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Volume 1, Issue: Summer 2017 April 12, 2018

WPU WELLNESS WATCH


BY: NICHOLAS WALLACE & ELIZABETH VALDERRAMA

TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABOUT THE AUTHORS…….……….………..PAGE 2
TECHNOLOGY …….…………………………..PAGE 3
SPORTS PERFORMANCE………………………PAGE 4
NUTRITION.……………………………………PAGE 5
ARTICLE 4………………………….…………..PAGE 6
ARTICLE 5………………………….……………PAGE 7
ARTICLE 6……………………………..……….PAGE 8
EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY………………………PAGE 9
SUMMARY QUIZ……………………………….PAGE 10
ANSWER KEY……………………………………PAGE 11

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KINESIOLOGY ABOUT THE AUTHORS


DEPARTMENT NICHOLAS WALLACE
Kinesiology Department Chair:
I am a Senior Exercise Science
Dr. Kathy Gill, Ph.D. Major at William Paterson
University. I am also the
Email: gillk3@wpunj.edu captain of William Paterson
Men’s Rugby Team. My goals
Phone: 973-720-2362 upon graduation are to obtain
my CSCS and begin a career in
Address:
Strength & Conditioning while
300 Pompton Road also becoming an assistant
Rugby Coach.
Wayne, New Jersey 07470

ELIZABETH VALDERRAMA

I am a college student at
William Paterson University
graduating with a Bachelors in Exercise Science. My goals this
summer is to begin personal training while taking my pre-
requisites to further my education. My hobbies consist of
training, traveling, and spending time with family and friends.

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TECHNOLOGY
ELECTRICAL STIMULATION

The use of electrical stimulation can be tracked back to about 350 years ago. In 1971, the
Russian researcher Yakov Kots claimed neuromuscular electrical stimulation might be more
efficient than voluntary contractions in order to increase maximal strength (1). Kots findings
laid the foundation for the use of electrical stimulation as a modality of muscle performance
improvement. Today’s society demands athletes to recover faster and its evident that they
compete at their best performance. Muscle damage and soreness has been shown to persist 72
hours post activity. Thus, the need for rapid recovery causes a need for a readily implemented
modality and NMES provides just that.
NMES has the capacity to treat quadriceps activation failure by initiating action
potentials in intramuscular nerve branches, resulting in an involuntary contraction of the
muscle (2 ). Neuromuscular electrical stimulation stimulates motor nerve endings, pain
receptors aiding in pain relief which can effectively delay muscle atrophy during the acute
phase of an injury (3). This modality is an alternative recovery strategy that involves the
application of electrodes to surface to the common peroneal nerve to simultaneously
stimulate the tibialis, peroneus longus and lateral gastrocnemius muscles and thus enhance
blood flow (4). The application of NMES has been reported to be effective in improving both
physiological and psychological indices of recovery, leading to significant improvements in
physical performance, 24hr post exercise (4). This strategy should not replace other recovery
strategies but can be used if other strategies aren’t available.
NMES has three types of therapeutic currents; direct current, alternating current
delivered in high frequency either interferential stimulation or burst modulated (Russian
Stimulator) and pulsed current a bidirectional flow of charge (3). These currents all have a
direct effect on muscle stimulation. Burst- modulated alternating currents lower the
capacitive impedance of the skin, allowing more current to reach the motor nerves (3). This
modality can also help rehabilitation patients by stimulating current through electrodes and
positioning them superior and inferior to site of the muscle. The positioning of electrodes
gives neuromuscular electrical stimulation the advantage of localizing the stimulus to the
muscle using motor points compared to voluntary exercises. Neuromuscular electrical
stimulation has been observed to increase strength with minimal training intensities
compared to voluntary training (5). It appears that faster- contracting motor units are
activated during neuromuscular electrical stimulation that are normally activated during high
intensity exercises under voluntary conditions (5). Neuromuscular electrical stimulation
seems to be effective means of training high threshold motor units making it an alternate
route to voluntary exercise (5). This recruitment is beneficial but there is trade off, targeting
faster motor units can potentially cause early muscle fatigue, patient discomfort, and
increased possibility of muscle damage with treatment (5). Voluntary exercises alone can
increase quadriceps motor control but neural electrical stimulation alone has the inability to
do so. Thus, stimulation can be used for initial activation of quadriceps through involuntary
contractions but still it is believed voluntary exercises are crucial for muscle development and

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long-term muscle function. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation is beneficial in rehabilitation


but should not replace voluntary exercises.
- Elizabeth Valderrama

REFERENCES:

1. Gondin J, Cozzone P, Bendahan D. Is high-frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation a suitable tool for muscle performance
improvement in both healthy humans and athletes?. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 2011;111(10):2473-2487. doi:10.1007/s00421-
011-2101-2.

