakly con-

vergent subsequence, say (K2 W2,λ Π2,λ ψnk )k∈N . Besides, by using the continu-

ity of the linear operators Q2,λ and R2,λ , we show that (λ − SK2 )−1 ψnk k∈N

converge weakly in X. Then the operator (λ − SK2 )−1 satisfies (A2 ).

Arguing as in claim 1 for Sλ ψ, there exists λr such that, for Reλ ≥ λr , we have

Γψ := (λ−SK2 )−1 B21 Nf Sλ ψ ∈ Br . Finally, Γ has, at least, a fixed point in Br ,

or equivalently, the problem (7.32)–(7.33) has a solution in Br × Br . Q.E.D.

Now, we may discuss the existence of solutions for the more general nonlin-

ear boundary problem (7.1)–(7.2). For this purpose, we need the following

assumption:

(R11 ) Ki ∈ L(X 1 , X 0 ), and for each r > 0, the function σi (., ., .), i = 1, 2,

satisfies

where L(X 1 , X 0 ) denotes the set of all bounded linear operators from X 1 into

X 0 and ωi (., .) ∈ L∞ ([0, 1] × [a, b]), and Nσi acts from X into X.

Two-Dimensional Boundary Value Problems 295

SbKi : D(SbKi ) ⊂ X −→ X,

∂ψi

ψi −→ SbKi ψi (µ, v) = −v (µ, v),

∂µ

D(SbKi ) = ψi ∈ W such that ψi0 = Ki (ψi1 ) .

Theorem 7.2.2 Assume that (R9 )–(R11 ) hold. If Bij , (i, j) ∈ {(1, 2), (2, 1)},

are regular collision operators on X, then for each r > 0, there is λr > 0 such

that, for each λ satisfying Re(λ) > λr , the problem (7.1)–(7.2) has, at least,

one solution in Br × Br .

Lemma 7.2.1, we deduce that

{λ ∈ C such that Reλ > max(0, b log kK1 k, b log kK2 k)} ⊂ ̺(SbKi ),

where ̺(SbKi ) denotes the resolvent set of SbKi . Let λ ∈ C such that Reλ >

max(0, b log kK1 k, b log kK2 k). Then, by using the linearity of the operator

(λ − SbKi )−1 , the problem (7.1)–(7.2) may be written in the form:

! !

ψ 1 ψ1

Lbλ = , ψi0 = Ki ψi1 , i = 1, 2,

ψ2 ψ2

where

!

SbK1 − (λ − 1)I + N−σ1 B12 Nf

Lbλ = .

B21 Nf SbK2 − (λ − 1)I + N−σ2

! ! !

ψ1 ψ1 ψ1

G1,λ + G2,λ = , ψi0 = Ki ψi1 , i = 1, 2,

ψ2 ψ2 ψ2

where

!

(λ − SbK1 )−1 N−σ1 0

G1,λ = ,

0 (λ − SbK2 )−1 N−σ2

and !

0 (λ − SbK1 )−1 B12 Nf

G2,λ = .

(λ − SbK2 )−1 B21 Nf 0

296 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

for a suitable

ψ1 ϕ1

mapping. Indeed, let , ∈ X × X. For i = 1, 2, we have

ψ2 ϕ2

k(λ − SbKi )−1 (N−σi ϕi − N−σi ψi )k ≤ k(λ − SbKi )−1 kkN−σi ϕi − N−σi ψi k.

1 γ

k(λ − SbKi )−1 k ≤ 1+ Reλ , i = 1, 2, (7.34)

Reλ 1 − γe− b

where γ = max(kK1 k, kK2 k). Moreover, by taking into account the assump-

tion on σi (., ., .), we get

!

ϕ1

where kωk∞ = max(kω1 k∞ , kω2 k∞ ). Let us denote by Φ := and

ϕ2

!

ψ1

Ψ := . By using the estimate (7.34), we have

ψ2

! !

(λ − SbK1 )−1 N−σ1 ϕ1 (λ − SbK1 )−1 N−σ1 ψ1

∆(λ, Φ, Ψ) = −

(λ − SbK2 )−1 N−σ2 ϕ2 (λ − SbK2 )−1 N−σ2 ψ2

! !

kωk∞ γ ϕ1 ψ1

≤ 1+ −

Reλ Reλ ϕ

1 − γe− b 2 ψ2

! !

ϕ1 ψ1

≤ Ξ(Reλ)

ϕ − ,

2 ψ2

where

∆(λ, Φ, Ψ) :=
G1,λ Φ − G1,λ Ψ

.

By the same arguments as those used in Section 7.1.2, we deduce that, there

exists λ1 ∈] max (0, b log kK1 k, b log kK2 k), ∞[ such that Ξ(λ1 ) < 1. Hence,

for Reλ ≥ λ1 , G1,λ is a contraction mapping.

7.2.1, we show that G1,λ satisfies (A2 ), and that G2,λ is continuous, weakly

compact on X × X and satisfies (A1 ).

Two-Dimensional Boundary Value Problems 297

obtain

kB12 kM(r)+M ′ (r)

k(λ − SbK1 )−1 N−σ1 ϕ1 + (λ − SbK1 )−1 B12 Nf ψ2 k ≤ Reλ Λ(λ)

≤ T (Reλ),

" #

kK1 k

Λ(λ) := 1 + Reλ

1 − kK1 ke− b

above, we show that there exists λ2 such that, for Reλ ≥ λ2 , we have

By using a similar reasoning, we may prove that there exists λ3 such that, for

Reλ ≥ λ3 , we have

tors G1,λ and G2,λ satisfy the conditions of Theorem 4.2.6. Consequently, the

problem (7.1)–(7.2) has a solution in Br × Br for all λ such that Reλ ≥ λr .

Q.E.D.

Algebras

Let us consider the following nonlinear functional integral system:

h Z

σ(t) i

x(t) = a(t)x(t) + y(t) q(t) + h t, y(η(s)) ds

0 (7.35)

1

y(t) = − f t, x(θ(t)) + g(t, y(t))

1 + |x(θ(t))|

for t ∈ J, where J is the interval [0, 1] and x, y are unknown functions in

the Banach algebra C(J, R) := C(J) of all real-valued continuous functions

on J. Here, g is a contraction condition with respect to the second variable

298 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

while f (., .) resp. h(., .), σ(.), η(.), θ(.), a(.), q(.) is a nonlinear (resp. are

continuous) function(s). The system (7.35) can be written as a fixed point

problem: ! ! !

x(t) a(t) I.K(t, .) x(t)

= ,

y(t) f1 (t, .) g(t, .) y(t)

where Z σ(t)

K(t, y(t)) = q(t) + h t, y(η(s)) ds,

0

1

f1 (t, x(t)) = − f t, x(θ(t))

1 + |x(θ(t))|

and I represents the identity operator on C(J). We equip the space C(J) with

the norm kxk∞ = sup|x(t)|. Clearly, C(J) is a complete normed algebra with

t∈J

respect to this supremum norm. Assume that the functions involved in Eq.

(7.35) verify the following conditions:

a constant α ∈]1, +∞[.

2

in ] 1+α , 1[ ,

(R15 ) θ, σ, η : J −→ J are continuous and nondecreasing functions such that

σ(t) ≤ t, for all t ∈ J.

1−kak∞

(R16 ) q : J −→ R is a continuous function with kqk∞ < 2(1+α) (1 − k).

(a) h is continuous, and

1−kak∞

(b) kh(t, x(.))k∞ ≤ 2(1+α) (1 − k) − kqk, t ∈ J, x ∈ C(J), and kxk ≤ 1 + α.

Theorem 7.3.1 Under the assumptions (R12 )–(R17 ), the functional integral

system (7.35) has, at least, one solution in C(J).

Two-Dimensional Boundary Value Problems 299

(Ax)(t) = a(t)x(t)

(Bx)(t) = x(t)

1

(Cx)(t) = − f (t, x(θ(t)))

1 + |x(θ(t))|

(Dx)(t) = g (t, x(t))

Z σ(t)

′

(B x)(t) = q(t) + h(t, x(η(s)))ds.

0

x(t) = Ax(t) + By(t).B ′ y(t)

y(t) = Cx(t) + Dy(t).

