Forest Resources Commission 700 - 747 Fort Street Victoria, B.C. V8V 1X4

Canadian Cataloguing in Publication Data wkiSn Lolumbla. Forest Hesources
The future of our forests Cover title. Chairman: AL. (Sandy) Peel ISBN O-7726-1 330-3 1. Forest management - British Columbia. 2. Forest policy - British Columbia. 3. Forests and forestry - British Columbia - Multiple use. I. Peel, A.L. (Sandy) II. Title. SD146.B7B76 1991 333.75’ 09711 15’ C91-092151-2 Commission.


Forest Resources Commission 700 - 747 Fort Street Victoria, B.C. V8V 1X4

RPF Derrick Curtis.FOREST RESOURCES COMMISSION COMMISSIONERS A. Robert G.D. Final Text Writer .. Secretary to the Commission Lisa James. Doreen Research Librarian Secretary/Receptionist Clerk Lavallee. Executive Director Peter Fisher. Vice-Chairman Collier Azak Roger Freeman. Secretary to the Chairman Thora Clarkson. (Sandy) Peel. Rogers. PAg.C.L. Kennedy. M. Q.C. Joyce Harder David Haywood-Farmer Robert W. O. Accounts Don Whiteley. Chairman Peter Burns. Garry Sharpe Cyril Shelford John Szauer. Jack Munro Carmen Honourable Purdy Ph. Jane Dublin. RPF.D.

Burns. B. Commissioner es. x2sioner . herewith. Enclosure A. 1991 You asked the Forest Resources Commission to enquire into and provide you with advice on four specific matters respecting the The Commission has completed its forests of British Columbia.. review of these matters in accordance with the Terms of Reference given to it and. L.Fax(604)35&7888 April The Honourable Claude Richmond Minister of Forests Parliament Buildings 1x4 Victoria.C. (Sandy) Peel Chairman $62 * Peter T. Vice-Chai 2 Commissioner' / Commissioner Hon.C.'Robert'G. Q-C. O. Richmond: 15. respectfully submits its first full report. VW Dear Mr.

................................................. Ministry of Forests Response to Interim Report ................................. Mandated Tasks .............. 2......................................................................... 3............................ 8...... Public Participation in Forest Planning and Management ...... 7.................... Biographies of Commissioners ................ List of Participants .................... Education ........................................................................... An Interim Report ....................... 5....................5 Vision Statement . 8............................................................................................................................. 10.......................................................... Ministry of Education Response to Interim Report .......... 6........... Draft Lease Documents ... 3........................ Introduction ........................................................ Historical Sketch ............ Bibliography .......... Land Use Planning ................................................ A Management and Financial Structure ............................... Terms of Reference ..................... Glossary ...... Financial and Economic Considerations ............ 9.................................................................. 3 5 7 17 21 25 27 35 39 43 65 90 ........................................ Background Papers ..... Forest Practices .............................................. ........................................................................................................................... Appendices 1.. 6..... Inventories .................... 9..................................................... 6 8 11 23 33 5................. 5.........................................................5 7....................................... Tenure...................................................................TABLE OF CONTENTS Table of Contents 1...... 7.................. 11......... 4........................................................................................................ 12................................................................... 2... 4........5 87 97 10.............. 10.................................................................................

. .. Output Indicators Table 10 University Trained Foresters International Comparison ...... 67 Table 9A Summary Results of Alternative Management Scenarios............... ...................... 7...*............._... ..... ........................... .. Forest Related Tourism and Recreational Activity Impact of the Primary Beef Production Ministry of Forests .*. 5... 2.... . 3.Income & Expenses Current Stumpage Income Valuation Market Valuation Approach Summary Sector . ...... .................. ....... 6............ ..101 Map Map of B..C. 37 Share of Committed Harvesting Rights Held by the 10 Largest Companies ..... .............................. Value Indicationsv ...*.._..TABLE OF CONTENTS Figures 1.... 54 ..........*....... . 36 Forest Land Ownership Corporate Control of Committed Harvesting Rights in B.. s 81 Tables Table 1 Table 2 Table 3 Table 4 Table 5 Table 6 Table 7 Table 8 Employment and GDP Impacts of the Forest Sector .. 64 ..... .........**...... ............. TFLs and Non-tenured Areas ............ 69 Table 9B Summary Results of Alternative Management .... .................. 57 . .. 59 Annual Harvest Levels Compared with MC’ on Crown Lands ...... .. .... . ........................ . ..... ......... 4.... 70 Scenarios........*. .............. . ........................... ...*... 67 Approach ... 31 ...... .C.. .. ............*........ ........*... 66 . .............. ............. . ... showing TSAs.. Organization Chart Land Use Planning Structure ..1984 ST1989 Employment ................ ..... 58 62 62 Dependence on Forestry British Columbia Tourism Estimated Economic Impact .......... . ................ ................. ......... ...... 37 Fifty Largest Forest Products Companies in the World . . 16 Proposed Management International ..1*1...*. . .... ... ..........

it will come from managing our forests better for all values . or it can all be managed more effectively to maintain or even improve the production of all values. All of us on the Commission are grateful for their contribution. environmental. s Once valued only for their economic worth. The messages they gave the Commission were as complex and varied as the people themselves. Driving the current level of dissatisfaction is a dramatic shift in society’ values. That shift in values underlies much of the conflict that has dominated the debate over forest resources in the last few years. negative community impact and reduced government revenue.the status quo is not good enough. Very early in the exercise. Either large portions of forest land can be withdrawn from commercial exploitation to protect and preserve certain non-timber values.either directly in the many forums and public meetings held throughout the province. and what are acceptable practices to get us enhanced stewardship. It must change. INTRODUCTION A little less than two years ago. and everyone is keenly interested in improving the way the activities that impact upon them are managed. the Commission recognized that any changes in the way the forests are managed to reflect a full range of values will depend on an allencompassing vision of what we want from our forests. The forests. The key phrase in the Vision Statement . spiritual. social. and many more. the forest resources now represent a much wider range of values . The Commission believes that the public’ desire to see a full range of values reflected in our forests can be realized in s one of two ways. the rivers. We have. That Vision Statement is a simple statement of principle that has led to many recommendations for change.aesthetic.1. with the resultant loss of jobs. the lakes. the mountains . but one theme underlined virtually everything we heard . It was a daunting task. Rather. The way the forests and their many values are currently being managed by government and industry is out of step with what the public expects.concluded that the greatest benefit to all British Columbians will not come from significantly reducing commercial activity in our forests. Everyone in British Columbia has a stake in their welfare. the British Columbia Forest Resources Commission was asked to examine the state of the province’ forest land base and recommend s improvements to the way it is managed. Thousands talked to us .and you will see it used again and again in the rest of this report .they are the heart and soul of the social and economic fabric of this province. or in written submissions.

