18 views

Uploaded by John Walker

Schwinger trick and Feynman Parameters by Shapiro

- Calculus
- Reg 2017 Syllabus B.E. CSE
- Survey Formula
- NEC IT syllabus
- Mat 1512 (calculus a)
- [Achim_Bachem___Bernhard_Korte___Martin_Grötschel.pdf
- Boc+Memo_Syllabus
- Engineering Mathematics Link 12
- Comp Networks
- MAT401_A3_T3_2016
- homework 2.pdf
- Math 54 Reviewer problems
- Toc
- B Tech ECE Revised July 16 (1)
- Bryam Mora - Juan Canar. Practica 2 Matlab
- Cengel_Heat_Transfer_Errata_Sheet.doc
- A Hydrodynamic Model of Green Water Incidents
- 08 01 Integration 1jhhg
- Calculus Topics
- ececalculussyllabusroachfall2015

You are on page 1of 3

c

Copyright 2005 by Joel A. Shapiro

tors. An interesting anecdote of physics history is that Schwinger remained

bitter that a virtually identical mathematical trick became commonly known

as Feynman parameters. Why two brilliant physicists, each of whom had an

appropriately won a Nobel prize, should fight over what is essentially a trivial

mathematical trick, is an interesting question in the sociology of physicists.

But we are not interested in that now.

Note that

1

Z ∞

= dν e−Aν ,

A 0

at least when Re A > 0, where the integral is well defined. Applying this to

each of the terms in a product of inverses,

N

X

N N Z ∞ − Ai νi !

Y 1 Y

= dνi e i=1 .

i=1 Ai i=1 0

P

N N N

!

dνi = ν N −1 dν

Y Y X

dαi δ 1 − αi ,

i=1 i=1 i=1

so

N N Z ∞ N

! !Z

1 ∞ P

ν N −1 dνe−ν αi Ai .

Y Y X

= dαi δ 1 − αi

i=1 Ai i=1 0 i=1 0

But ∞ 1

Z

tz−1 e−bt dt = Γ(z),

0 bz

where Z ∞

Γ(z) = tz−1 e−t dt = (z − 1)!

0

is the Euler Gamma function. So all together

N N Z ∞ N

! !

Y 1 Y X hX i−N

= Γ(N) dαi δ 1 − αi αi Ai . (1)

i=1 Ai i=1 0 i=1

Schwinger/Feynman trick Last Latexed: November 8, 2007 at 10:28 2

The simplest application would be something like

p

d4 k 1 1

Z

(2π) (p − k) − m + iǫ k + iǫ

4 2 2 2

cared about the second diagram of Fig. 6.1, which contains p−k

the (amputatable) correction shown. In terms of Feynman

parameters, this is

Z

d4 k 1 1 p

(2π) (p − k) − m + iǫ k + iǫ

4 2 2 2

Z 1 Z 1

= Γ(2) dα dβ δ(1 − α − β)

0 0

4

dk 1

Z

d4 k 1

Z 1 Z

= dα

0 (2π) (k − 2αk · p + iǫ)2

4 2

the square of D, where D is defined in terms of a shifted four-momentum

ℓµ = k µ − αpµ as

D = ℓ2 − α2 m2 + iǫ = ℓ2 − ∆ + iǫ, with ∆ = α2 m2 .

Thus our integral can be written as

1 d4 ℓ 1

Z Z

dα

0 (2π) (ℓ − ∆ + iǫ)n

4 2

Γ’ A

l0

where the integrand is invariant under

− l 2+ ∆ +i ε

Lorentz transformations, and I have gen- Γ

eralized 2 to an arbitrary power n > 21 .

For a fixed ~ℓ, the ℓ0 integral is along the l 2+ ∆−i ε

path Γ, but we can throw in the arcs A at A

infinity, and then deform the integral to be

along Γ′ , as we are not passing any singu-

larities. Writing ℓ0 = iL4 and ~ℓ = L,~ our

integral is now

Schwinger/Feynman trick Last Latexed: November 8, 2007 at 10:28 3

1 d4 L 1

Z Z

n

(−1) i dα ,

0 (2π) (L + ∆)n

4 2

where the integral is now over Euclidean space, with L2 = 41 (Li )2 . In fact,

P

the integrand is rotationally invariant in d dimensions, the angular integral

dΩd is just the area Sd of a unit d − 1 sphere, where Sd = 2, 2π, 4π, 2π 2 for

R

full measure of integration is dV = r d−1 drdΩd so we have

1 dd ℓ (ℓ2 )p (−1)n+p i Sd 1 ∞ Ld+2p−1

Z Z Z Z

dα = dα dL .

0 (2π)d (ℓ2 − ∆(α) + iǫ)n (2π)d 0 0 [L2 + ∆(α)]n

This is treated in the book a bit later, with this equation as 7.80

π d/2 ∞ uα−1 Γ(α)Γ(β)

Z

Sd = 2 and α+β

du = B(α, β) = .

Γ(d/2) 0 (1 + u) Γ(α + β)

so

dd ℓ (ℓ2 )p

Z

(2)

(2π)d (ℓ2 − ∆(α) + iǫ)n

i (−1)n+p Γ( 21 d + p)Γ(n − p − d/2) 1 d+p−n

2

= ∆(α) .

