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Contents

Preface .................................................................................... ix

Acknowledgments ................................................................... xi

1989 CPQRA Guidelines Acknowledgments ........................... xiii

Acronyms ................................................................................ xv

1. Introduction ...................................................................... 1
1.1 CPQRA Definitions .................................................................. 6
1.2 Consequence Analysis ........................................................... 8

2. Source Models ................................................................. 15


2.1 Discharge Rate Models ........................................................... 15
2.1.1 Background ........................................................... 15
2.1.2 Description ............................................................ 18
2.1.3 Example Problems ................................................ 40
2.1.4 Discussion ............................................................. 54
2.2 Flash and Evaporation ............................................................ 57
2.2.1 Background ........................................................... 57
2.2.2 Description ............................................................ 59
2.2.3 Example Problems ................................................ 69
2.2.4 Discussion ............................................................. 75
2.3 Dispersion Models ................................................................... 76
2.3.1 Neutral and Positively Buoyant Plume and
Puff Models ........................................................... 85

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2.3.2 Dense Gas Dispersion ........................................... 111

3. Explosions and Fires ....................................................... 127


3.1 Vapor Cloud Explosions (VCE) ............................................... 131
3.1.1 Background ........................................................... 131
3.1.2 Description ............................................................ 134
3.1.3 Discussion ............................................................. 151
3.1.4 Example Problems ................................................ 152
3.2 Flash Fires ............................................................................... 158
3.3 Physical Explosion .................................................................. 158
3.3.1 Background ........................................................... 158
3.3.2 Description ............................................................ 160
3.3.3 Example Problems ................................................ 174
3.3.4 Discussion ............................................................. 184
3.4 BLEVE and Fireball ................................................................. 185
3.4.1 Background ........................................................... 185
3.4.2 Description ............................................................ 186
3.4.3 Example Problems ................................................ 194
3.4.4 Discussion ............................................................. 199
3.5 Confined Explosions ............................................................... 201
3.5.1 Background ........................................................... 201
3.5.2 Description ............................................................ 202
3.5.3 Example Problem .................................................. 207
3.5.4 Discussion ............................................................. 208
3.6 Pool Fires ................................................................................ 210
3.6.1 Background ........................................................... 210
3.6.2 Description ............................................................ 211
3.6.3 Example Problem .................................................. 220
3.6.4 Discussion ............................................................. 223
3.7 Jet Fires ................................................................................... 225
3.7.1 Background ........................................................... 225
3.7.2 Description ............................................................ 226

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3.7.3 Example Problem .................................................. 229


3.7.4 Discussion ............................................................. 231

4. Effect Models .................................................................... 235


4.1 Dose-response and Probit Functions ..................................... 236
4.1.1 Dose-response Functions ...................................... 236
4.1.2 Probit Functions .................................................... 238
4.1.3 Example Problem .................................................. 240
4.2 Toxic Gas Effects .................................................................... 241
4.2.1 Background ........................................................... 241
4.2.2 Description ............................................................ 253
4.2.3 Example Problems ................................................ 257
4.2.4 Discussion ............................................................. 261
4.3 Thermal Effects ....................................................................... 262
4.3.1 Background ........................................................... 262
4.3.2 Description ............................................................ 263
4.3.3 Example Problems ................................................ 267
4.2.4 Discussion ............................................................. 269
4.4 Explosion Effects ..................................................................... 270
4.4.1 Background ........................................................... 270
4.4.2 Description ............................................................ 271
4.4.3 Example Problem .................................................. 273
4.4.4 Discussion ............................................................. 273

5. Evasive Actions ............................................................... 275


5.1 Background ............................................................................. 275
5.2 Description .............................................................................. 278
5.3 Example Problem .................................................................... 280
5.4 Discussion ............................................................................... 280

6. Modeling Systems ............................................................ 283

References ............................................................................. 285

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viii Contents

Appendix: CD ROM ............................................................... 301

Glossary ................................................................................. 305

Index ....................................................................................... 319

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