4.3.3. For this purpose, let us define the subsets S and S ′ of C(J) by:

the Banach algebra C(J).

First, let us begin by showing that C is Lipschitzian with the constant 1 + α

on S. To see this, let x, y ∈ S. So,

1 1

∆(t) = − f (t, x(θ(t))) − − f (t, y(θ(t)))

1 + |x(θ(t))| 1 + |y(θ(t))|

|x(θ(t))| − |y(θ(t))|

≤ + |f (t, y(θ(t))) − f (t, x(θ(t)))|

(1 + |x(θ(t))|)(1 + |y(θ(t))|)

≤ (1 + α)kx − yk,

where

∆(t) := kCx(t) − Cy(t)k.

Accordingly, we have

Clearly, A, B are Lipschitzian with the constants kak∞ and 1, respectively, and

the operator D satisfies the contraction condition with a constant k. We claim

300 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

that C(S) is a relatively compact subset in C(J). Let {yn } be any sequence

of C(S). Then, there exists {xn } of S such that yn = C(xn ). By taking into

account the hypothesis (R13 ), we obtain

1

− f t, xn (θ(t)) ≤ 2

|yn (t)| =

1 + xn (θ(t))

which shows that {yn (t)} has a subsequence {ynk (t)} that converges to y(t).

Consequently, C(S) is a sequentially relatively compact subset in C(J). By

applying Eberlein–Šmulian’s theorem (see Theorem 1.3.3), we infer that C(S)

is relatively compact. Next, let us show that C(S) ⊂ (I − D)(S ′ ). To do it,

let x ∈ S be a fixed point. Let us define the mapping

ϕx : C(J) −→ C(J)

y −→ Cx + Dy.

From the hypothesis (R13 )(a), we deduce that the operator ϕx is a contraction

with a constant k. Hence, by applying Banach’s theorem, we show that there

exists a unique point y ∈ C(J) such that Cx + Dy = y. Therefore,

C(S) ⊂ (I − D)(C(J)).

1

kyk∞ = |y(t∗ )| = |Cx(t∗ ) + Dy(t∗ )| ≤ + 1 + (1 − k)|y(t∗ )|

1 + |x(θ(t∗ ))|

≤ 2 + (1 − k)|y(t∗ )|,

if x ∈ S ′ , then B ′ x ∈ S ′ . To see this, let {tn } be any sequence in J converging

to a point t ∈ J and denote ∆n (t) = |B ′ x(tn ) − B ′ x(t)|. Then,

Two-Dimensional Boundary Value Problems 301

Z σ(tn ) Z σ(t)

∆n (t) = q(tn ) + h(tn , x(η(s)))ds − q(t) − h(t, x(η(s)))ds

0 0

Z Z

σ(tn ) σ(t)

≤ |q(tn ) − q(t)| + h(tn , x(η(s)))ds − h(t, x(η(s)))ds

0 0

Z

σ(tn )

h(tn , x(η(s))) − h(t, x(η(s)))ds

≤ |q(tn ) − q(t)| +

0

Z

σ(tn )

+ h t, x(η(s)) ds

σ(t)

Z 1

≤ |q(tn ) − q(t)| + |h(tn , x(η(s))) − h(t, x(η(s)))| ds

0

account the assumption (R17 ), we get

ϕ : J −→ R

s −→ ϕ(s) = 2(1 − kqk∞ ).

as well as the assumption (R15 ), we obtain

B ′ xn (t) → B ′ x(t).

kB ′ xk = |B ′ x(t∗ )| ≤ 1.

The use of both hypothesis (R15 ) and the dominated convergence theorem

302 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

shows that the operator B ′ is continuous. Now, from the hypothesis (R17 )(b),

it follows that

M = kT ′ (S)k = supkT ′ xk

x∈S

n Z σ(t) o

≤ sup sup q(t) + h(t, x(η(s)))ds ; x ∈ S

t∈J 0

n Z σ(t) o

≤ sup sup|q(t)| + sup h(t, x(η(s)))ds; x ∈ S

t∈J t∈J t∈J 0

n Z σ(t) o

≤ sup sup|q(t)| + sup suph(t, x(η(s)))ds; x ∈ S

t∈J t∈J t∈J 0 t∈J

n Z t o

≤ sup sup|q(t)| + sup suph(t, x(η(s)))ds; x ∈ S

t∈J t∈J t∈J 0 s∈J

(1 − kak∞ )(1 − k)

< .

2(1 + α)

Therefore,

1

M + kak∞ < 1.

1−k

Then, for all t ∈ J, we have

1+k (1−kak∞ )(1−k)

≤ 2 + (1 + α) 2(1+α)

1+k 1+k

≤ 2 + 2

≤ 1 + k,

z1 = (I − D)−1 Cz.

requirements of Theorem 4.3.3, and the proof is achieved. Q.E.D.

Two-Dimensional Boundary Value Problems 303

Condition (P)

In this section, we illustrate the applicability of Theorem 4.3.7 and Theorem

4.4.1 by considering the following examples of nonlinear functional integral

equations.

us consider the following system of nonlinear integral equations occurring in

some biological problems, and also in ones dealing with physics:

" Z ! #

σ1 (t)

x(t) = f (t, x(t)) + [a(t)y(t)] ·

k(t, s)f1 (s, y(η(s)))ds u

0

" Z σ2 (t) ! #

y(t) =

q(t) + p (t, s, x(s), x(λs)) ds v + g(t, y(t)),

0

(7.36)

where u ∈ X\{0} and v ∈ X\{0}. We will seek the solutions of the system

(7.36) in the space C(J, X) of all continuous functions on J = [0, T ], 0 < T <

∞ endowed with the norm k.k∞ . Let us assume that the functions involved

in Eq. (7.36) satisfy the following assumptions:

(R18 ) The functions a and k are such that:

(R20 ) q : J −→ R is continuous.

such that, for an arbitrary fixed s ∈ J and x, y ∈ X, the partial

function t −→ p(t, s, x, y) is continuous.

and

(b) f is a contraction map with a constant k ′ with respect to the second

304 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

variable.

and

(a) g is continuous,

(b) g is weakly sequentially continuous with respect to the second variable,

Theorem 7.4.1 Suppose that the assumptions (R18 )–(R24 ) hold. Moreover,

if there exists a real number r0 > 0 such that:

|p (t, s, x(s), x(λs))| ≤ r0 , for x ∈ C(J, X) with kxk∞ ≤ r0 and t, s ∈ J,

kf (t, x(t))k ≤ k ′ kx(t)k, for t ∈ J and x ∈ C(J, X) with kxk∞ ≤ r0 ,

kg(., x(.))k ≤ λkxk , for x ∈ C(J, X) such that kxk ≤ r ,

∞ ∞ 0

(1 − k ′ )r0

kak ∞ ≤ , with u ∈ X\{0},

δ 2 KT λkuk∞

where K = sup k(t, s), λδ = (kqk∞ + T r0 ) kvk∞ + r0 , and v ∈ X\{0}.

t,s∈J

(7.37)

Then the nonlinear system (7.36) has, at least, one solution in C(J, X) ×

C(J, X).

Proof. Let Br0 be the closed ball in C(J, X) centered at the origin and of

radius r0 , and consider the nonlinear mapping A, B, C, D, and B ′ on C(J, X)

defined by:

Two-Dimensional Boundary Value Problems 305

(Ax)(t) = f (t, x(t)), t ∈ J,

(Bx)(t) = a(t)x(t), t ∈ J,

Z σ1 (t) !

(B ′ x)(t) = k(t, s)f1 (s, x(η(s)))ds · u; t ∈ J and u ∈ X\{0},

0

Z σ2 (t) !

(Cx)(t) = q(t) + p (t, s, x(s), x(λs)) ds · v,

0

where t ∈ J, 0 < λ < 1, v ∈ X\{0}, and

(Dx)(t) = g (t, x(t)) , t ∈ J.

(7.38)

In order to apply Theorem 4.3.7, we have to verify the following steps.