(4π)d/2 Γ(d/2)Γ(n)

1

“Γ(N/2) and the volume of S D−1 ” and “The Beta function B(x, y)”.

- CalculusUploaded bynenad3d
- Reg 2017 Syllabus B.E. CSEUploaded byVinod Deenathayalan
- Survey FormulaUploaded byArsalan Pervez
- NEC IT syllabusUploaded byDaniel Joshua
- Mat 1512 (calculus a)Uploaded byAnonymous 7TSpgrU
- [Achim_Bachem___Bernhard_Korte___Martin_Grötschel.pdfUploaded byLê Thị Phương Viên
- Boc+Memo_SyllabusUploaded byJose Crawford
- Engineering Mathematics Link 12Uploaded byRnk Yadav
- Comp NetworksUploaded bytngongoma
- MAT401_A3_T3_2016Uploaded bykukumaluXD
- homework 2.pdfUploaded by鄧新弘
- Math 54 Reviewer problemsUploaded byJustin Quintos
- TocUploaded byAryan Kumar
- B Tech ECE Revised July 16 (1)Uploaded byswaran
- Bryam Mora - Juan Canar. Practica 2 MatlabUploaded byBryam Gabriel Mora
- Cengel_Heat_Transfer_Errata_Sheet.docUploaded byBkhari Haran
- A Hydrodynamic Model of Green Water IncidentsUploaded byAhmad Riza Fahluzi
- 08 01 Integration 1jhhgUploaded byRaja Kushwah
- Calculus TopicsUploaded byMike Beaton
- ececalculussyllabusroachfall2015Uploaded byapi-268267969
- 4E½GVqz7tgcSwGdwKRr0gpHDAB<US@F9Pu:Ho~r"ds~gweN9ioUploaded byheaan.lasai
- IntegrationUploaded byAlberto Flores
- BEGEOINFOUploaded byShebin
- KibsUploaded byReymond Dungog
- A Semianalytical Method for Steadystate Solution in HVDC AnalysisUploaded byVijay Raj
- lec_week7Uploaded bytaekondo
- ITUploaded byselvakumar
- Solutions Meng33111 Jan 2017Uploaded byChin Munez
- Gate SyllabusUploaded byMahesh Mahesh
- Door SyllabusUploaded byMahesh Mahesh

- Feynman's 1948 quantum mechanics course at Cornell - JCKeckUploaded byJohn Walker
- Bit Twiddling HacksUploaded byJohn Walker
- Dice Ware Word ListUploaded byG0r9eo
- Condensation of Determinants by Lewis CarrollUploaded byAlreadyaaken
- Class Notes From Feynman's Course on Mathematical Methods at Cornell 1947, by JCKeckUploaded byJohn Walker

- Grade 10 Mathematics Syllabus MatrixUploaded byJunjun Siguenza Ambrocio
- NSM9_5_1-3_CB_Ch13Uploaded byEren Sevince
- Lead_and_Lag_Compensators_with_Complex_Poles_and_ZerosUploaded byMert Yilmaz
- 1st Quarter Prelim g10Uploaded byNeil Trezley Sunico
- 2014-deqs-chap1-2 (1)Uploaded byChâu Tú
- Real NumberUploaded byAnand Singh
- class_10_test_2Uploaded byPraveen Kumar
- Number System Shorcuts Formulas for CAT - EDUSAATHIUploaded byTushar Tiku
- Polynomial Parametrization for the Solutions of Diophantine Equations and Arithmetic GroupsUploaded byapi-26401608
- Adding and Subtracting Rational ExpressionsUploaded byJohnSnow
- EM1_hw1pdfUploaded byaaalberteeeinstein
- Measuring the Size of Infinite Collections of Natural NumbersUploaded byAníbal Corti
- Finite Element Analysis NotesUploaded byvishnuvikasd
- 1894269-AQA-MFP3-W-QP-JUN11.pdfUploaded byastargroup
- C144Uploaded byVinayak Doifode
- MichaUploaded byAnonymous 0U9j6BLllB
- Ch03Uploaded bymivano
- samplepaper_4thUploaded bysraj68
- N5_N6.pdfUploaded byJing Ze
- Triangles HcUploaded byJoey Paras
- 10.1.1.96Uploaded bymarian_louis
- student_solutions_ch04.pdfUploaded bySergio Magalhaes Ferreira
- Application on Linear Diophantine EquationsUploaded byHazel Clemente Carreon
- indxUploaded bymasterrk
- 02-Chapter Quadratic SequenceUploaded bynaz2you
- Z-Transform and The Jury Stability TestUploaded byqzallie7343
- CAPE Pure Mathematics 2017 U2 P032Uploaded byAnonymous19
- math7-2-student-materialsUploaded byapi-264794990
- assignment 1Uploaded byapi-254238085
- FINDING CRITICAL BUCKLING LOAD OF RECTANGULAR PLATE USING INTEGRATED FORCE METHODUploaded byIJAET Journal