2. Lake D. Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation. Sports Medicine. 1992;13(5):320-336. doi:10.2165/00007256-199213050-00003.

3. Hainaut K, Duchateau J. Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation and Voluntary Exercise. Sports Medicine. 1992;14(2):100-113.
doi:10.2165/00007256-199214020-00003.

4. Taylor T, West DJ, Howatson G, et al. The impact of neuromuscular electrical stimulation on recovery after intensive, muscle damaging,
maximal speed training in professional team sports players. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport2014;18(3):328–32.

5. Mechanisms Underlying the Training Effects Associated with Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation. Physical Therapy. 1991;71(4):273-280.

————————————————————————————————————————————

SPORTS PERFORMANCE
FUNCTIONAL MOVEMENT SCREENING

The functional movement screen is a popular screening tool used by professionals to


assess an individuals’ upper and lower extremities’ fundamental movement patterns. These
fundamental movement patterns are designed to provide observable performance of basic
locomotor, manipulative, and stabilizing movements (1). These movements require a balance
of mobility, stability, and neuromuscular/motor control. This screening tool can be used to
assess performance predictability and injury prevention. For example, Athletes will sacrifice
efficient movements for inefficient movements in order to perform better. This can lead to
poor biomechanics and ultimately increase the potential for injuries.

The FMS evaluates fundamental movement patterns through seven test items, the
squat, hurdle step, lunge, active straight leg raises, shoulder mobility, rotary stability and
trunk stability. The squat is a test that challenges total body mechanics, it is used to assess
bilateral, symmetrical, functional mobility of the hips, knees, and ankles (2).The dowel held
overhead assesses bilateral, symmetrical mobility of the shoulders and thoracic spine. The
hurdle step assesses bilateral functional mobility and stability of the hips, knees, and ankles
(2). The in-line lunge attempts to place the body in a position that will focus on the stresses
simulated during rotational, decelerating, and lateral type movements. This test also assesses
hip and ankle mobility and stability, quadriceps flexibility, and knee stability (2). The shoulder
mobility screen assesses bilateral and reciprocal shoulder range of motion, combining internal
rotation with adduction of one shoulder and external rotation with abduction of the other (3).
The test also requires normal scapular mobility and thoracic spine extension (3). The active

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straight leg raises (ASLR) tests the ability to disassociate the lower extremity from the trunk
while maintaining stability in the torso. The ASLR test assesses active hamstring and gastro‐
soleus flexibility while maintaining a stable pelvis and core, and active extension of the
opposite leg.(3)The trunk stability push‐up tests the ability to stabilize the core and spine in
an anterior and posterior plane during a closed‐chain upper body movement. The test assesses
trunk stability in the sagittal plane while a symmetrical upper extremity push‐up motion is
performed. The rotary stability test is a complex movement requiring proper neuromuscular
coordination and energy transfer from on segment of the body to another through the torso.
(3) The rotary stability test assesses multi‐planar trunk stability during a combined upper and
lower extremity motion.

The tests are graded from 0-3. Three was given if a task was performed without
compensations, two if compensations occurred during task, one if the individual was unable
to get into test position or complete the task, and 0 if any pain was present. Research done in
division one collegiate female athletics, American football players, and firefighters have
suggested a cut off score of 14 or less as a predictor for injury. Studies have also shown that
individuals who perform at very high levels during activities may be unable to perform these
simple movements.

Overall, the low cost, user friendly and relatively reliable tool has gained great interest
in clinical practice and research since its development. The FMS can lead to individualized,
specific, functional recommendations for physical fitness protocols in athletic and active
population groups.

- Elizabeth Valderrama

REFERENCES:
1. Brown, Matthew T., "The ability of the functional movement screen in predicting injury rates in Division 1 female athletes" (2011). Theses
and Dissertations. 541. http://utdr.utoledo.edu/theses-dissertations/541

2. Hoogenboom B. FUNCTIONAL MOVEMENT SCREENING: THE USE OF FUNDAMENTAL MOVEMENTS AS AN ASSESSMENT OF


FUNCTION PART 1. The International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy2014;:396–409.