It means making choices about the relative importance of any one of those values with a full understanding of the impacts on the others. values such as cattle production.a great opportunity . aesthetics should all be maximized through proper forest management. wilderness. wildlife. A. and in a way that not only preserves them. manage. (Sandy) Peel Chairman . water quality. and the vision is not complete. This shift from managing primarily for timber values to managing for all values requires significant change in how we grasp the vision of enhanced stewardship for our forests so that successive generations may benefit from and enjoy the full range of values that our forests can provide. The components and resulting recommendations outlined in the following chapters are like pieces in a jigsaw puzzle -they all come together to form one vision of enhanced stewardship. Leave some pieces out. British Columbians have an opportunity .Enhanced stewardship means recognizing that in addition to timber values. L. but enhances them. and finance the activities that are carried out in our forests. recreation. It means understanding the full range of economic and social costs and benefits associated with any decisions about resource management.

and social conflict. Long taken and providing overtaken

have become a focus of economic, environmental

The forests of British Columbia

for granted financial

as the engine


the economic


of the province been as pristine

and material


for us all or material

they have suddenly wealth. Such things

by a dramatic

shift in values.

People now recognize

a wide range of forest

values that have little to do with economics

wilderness, environmental protection, water quality, recreation - and a host of others - are seen as equally important to economic security. Many feel those values should in fact take precedence province so well. shift in values, there is conflict. to support through them, They argue convincingly of our ability, capacity. Those who defend to the tremendous forest renewal exploitation They put of of the need to continue prudent the old wealth down over the traditional resource values that have served the

As with any significant values point, created by resource practices, to maintain

with a large body of evidence extraction.

that path, and speak confidently

that industrial

Those who place new values ahead of before it is too late.

the old argue, with equal conviction, the forests, and to preserve environmental quality and preservation

of the need to halt the commercial ahead of economics.

what hasn’ been liquidated t

There is truth in both arguments. part of society in general reflect both points encourage of view.

What has been lacking is any real effort on the for forest management that will and

to discover if there is a formula the benefits

Is there a way to chart a course that will recognize

the new values while maintaining Commission

of the old? Hence the conflict. After hearing has developed the a

The Forest Resources views of thousands vision of the future STEWARDSHIP

believes there is a better way. the Commission By embracing

of dedicated that provides

British Columbians, that formula. can achieve In this way:

the ethic of ENHANCED of all values in our for all values on the

British Columbians

the full potential management

forests of the future.

This means intensive,


largest forest land base possible.

the forests of British Columbia will provide for the economic,

Acceptance important. complete management participate

of this vision

requires fashion


We must now cooperatively


our and

forests in a truly integrated information requires

that considers

all the values that society deems are on its use based on accurate produce. All points Such comprehensive of view must have to

Land use must be planned, a stable financial making

and decisions commitment. process.

about what it can biologically Perhaps most important

access to the process.

of all, people must be prepared

fully in the decision

The forests of British Columbia are unique and have the potential to provide us all with lifestyles that reflect a tremendous range of values - perhaps even values as yet undiscovered. The vision outlined here, and detailed in the following sections of this report, will be a challenge for British Columbians. But the rewards of meeting that challenge are immense.

1. A Blueprint for Diversity
The effective use of land and its resources has from the beginning of time shaped our progress and evolution. All societies - primitive or advanced - have had a vision of the land and based their social structure on that vision. With that in mind, the Forest Resources Commission believes that any effort to protect and enhance the many values represented by British Columbia’ land base must s begin with a comprehensive Land Use Plan. From that plan, and fully integrated with it, will flow a variety of management systems designed to make the best use of all those values. This chapter will outline that plan and set the stage for the integrated use of the land and its resources. Historically, Land Use Planning in British Columbia has been largely an economic concern. Those sectors of society that could promise economic benefits in the form of industrial development and jobs were usually given the right to extract whatever resources they required. While other values were considered from time to time, they all took a back seat to the primary call for timber, minerals, agricultural development, etc. As a result, planning on Crown land was always based on a proposal for a specific use - such as timber harvesting. Government departments and agencies were structured to provide support - or advocacy - for these proposals. Thus the research and technical expertise became narrowly focussed to the specific use being proposed. Budgets were structured accordingly, and little consideration was given to integrating any other values into Land Use Planning. The system has served the province well, providing the infrastructure for the growth of a wealthy, sophisticated society with well-endowed social programs and an enviable quality of life. Any values lost were, at the time, either unknown or not considered worthy of preservation. But two important factors have now combined to require a new, more integrated approach to Land Use Planning. Through a systematic awarding of resource rights over the last century, nearly all the provincial land base has been allocated to one or more forms of specific resource use. And social values have changed dramatically. Recreation, wilderness, wildlife, water quality and quantity, aesthetics - those values and others have attained a much higher standing in the minds of British Columbians. The economic benefits offered by resource development are no longer the only important values in the forests - indeed, some argue that in many cases the economic benefits should take second, third or fourth place to those other values. Conflict and confrontation have become common in a clash of seemingly incompatible values. The current system of Land Use Planning, with its emphasis on the economic values, has tried to adapt to the new values and demands with only limited success. It is fundamentally ill-equipped to serve the increasingly complex demands of a public with differing values.