Step 1: We first show that the entries of the block operator matrix (4.6) are

all well-defined operators. Obviously, the maps Ax(.), By(.) and Dy(.) are

continuous on J in view of the assumptions (R18 ), (R22 )(c), and (R24 )(c),

for all (x, y) ∈ Br0 × C(J, X). Moreover, we claim that the two maps Cx(.)

and B ′ y(.) are continuous on J for all (x, y) ∈ Br0 × (I − D)−1 C(Br0 ). We

begin by showing that the set (I − D)−1 C(Br0 ) is bounded. Indeed, from

hypothesis (R24 )(c) and Theorem 1.6.10, it follows that (I − D)−1 exists and

is continuous on (I − D)(C(J, X)). Let y ∈ C(J, X) with y = (I − D)−1 Cx,

for some x ∈ Br0 . Then, for all t ∈ J, we have

Z σ2 (t) !

y(t) = q(t) + p (t, s, x(s), x(λs)) ds · v + g (t, y(t)) .

0

∗

kyk∞ = ky(t

)k

Z σ2 (t∗ )

∗ ∗

≤ q(t ) + p (t , s, x(s), x(λs)) ds kvk

0

306 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

Consequently,

kyk∞ < δ,

where

1

[(kqk∞ + T r0 ) kvk + r0 ] .

δ=

λ

Hence, (I − D)−1 C(Br0 ) is bounded with a bound δ. Now, let {tn } be any

sequence in J converging to a point t in J. We denote

Then,

Z Z σ1 (t)

σ1 (tn )

∆n ≤ k(tn , s)f1 (s, y(η(s)))ds − k(t, s)f1 (s, y(η(s)))ds kuk

0 0

"Z #

σ1 (tn )

≤ |k(tn , s) − k(t, s)| |f1 (s, y(η(s)))| ds kuk

0

Z

σ1 (t)

+ k(t, s)f1 (s, y(η(s)))ds kuk.

σ1 (tn )

bound δ and by using the assumption (R23 )(b), we get

"Z # Z

T σ1 (t)

∆n ≤ |k(tn , s) − k(t, s)| λδds kuk + Kλδds kuk

0 σ1 (tn )

"Z #

T

≤ |k(tn , s) − k(t, s)| λδds kuk + Kλδ |σ1 (tn ) − σ1 (t)| kuk.

0

The continuity of k and σ1 on the compact interval [0, T ] implies that B ′ y(.)

is continuous. Similarly, the use of the first inequality in (7.37) as well as the

dominated convergence theorem implies that the operator C is well defined.

Step 2: Let us prove that the entries of the block operator matrix (4.6) are

weakly sequentially continuous. In order to apply Theorem 4.3.7, we need to

show that B and B ′ are weakly sequentially continuous on (I − D)−1 C(Br0 )

and that A and C are weakly sequentially continuous on Br0 . Let {xn }∞ n=0

be a weakly convergent sequence of (I − D)−1 C(Br0 ) to a point x. Since

Two-Dimensional Boundary Value Problems 307

Theorem 1.4.1) in order to get

xn (t) ⇀ x(t) in X.

i.e.,

(Bxn )(t) ⇀ (Bx)(t) in X.

Since {Bxn }∞n=0 is bounded with a bound kak∞ δ, then we can again apply

Dobrakov’s theorem to obtain Bxn ⇀ Bx. Consequently, B is weakly se-

quentially continuous. Now, the use of assumption (R23 )(a) and Dobrakov’s

theorem, (see Theorem 1.4.1) allows us to get

Z σ1 (t) Z σ1 (t)

lim k(t, s)f1 (s, xn (η(s)))ds = k(t, s)f1 (s, x(η(s)))ds.

n→∞ 0 0

So,

Z ! Z !

σ1 (t) σ1 (t)

k(t, s)f1 (s, xn (η(s)))ds ·u→ k(t, s)f1 (s, x(η(s)))ds · u.

0 0

continuous on (I − D)−1 C(Br0 ). Moreover, since g is weakly sequentially con-

tinuous with respect to the second variable and since g(., xn (.)) is bounded

with a bound λkxn k∞ , it follows that the operator D already defined in Eq.

(7.38) is also weakly sequentially continuous in view of hypothesis (R22 )(a).

Besides, by taking into account that Br0 is bounded and using Dobrakov’s

theorem, (see Theorem 1.4.1) we deduce that A is a weakly sequentially con-

tinuous operator on Br0 . Next, let us show that C is weakly sequentially

continuous on Br0 . To do it, let {xn }∞

n=0 be any sequence in Br0 weakly con-

verging to a point x ∈ Br0 . Then, by using Dobrakov’s theorem (see Theorem

1.4.1), we get for all t ∈ J, xn (t) ⇀ x(t). Then,

308 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

Knowing that

p(t, s, xn (s), xn (λs)) ≤ r0 ,

it follows, from the dominated convergence theorem, that (Cxn )(t) ⇀ (Cx)(t).

Since the sequence {Cxn } is bounded with a bound kqk∞ + T r0 , we can again

apply Dobrakov’s theorem to deduce that C is weakly sequentially continuous

on Br0 .

Step 3: Next, let us show that C is weakly compact and that A is condens-

ing on Br0 . We should prove that C(Br0 ) is relatively weakly compact. By

definition, we have

let {xn } be any sequence in Br0 . Then, we have (Cxn )(t) = rn (t) · v, where

Z σ2 (t)

rn (t) = q(t) + p (t, s, xn (s), xn (λs)) ds.

0

So, by using the first inequality in (7.37), |rn (t)| ≤ kqk∞ + T r0 , which shows

that {rn } is a uniformly bounded sequence in C(J, R). Next, we show that

{rn } is an equicontinuous set. Let t1 , t2 ∈ J. Then, we have

Z

σ2 (t2 )

|rn (t1 ) − rn (t2 )| ≤ |q(t1 ) − q(t2 )| + |p (t2 , s, x(s), x(λs))| ds

σ2 (t1 )

Z

σ2 (t1 )

+ |p (t1 , s, x(s), x(λs)) − p (t2 , s, x(s), x(λs))| ds

0

Z

T

≤ |p (t1 , s, x(s), x(λs)) − p (t2 , s, x(s), x(λs))| ds

0

an equicontinuous set. As a result, C(Br0 )(t) is sequentially relatively weakly

compact. Next, we will show that C(Br0 ) is a weakly equicontinuous set. If

we take ε > 0, x ∈ Br0 , x∗ ∈ X ∗ and t, t′ ∈ J such that t ≤ t′ , t′ − t ≤ ε,

Two-Dimensional Boundary Value Problems 309

"Z #

σ2 (t)

′ ′

G(t, t ) ≤ |p (t, s, x(s), x(λs)) − p (t , s, x(s), x(λs))| ds kx∗ (v)k

0

"Z #

σ2 (t′ )

′

+ |q(t) − q(t′ )|kx∗ (v)k + |p (t , s, x(s), x(λs))| ds kx∗ (v)k

σ2 (t)

where

G(t, t′ ) := |x∗ ((Cx)(t) − (Cx)(t′ ))| ,

w(q, ε) = sup {|q(t) − q(t′ )| : t, t′ ∈ J ; |t − t′ | ≤ ε} ,

w(p, ε) = sup {|p(t, s, x, y) − p(t′ , s, x, y)| : |t − t′ | ≤ ε} , and

t,t′ , s∈J, x,y∈S

w(σ , ε) = sup {|σ (t) − σ (t′ )| : t, t′ ∈ J ; |t − t′ | ≤ ε} .

2 2 2

By taking into account the assumption (R21 ), and in view of the uniform

continuity of the functions q and σ on the set J, it follows that w(q, ε) →

0, w(p, ε) → 0 and w(σ2 , ε) → 0 as ε → 0. By applying Arzelà–Ascoli’s

theorem (see Theorem 1.3.9), we conclude that C(Br0 ) is sequentially weakly

relatively compact in X. Again, an application of Eberlein–Šmulian’s theorem

(see Theorem 1.3.3) implies that C(Br0 ) is relatively weakly compact. As a

result, C is weakly compact. Now, the use of the assumption (R22 ) and Lemma

3.1.3 allows us to deduce that the operator A is condensing.

ky(t)k ≤ k(Ax)(t)k + B(I − D)−1 Cx(t) · B ′ (I − D)−1 Cx(t) .