3. Hoogenboom B. FUNCTIONAL MOVEMENT SCREENING: THE USE OF FUNDAMENTAL MOVEMENTS AS AN ASSESSMENT OF


FUNCTION‐PART International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy2014;:549–63.

4. Smith LJ, Creps JR, Bean R, Rodda B, Alsalaheen B. Performance of high school male athletes on the Functional Movement Screen™.
Physical Therapy in Sport2017;27:17–23.

5. Schroeder J, Wellmann K, Braumann K. The Functional Movement Screen for Injury Prediction in Male Amateur Football. Deutsche
Zeitschrift für Sportmedizin2016;2016(02):39–43.

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NUTRITION
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ZONE DIET

The zone diet is an eating plan created by Dr. Barry Sears. His quest to not die from
heart disease is what led him to a simple conclusion that if you are able to keep insulin levels
within a certain zone of not to high and not low you can dramatically improve health and
prevent a wide range of diseases. He developed a concept that the hormonal responses of
macro-nutrients could be orchestrated to maintain key hormones in a zone and your blood
sugar stable. It represents proper balance between 40 % carbohydrates, 30 % protein, and 30%
fats that keep your insulin to glucagon hormone ratios regulated (1)
Insulin, is a storage hormone and without adequate insulin your cells starve to death
but too much will make you fat, accelerate the age process, and accelerate the development of
chronic diseases (2). Two ways to spike your insulin levels is by eating to many calories in one
meal and second is eating to many carbohydrates. Excess calories that the body can’t
immediately store will be converted to fat because high levels of insulin can cause you to store
fat and will block the release of stored energy.(1) Eating to many carbohydrates stimulates
insulin and excess insulin production makes your blood sugar fall to quickly which is what
makes us tired and hungry for more carbohydrates (1). This is actually the biochemical reason
why we crave carbohydrates and this is why insulin is the real cause of the growing epidemic
of obesity.
The zone diet consists of favorable carbohydrates like Fruits and vegetables which have
a low capacity to stimulate insulin. Grains and starches are seen as unfavorable carbohydrates
and low glycemic index foods are emphasized. An adequate serving of low fat protein is
essential because your body needs a constant supply of dietary protein to replace the protein
loss on daily basis and as well stimulate the hormone Glucagon (1). Glucagon is a mobilization
hormone it tells body to release stored carbohydrates in the liver to replenish blood sugar
levels for the brain. Glucagon acts as a break on excess insulin because when glucagon
increases insulin decreases. (1) The desired fats are mono-saturated fats and omega 3 fats
avoiding saturated fats and trans-saturated. Good fats are olive oil, almonds, avocados and fish
oil. The diet also includes essential supplements like fish oil because of the omega-3 fatty
acids like eicospentaenoic acid, a key factor for controlling insulin and docosahexaenoic acid
needed to maintain and rebuild the brain (1). Vitamin E is also needed for its primary effect in
the destruction of fat-soluble free radicals. A crucial part of the diet is also the timing of the
food you consume. The diet calls for eating 5 times a day which is 3 meals and two snacks.
Breakfast will be within an hour of waking up and the rest of meals are to be within 5 hours of
each other.
The zone diet was originally made for cardiovascular patients because it can have
significant effect on inflammation, which is primary factor in the development of heart disease
(2). The diet can be used for general population because of the long-term effects are
permanent fat loss, reduce risk of heart disease, less likely to develop type 2 diabetes, and
fewer infections (3). Research suggests it is beneficial in patients with type 2 diabetes. Another
study claims it offers many advantages over the diets that are currently recommended in
terms of safety, compliance, and clinically relevant results. The best thing is there is no cost to
it beyond food shopping

- Elizabeth Valderrama

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REFERENCES:
1. Sears, B. (2004). A week in the zone. New York: HarperTorch.

2. Sears B, Bell S. The Zone Diet: An Anti-Inflammatory, Low Glycemic-Load Diet. Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders2004;2(1):24–
38.

3. Stulnig TM. The ZONE Diet and Metabolic Control in Type 2 Diabetes. Journal of the American College of Nutrition2015;34(sup1):39–41.

4. Gardner CD, Kiazand A. Comparison Of The Atkins, Zone, Ornish, And Learn Diets For Change In Weight And Related Risk Factors
Among Overweight Premenopausal Women. Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention2007;297(9):969–78.