The Forest Resources Commission has concluded that a comprehensive

Land Use

Plan is required to accommodate that new, fuller range of values and to allow the introduction of additional values as society changes its outlook. The Land Use Plan will be a blueprint for managing this change. The Commission has also concluded that the Land Use Plan must apply to the entire province. Many of the values that society derives from the provincial forests are also drawn from other Crown land bases (federal and provincial parks, Native lands, etc.) and from private lands. While there is no suggestion that these additional Crown lands and private lands be further regulated under the Land Use Plan, their contribution to society should be acknowledged and appreciated. Without their inclusion, the picture of values is incomplete. Plans currently in place at municipal or regional district levels should be incorporated as is into the overall Land Use Plan. However, in no way will the Land Use Plan, or its administrative structure, usurp the existing legal jurisdictions of municipal or regional districts. The structure of the Land Use Plan, and a schedule for efficient implementation, detailed in subsequent sections of this chapter. are

The Forest Resources Commission firmly believes that the Land Use Plan will provide the best opportunity for the people of British Columbia, through their elected government, to establish the goals and priorities essential for the protection and enhancement of all values associated with the land and the resources it holds. The plan provides a blueprint for managing all values across the full provincial landscape. It will also permit the full recognition of the gains and losses inherent in choices between different land use classifications and their individual management regimes. The public has a role to play in the planning process at key points in the proposed Land Use Planning structure. All interested parties must have an opportunity to participate in Land Use Planning to ensure that multiple social values are considered. This overriding importance of this issue in defining values is explained in more detail in a subsequent chapter of this report. The process envisaged for the Land Use Plan must be open, neutral, and balanced. High quality land stewardship is possible only if it is kept arms-length from the influence of short term economic or political aspirations. Current land use mechanisms are shared among several provincial government ministries (Forests, Environment, Parks, etc.) each with an advocacy position and with a profusion of overlapping jurisdictions and conflicting goals. For that reason, none of those ministries - Forests, Environment, Parks, etc. - is an acceptable administrator of a comprehensive Land Use Plan designed to reflect all values. Each brings a bias of one kind or another to the table. The Forest Resources Commission believes a restructured Ministry of Crown Lands, with a mandate to ensure the optimum balance of activities on ail provincial Crown lands, should coordinate all Land Use Planning functions. It will be best equipped to ensure that the Land Use Plan functions as objectively as possible, with the best interests of all British Columbians in mind. The Commission believes that while

the restructured Ministryof CrownLands couldretainits existingfunctions. This should in no way impair the ministry’ ability to carry out objectively its administrative responsibilities s over the Land Use Plan. The Forest Resources Commission recommends that: 1. 4. Organization of the Planning Process British Columbia has four of the five major climates in the world. management protocols such as are currently in place between the Ministry of Crown Lands and the Ministry of Forests could be entered into with the new Forest Management structure recommended in this report. The Forest Resources Commission has concluded that a thorough review is required to identify whatever legislative amendments will be necessary to ensure that all government ministries are fully supportive of the new process and that their involvement is rationalized. This consolidation of jurisdiction will require significant legislative changes. etc. the government review and amend the legislation of all ministries with responsibilities pertaining to the land base of the province to ensure both their involvement and support of comprehensive land use planning. that public involvement be set out in legislation and cover all aspects of the planning process. More than half its 3. both in the creation of a new act to empower the various components of the Land Use Plan under the Ministry of Crown Lands. Any organizational structure designed to carry out an effective Land Use Plan in the province must take this geographic and demographic diversity into account. the government enact legislation giving a restructured Ministry of Crown Lands a broader mandate to ensure the optimum balance of activities on all Crown lands and to implement and administer the Land Use Plan.1 million people are clustered in the urban regions of Vancouver and Victoria. including issuingand the recording of range leases and other specific leased activities (such as heli-skiing. and the largest number of distinct ecosystems in the country. 2. It must combine the broad goals and objectives of a centralized administration with the need for regional and local planning control. the Government of British Columbia introduce comprehensive land use planning for the total land base of the province. and in amendments or deletions in existing legislation as it affects the multiplicity of planning functions now under the auspices of several other ministries. 2.coordination of the Land Use Plan should be its primary function. 14 biogeoclimatic zones.) Where appropriate. 3. the Forest Resources Commission has concluded that a multi-tiered process for creating and implementing the Land Use Plan is required. It must be capable of marrying what is in the broad provincial interest with what is in the regional and local interest. To that end. with the rest scattered in pockets over a landscape that covers nearly 100 million hectares. .

should proceed to Cabinet for resolution. Only those land use proposals that cannot be resolved through the planning and appeal process. discussion and research on Land Use Plans. These Local Planning Groups are the core working groups of the whole process. The Local Planning Groups. The Land Use Commission will be able to assist the government in this process by determining land use capabilities and recommended targets for each of the values derived from the land base. the actual number and make-up should be left for the Land Use Commission to determine. While disputes over land use designations will be settled within the planning framework (as described later in this section). The Land Use Commission may want to establish a number of Regional Planning Groups throughout the province. The Forest Resources Commission has concluded that an independent three-member Appeal Board is required to adjudicate operational . They will provide the initial public input to the decision making process. provide a neutral forum for information. Legislation establishing the Land Use Commission must also provide for an independent Appeal Board to settle disputes. The Regional Planning Groups could act as a conduit for the cross-flow of provincial goals and objectives down to the local level as well as local concerns and issues up to the provincial level. the Land Use Commission will assist in developing broad goals and objectives. there is a need for a formal appeal process to settle disagreements between or among user groups within an approved plan.A Land Use Commission will report to the Cabinet Committee on Sustainable Development through the Minister of Crown Lands. making assessments of values and priorities throughout. and their importance cannot be overstated. or that do not fall within established goals and land use classifications. and these should reflect a regional and sectoral balance. While the Forest Resources Commission believes there may be a need for six to eight of these Regional Planning Groups. and make recommendations to government on the range of values to be considered in making land use decisions. These goals should reflect the varied ecosystems of the provincial biogeoclimatic zones. will develop the detailed plans for land use throughout the province. Land Use Commission Government must establish the values that will be identified in the plan and set goals for the attainment of these values. Detailed planning will be carried out by Local Planning Groups which report ultimately to the Land Use Commission. comprising professional resource staff as well as private interests and user groups. The Forest Resources Commission believes that the Land Use Commission should have a limited number of appointments. Land Use Commission staff should represent a range of resource professionals and planners that can assist the Commissioners in developing plans and in establishing an appropriate mechanism for mediation and dispute settlement. The legitimacy and integrity of each value that the land provides must be recognized in these goals. In conjunction with the Sustainable Development Committee.