310 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

We should notice that, for all x ∈ (I − D)−1 C(Br0 ), there exists a unique

z ∈ C(J, X) such that z = x, with kzk ≤ δ. Therefore,

Z !

σ1 (t)

ky(t)k ≤ kf (t, x(t))k + ka(t)z(t)k
k(t, s)f1 (s, z(η(s)))ds · u

0

Z !

T

′

≤ k kx(t)k + ka(t)kkz(t)k |k(t, s)λ|kz(η(s))kds kuk∞

0

where

K = sup |k(t, s)|.

t,s∈J

Since y ∈ C(J, X), there is t∗ ∈ J such that kyk∞ = ky(t∗ )k and so, kyk∞ ≤ r0

in view of the last inequality in (7.37). Hence, the hypothesis (iii) of Theorem

4.3.7 is satisfied, which achieves the proof. Q.E.D.

C(J, R) be the Banach algebra of all continuous functions from J to R endowed

with the sup-norm k · k∞ defined by kf k∞ = sup|f (t)|, for each f ∈ C(J, R).

t∈J

In the sequel, we need the following definition that can be found in [72].

Carathéodory condition or simply is called L1 -Carathéodory, if

(c) for each real number r > 0, there exists a function hr ∈ L1 (J, R), such

that

|f (t, x)| ≤ hr (t) ; t ∈ J

Z σ1 (t) "Z #

σ2 (t)

x(t) = k1 (t, s)f1 (s, x(η1 (s)))ds + y(t) · k2 (t, s)f2 (s, y(η2 (s)))ds

0 0

1 1

y(t) = − g(t, ) + g(t, y(t))

1 + b(t)|x(t)| 1 + b(t)|x(t)|

(7.39)

Two-Dimensional Boundary Value Problems 311

x = x(t) and y = y(t) are unknown functions.

(R26 ) The function b : J −→ R is continuous and nonnegative.

i = 1, 2.

(R28 ) The function f1 : J × R −→ R is generalized Lipschitz with a Lipschitz

function l1 .

Lipschitz with a Lipschitz function l2 .

x ∈ C(J, R).

(a) |f1 (t, x(t))| ≤ |x(t)|, for x ∈ C(J, R) such that kxk∞ ≤ r.

t,s∈J

sup k2 (t, s).

t,s∈J

kbk∞ (1 + k)

(c) K2 khr kL1 + K1 kl1 kL1 < k.

1−k

rK2 kl2 kL1

(d) 0 ≤ < 1.

(1 − k)2

Theorem 7.4.2 Under the assumptions (R25 )–(R31 ), the FIE (7.39) has, at

least, one solution in C(J, R) × C(J, R).

312 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

Z σ1 (t)

(Ax)(t) = k1 (t, s)f1 (s, x(η1 (s)))ds ; t ∈ J

0

(Bx)(t) = x(t) ; t ∈ J

1 1

(Cx)(t) = − g(t, ); t∈J (7.40)

1 + b(t)|x(t)| 1 + b(t)|x(t)|

(Dx)(t) = g (t, x(t)) ; t ∈ J

Z σ2 (t)

(B ′ x)(t) = k2 (t, s)f2 (s, x(η2 (s)))ds ; t ∈ J.

0

Since the two maps f2 and k2 are continuous and since f2 is L1 -Carathéodory,

we deduce from the dominated convergence theorem, that B ′ is continuous on

S. Moreover, it is easy to verify that, by composition, the operators A, B, C,

D, and B ′ defined in Eqs. (7.40) are well defined. Now, let us show that A is

Lipschitzian on S. For this purpose, let x, y ∈ S. So,

Z σ1 (t)

kAx − Ayk ≤ sup k1 (t, s) |f1 (s, x(η1 (s))) − f1 (s, y(η1 (s)))| ds

t∈J 0

Z σ1 (t)

≤ sup K1 l1 (s) |x(η1 (s)) − y(η1 (s))| ds

t∈J 0

Z 1

≤ K1 kx − yk l1 (s)ds.

0

This shows that A is Lipschitzian with the constant K1 kl1 kL1 . By using

the same argument, we conclude that B ′ is Lipschitzian with the constant

K2 kl2 kL1 . Again from assumption (R30 )(a), we deduce that the operator

C is Lipschitzian with the constant (1 + k)kbk∞ . Next, we will show that

C(S) ⊂ (I − D)(S). Let x ∈ S and t ∈ J. Then, it is easy to justify that

1

(Cx)(t) = (I − D) (t).

1 + b|x|

C(S) ⊂ (I − D)(S) and, from our assumptions, we have (I − D)−1 exists on

C(S) and (I − D)−1 C is Lipschitzian on S, with the constant 1+k

1−k kbk∞ . Next,

let us prove that C is a strongly continuous mapping on S. To do it, let

Two-Dimensional Boundary Value Problems 313

{xn }∞

n=0 be any sequence in S weakly converging to a point x. Then, x ∈ S

since S is weakly closed in C(J, R), and by using Dobrakov’s theorem (see

Theorem 1.4.1), we have for all t ∈ J

xn (t) ⇀ x(t) in R.

Since C is Lipschitzian, then Cxn (t) → Cx(t) and consequently, Cxn → Cx.

This shows that C is a strongly continuous operator on S. Clearly, B(I −

1

D)−1 C is regular on S ⊇ B ′ (I − D)−1 C(S), since (I − D)−1 Cx = ,

1 + b|x|

−1

for all x ∈ S. Therefore, TI exists on B ′ (S). To see it, let y ∈ S be

arbitrary, with

I

(x) = y, for some x ∈ S,

B(I − D)−1 C

|x(t)||(1 + b(t)|x(t)|) = |y(t)|.

For each t ∈ J such that b(t) = 0, we have x = y. Then, for each t ∈ J such

that b(t) > 0, we obtain

!2

p 1 1

b(t)|x(t)| + p = + |y(t)|

2 b(t) 4b(t)

s

p −1 1

b(t)|x(t)| = p + + |y(t)|.

2 b(t) 4b(t)

Hence, r

−1 1

b(t)|x(t)| = + + b(t)|y(t)|

2 4

and consequently,

y(t) y(t)

x(t) = = r .

1 + b(t)|x(t)| 1 1

+ + b(t)|y(t)|

2 4

314 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

F : C(J, R) −→ C(J, R)

x

x −→ G(x) = r .

1 1

+ + b|x|

2 4

It is easy to verify that, we have for all x ∈ C(J, R)

I I

◦ G (x) = G ◦ (x) = x.

T T

I x

x= r .

T 1 1

+ + b|x|

2 4

Moreover, by taking into account that K1 kl1 kL1 < 1 and A(S) ⊂ S, and by

using the fixed point theorem of Boyd and Wong (see Theorem 1.6.10), we

deduce that (I − A)−1 exists on (I − A)(S). Consequently, by referring to B.

C. Dhage in [73], we have

−1 −1

I −A I

= (I − A)−1 .

T T

−1

I −A

So, the operator exists on B ′ (S). Again, by using assumption

T

(R29 ),

M1 = sup kB ′ (I − D)−1 Cxk

x∈S

≤ sup kB ′ xk

x∈S ( Z )

σ2 (t)

≤ sup sup k2 (t, s)f2 (s, x(η2 (s)))ds

x∈S t∈J 0

≤ K2 khr kL1 .

Consequently, in view of assumption (R31 ), we have

(1 + k)kbk∞

M1 + K1 kl1 kL1 < k.

1−k

Now, since

M2 = sup kB(I − D)−1 Cxk ≤ sup kBxk ≤ r,

x∈S x∈S

then we have

M2 K2 kl2 kL1

0≤ < 1.

(1 − k)2

Two-Dimensional Boundary Value Problems 315

x = Ax + T x · T ′ y, for some y ∈ S.

Z σ1 (t)

≤ |k1 (t, s)f1 (s, x(η1 (s)))| ds

0

Z

1 σ2 (t) 1

+ k2 (t, s)f2 s, ds

1 + b(t)|x(t)| 0 1 + b(η2 (s))|x(η2 (s))|

Z σ1 (t)

≤ k1 (t, s) |f1 (s, x(η1 (s)))| ds

0

Z 1

1 1

+ k2 (t, s) f2 s, ds

1 + b(t)|x(t)| 0 1 + b(η2 (s))|x(η2 (s))|

Z 1 Z 1

≤ K1 |x(η1 (s))| ds + K2 hr (s)ds

0 0

≤ r.

