You are on page 1of 16

TABLE OF CONTENTS

DEPARTMENT ELECTRICAL/ELECTRONIC
ENGINEERING
YEAR 1
SUBJECT ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
SCIENCE 1
SEMESTER 1
COURSE CODE EEC 115

LIST OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE
EXPERIMENT 1: Experiment that shows single loop D.C
current with variable E.M.F.

CHAPTER TWO
EXPERIMENT 2: Experiment that shows series and parallel
D.C. circuit.

CHAPTER THREE
EXPERIMENT 3: Experiment showing charging and
discharging of a capacitor

CHAPTER FOUR
EXPERIMENT 4: Experiment to demonstrate a 5V to 12V
simple D.C. power supply

CHAPTER FIVE
EXPERIMENT 5: Experiment to verify Kirchoff’s voltage
and current law
CHAPTER ONE

EXPERIMENT 1
TITLE:
Experiment that shows single loop D.C current with variable E.M.F.

AIM/OBJECTIVE
1. To verify the following two equivalent forms of Ohms law
a. Express I as a function of V and R
b. Express V as a function of I and R

APPARATUS/EQUIPMENT NEEDED
i. Variable D.C power supply (max 12V)
ii. DMM/VOM
iii. 1kΩ resistor
iv. 2KΩ resistor
v. Breadboard/veroboard
vi. Connecting wires

THEORY/DESCRIPTION
Ohm’s law describes how voltage, V, current, I and resistance, R in a
circuit are related.
According to the law, the current in a circuit is directly proportional
to the circuit resistance.
Formula for Voltage:
*For a constant value of R, V is directly proportional to R
i.e., V=IR
Formula for Current:
For a constant value of V, I is inversely proportional to R
i.e., I = V/R
If applied Ohm’s law in pipe and water analogy, it makes intuitive
sense.
If we have a water pump that exerts a pressure (voltage) to push
water around a circuit (current) through a restriction (resistance),
we can model how the three variables are interrelated. If the
resistance to water flow stays the same and pump pressure
increases, the flow rate must also increase. If the pressure stays the
same and resistance increases (making it more difficult for water to
flow), then the flow rate must decrease. If the flow rate were to stay
the same while the resistance to flow decreased, the required
pressure from the pump would necessarily decrease.

METHOD/PROCEDURE
Current versus Voltage
i. Construct the circuit in fig a above
ii. Do not switch on the power supply, disconnect the resistor,
R, from the circuit and set it to 2K; now take current reading
and reconnect R1.
iii. Turn on the power supply and adjust it to 3V, measure the
current in ampere and record it in the table.
iv. Measure and record in turn the current (milliampere) at each
of the voltage settings shown in the table for R2
v. Calculate the value of the current by using I = V/RT; use
measured value of resistance
vi. Plot a graph of I versus V

*Check table below to know if any adjustments should be made

TABLE
S/No. Voltage(V) R1(K) R2(K) Measured I RT(K) Calculated
(mA) I(mA)
1 3.0 2 1 1.13 3 1.0
2 6.0 2 1 1.48 3 1.3
3 9.0 2 1 3.49 3 2.0
4 12.0 2 1 4.30 3 2.5

OBSERVATION

PRECAUTION
i. I ensured that while taking resistance reading, the circuit is not
powered.
ii. I ensured proper and accurate connection of my circuit.
iii. I ensured proper checking of my connection before switching on
to avoid burning of the components in the circuit.
iv. When taking current and voltage readings, I ensured that the
metre is placed in series for current and parallel for voltage reading.
CONCLUSION
In conclusion, Ohm’s law is demonstrated and analogy for pipe and
water flow is used to describe the relationship of current, voltage
and resistance in the circuit.
QUESTION
i. What can you deduce about characteristics of series circuit?
ii. Would you recommend using measure value rather than
colour coding values in future? Why?
CHAPTER 2

EXPERIMENT 2
TITLE:
Experiment that shows series and parallel D.C Circuit

AIM/ OBJECTIVE
To investigate characteristics of series and parallel D.C Circuits

APPARATUS/ MATERIALS
1. DVD/VOM
2. 9V D.C. supply
3. Resistors of 1K, 470Ω, 3.3K and 10K
4. LED
5. Connecting wires
6. Salt & water

THEORY
Series D.C circuit is a circuit which has the same current throughout
the circuit. Hence the total or effective resistance, RT, becomes the
summation of individual resistances in series.
i.e., RT = R1 + R2 + . . . Rn
According to Ohm’s law, Current
I = E/RT = E/(R1+R2)
E = V1 + V2 + V3 + . . .Vn (Kirchoff’s law)
Where V1 = IR1, V2 = IR2, . . .
i.e., V1 = E.R1/(R1+R2) , V2 = E.R2/(R1+R2)
Parallel D.C. circuits on the other hand are circuits whose voltage
across parallel elements are the same.
The total or equivalent resistance, (RT) is given by:
1/RT = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + . . .1/Rn
If there are only two resistors connected in parallel, its equivalent
resistance is given by:
RT = R1R2/(R1+R2)
Resistance has a unit of ohms (Ω).
The current, I is expressed as
IT = I1 + I2 + . . . I n
Applying current divider rule,
I1 = R2IT/(R1+R2)
I2 = R1IT/(R1+R2)

DIAGRAM

METHOD/PROCEDURE
1. Connect the circuit in fig. b above.
2. Measure the resistors before connection and also find their
connection coding nominal values. Record them.
3. Switch on the ………….
Measure the currents I1 and I2 through 3.3K and 10K resistors.
4. Measure the voltages
V1 and V2 across R1 and R2 respectively with DMM or VOM.
Record their readings.
5. Calculate I1 and I2 using current divider rule.
6. Calculate V1 and V2 using voltage divider rule.
7. Record your readings.
Table: SOME VALUES MISSING