The classification determined for an individual site will be governed to a large extent by these factors. the Forest Resources Commission believes that the determination of the appropriate number of Regional Planning Groups and their land base responsibility should be left up to the Land Use Commission to decide as it develops and reviews inventory information and the interactions of the land use classifications as they are developed and approved. elected (community) representatives. The Forest Resources Commission considers between six and eight groups to be sufficient. There are six existing forest regions in the province and eight provincial development regions. An initial step for the Land Use Commission should be to coordinate the development of provincial goals. The Regional Planning Group appointments should include. The regional plans will be open to public scrutiny and advice.disputes among user groups with differing interests and values. biological. Mediation of conflicts on site designations could be conducted by Regional Planning Groups. Regional Planning Groups The Forest Resources Commission believes there may be a legitimate role for Regional Planning Groups. the Forest Resources Commission believes that the Land Use Commission should be responsible for defining the nature and responsibilities of these regional groups. This will require an assessment of the capabilities of the differing provincial lands and forests. The Commission sees the Regional Planning Groups taking a strong role in communicating between the Land Use Commission and the Local Planning Groups. The present district organizations . Again. but not be limited to resource professionals. based on technical information generated through inventory research and economic research -which will be discussed in a later section of this chapter. The Forest Resources Commission also believes that these planners and managers should be made accountable for their decisions by enabling legislation. Local Planning Groups The Local Planning Group will be responsible for assessing the technical. and sectoral representatives or regional leaders. in effect serving as the bridge linking the broad provincial goals and objectives on one hand with the local issues and concerns on the other. taking into account the diversity of land and forest values. although a final determination should be left to the Land Use Commission The Commission reviewed a variety of options for both the area coverage of the Regional Planning Groups and the representation within that group. However. physical and economic attributes of the land base in order to determine its capabilities and value attributes. The Commission believes that the Ministry of Forests’ existing Forest Districts provide an appropriate land base for these Local Planning Groups. The sheer size of the task of developing information and assigning land use classifications requires the use of as much existing land base information as possible.

In order for the Land Use Plan to reflect multiple values. Ultimately there will remain or develop irreconcilable disputes over specific land use classifications.for forest resource planning and the most detailed inventories are to be found within the Ministry of Forests. Figure 1 ORGANIZATION CHART LAND USE PLANNING CCSD through the Minister of Crown Lands Land Use Commission sets goals and objectives +$z @ r---------------------------I Regional Co --------------I ittees -_. and is seen to be open.) Any conflicts unresolved by Local and Regional Planning Groups should go to the Land Use Commission for resolution. It is recommended that the Land Use Commission be given legislated authority to make decisions on land use classifications for values and uses that fall within the provincial goals. Similarly. The Land Use Commission will determine the information that will be required to evaluate these conflicts and mediate and resolve them where possible. At that time./ \ Local Committees set Specific Land Use Plan The Planning Process The planning process will be acceptable to the public only if it is open. Value trade-offs stemming from conflicts on specific sites should be made only in the context of established provincial goals and the broad land capabilities.C that planning and management remain responsive to social change. Reasons behind technical judgments and the information that was used to make decisions must be made available to all interested parties. public input must be ll.-. and could be changed as more complete information is developed. The results of this process must clearly show the impact of the public consultations. All levels of the planning process must use procedures that are well understood and justifiable. participants in the structured Land Use Planning Groups must all be actively involved in mediating disputes between stakeholders. the option of producing more of specific values on designated land bases through intensive management can be considered as a fully accountable choice between competing values in the context of overall provincial capabilities and goals.--_--. This is a functional decision based on the current state of inventories and district boundaries. (See chapter on public participation. 16 . This dispute settlement mechanism must be open to all. but efficient and timely in its decisions.

from The Forest Resources Commission recommends that: 5. Local expertise and information resource users WIUbe a necessary cou the development of inventories. with the assistance of the Land Use Commission. 6. the Land Use Commission be responsible for deciding whether or not Regional Planning Groups are needed and. legislation establishing a Land Use Commission should provide for an independently-appointed threemember Appeal Board to adjudicate disputes among users within approved plans. the basis for land use designations will be a technical assessment of the capability of the land. or that do not fall within established goals and land classifications should proceed to Cabinet for resolution. the Land Use Commission report to the Cabinet Committee on Sustainable Development through a restructured hnlStry or LrOWn Lands. determine their make-up. where resolution of specific Land Use Plan classifications cannot be mediated because of unresolved issues. 12. 7. the Local Resource Planning Groups use the existing Forest District boundaries as their initial planning basis. the Province assess the capabilities of the land base to support particular values and then define its goals for various values within those constraints. with respect to areas of substantial land use classification conflict. 11. The contribution of the various areas of the province to these goals should be refined at the local level. the ultimate decision on use should await the completion of the province-wide Land Use Plan to determine compatibility with provincial goals. only those land use proposals that cannot be resolved through the planning process. 14. 9. 8. a Land Use Commission be created by appropriate legislation and charged with implementing the land use planning process. area coverage and responsibilities. 10. if so. It should also develop a mediation and dispute settlement process. the Land Use Commission be given legislated authority to make recommendations to Cabinet on land use classifications for values and uses that fall within provincial goals.At the local level. and to report its findings to the Commission. . 13. it will be the responsibility of the Land Use Commission to determine the information that will be required to resolve these conflicts.

should also be included in the team makeup. The state of inventories and specific recommendations for dealing with them are the subject of a subsequent chapter in this report. Their task will be to bring those resources that are necessary to bear on each land use classification decision. the Forest Resources Commission has concluded that this expertise should form the core of the Local Resource Planning Group’ multidisciplinary assessment team. Expertise available s in user groups. Inventories The Forest Resources Commission. The use of their own ministry’ information base will enhance the quality s of the final decisions on classifications and greatly reduce the time required to complete the plan. rather than the economic value of the resource being inventoried. The initial planning and assessment process will draw heavily upon the professional and technical expertise that is available in government ministries. Technical Support Professional Staff To be effective. Funds would be allocated among the various resource ministries based on the need for basic information. Furthermore. While the approach to developing inventories is the subject of a separate section of this report. Historically. Parks. in conjunction with the recommendations concerning forest land management in subsequent sections of this report. it is recommended that the Ministry 18 . The Forest Resources Commission believes that financial priorities for the development of resource inventories should be determined by the ministry responsible for Land Use Planning . Environment. that expertise has resided in individual ministries such as Forests. as well as private individuals.3. etc. This economic approach to information development makes an objective assessment of a full range of values extremely difficult. The government’ district staff have a working knowledge of the local resource s capabilities. has already expressed its concern over the lack of inventory information that would be suitable for the analysis of land capability. The Forest Resources Commission is further concerned that the existing inventories vary in quality and detail in direct relationship to the economic value of the individual resource uses.the restructured Ministry of Crown Lands. the Forest Resources Commission believes that it is necessary to make a comment here on both the funding and the accessibility of inventory data for Land Use Planning. Therefore. It is expected that these technical resource experts will draw heavily upon the experience and knowledge of individuals and communities that are familiar with the local land base and its historical uses and capabilities. through an interim report. the Land Use Plan will require a large amount of technical support from professionals in a wide range of resource areas.