The proof is complete. Q.E.D.

and by giving the suitable assumptions, Ntouyas et al. in [76] obtained some

results on the existence of solutions to the following nonlinear functional in-

tegral equation:

Z σ(t)

x(t) = K(t, x(t)) + v(t, s)g(s, x(θ(s)))ds.

0

316 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

In this section, we will study the existence of solutions for the following coupled

system: Z

x(t) = h(x(t)) + f1 (t, y(t)) g(t, s, y(s))ds

I (7.41)

y(t) = f (t, x(t)) + g (t, y(t)),

2 2

the space of all bounded, continuous, and real valued functions ϕ defined

on I such that I is a real, closed, and unbounded interval. Let us mention

that the space X := Cb (I), equipped with the standard supremum norm,

kϕk = supt∈I |ϕ(t)|, is a Banach algebra.

Before studying Eq. (7.41), we show that a non-compact map of the form

F x = Hx + Lx.Kx

measure of noncompactness µ.

F : S −→ X is of the form F x = Hx + Lx.Kx, where

Suppose that β = supx∈S kKxk < ∞. If φH (r) + βφL (r) < r for all r > 0,

then F is a strict-set-contraction.

supx∈C kLxk. We may assume that α > 0, β > 0 and δ > 0. Since K(C)

is relatively compact, there exist finitely many sets D1 ,D2 ,...,Dm in B such

that diam Di < (δ)−1 ε, i = 1, 2, ..., m, and K(C) = ∪m i=1 Di . Let us choose

the sets C1 , C2 , ..., Cn such that diam Ci ≤ µ(C) and C = ∪ni=1 Ci , and then

let us define the sets Si,j , i = 1, ..., n, j = 1, ..., m, by:

Two-Dimensional Boundary Value Problems 317

Obviously, [

F (C) ⊂ Si,j .

i,j

that w = Ha + Lu.x, and z = Hb + Lv.y. Therefore,

≤ µ(C) + ε.

Proposition 7.5.1 Let S be a subset of a Banach algebra (X, k.kX ), and let

H, K, and L be three maps from S into X. Assume that:

(i) H maps bounded sets into bounded ones and there exists a constant λ such

that µ(H(C)) ≤ λµ(C) for every bounded set C ∈ S,

(ii) L maps bounded sets into bounded ones and there exists a constant α such

that µ(L(C)) ≤ αµ(C) for every bounded set C ∈ S,

(iii) K is a compact operator, and

strict-set-contraction.

Now, the following theorem shows that, under some conditions, an operator

of the form F := A + T.T ′ may have a fixed point.

318 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

algebra X, let S ′ be a closed, bounded, and convex subset of a Banach algebra

Y , and let A : S −→ X , B, B ′ : S ′ −→ X, C : S −→ Y , and D : S ′ −→ S ′

be five operators such that:

(ii) C is compact and B ′ is continuous,

(iii) D is a k-contraction,

B ′ (I − D)−1 C.

λ

α + β 1−k δ < 1, where δ = supx∈S kT ′ (S)k.

respectively, and C(S) ⊂ (I − D)(S ′ ), then the operator T = B(I − D)−1 C

λ

exists and is Lipschitzian with the constant β 1−k . Also, the operator T ′ =

′ −1

B (I − D) C exists and is compact. Indeed, let Ω be a bounded subset

of X and αn ∈ T ′ (Ω) := B ′ (I − D)−1 C(Ω). Then, there exists a sequence

(ψn )n ∈ C(Ω) such that αn = B ′ (I−D)−1 ψn for all n ∈ N. Due to the fact that

C is compact, we deduce that C(Ω) is relatively compact and hence, (ψn )n has

a convergent subsequence (ψϕn )n −→ ψ. Therefore, αϕn := B ′ (I − D)−1 ψϕn

is convergent, since B ′ (I − D)−1 is continuous. So, Theorem 7.5.1 establishes

that F is a strict-set-contraction. Hence, by applying Darbo’s theorem, we

deduce that F has, at least, a fixed point. Q.E.D.

is pointwise equicontinuous in I, and

n o

lim sup sup{|ϕ(t)|; t ∈ I, |t| ≥ a} = 0.

a→+∞ ϕ∈C

For the following, let us define the subsets S and S ′ on Cb (I) by:

S := {x ∈ Cb (I), kxk ≤ r}

Two-Dimensional Boundary Value Problems 319

S ′ := y ∈ Cb (I), kyk ≤ p := .

1−k

Now, let us specify the assumptions under which the equations of (7.41) will

be investigated. These assumptions are as follows:

(R32 ) h : R −→ R is α-Lipschitzian, i.e., khx − hyk ≤ αkx − yk for all x,

y ∈ S, and t −→ h(0)(t) is bounded on I.

(R33 ) f1 : I × R −→ R satisfies :

[(1 − α)r − kh(0)k]ηθ

(c) kf1 (., 0)k > − ηp.

(1 − α)(1 − k)

(R34 ) f2 : I × R −→ R satisfies:

(a) f2 is θ-Lipschitzian with respect to the second variable, i.e.,

(d) lima−→∞ supf2 (.,x)∈f2 (.,S) {sup{|f2 (t, x)|; t ∈ I, |t| ≥ a}} = 0.

(R35 ) g2 : I × R −→ R satisfies :

and the function x −→ g(t, s, x) is continuous for almost all s ∈ I,

(ii) for every r > 0 and for all t ∈ I, the function s −→ sup|x|≤r |g(t, s, x)|

320 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

belongs to L1 (I),

R

(iii) for every r > 0, limt∈I,|t|→+∞sup|x|≤r |g(t, s, x)|ds = 0, and

I

R

(iv) for every r > 0 and for every τ ∈ I, limt→τ I sup|x|≤r |g(t, s, x) −

g(τ, s, x)|ds = 0.

R (1 − α)r − kh(0)k

(R37 ) k I g(t, s, x(s)dsk ≤ .

ηp + kf1 (., 0)k

Now, we can prove the following theorem:

Theorem 7.5.3 Under the assumptions (R32 )–(R37 ), the problem (7.41)

ηθ (1−α)r−kh(0)k

has, at least, one solution in Cb (I) whenever α + 1−k ηp+kf1 (.,0)k < 1.

Ax(t) = h(x(t))

By(t) = f1 (t, y(t))

R

B ′ y(t) = I g(t, s, y(s))ds

Cx(t) = f2 (t, x(t))

Dy(t) = g2 (t, y(t)).

Observe that the problem (7.41) can be written in the following form:

x(t) = Ax(t) + By(t).B ′ y(t)

y(t) = Cx(t) + Dy(t).

of Theorem 7.5.2. Obviously, S and S ′ are nonempty, closed, bounded, and

convex subsets of Cb (I).

(i) It is clear that the operator A maps Cb (I) into itself and is α-Lipschitzian in

view of assumption (R32 ). Let us consider the superposition operators B, C,

and D. The hypotheses on the functions f1 , f2 , and g2 ensure that operators

B, C, and D map Cb (I) into itself and that B and C are Lipschitzian with

constants η, and θ, respectively.

(ii) Now, let us show that the set C(S) is relatively compact. Knowing that

C(S) := {Cx : x ∈ S}, this subset is nothing else than

Two-Dimensional Boundary Value Problems 321

First, let us show that C(S) is bounded. For this purpose, let x ∈ S. Then,

t∈I

≤ sup kf2 (t, x(t)) − f2 (t, 0)k + sup kf2 (t, 0)k

t∈I t∈I

t∈I

equicontinuous set. By taking into account the hypothesis (R33 ), the result is

obtained by a simple application of Proposition 7.5.2. Due to [127, Lemma 1]

and by using the hypothesis on the function g, the operator B ′ maps Cb (I)

into itself and is continuous.

contraction.

