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You are on page 1of 16

DEPARTMENT ELECTRICAL/ELECTRONIC

ENGINEERING

YEAR 1

SUBJECT ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

SCIENCE 1

SEMESTER 1

COURSE CODE EEC 115

LIST OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE

EXPERIMENT 1: Experiment that shows single loop D.C

current with variable E.M.F.

CHAPTER TWO

EXPERIMENT 2: Experiment that shows series and parallel

D.C. circuit.

CHAPTER THREE

EXPERIMENT 3: Experiment showing charging and

discharging of a capacitor

CHAPTER FOUR

EXPERIMENT 4: Experiment to demonstrate a 5V to 12V

simple D.C. power supply

CHAPTER FIVE

EXPERIMENT 5: Experiment to verify Kirchoff’s voltage

and current law

CHAPTER ONE

EXPERIMENT 1

TITLE:

Experiment that shows single loop D.C current with variable E.M.F.

AIM/OBJECTIVE

1. To verify the following two equivalent forms of Ohms law

a. Express I as a function of V and R

b. Express V as a function of I and R

APPARATUS/EQUIPMENT NEEDED

i. Variable D.C power supply (max 12V)

ii. DMM/VOM

iii. 1kΩ resistor

iv. 2KΩ resistor

v. Breadboard/veroboard

vi. Connecting wires

THEORY/DESCRIPTION

Ohm’s law describes how voltage, V, current, I and resistance, R in a

circuit are related.

According to the law, the current in a circuit is directly proportional

to the circuit resistance.

Formula for Voltage:

*For a constant value of R, V is directly proportional to R

i.e., V=IR

Formula for Current:

For a constant value of V, I is inversely proportional to R

i.e., I = V/R

If applied Ohm’s law in pipe and water analogy, it makes intuitive

sense.

If we have a water pump that exerts a pressure (voltage) to push

water around a circuit (current) through a restriction (resistance),

we can model how the three variables are interrelated. If the

resistance to water flow stays the same and pump pressure

increases, the flow rate must also increase. If the pressure stays the

same and resistance increases (making it more difficult for water to

flow), then the flow rate must decrease. If the flow rate were to stay

the same while the resistance to flow decreased, the required

pressure from the pump would necessarily decrease.

METHOD/PROCEDURE

Current versus Voltage

i. Construct the circuit in fig a above

ii. Do not switch on the power supply, disconnect the resistor,

R, from the circuit and set it to 2K; now take current reading

and reconnect R1.

iii. Turn on the power supply and adjust it to 3V, measure the

current in ampere and record it in the table.

iv. Measure and record in turn the current (milliampere) at each

of the voltage settings shown in the table for R2

v. Calculate the value of the current by using I = V/RT; use

measured value of resistance

vi. Plot a graph of I versus V

TABLE

S/No. Voltage(V) R1(K) R2(K) Measured I RT(K) Calculated

(mA) I(mA)

1 3.0 2 1 1.13 3 1.0

2 6.0 2 1 1.48 3 1.3

3 9.0 2 1 3.49 3 2.0

4 12.0 2 1 4.30 3 2.5

OBSERVATION

PRECAUTION

i. I ensured that while taking resistance reading, the circuit is not

powered.

ii. I ensured proper and accurate connection of my circuit.

iii. I ensured proper checking of my connection before switching on

to avoid burning of the components in the circuit.

iv. When taking current and voltage readings, I ensured that the

metre is placed in series for current and parallel for voltage reading.

CONCLUSION

In conclusion, Ohm’s law is demonstrated and analogy for pipe and

water flow is used to describe the relationship of current, voltage

and resistance in the circuit.

QUESTION

i. What can you deduce about characteristics of series circuit?

ii. Would you recommend using measure value rather than

colour coding values in future? Why?

CHAPTER 2

EXPERIMENT 2

TITLE:

Experiment that shows series and parallel D.C Circuit

AIM/ OBJECTIVE

To investigate characteristics of series and parallel D.C Circuits

APPARATUS/ MATERIALS

1. DVD/VOM

2. 9V D.C. supply

3. Resistors of 1K, 470Ω, 3.3K and 10K

4. LED

5. Connecting wires

6. Salt & water

THEORY

Series D.C circuit is a circuit which has the same current throughout

the circuit. Hence the total or effective resistance, RT, becomes the

summation of individual resistances in series.

i.e., RT = R1 + R2 + . . . Rn

According to Ohm’s law, Current

I = E/RT = E/(R1+R2)

E = V1 + V2 + V3 + . . .Vn (Kirchoff’s law)

Where V1 = IR1, V2 = IR2, . . .

i.e., V1 = E.R1/(R1+R2) , V2 = E.R2/(R1+R2)

Parallel D.C. circuits on the other hand are circuits whose voltage

across parallel elements are the same.

The total or equivalent resistance, (RT) is given by:

1/RT = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + . . .1/Rn

If there are only two resistors connected in parallel, its equivalent

resistance is given by:

RT = R1R2/(R1+R2)

Resistance has a unit of ohms (Ω).

The current, I is expressed as

IT = I1 + I2 + . . . I n

Applying current divider rule,

I1 = R2IT/(R1+R2)

I2 = R1IT/(R1+R2)

DIAGRAM

METHOD/PROCEDURE

1. Connect the circuit in fig. b above.

2. Measure the resistors before connection and also find their

connection coding nominal values. Record them.

3. Switch on the ………….

Measure the currents I1 and I2 through 3.3K and 10K resistors.

4. Measure the voltages

V1 and V2 across R1 and R2 respectively with DMM or VOM.

Record their readings.