As well.of Crown Lands be responsible for dealing with requests from the public for inventory information on all Crown lands managed by the government. should be empowered to administer this task and make final determinations where there is disagreement among other ministries. the Forest Resources Commission presented a broad land use classification system for review and comment by the public. The data base can be improved as the process is developed. Land Use Classification In its September 1990 Options Paper. In view of the substantial demands that will be made of the inventories to meet the goals and objectives of the Land Use Plan. The Commission is aware that other classifications will need to be developed to suit land areas which lie outside of the provincial forests. in the integrated use management areas category. The classifications are. The Commission has now incorporated the results of the workshop comments and public submissions into the following land use classifications. The Ministry of Crown Lands. the classification system was examined in a series of seven regional workshops. in alphabetical order: Protection/Preservation archeological sites cultural and spiritual values ecological reserves flood or avalanche prevention parks special environmental unique wildlife habitat wilderness areas wildlife migration corridors features (sensitivity or instability) . the Commission has concluded that the resource boundaries for inventory development must be rationalized to provide compatible land base coverage. Planning can start at the local level using existing information and local knowledge. The Commission feels that it can recommend. through the course of the Commission’ deliberations. as the ministry responsible for Land Use Planning. however. the following listing of land use classifications as having a strong consensus within the broad range of view points and interest groups that met with the Commission. Equally. the government should not wait for it to be completed province-wide. Evidence presented by a number of ministries. Those under the protection/preservation category can have integrated uses. indicates that a centrally-developed inventory system s could take up to 10 years to complete. intensive use of one or more values is possible. While good inventory data is important. and should not be seen as necessarily exclusive.

The timber production classification is presently managed for integrated use. . . As planning proceeds and goals are established. these should be reviewed and re-considered in light of the comprehensive review of the total provincial landscape. It is likely that the greatest potential for gains in all land and forest values by way of enhanced stewardship will come from the integrated use management areas category. largely because of a s perception that timber harvesting takes precedence even in an integrated use environment. l corridors destination resorts industrial sites mines. most of the major land use decisions have already been made. l Areas of Restricted Use . The Forest Resources Commission believes that the goals of the province will be best achieved through assigning the maximum amount of land to integrated use classifications. 0 In the protection/preservation and areas of restricted use categories. Intensive forestry will be possible under certain classifications. heritage) timber production tourism trapping urban/forest interface views/landscapes watersheds (quality/quantity) . . . . . . . pipelines transit . . But that’ where most of the conflict and confrontation occurs. marsh lands fisheries & wildlife guide outfitting hunting special feature forests other resource extraction/harvesting recreation special purpose (research.integrated Use Management l Areas agriculture/range energy and mineral exploration estuaries. . l l l . and may .

reviewed in order to ascertain in view of the comprehensive landscape. 19. as well as expertise available in private user groups and other individuals. the technical land capability information that will lead to land use classifications be developed for the entire province. and better reflect the changing values of society. Implementation of the Land Use Plan Much work needs to be done before the comprehensive Land Use Plan described in the previous sections will chart the future of land use in the province. Land Use Plan and value designations. The Forest Resources Commission recommends that: 15.actually reduce the size of the land base needed to meet Allowable Annual Cut goals. there are serious gaps in the inventories of major resource types and value assessments that must be completed. C the various of resource resource inventories be a basis among ministries. . . the Ministry of Crown Lands be responsible for handling requests from the public for inventory information on all Crown lands. thewvof 16. for the development . But there is no need to delay government action. As has already been mentioned. the Ministry of Crown Lands take the lead in rationalizing the resource boundaries for land capability analysis to provide compatible land base coverage. the budgets priority 17. 20. All management regimes within classifications will reflect biological and regional diversity objectives within the provincial goals. and the Commission recommends strongly that those gaps be systematically addressed. the land use classifications that were developed in the Forest Resources Commission’ s workshops on the Options Paper form the basis for the classifications used in the Land Use Plan. Forest harvesting plans must reflect the The key to maintaining Allowable Annual Cut goals within that framework lies in intensive forestry activities on those lands where timber production is identified through the planning process as the primary use.w . ing laINI use ClaSSltlCatlOnS 18. While the management of forest resources is dealt with in another chapter. tar Such areas as parks be whether they are appropriate review of the total provincial 4. it is important to repeat here that the full range of forest values will be managed for on lands under the integrated use classifications. the Local Resource Planning Groups utilize the technical and professional expertise in existing resource ministries. . The basic plan can be th &Q&&e& of t.

The Land Use Plan is an integral part of the Forest Resource Commission’ vision for the protection and enhancement of all values on the land base. Finally. Land 24. It would make more sense if the planning that is presently being undertaken by the government for parks. consideration be given to absorbing the Agricultural Commissioninto thenew Land UseCOmmlSSlOn. old-growth preserves. The Forest Resources Commission believes that consideration should be given to absorbing the Agricultural Land Commission into the new Land Use Commission. The Forest Resources Commission recommends that: 22. ecological reserves. Once legislation has been passed and decisions have been made about the need for Regional Planning Groups. All these separate and seemingly uncoordinated activities are extremely confusing to the public. wilderness areas. old growth forest preserves and other similar planning activities be deveIoped in conjunction with the overall Land Use Plan. The Forest Resources Commission believes that. along with substantial input from interested resource user groups and local knowledge and information. two years is sufficient time to develop a district Land Use Plan. These plans should be considered by the Land Use Commission as part of its overall planning responsibilities. a two-year timetable be established for completion district Land Use Plans. a two-year timetable is considered reasonable for the completion of district plans through the Local Planning Groups. and other such initiatives be developed in conjunction with the overall Land Use Plans. wilderness areas. There are currently a number of resource planning initiatives under way. and be considered by the Land Use Commission as part of its overall planning responsibilities. The Ministry of Parks is examining a range of proposals with a view to establishing more parks and ecological reserves. the existence of a Land Use Commission with a mandate to administer the planning function for the entire provincial land base calls into question the need for a separate. 23. ecological reserves. s It is the foundation on which further changes in the structure of integrated resource planning depend. A combination of existing inventory information and local knowledge should be sufficient to develop plans if the goals and guidelines have been determined. The use of existing resource ministry expertise and inventories should be maximized. in most cases. It also believes that little will be gained. single function Agricultural Land Commission.planning mechanisms outlined. of all the current planning for parks. . The Ministry of Forests is studying issues revolving around old growth timber and the need to preserve it. and much may be lost through further delays.