(iv) Next, let us show that C(S) ⊂ (I − D)(S ′ ). To do so, let x ∈ S be fixed

and let us define a mapping

ϕx : Cb (I) −→ Cb (I)

y −→ Cx + Dy.

we deduce that there exists a unique fixed point y ∈ Cb (I) such that Cx+Dy =

y, which means that C(S) ⊂ (I − D)(Cb (I)). Clearly, we have

kyk = kCx + Dyk ≤ θr + kf2 (., 0)k + kkyk + kg2 (., 0)k,

which leads to

θr + kf2 (., 0)k + kg2 (., 0)k

kyk ≤

1−k

≤ p.

(v) In order to achieve the proof, it is sufficient to verify that Ax+ T x.T ′x ∈ S

322 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

(1 − α)r − kh(0)k

≤ αr + kh(0)k + (ηp + kf1 (., 0)k).

ηp + kf1 (., 0)k

≤ r,

the proof since all the hypotheses of Theorem 7.5.2 are fulfilled. Q.E.D.

The results of this section can be found in [102].

Given a closed and bounded interval J = [0, a] in R for some a ∈ R∗+ , let us

consider the system describing the initial value problem (in short IVP).

′

x(t) − k(t, x(t))

∈ G(t, y(t))

f (t, y(t))

1 1 (7.42)

y(t) = 1 + b(t)|x(θ(t))| − p t, 1 + b(t)|x(θ(t))| + p(t, y(t))

(x(0), y(0)) = (x0 , y0 ) ∈ R2 ,

given, whereas x = x(t), and y = y(t) are unknown functions that satisfy:

x(t) − k(t, x(t))

(i) The function t −→ is differentiable, and

f (t, y(t))

′

x(t) − k(t, x(t))

(ii) = v(t), t ∈ J for some v ∈ L1 (J, R) such that

f (t, y(t))

v(t) ∈ G(t, x(t)), a. e. t ∈ J satisfying (x(0), y(0)) = (x0 , y0 ).

Two-Dimensional Boundary Value Problems 323

We will seek the solution of IVP (7.42) in the space C(J, R) of continuous and

real-valued functions on J. Consider the norm k.k and the multiplication “ · ”

in the Banach algebra C(J, R) of continuous functions on J by kxk = sup|x(t)|

t∈J

and

(x · y)(t) = x(t) · y(t) ; t ∈ J

for all x, y ∈ C(J, R).

Definition 7.6.1 A multi-valued map Q : J −→ Pcp (R) is said to be measur-

able if, for any y ∈ X, the function t −→ d(y, Q(t)) = inf{|y − x| ; x ∈ Q(t)}

is measurable.

Carathéodory, if

(iii) for each real number r > 0, there exists a function hr ∈ L1 (J, R) such

that

kQ(t, x)kP ≤ hr (t) a.e t ∈ J

for all x ∈ R, with |x| ≤ r.

Moreover, a Carathéodory multi-valued function Q is called L1R -Carathéodory,

if

1

SQ (x) = {v ∈ L1 (J, R) ; v(t) ∈ Q(t, x(t)) for all t ∈ J}

for some x ∈ C(J, R). The integral of the multi-valued function Q is defined

as Z t Z t

1

Q(s, x(s))ds = v(s)ds ; v ∈ SQ (x) .

0 0

The following lemmas can be found in [120].

324 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

Pcp (X) is L1 -Carathéodory, then SQ

1

6 ∅ for each x ∈ X.

(x) =

1

erator with SQ 6 ∅ and let L : L1 (J, X) −→ C(J, X) be a linear continuous

(x) =

mapping. Then, the operator

1

L ◦ SQ : C(J, X) −→ Pcp, cv (C(J, X))

continuous if, and only if, it has a closed graph.

a bounded function l1 : J −→ R with a bound kl1 k ≤ 41 satisfying:

there is a bounded function l2 : J −→ R with a bound kl2 k satisfying:

with growth function h.

(a) The function x −→ p(t, x) is a q-contraction,

(b) The function t −→ p(t, x) is continuous on J, for all x ∈ C(J, R), and

Two-Dimensional Boundary Value Problems 325

x0 − k(0, x0 )

4kbk∞ kl2 k f (0, y0 ) + khkL1 ≤ 1

x0 − k(0, x0 )

1 − 4kl kkbk + khk

∞ 1

f (0, y0 )

2 L

√ √

1− 2 1−P ≤q <

x0 − k(0, x0 )

1 + 4kl2 k + khkL1

f (0, y0 )

n o 1

max kl 1 k ; kl 2 k M (x0 , y 0 ) + khk L 1 ; K + F (M (x 0 , y 0 ) + khk L 1 ≤

4

(7.43)

x0 − k(0, x0 ) 1

where M (x0 , y0 ) := , < P = sup{|p(t, 0)| ; t ∈ J} < 1, K =

f (0, y0 ) 2

sup{|k(t, 0)|}, and F = sup{|f (t, 0)|}. Then, the system (7.42) has a solution.

t∈J t∈J

• Ax(t) = k(t, x(t)), Bx(t) = f (t, x(t)), and Dx(t) = p(t, x(t))

1 1

• Cx(t) = − p t, , and

1 + b(t)|x(θ(t))| 1 + b(t)|x(θ(t))|

Z t

x0 − k(0, x0 ) 1

• B′x = u ∈ X such that u(t) = + v(s)ds ; v ∈ SG (x) .

f (0, y0 ) 0

For all t ∈ J, the problem IVP (7.42) may be abstractly written in the form

′

x(t) ∈ Ax(t) + By(t) · B y(t)

y(t) = Cx(t) + Dy(t)

4.5.8. Let us define the subsets S and S ′ on C(J, R) by:

It is obvious that S and S ′ are nonempty, bounded, convex, and closed subsets

of C(J, R), and similarly it is clear that the operator B ′ is well defined since

1

SG 6 ∅, for each x ∈ C(J, R).

(x) =

326 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

valued operators A, B, C, D : C(J, R) −→ C(J, R) and B ′ : C(J, R) −→

Pcp, cv (C(J, R)). The claim regarding A, B, C, and D is clear, since the func-

tions f and k are continuous on J × R. We only have to prove the claim for

the multi-valued operator B ′ on C(J, R). First, we show that B ′ has compact

values on C(J, R). Notice that the operator B ′ is equivalent to the composi-

tion L ◦ K of two operators on L1 (J, R), where K : L1 (J, R) −→ C(J, R) is the

continuous operator defined by:

Z t

x0 − k(0, x0 )

Kv(t) = + v(s)ds.

f (0, y0 ) 0

that the composition operator L ◦ K has compact values on C(J, R). Let x ∈

1

C(J, R) be arbitrary and let {vn } be a sequence in SG (x). Then, by using the

1

definition of SG (x), we get vn (t) ∈ G(t, x(t)) a.e. for t ∈ J. Since G(t, x(t)) is

compact, then there is a convergent subsequence of vn (t) (for simplicity, call

it vn (t) itself) that converges in measure to some v(t) ∈ G(t, x(t)) for t ∈ J.

From the continuity of L, it follows that Kvn (t) → Kv(t) pointwise on J as

n → ∞. We need to show that {Kvn } is an equicontinuous sequence in order

to demonstrate the uniform convergence. Let t1 , t2 ∈ J. Then, we have

Z t2

|Kvn (t1 ) − Kvn (t2 )| ≤ |v(s)| ds. (7.44)

t1

Hence, the sequence {Kvn } is equicontinuous, and when applying the Ascoli

theorem, we deduce that that there is a uniformly convergent subsequence.

1

Therefore, K ◦ SG (x) is a compact set for all x ∈ C(J, R). Consequently, B ′

is a compact multi-valued operator on C(J, R). Again, let u1 , u2 ∈ B ′ x. Then,

1

there are v1 , v2 ∈ SG (x) such that

Z t

x0 − k(0, x0 )

u1 (t) = + v1 (s)ds ; t ∈ J,

f (0, y0 ) 0

and Z t

x0 − k(0, x0 )

u2 (t) = + v2 (s)ds ; t ∈ J.

f (0, y0 ) 0

Two-Dimensional Boundary Value Problems 327

Z t

x0 − k(0, x0 )

λu1 (t) + (1 − λ)u2 (t) = + (λv1 (s) + (1 − λ)v2 (s)) ds

f (0, y0 ) 0

Z t

x0 − k(0, x0 )

= + v(s)ds

f (0, y0 ) 0

where v(s) = λv1 (s) + (1 − λ)v2 (s) ∈ G(s, x(s)), for all s ∈ J. Hence,

λu1 +(1−λ)u2 ∈ B ′ x and consequently, B ′ x is convex for each x ∈ C(J, R). As

a result, B ′ defines a multi-valued operator B ′ : C(J, R) −→ Pcp, cv (C(J, R)).

ators on C(J, R). Let x, y ∈ C(J, R). Then,

t∈J

t∈J

with the constant kl1 k. In a similar way, it can be proved that B and C are also

two Lipschitzian operators on C(J, R) with the constants kl2 k and (kbk∞ + k),

respectively. Now, let us prove that C(S) ⊂ (I − D)(S ′ ). To do it, let x ∈ S

be a fixed point. Let us define a mapping

ϕx : C(J, R) −→ C(J, R)

y −→ Cx + Dy.