5. Jarvis, M., Mcnaughton, L., Seddon, A., & Thompson, D. (2002). The Acute 1-Week Effects of the Zone Diet on Body Composition, Blood
Lipid Levels, and Performance in Recreational Endurance Athletes. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 16(1), 50.
doi:10.1519/1533-4287(2002)016<0050:taweot>2.0.co;2

MYTH BUSTERS? FACT or FICTION?


Cracking Joints Causes Arthritis Fact or myth??

For years, there has been a rumor that cracking your joints (specifically your knuckles)
can lead to arthritis. No one really thinks twice about it, or puts enough thought into it to
even research it themselves. However, is this really true? Or is this an old folk tale that has
been passed down from generation to generation, Similar to Bigfoot. Keep reading to find out.
In the meantime, think twice about cracking your knuckles.
All synovial joints are covered by an envelope like structure (called the joint capsule)
that is responsible for sealing the joint together and covering the extra space between joints.
Located in the joint capsule is an egg white like liquid called synovial fluid (3). Synovial fluid is
responsible for lubricating the joints, and to reduce bone on bone friction during movement.
When one cracks their joints, the opposing bones of the joint are being pulled apart, creating
more space between the joints in the joint capsule (3). A variety of gases are continuously
dissolved in the synovial fluid. When one cracks a knuckle, the stretching of the capsule
lowers the pressure inside the joint and creates a vacuum which is filled by the gas previously
dissolved in the synovial fluid (3). This creates a “bubble” which then bursts producing the
characteristic “popping” or “cracking” sound (1). It takes a while until these gases are re-
dissolved in the synovial fluid which explains why knuckles cannot be “re-cracked”
immediately (1). Evidence shows that after cracking, the joint space is not altered in anyway.
The previous school of thought was that after repeatedly cracking, the joint space would
increase respectively. However, evidence shows that the joint capsule returns to its normal
position (2). Therefore, it is in fact a myth that cracking your knuckles leads to arthritis (2).
However, this process involves the knuckles to glide pass one another, which over time, could
lead to increased risk of inflammation (2). This could be the underlying reason for the
common misconception that cracking your joints leads to arthritis. The Myth has been busted.

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Arthritis can come in many different forms, usually some type of inflammation of the
joints. Some of the symptoms usually include joint pain and stiffness, and typically worsen
with age. Some of the more popular forms are rheumatoid and osteoarthritis. In Rheumatoid
arthritis, the body's immune system attacks the lining of the joint capsule, a tough membrane
that encloses all the joint parts (4). This lining, known as the synovial membrane, becomes
inflamed and swollen. The disease process can eventually destroy cartilage and bone within
the joint (4).
Osteoarthritis, which is the most common type of arthritis, osteoarthritis involves wear and
tear damage to your joints cartilage the hard, slick coating on the ends of bones (5). Enough
damage can result in bone grinding directly on bone, which causes pain and restricted
movement (5). This wear and tear can occur over many years, or it can be hastened by a joint
injury or infection (5).

- Nicholas Wallace
References
1. Center A. Arthritis News : Knuckle Cracking Q&A from Johns Hopkins Arthritis Center [Internet]. Arthritis Information2012; [cited
2018 Apr 13 ] Available from: https://www.hopkinsarthritis.org/arthritis-news/knuckle-cracking-q-a-from/
2. Harvard Health Publishing. Does cracking knuckles cause arthritis? [Internet]. Harvard Health[date unknown]; [cited 2018 Apr 13 ]
Available from: https://www.health.harvard.edu/pain/does-knuckle-cracking-cause-arthritis
3. Columnist EHG. Everyday Health Guest Columnist [Internet]. Everyday Health: Trusted Medical Information, Expert Health Advice,
News, Tools, and Resources2015; [cited 2018 Apr 13 ] Available from: https://www.everydayhealth.com/columns/health-
answers/what-really-happens-when-you-crack-your-knuckles/
4. Arthritis [Internet]. [Internet]. Mayo Clinic2018; [cited 2018 Apr 13 ] Available from: https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-
conditions/arthritis/symptoms-causes/syc-20350772
5. Jr WCS. Arthritis Causes, Treatment & Types [Internet]. MedicineNet[date unknown]; [cited 2018 Apr 13 ] Available from:
https://www.medicinenet.com/arthritis/article.htm