” belonging to the Province Report of Royal Commission on Forestry. expenditures on forest management flow back to the forests after the timber harvesting revenues have been processed through the province’ general revenue accounts. The investments that should have been made every year were inadequate. but first and foremost as capital to be reinvested in the forest. The stumpage revenues along with corporate and personal income taxes flow in every year and are available instantly for schools. in the provincial forests as a matter of course The result has been an erosion of the forest capital base. A MANAGEMENT AND FlNANClAL STRUCT!J. ultimately. To this day. as a society. The problem is fairly simple: The growth cycle of a forest is measured not in years. when the demands for social services rise at the same time the revenues from timber harvesting decline.the Fulton Commission . s The advice was not heeded. The sole advocate for the long-term health of s the forests -the Minister of Forests . .U “Management and finance of forestproperty have both become intricate problems. we did know better. The goal was to provide for the long-term health of the forest while taking advantage of the short-term economic benefits it offers. to hold back on making those long-term investments in the health and sustainability of the forest and concentrate instead on the annual requirements for services. its own advocacv DK. The next royal commissions on forestry. headed by Chief Justice Gordon Sloan in 1945 and 1956. We should have known better. This tendency has been particularly hurtful during bad economic times. each with .must compete with other ministries. Investments made now to nurture and enhance that forest won’ bear fruit for another 80 to 100 years. It saw the revenues from timber harvesting not as disposable income. But the economic benefits of timber harvesting are immediate. Sadly. W-h&emu& of . it has been far too easy for all of us. echoed the Fulton recommendations by saying that only those funds left over after the appropriate investments have been made in replenishing the forests should go into the province’ general revenue accounts. hospitals.4. but in decades and. Indeed.recognized in 1910 that the investments needed to ensure the long-term health and productivity of the province’ s forests must be shielded from the short-term demands of society. roads . in centuries. successive governments and royal commissions have wrestled with the problem of designing an appropriate management system for the provincial forests. A Framework for Enhanced Stewardship From the beginning of commercial timber harvesting in British Columbia in the last century.all the services we have come to take for granted. 1910 1. or even longer in many t cases. British Columbia’ first s royal commission on forestry .

values to be ana 1reasury Boara oy tne those commercial chapter on other values have in the previous But as the Forest Resources land use. and used to maintain and enhance the capital base of the province’ forests. it has not made up for years of neglect. s values of the forests. been placed on private companies through the requirements of various forest tenures.the responsibility for forest renewal on public lands has. and in many cases take precedence In addition. the commercial and range lands. must be administered in a way that maximizes Commission its economic The Forest Resources management. This expanded of Forests. The Commission examined the history of special purpose funds set s up to address this problem and concluded that they are too vulnerable . and other issues all have combined to discourage and individuals from doing any more than the minimum renewable natural by law when it comes to forest management. the growing range of demands In short. required to meet Native land claims. on British Columbia’ s In the past. Minister values. forest on what has been the traditional stewardship. values of the forest were the primary oattles rougnt at caomet for the most part. in recent years. on a forest land base that is already over. unsettled private companies Uncertainty about the sanctity of contracts and tenure rights. has concluded funding by timber that the province harvesting must come to and and grips. will guarantee forest lands of the province. Resources will replace the Ministry of a broader Society’ demands s significantly T unassailable increase for recognition the pressure range of forest values will commercial forest. me reinvestment of Forests were aimed. commitment to enhanced As well. with an adequate The direct revenue base for forest renewal generated must be captured increased over time. at perpetuating Commission has outlined In the minds of many. long-term necessary to carry out the entire plan. once and for all. the commercial consiaerea. society’ values have changed.often drained 24 . Ministry but separate from the policy and regulatory of the expanded by the Ministry ministry way. We further require the enhanced stewardship must relate not only to but also to the non-commercial the means to secure stable. the full range of values will be protected and the responsibilities Natural overall Land Use Plan administered of Renewable under one ministerial will fit well within Lands. the system is inadequate resources. the commercial potential. in a number be grouped Day-to-day of ministries under - has concluded currently - representing one new ministry functions the Ministry of Renewable Natural Resou- administrative in these same areas should and enhanced of Crown under the new ministry responsibility. at least equal to. the traditional fully committed to one use we are now at the point where all those values must be reflected That has created two important require an administrative structure requirements that must now be addressed: The structure We that will allow the true integration of the full range forests funding that of forest values as set out in the Land Use Plans. In this the The Forest Resources Commission functions should rces. become economic or another. that the policy and regulatory a wide range of forest values also be grouped functions.

Consideration was given to letting the Forest Resources Corporation manage these lands as well as its commercial forest. 2. an&rgelands&theprovm~ a Forest Resources Corporation be established through legislation to finance and manage the public’ commercial s forest land base. tourism. Other possible funding mechanisms were not suitable to the task. Established by legislation. The only legal entity with the broad powers needed for the job is a Crown Corporation . water. it can collect revenue. and other diverse physical and biological values . the Forest Resources Commission found that at least 13 government ministries had mandates or responsibilities flowing from or attributable to the forest land base. range.all of which should be subject to integrated management.the Ministry of Renewable Natural Resources. the Minister of Renewable Natural Resources be responsible for the Forest Resources Corporation. manage the forest and pay dividends to the government.the Forest Resources Corporation. borrow money when necessary. But the mandate of the corporation to . energy and mining. The Commission has concluded that those integrated use management areas (as defined by the Land Use Plan) with the potential for commercial timber production will be administered by the new Forest Resources Corporation. In its review of the role of government in forest resource management. It will report to the Cabinet Committee on Sustainable Development through the Minister of Renewable Natural Resources. the Government of British Columbia establish a new Ministry of Renewable Natural Resources to replace the Ministry of Forests and take on an expanded role in the policy. The Forest Resources Commission recommends that: 25. The Forest Resources Commission recognizes that the remaining Crown lands provide a spectacular array of other values such as park lands. there is also a clear advantage to grouping some of the key resource values (forests. regulation and general administration of the forest .1W While there are clear advantages to having Cabinet ministers who are “advocates” for parks. agriculture. wilderness experiences. and pay for other government programs when a revenue shortfall is experienced. the Forest Resources Corporation will be able to finance the stewardship requirements of the province’ s forests. fish and wildlife habitat. Integrated . fish and wildlife) under one ministry . watersheds. The Ministry Organization of Renewable Natural Resources - and Responsibilities. 27. 26. Operating at arms length from the government and subject to legislated requirements for public participation (see Chapter lo).