5. Calculate I1 and I2 using current divider rule.

6. Calculate V1 and V2 using voltage divider rule.

7. Record your readings.

Table: SOME VALUES MISSING

Nominal measured measured measured

1 IK 999 6.35 0.03

2 470Ω 468 2.23 0

3 3.3K 3.29K

4 10K 9.98K

OBSERVATION

PRECAUTIONS

CONCLUSION

QUESTION

i. How does the total resistance compare to that of the

smallest of the parallel resistor?

ii. What can you deduce about the characteristics of series and

parallel resistors in the circuit above?

iii. What is the work of LED in the circuit of fig. b above?

CHAPTER THREE

EXPERIMENT 3

TITLE:

Experiment showing charging and discharging of a capacitor

AIM/OBJECTIVE

To know how to charge and discharge capacitor

APPARATUS/MATERIALS

1. DMM or VOM

2. 100uF (capacitor Electrolytic)

3. 100K resistor (Br, Bl, yellow)

4. Breadboard/veroboard

5. Wires

THEORY

Capacitors are made of two plates separated by an insulator

(dielectric) like ………………, paper or air. The function of the

capacitor is to store electric charge. Capacitors also allow

alternating current (AC) to pass and block direct current (DC). It has

a unit known as Farad, either microfarad (uF) or picofarad (pF). One

millionth farad and one million picofarad is equal to one microfarad.

It is now of two types: Electrolytic and non-electrolytic

When capacitors are charged, voltage is applied to it.

The capacitor is charged by connecting it to a load like a resistor

METHOD/PROCEDURE

1. Wire the circuit in fig. C

2. Do not initially connect the positive lead of the battery to the

resistor.

3. Connect the multimeter across the capacitor. Now connect 9V

battery when you are ready to start charging the capacitor.

4. Disconnect the battery positive lead.

OBSERVATION

PRECAUTION

CONCLUSION

The circuit shows how capacitor charges and discharges.

CHAPTER FOUR

EXPERIMENT 4

TITLE:

Experiment to demonstrate a 5V to 12V simple D.C. power supply.

AIM/OBJECTIVE

To construct a circuit that converts AC signal to DC signals.

APPARATUS/EQUIPMENT

1. 12V, 300mA/500mA Transformer

2. Capacitor (100uF, 25V/16V).

3. Diodes (………………………..)

4. Regulator (either 12V Zener diode or 1C 7805)

5. Breadboard/veroboard

6. Wires

THEORY

D.C. power supply is a power source to electronic circuits. The most

common power supply is the one that gets its input from standard A

wall socket outlet that supplies 220Vac at 50Hz. Then this common

voltage is converted by the power supply into one or more d.c.

voltages that goes to the electronic equipment.

*The 12Vac is now stepped down by the stepdown transformer to

18Vac

The 18vac (lower Ac) voltage is converted into pulsating dc voltage

by rectifiers either half wave or full wave or bridge rectifiers.

A 1000uF, 25V capacitor which is a large capacitor filters and

smoothens the pulses into more constant d.c. the capacitor charges

up to the peak of DC pulses and discharges very slowly into the load.

The regulator which is the zener diode or 780S maintain a fixed d.c.

output.

For 780S, an output of 5V is regulated.

OR

PROCEDURE

1. Connect the circuit in fig. d or fig. e above

2. Measure the A.C voltage of the transformer output

3. Connect the diodes as shown in the figure. Also connect the

capacitors and zener diodes.

4. In fig. d, set the DMM to DC voltage and measure the output

voltage (DC voltage)

PRECAUTION

OBSERVATION

CONCLUSION

In conclusion, alternating current with age introduced to the circuit

is converted to dc which is used to power electronic gadgets. Power

supply has 4 stages which are the transformer, the rectifier, the filter

and regulator stage.

*Graph

CHAPTER FIVE

EXPERIMENT 5

TITLE:

Experiment to Verify Kirchoff’s voltage and current law

AIM/OBJECTIVE

To investigate and verify Kirchoff’s voltage and current laws

APPARATUS/EQUIPMENT

1. Resistors

2. Veroboard/Breadboard

3. DMM or VOM

4. DC power supply

THEORY

Kirchoff’s voltage law:

This law states that the algebraic sum of all voltages in a loop must

equal to zero.

E = V1 + V2 + V3 + . . .Vn

E-V1-V2-V3- . . .Vn = 0

Example: Consider the simple series circuit in fig. f. the points in the

circuit for voltage reference are numbered.

As we are dealing with d.c. circuits, we should carefully connect the

voltmeter across power supply or any of the resistances.

Here, as labeled in the diagram;

E2-1 = 15V; voltage from point 2 to 1

E3-2 = -10V; voltage from points 3 to 2

E4-3 = -5V; voltage from points 4 to 3

*Diagram

According to the law above, the algebraic sum of all the currents

entering and exiting a node must equal zero.

Mathematically,

Ientering + Iexiting = 0

*Diagram

PROCEDURE

KVL/KCL

1. Construct circuit as shown in figs. F and g above.

2. Set the digital multimeter to 20V to measure V1 and V2 in KVL

and record the sum on the table.

3. Also measure and record the currents IR1 and IR2 and IRT

Record your readings

TABLE

RT R(measured)

330 328

470 467

1K 999

2K 1.98k

KVL

VT(Volt) V1(Volt) V2(Volt)

13-5 8.5 5.0

KCL

IT(A) IR1 IR2

0.02 0.01 0.006

PRECAUTION

CONCLUSION

QUESTION

In fig. f, V1 = 15V, V2=10V, then the applied voltage using KVL is . . . .

. ...

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