_________________________________________________________________________________________

CLINICAL HEALTH & WELLNESS


It is hard to lose someone in the family to a health related natural cause. By natural casualties
I mean by Neuro Destructive diseases, heart attacks etc. according to research and data
“Alzheimer’s is considered one of the greatest health challenges of the century. The fifth
leading cause of death for those 65 years and older, Alzheimer’s affects an estimated 5.4
million Americans — about 1 in 3 seniors, according to the Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention.” (5) Therefore, I did some research on an experiment that would help, if not even
cure Neuro destructive disease. In these experiments they studied the mechanisms of
neurodegeneration allowing the research community to develop a rational approach towards
discovering new treatments. One of the leading causes of neurodegenerative disease is the
accumulation of misfolded proteins, which lead to plaque formation in the skull. Therefore,
the Center for Disease Control (CDC) started thinking of ways to unfold those proteins. The
main reason the CDC wanted to unfold the proteins, is because if you unfold the protein, the
plaque won't be formed. So that same family member you lost, possibly a grandparent will live
longer. “Early experiments with mice have shown that treatment with Sephin1 was able to

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mitigate the effects of these plaques for neurodegenerative diseases such as Amyotrophic
Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease have an extended life.” (2)
This molecule that was discovered was made to reduce the plaque in one's brain and
they've tested it numerous ways. They've run multiple experiments to see if the plaque
reduction was successful in order to use it on someone's brain. This can also help with tooth
decay and it has other benefits when it comes to the human body. The people that are a part
of this experiment are the medical research council. Then are the same people that worked on
the diabetes prevention program and the discovery that will reduce a significant amount of
amputee victims.
This plaque buildup in our brain seems to me a very clear reason as to why neuro
destruction is a huge problem .The reason why we have this unfolded protein problem
(plaque) is because our cells attempt to counteract this by activating a program known as the
unfolded protein response (UPR). Once activated, this program stops the production of any
new proteins, destroys misfolded proteins, and increases the production of ‘molecular
chaperones’ that make sure proteins are folded correctly. The brain rejects the proper fixture
of proteins for some reason and we have tried to research new ways to overcome it.
Fortunately enough a drug treatment has been stumbled upon by Richard Fisher, chief
scientist at NeuroPhage, which reduces plaque. “A key component of the new plaque-busting
drug from NeuroPhage Pharmaceuticals is a protein from a bacteriophage, a type of virus that
exclusively infects bacteria. Called M13, the phage was originally isolated from sewage in
Germany 50 years ago. Today it is used to screen for antibodies with medical potential. Its
plaque-defeating properties were discovered by sheer chance” (3). Therefore, you will not lose
that dear family member, it can help millions.
- Nicholas Wallace

References:
1. AAN[date unknown]; [cited 2018 Apr 13 ] Available from: https://www.aan.com/PressRoom/Home/PressRelease/1109
2. Medical Research Council, MRC. Molecule discovered by MRC researchers on path to drug development in neurodegeneration
[Internet]. Medical Research Council, MRC2018; [cited 2018 Apr 13 ] Available from: https://mrc.ukri.org/news/browse/molecule-
discovered-by-mrc-researchers-on-path-to-drug-development-in-neurodegeneration/
3. Universal plaque-busting drug could treat various brain diseases [Internet]. [Internet]. New Scientist[date unknown]; [cited 2018
Apr 13 ] Available from: https://www.newscientist.com/article/dn27921-universal-plaque-busting-drug-could-treat-various-brain-
diseases/
4. What Happens to the Brain in Alzheimer's Disease? [Internet]. [Internet]. National Institute on Aging[date unknown]; [cited 2018
Apr 13 ] Available from: https://www.nia.nih.gov/health/what-happens-brain-alzheimers-disease
5. Why dementia-causing plaques become trapped in the brain [Internet]. [Internet]. USC News2017; [cited 2018 Apr 13 ] Available
from: https://news.usc.edu/124540/why-dementia-causing-plaques-become-trapped-in-the-brain/