a role seen as critically Forester position. and formally for the management The Ministry and resources functions. (Minister) as the Chief Forester. these values on non-commercial forest lands and on other Crown lands. divisions (ADM) of Fish and Wildlife.guarantee stability enhanced stewardship on its commercial lands. was initially by the Forest Resources The Provincial advisor to the Chief Commissioner of Lands and Forests on all matters . would not be consistent with any serious commitment non-commercial Therefore. will be the Provincial those lands for fish and wildlife. Renewable Natural Resources a second by an ADM for Water Management. staff necessary for it to carry out its policy. will handle policy and regulatory functions also at an ADM level. in the following Division It will be up to the ministry for its own administrative would second those of the Forest Resources services. forest lands that are not assigned me Forest Resources Commission conflict with the principle it has concluded Therefore. Corporation. that will coordinate on the forest and of all values on the mandates all provincial of other ministries lands. role. fish and wildlife Three principal one headed by an Assistant Forester. functions. Renewable the Forest Resources Commission Resources has concluded that the new Ministry for these key to and managed of Natural should be given the mandate to manage resource values on those provincial by the Forest Resources Corporation. in 1912 as a high-level of introduced The Provincial important currently known Forester will take on an expanded Commission. activities. management Natural should Resources should be assigned the mandate. wants to ensure that their individual of managing for multiple values within be introduced that impact that a single act should with responsibilities enlist their support activities do not the forest land base. and for the water. Corporation. the jurisdiction determine appropriate personnel the new Ministry water. of and manage to and in the Ministry in the Ministry are proposed of Forests. to forest land management. regulatory assume responsibility of Environment. the government with advice on It will Fees The Fish and Wildlife management manage practices will provide and goals for these values under such as hunting the Land Use Plan. functions. are inextricably water quality linked Division will continue to be responsible for water supply These matters management. of Renewable range land base. forest and range functions assignments that are not under functions of the Forest Resources Corporation. and provide financial to at the same time. and flood and erosion control. - and administrative The new ministry currently currently for the timber and range resource Deputy Minister and the third. Essentially. such as silvicultural from the Forest Resources Corporation are detailed It may well be that for some specialized them on contract The functions section of the Forest Resources the ministry of this chapter. expertise. The Water Management management. and fishing will be collected for the use of resources by this division from all areas of the province.

l_ . the position and responsibilities of Provincial Forester should be structured so that the Provincial Forester is seen to be impartial. Therefore. The Commission has concluded that in replacing the Chief Forester. and be responsible. forest renewal. Forester’ office should also be guaranteed access to all inventory information s developed by the Forest Resources Corporation. recreation. for maintaining the quality of inventory information on all other Crown lands. the industry and the public interest in forest management and conservation. and to represent all values in forest management on all Crown lands. and fish and wildlife. and other government responsibilities on lands not administered by the corporation. the Chief Forester’ stewardship responsibilities have gradually been s eroded to the point where the post is essentially a staff position with powers only to recommend. where required.forest management. 29. 30. the management for all forest values by government ministries be coordinated by a single act that ensures that the ministries’ mandates are supportive of integrated resource management and enhanced stewardship. The vacuum ultimately created has led to many requests to the Forest Resources Commission for the establishment of an independent forest ombudsman. The land base managed by the Ministry will be those lands not allocated to the Forest Resources Corporation. Staff related to recreational opportunities and developments on Crown lands will form part of the integrated resource management team reporting to the Provincial Forester. Finally. the Provincial Forester must have a position that will be seen by all to be unbiased and trustworthy. the Commission has concluded that the Provincial Forester should be required by legislation to make annual reports direct to the legislature on the state of the forests. water management. The Forest Resources Commission recommends 28. But over time. as well as by other forest land base tenure holders. there be Assistant Deputy Ministers respectively for fish and wildlife and for water management. that: the Ministry of Renewable Natural Resources be made responsible for policies and regulations related to the key values of timber. r’ Minister level responsible for all forest-related matters other than fish and wildlife and water management. In essence. * 27 . The Provincial Forester will also be responsible for integrated resource management. the responsibility for forest protection will be vested with . The Provincial Forester will be required to develop policies related to forest management and have final responsibility for the determination of the Allowable Annual Cut . The independence of the Chief Forester and the ethic that the Forest Service developed provided an important balance between the government. range.the volume of timber harvested each year from the commercial forests.

The creation of a new Ministry of Renewable Natural Resources provides the administrative framework in which those values can be protected and enhanced. social. and the demands on them to provide for the ‘ economic. regulatory staff from the Ministry of Forests. The Forest Resources Corporation recommended by this Commission represents the strongest mechanism available to secure stable. The British Columbia Forest Resources Commission has concluded that past concerns regarding the need to shelter forest management from changes in political administrations and short-term budget cycles were well founded and have been borne out over time. and spiritual well-being of all British Columbians’ will only increase. at least 14 “permanent” silviculture funds have been established and subsequently abandoned. the Provincial Forester be required to report annually direct to the legislature on the state of the forests. a corporation is the only vehicle that will allow debt financing in cyclical downturns. were reviewed by the Commission. the present and potential values that could be drawn from the forests are being depleted. Financing Forest Resource Management: A Forest Resources Corporation Concern was raised throughout the Commission’ public meetings and in written s submissions that the current level of timber harvesting is not sustainable. but all fell short of guaranteeing stable financing. 28 . The forests of British Columbia are now fully committed. The need for such a commitment today is more compelling than ever. and the integrated resources and conservation staff of the Ministry of Environment. environmental. research. The Corporation should be run by a Board of Directors with no more than 15 members representing all regions and sectors. There was also a clear perception that the province’ forests are being s managed primarily for timber values. The Forest Resources Commission believes the management of the forests requires a long-term commitment with a stable source of funding. The Land Use Plan outlined in the previous chapter provides a blueprint for land management goals based on a broad range of values. and it stresses the importance of accurate inventory information in achieving those goals. without the financial ability to provide the necessary level of enhanced stewardship through integrated resource management to meet those goals. However. long-term funding for enhanced forest stewardship. 3. including a financing authority and other administrative funds. the Land Use Planning proposals will have little value. and that as a result. Other funding mechanisms. 33. Since the beginning of the century. the Provincial Forester assume responsibility for policy. As well.32.