By using hypothesis (R41 )(a), we reach the result that the operator ϕx is a

contraction with a constant k. Then, an application of the Banach’s theorem

implies that there is a unique point y ∈ C(J, R) such that Cx+Dy = y. Hence,

1 ∗ 1

≤ + p t , + |p(t∗ , y(t∗ ))|

1 + b(t∗ )|x(θ(t∗ ))| 1 + b(t∗ )|x(θ(t∗ ))|

328 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

1 + q + 2P

|y(t∗ )| ≤ .

1−q

Now, in view of the last inequality in Eq. (7.43), it follows that

q 2 + 2q + 2P − 1 ≤ 0.

Accordingly, we have

1 + q + 2P ≤ (2 + q)(1 − q)

First, we need to prove that B ′ is a compact operator on S ′ . To do this, it

is sufficient to prove that B ′ (S ′ ) is a uniformly bounded and equicontinuous

set. For this purpose, let u ∈ B ′ (S) be arbitrary. Then, there is a v ∈ SG1

(x),

such that Z t

x0 − k(0, x0 )

u(t) = + v(s)ds,

f (0, y0 ) 0

Z t

x0 − k(0, x0 )

u(t) ≤ + |v(s)| ds

f (0, y0 ) 0

Z t

x0 − k(0, x0 )

≤ + kG(s, x(s))k ds

f (0, y0 ) 0

Z t

x0 − k(0, x0 )

≤ + h(s)ds

f (0, y0 ) 0

x0 − k(0, x0 )

≤ + khkL1

f (0, y0 )

proceed with the same arguments as in Step 1, we notice that B ′ (S ′ ) is an

equicontinuous set in C(J, R). Next, we demonstrate that B ′ is an upper semi-

continuous multi-valued mapping on C(J, R). Let {xn } be a sequence in C(J, R)

such that xn → x. Let {yn } be a sequence such that yn ∈ B ′ xn and yn → y.

We will prove that y ∈ B ′ x. Since yn ∈ B ′ xn , then there exists a vn ∈ SG

1

(xn ),

such that Z t

x0 − k(0, x0 )

yn (t) = + vn (s)ds ; t ∈ J.

f (0, y0 ) 0

Two-Dimensional Boundary Value Problems 329

1

We must prove that there is a v ∈ SG (x), such that

Z t

x0 − k(0, x0 )

y(t) = + v(s)ds ; t ∈ J.

f (0, y0 ) 0

Z t

Kv(t) = v(s)ds ; t ∈ J.

0

1

Then, K ◦ SG (x) is a closed graph operator, in view of Lemma 5.4 in [74].

Also, from the definition of K, we have

x0 − k(0, x0 ) 1

yn (t) − ∈ K ◦ SG (x).

f (0, y0 )

1

Since yn → y, there is a point v ∈ SG (x), such that

Z t

x0 − k(0, x0 )

y(t) = + v(s)ds ; t ∈ J.

f (0, y0 ) 0

pact and hence, it is completely continuous multi-valued operator on C(J, R).

Now, from the hypothesis (R40 ), it follows that

S

M = k B ′ (I − D)−1 C(S)kP

≤ sup{kB ′ xkP ; x ∈ S}

x0 − k(0, x0 )

≤

f (0, y0 ) + khkL1 .

the second inequality of Eq. (7.43), it follows that

1 1

q 1+ + kbk∞ < .

4khkL1 kl2 k 4khkL1 kl2 k

Then,

kl2 k (kbk∞ + q) 1

khkL1 < .

1−q 4

Consequently,

kl2 k (kbk∞ + q) 1

kl1 k + khkL1 < .

1−q 2

330 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

and

y ∈ Ax + B(I − D)−1 Cx · B ′ (I − D)−1 Cx.

1

(z), such that

Z t

y(t) = k(t, x(t) + f (t, z(t)) · v(s)ds ; t ∈ J.

0

Therefore, we have

Z t

|y(t)| ≤ |k(t, x(t))| + |f (t, z(t))| |v(s)|ds

0

≤ |k(t, x(t)) − k(t, 0)| + |k(t, 0)| + |f (t, z(t)) − f (t, 0)|

+ |f (t, 0)| khkL1

≤ 1 + q.

4.5.8. Now, the result follows from Theorem 4.5.8. Q.E.D.

order

Let J = [0, T ] be the closed and bounded interval in R. Let C(J, R) be the

Banach algebra of all continuous functions from J to R endowed with the sup-

norm k.k∞ and defined by kf k∞ = sup|f (t)|, for each f ∈ C(J, R). Consider

t∈J

the periodic boundary value problem for the first-order ordinary differential

Two-Dimensional Boundary Value Problems 331

inclusion

′

x(t) − k(t, x(t)) x(t) − k(t, x(t))

+ h(t) ∈ Gh (t, x(t), y(t))

f (t, y(t)) f (t, y(t))

1 1 (7.45)

y(t) = − p t, + p(t, y(t))

1 + b(t)|x(θ(t))| 1 + b(t)|x(θ(t))|

(x(0), y(0)) = (x(T ), y(T )) ∈ R2 ,

R −→ Pcp, cv (R) is defined by:

x − k(t, x)

Gh (t, x, y) = G(t, y) + h(t) .

f (t, y)

A solution of the system (7.45) stands for two functions x, y ∈ AC(J, R) that

satisfies:

x(t) − k(t, x(t))

(i) The function t −→ is absolutely continuous, and

f (t, y(t))

(ii) there exists a function v ∈ L1 (J, R) such that v(t) ∈ G(t, y(t)) satisfying

the following equality

′

x(t) − k(t, x(t))

= v(t) ; (x(0), y(0)) = (x(T ), y(T )),

f (t, y(t))

where AC(J, R) is the space of all absolutely continuous real-valued functions

on J. The following useful lemma can be found in [132].

the differential equation

′

x + h(t)x = σ(t)

x(0) = x(T )

if, and only if, x is a solution of the integral equation

Z T

x(t) = gh (t, s)σ(s)ds, where

0

H(s)−H(t)+H(T )

e

if 0 ≤ s ≤ t ≤ T

eH(T ) − 1

gh (t, s) = (7.46)

H(s)−H(t)

e

if 0 ≤ t < s ≤ T

eH(T ) − 1

332 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

Z t

with H(t) = h(s)ds.

0

for all x ∈ R.

x − k(0, x)

(R44 ) The function (x, y) −→ is injective on R2 .

f (0, y)

Lemma 7.6.4 Assume that the hypotheses (R43 ) and (R44 ) hold. Then, for

any bounded integrable function h on J, (x, y) is a solution of the differential

inclusion (7.45) if, and only if, it is a solution of the integral equation

Z T

x(t) ∈ k(t, x(t)) + f (t, y(t)) · gh (t, s)Gh (s, x(s), y(s))ds

0

1 1

y(t) = − p t, + p(t, y(t)) ,

1 + b(t)|x(θ(t))| 1 + b(t)|x(θ(t))|

(x(0), y(0)) = (x(T ), y(T )) ∈ R2

a bounded function l1 : J −→ R with a bound 0 < kl1 k∞ ≤ 61

satisfying:

there is a bounded function l2 : J −→ R with a bound 0 < kl2 k

satisfying:

variable,

(b) p is continuous with respect to the second variable, and

Two-Dimensional Boundary Value Problems 333

(R50 ) There is a function ̺ ∈ L1 (J, R∗+ ), and a nondecreasing continuous

function ϕ : R+ −→ R+ such that

Theorem 7.6.2 Assume that the hypotheses (R43 )–(R50 ) hold. Moreover, if

there exists a real number r > 0 such that:

1

kl1 k∞ + kl2 k∞ Mh k̺kL1 ϕ(r) < 2

(7.47)

max K + F Mh k̺kL1 ϕ(r) ; 3 + P ≤ r ,

4 2

1

where 2 < P = sup{|p(t, 0)| ; t ∈ J} < 1, K = sup{|k(t, 0)|}, and F =

t∈J

sup{|f (t, 0)|}, then, Eq. (7.45) has, at least, a solution.

t∈J

Proof. Let us define an open ball B r (0) in C(J, R), centered at the origin and

with radius r, where the real number r satisfies the inequalities of Eq. (7.47).