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RESEARCH
Type II Diabetes is starting to become a much more common thing in today’s society.
Thankfully there has been new research on a way to prevent diabetes. The official name of this
new initiative is the national prevention program. The program mainly consists of ways to
incorporate exercise and keep your body healthy. A huge portion of the diabetic population
conceive the disease because their lifestyle is faulty. Unfortunately some people do not take
those prevention steps or do that program. “Whilst preventing obesity is important, there is
also a need to identify and implement effective interventions to treat obesity and reduce the
risk of conditions such as type-2 diabetes. Behavioral interventions to reduce energy intake
and increase energy expenditure have a crucial role to play and are key targets for the
prevention of diabetes and other chronic diseases.”(2) Thankfully the same people that made
the national prevention program made a discovery that can help change the history of
diabetes forever. The people that contributed to this are named medical research council.
They discovered a molecule that can reduce limb loss for the serious cases of diabetes.
This plays a huge factor as to why there are so many limbs being amputated. According
to the research being done there is about 20 limbs per day being amputated all around the
world, do to this disease. For those of you who do not know what it is, it’s when your body has
trouble using or making enough insulin. Insulin is a hormone that helps the sugar from your
food enter your cells. “Now, thanks to this project jointly funded by Biotechnology and
Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) and the Medical Research Council, the
understanding of how deoxyribose-1-phosphate works could open new avenues of treatment
in encouraging the body to heal- a discipline known as regenerative medicine.”(4) This will
not only help people that suffer from this terrible disease but in fact, help people who have
severe burn wounds, war injuries or athletic injuries. This groundbreaking discovery can help
people beyond belief and here's a little more information about it.
“This study demonstrates that deoxyribose-1-phosphate activates an enzyme called
NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2). This in turn leads to the stimulation of the transcription factor
called NFkB, which is responsible for turning on genes specifically involved in the formation
of new blood vessels.’ (4) If this procedure, drug, program has more work put into it, it can be
used to repair entire limbs as a whole because we have only seen the tip of the iceberg
According to research collected by Mayo Clinic stems cells are our only gateway to
regeneration. “Stem cells have the ability to develop — through a process called
differentiation — into many different types of cells, such as skin cells, brain cells, lung cells
and so on. Stem cells are a key component of regenerative medicine.” (1) It can cut the amount
of amputees by half if this advances in research. This discovery can change so many people's
lives because they will not have to lose even finger.
- Nicholas Wallace

References

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1. Center for Regenerative Medicine - About Regenerative Medicine [Internet]. [Internet]. Mayo Clinic2017; [cited 2018 Apr 13 ] Available
from: http://www.mayo.edu/research/centers-programs/center-regenerative-medicine/patient-care/about-regenerative-medicine
2. Dina Vara, Joanna M Watt, Tiago M Fortunato, Harry Mellor, Matthew Burgess, Kate Wicks, Kimberly Mace, Shaun Reeksting,
Anneke T Lubben, Caroline PD Wheeler-Jones, Giordano Pula. Direct activation of NADPH oxidase 2 by 2-deoxyribose-1-
phosphate triggers nuclear factor kappa B-dependent angiogenesis. Antioxidants & Redox Signaling, 2017; DOI:
10.1089/ars.2016.6869
3. Mao AS, Mooney DJ. Regenerative medicine: Current therapies and future directions [Internet]. PNAS2015; [cited 2018 Apr 13 ] Available
from: http://www.pnas.org/content/112/47/14452
4. Medical Research Council, MRC. Regenerative Medicine [Internet]. Medical Research Council, MRC2017; [cited 2018 Apr 12 ] Available
from: https://mrc.ukri.org/successes/investing-for-impact/priority-challenges/regenerative-medicine/
5. University of Exeter [Internet]. [Internet]. Research news - Healing molecule discovery could reduce limb amputations for diabetes patients
Research - Research at Exeter - University of Exeter[date unknown]; [cited 2018 Apr 11 ] Available from:
http://www.exeter.ac.uk/research/newsandevents/news/title_612029_en.html

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SUMMERY QUIZ

1. What is the proper balance in the zone diet?

2. What is the hormone that the zone diet is based on?

3. Name the seven fundamental patterns of the FMS?

4. What grade is given if the person feels pain during the movement?

5. Who laid the foundation for the use of electrical stimulation?

6. What ae the three types of therapeutic currents?

7. What is Synovial Fluid?

8. Most effective way for preventing Type II Diabetes?

9. When you crack your knuckles, is the “pop” noise your bones dislocating in and out of the socket?

10. What is responsible for plaque buildup in the brain?

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ANSWER KEY

1. 40% carbohydrates, 30 % protein, and 30% fats


2. Insulin
3. the squat, hurdle step, lunge, active straight leg raise, shoulder mobility, rotary stability and trunk
stability.
4. 0
5. Yakov Kots
6.Direct Current, Alternating Current, Pulsed Current
7. The Liquid that lubricates the joints
8. Exercise and a Healthy Diet
9. No
10. Unfolded Proteins

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Word Search

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Answer Key:

Synovial Fluid Joint Capsule Stimulation Motor units


Alzheimer's Stability Arthritis Mobility
Proteins Insulin Plaque Diabetes
Amputee Zone

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