S/N R (KΩ) R(KΩ) V(volt) I(mA)


Nominal measured measured measured
1 IK 999 6.35 0.03
2 470Ω 468 2.23 0
3 3.3K 3.29K
4 10K 9.98K

OBSERVATION

PRECAUTIONS

CONCLUSION

QUESTION
i. How does the total resistance compare to that of the
smallest of the parallel resistor?
ii. What can you deduce about the characteristics of series and
parallel resistors in the circuit above?
iii. What is the work of LED in the circuit of fig. b above?
CHAPTER THREE

EXPERIMENT 3
TITLE:
Experiment showing charging and discharging of a capacitor

AIM/OBJECTIVE
To know how to charge and discharge capacitor

APPARATUS/MATERIALS
1. DMM or VOM
2. 100uF (capacitor Electrolytic)
3. 100K resistor (Br, Bl, yellow)
4. Breadboard/veroboard
5. Wires

THEORY
Capacitors are made of two plates separated by an insulator
(dielectric) like ………………, paper or air. The function of the
capacitor is to store electric charge. Capacitors also allow
alternating current (AC) to pass and block direct current (DC). It has
a unit known as Farad, either microfarad (uF) or picofarad (pF). One
millionth farad and one million picofarad is equal to one microfarad.
It is now of two types: Electrolytic and non-electrolytic
When capacitors are charged, voltage is applied to it.
The capacitor is charged by connecting it to a load like a resistor
METHOD/PROCEDURE
1. Wire the circuit in fig. C
2. Do not initially connect the positive lead of the battery to the
resistor.
3. Connect the multimeter across the capacitor. Now connect 9V
battery when you are ready to start charging the capacitor.
4. Disconnect the battery positive lead.

OBSERVATION

PRECAUTION

CONCLUSION
The circuit shows how capacitor charges and discharges.
CHAPTER FOUR

EXPERIMENT 4
TITLE:
Experiment to demonstrate a 5V to 12V simple D.C. power supply.

AIM/OBJECTIVE
To construct a circuit that converts AC signal to DC signals.

APPARATUS/EQUIPMENT
1. 12V, 300mA/500mA Transformer
2. Capacitor (100uF, 25V/16V).
3. Diodes (………………………..)
4. Regulator (either 12V Zener diode or 1C 7805)
5. Breadboard/veroboard
6. Wires

THEORY
D.C. power supply is a power source to electronic circuits. The most
common power supply is the one that gets its input from standard A
wall socket outlet that supplies 220Vac at 50Hz. Then this common
voltage is converted by the power supply into one or more d.c.
voltages that goes to the electronic equipment.
*The 12Vac is now stepped down by the stepdown transformer to
18Vac
The 18vac (lower Ac) voltage is converted into pulsating dc voltage
by rectifiers either half wave or full wave or bridge rectifiers.
A 1000uF, 25V capacitor which is a large capacitor filters and
smoothens the pulses into more constant d.c. the capacitor charges
up to the peak of DC pulses and discharges very slowly into the load.
The regulator which is the zener diode or 780S maintain a fixed d.c.
output.
For 780S, an output of 5V is regulated.

OR

PROCEDURE
1. Connect the circuit in fig. d or fig. e above
2. Measure the A.C voltage of the transformer output
3. Connect the diodes as shown in the figure. Also connect the
capacitors and zener diodes.
4. In fig. d, set the DMM to DC voltage and measure the output
voltage (DC voltage)
PRECAUTION

OBSERVATION

CONCLUSION
In conclusion, alternating current with age introduced to the circuit
is converted to dc which is used to power electronic gadgets. Power
supply has 4 stages which are the transformer, the rectifier, the filter
and regulator stage.

*Graph

CHAPTER FIVE

EXPERIMENT 5
TITLE:
Experiment to Verify Kirchoff’s voltage and current law

AIM/OBJECTIVE
To investigate and verify Kirchoff’s voltage and current laws

APPARATUS/EQUIPMENT
1. Resistors
2. Veroboard/Breadboard
3. DMM or VOM
4. DC power supply

THEORY
Kirchoff’s voltage law:
This law states that the algebraic sum of all voltages in a loop must
equal to zero.
E = V1 + V2 + V3 + . . .Vn
E-V1-V2-V3- . . .Vn = 0
Example: Consider the simple series circuit in fig. f. the points in the
circuit for voltage reference are numbered.
As we are dealing with d.c. circuits, we should carefully connect the
voltmeter across power supply or any of the resistances.
Here, as labeled in the diagram;
E2-1 = 15V; voltage from point 2 to 1
E3-2 = -10V; voltage from points 3 to 2
E4-3 = -5V; voltage from points 4 to 3

*Diagram

2. Kirchoff’s current law:


According to the law above, the algebraic sum of all the currents
entering and exiting a node must equal zero.
Mathematically,
Ientering + Iexiting = 0

*Diagram
PROCEDURE

KVL/KCL
1. Construct circuit as shown in figs. F and g above.
2. Set the digital multimeter to 20V to measure V1 and V2 in KVL
and record the sum on the table.
3. Also measure and record the currents IR1 and IR2 and IRT
Record your readings

TABLE
RT R(measured)
330 328
470 467
1K 999
2K 1.98k

KVL
VT(Volt) V1(Volt) V2(Volt)
13-5 8.5 5.0

KCL
IT(A) IR1 IR2
0.02 0.01 0.006

PRECAUTION

CONCLUSION

QUESTION
In fig. f, V1 = 15V, V2=10V, then the applied voltage using KVL is . . . .
. ...