Consider the mapping A, B, C, D, and B ′ on C(J, R) by:

(i) Ax(t) = k(t, x(t)), Bx(t) = f (t, x(t)), Dx(t) = p(t, x(t)),

1 1

(ii) Cx(t) = − p t, , and

1 + b(t)|x(θ(t))| 1 + b(t)|x(θ(t))|

Z t

′ 1

(iii) B x = u ∈ C(J, R) : u(t) = R(x0 , y0 ) + gh (t, s)v(s)ds ; v ∈ SGh (x)

0

x0 − k(0, x0 )

for all t ∈ J, where R(x0 , y0 ) := . Then, the system IVP (7.42)

f (0, y0 )

is equivalent to the operator inclusion

′

x(t) ∈ Ax(t) + By(t) · B y(t)

y(t) = Cx(t) + Dy(t).

1

4.5.8 on B r (0). Since SG h

(x) 6= ∅ for each x ∈ B r (0), it follows that B ′ is

well defined. We start by showing that B ′ defines a multi-valued operator B ′ :

334 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

1

h

(x)

such that

Z t

x0 − k(0, x0 )

u1 (t) = + gh (t, s)v1 (s)ds ; t ∈ J,

f (0, y0 ) 0

and Z t

x0 − k(0, x0 )

u2 (t) = + gh (t, s)v2 (s)ds ; t ∈ J.

f (0, y0 ) 0

Z t

λu1 (t) + (1 − λ)u2 (t) = R(x0 , y0 ) + gh (t, s) (λv1 (s) + (1 − λ)v2 (s)) ds

0

Z t

x0 − k(0, x0 )

= + v(s)ds,

f (0, y0 ) 0

where v(s) = λv1 (s) + (1 − λ)v2 (s) ∈ Gh (s, x(s), y(s)) for all s ∈ J. Hence,

λu1 + (1 − λ)u2 ∈ B ′ x and consequently, B ′ x is convex for each x ∈ C(J, R).

Then, B ′ defines a multi-valued operator B ′ : C(J, R) −→ Pcp, cv (C(J, R)).

Proceeding as in the proof of Theorem 7.6.1, we deduce that the single-valued

operators A, B, and C are Lipschitzian with the constants kl1 k∞ , kl2 k∞ and

kbk∞ + q, respectively. Under the assumption (R47 )(a), we get C(B r (0)) ⊂

(I − D)(C(J, R)). Since y ∈ C(J, R), then there exists t∗ ∈ J such that

1 + q + 2P

kyk∞ = |Cx(t∗ ) + Dy(t∗ )| ≤ ≤ r.

1−q

we show that B ′ is completely continuous on B r (0). First, let us prove that

B ′ (B r (0)) is a totally bounded subset of C(J, R). To do this, it is enough to

prove that B ′ (B r (0)) is a uniformly bounded and an equicontinuous set in

C(J, R). For this purpose, let u ∈ B ′ (B r (0)) be arbitrary. Then, there is a

1

v ∈ SG h

(x) such that

Z t

x0 − k(0, x0 )

u(t) = + gh (t, s)v(s)ds ; t ∈ J.

f (0, y0 ) 0

Two-Dimensional Boundary Value Problems 335

Hence,

Z t

x0 − k(0, x0 )

|u(t)| ≤ + gh (t, s) kGh (s, x(s), y(s))kP ds ; t ∈ J,

f (0, y0 ) 0

Z t

x0 − k(0, x0 )

≤ + gh (t, s)̺(s)ϕ(|y(s)|)ds ; t ∈ J,

f (0, y0 ) 0

Z t

x0 − k(0, x0 )

≤ + gh (t, s)k̺kL1 ϕ(r)ds ; t ∈ J,

f (0, y0 ) 0

x0 − k(0, x0 )

≤ + Mh k̺kL1 ϕ(r) ; t ∈ J.

f (0, y0 )

sufficient to show that B ′ (B r (0)) is an equicontinuous set. Indeed, for any t1 ,

t2 ∈ [0, T ], we have

Z t

∂

|B ′ x(t1 ) − B ′ x(t2 )| ≤ gh (t, s) kGh (s, x(s), y(s))kP ds |t1 − t2 |

0 ∂t

Z t

≤ (−h(t))k̺kL1 ϕ(r)ds |t1 − t2 |

0

≤ max(h(t))Mh k̺kL1 ϕ(r) |t1 − t2 |.

t∈J

This shows with the Arzelà–Ascoli theorem, that B ′ (B r (0)) is totally bounded.

Next, we demonstrate that B ′ is an upper semi-continuous multi-valued map-

ping on C(J, R). Let {xn } be a sequence in C(J, R) such that xn → x. Let {yn }

be a sequence such that yn ∈ B ′ xn and yn → y. We will prove that y ∈ B ′ x.

Since yn ∈ B ′ xn , there exists a vn ∈ SG1

(xn ) such that

Z t

x0 − k(0, x0 )

yn (t) = + gh (t, s)vn (s)ds ; t ∈ J.

f (0, y0 ) 0

1

We must prove that there exists a v ∈ SG h

(x) such that

Z t

x0 − k(0, x0 )

y(t) = + gh (t, s)v(s)ds ; t ∈ J.

f (0, y0 ) 0

Z t

Kv(t) = gh (t, s)v(s)ds ; t ∈ J.

0

336 Nonlinear Functional Analysis in Banach Spaces and Banach Algebras

1

Then, K ◦ SG h

(x) is a closed graph operator, in view of Lemma 5.4 in [74].

Also from the definition of K we have

x0 − k(0, x0 ) 1

yn (t) − ∈ K ◦ SG (x).

f (0, y0 ) h

1

Since yn → y, there is a point v ∈ SG h

(x) such that

Z t

x0 − k(0, x0 )

y(t) = + gh (t, s)v(s)ds ; t ∈ J.

f (0, y0 ) 0

completely continuous multi-valued operator on C(J, R). Now, it remains to

verify the hypothesis (iv) of Theorem 4.5.8 on B r (0). it follows that

≤ sup{kB ′ xkP ; x ∈ S}

Z t

x0 − k(0, x0 )

≤ |gh (t, s)|kGh (s, x(s), y(s))kP ds

f (0, y0 ) +

0

x0 − k(0, x0 )

≤

f (0, y0 ) + Mh k̺kL1 ϕ(r).

the first inequality of Eq. (7.47), it follows that

kl2 k (kbk∞ + q) kbk∞ + q 1 1

M + kl1 k∞ < − kl1 k∞ + kl1 k∞ < .

1−q 1−q 2 2

and

y ∈ Ax + B(I − D)−1 Cx · B ′ (I − D)−1 Cx.

1

Then, there is z ∈ B r (0) and v ∈ SG h

(z) such that

Z t

y(t) = k(t, x(t) + f (t, z(t)) · g(h, s)v(s)ds ; t ∈ J.

0

Two-Dimensional Boundary Value Problems 337

Therefore, we have

Z t

|y(t)| ≤ |k(t, x(t))| + |f (t, z(t))| g(h, s)|v(s)|ds

0

≤ |k(t, x(t)) − k(t, 0)| + |k(t, 0)| + |f (t, z(t)) − f (t, 0)|

+ |f (t, 0)| Mh k̺kL1 ϕ(r)

< r.

Now, the result follows from Theorem 4.5.8. Q.E.D.

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