The Commission has concluded that the cost of management for these non-commercial values should be recognized and be borne by the government out of general revenue .in order to maintain continuous stewardship in times of economic down-turn. The Commission also believes that a Corporation operating according to sound financial principles should not allocate its resources to managing non-commercial forest lands. But objectivesmust now be evaluated. not the land . the costs of changes in values and management IlShlng. There are no more unallocated lands to offer to other values and uses in the forests. as well as to increase the broad variety of non-consumptive forest uses and values that enhanced stewardship could provide.represented by the value of the standing trees. The Forest Resources Commission has concluded that awarding secure rights to tenure holders for individual tracts of public land will provide the most efficient means of managing the resources. Undoubtedly the enhanced management of the commercial values of integrated management lands can and will improve other values such as recreation.have already demonstrated the gains that come from maintaining and nurturing their forests. The Forest Resources Commission has concluded that the new Corporation should be responsible for only those lands that have commercial potential and will be designated for integrated management that includes forest and range lands. The Corporation should also be empowered by legislation to borrow against its asset base . or for enhancing the non-commercial values of the lands under its jurisdiction. renew and replace the forests for future managing those commercial forest lands that are designated as integrated management areas under the Land Use Plan. Other jurisdictions . or have already established some form of corporate model to administer and fund their forest management programs. hunting and these values are part of the social and economic benefits that can be captured only by the province. The Forest Resources Corporation should be empowered through legislation to enter into legally binding stewardship contracts with private companies or individual forest . The management structure for these lands was outlined in the previous section. The Corporation must be given the ability to charge for all the commercial consumptive uses of these lands and receive all direct commercial revenues from resources under its jurisdiction in order to be able to pay for their management and improvement.not out of the revenues of the Forest Resources Corporation. and choices made.It is the view of the Commission that the direct revenues that are drawn from the forests must be used to manage. The Commission believes that enormous opportunities are being lost to the Province benefits that could be produced through intensively managing the forests to increase their timber yield. therefore. They have also moved towards.such as Britain and the Scandinavian countries . The security of tenure for resource users will ensure that they reap the benefits of the stewardship investments they make.

One of the principal objectives of the new corporation will be to raise sufficient funding for long-term management of the forests. the province-wide log market will permit the efficient allocation of logs to their highest and best use. Proper forest management and investment in stewardship will also provide. It is the belief of the Forest Resources Commission that the forests of British Columbia will provide sustainableeconomic benefits to the province only if provided with appropriate long-term management and financial stability. Any commercial lands not covered by contractual agreements with private companies or individuals will be managed by the Forest Resources Corporation.. The coordination of the various ‘ resource professionals now in the Ministries of Forests and Environment should reduce administrative costs and help attain that goal. that dividend must be calculated after all the financial requirements of enhanced stewardship are met. The Forest Resources Corporation’ s management performance.resource managers. greater returns to the corporation. In essence. lumber exports was eliminated. (The form of these contracts -Resource Management Agreements . The government of British Columbia has since increased its stumpage charges on timber harvested for all forest products.) Resource managers must be accountable for their management practices and must submit to independent audits to provide an objective assessment of their performance.C. over time. The Commission has therefore concluded that the Forest Resources Corporation should eventually be required to pay a dividend to government.* *For a complete discussion of the corporate structure proposed here. and what is in place in other forest jurisdictions around the world.S. while allowing tenure holders to closely match their timber supply to their processing facility requirements. A log market will encourage improved log handling and sorting practices in the woods and will ultimately provide better returns to the province for the wood harvested on provincial lands. A Memorandum of Understanding between the two countries resulted instead in a 15 per cent Canadian surcharge on lumber exported to the US.S. The Forest Resources Commission believes the province should now move away from administered stumpage prices towards a system of market prices determined through the development of a province-wide log market. over allegations that timber stumpage constituted a subsidy. Marketrelated efficiency gains will improve the cash flow to the Forest Resources Corporation. and with the consent of the U. please see: Managing British Columbia’ s and~Vak!~ort Enared Forest supporting document to kis report. must be assessed by an independent audit. However. In light of that. too.S. domestic and export. As a result of a dispute between Canada and the U. countervailing duty of 15 per cent was about to be imposed on Canadian lumber imports in 1987. .is discussed in the chapter on Tenure. the 15 per cent surcharge on B. The province-wide log market is discussed further in the chapters on Tenure and Financial and Economic Considerations. a U.

.. contribute much revenue and more that flows to governments stumpage. etc. from forest-related Corporate fees.. -together . u Forests . rents. A&s Con&tual Resource Management Fis: & Wildlife from M of E Fievke V Audit Planning lntezated Resources Management It is important personal than income to recognize taxes..Figure 2 PROPOSED MANAGEMENT STRUCTURE CABINET COMMITTEE ON SUSTAINABLE v DEVELOPEMENT -qF Minister of Renewable Resources v Pesticide Control Environmental Protection Enforcement Provincial Forester Reports to Legistatura . Provincial Forester PlanZng & WYter Inventory Management & Determination lntezated Resource Management from MofE&MofF RaYge Operatiblnal Field Staff & Conservation Officers from MofE Pro&ion RecrZtion Revenue . permit that stumpage in itself is a small part of the commercial activities.

be charged with the responsibility for such commercial Crown forest and range lands that are designated as Integrated Use Management Areas under the Land Use Plan: have a representative members. as well as most of the field staff of the Fish. and Inventory field staff of the Ministry of Forests. . Valuation. contracts. competitive 42. 36. assume the Operations Division. Industry Development. 37. Wildlife and Water Management Divisions of the Ministry of Environment. 41. be empowered to pay a dividend to government. 43. Planning. 34. and for having such audits conducted on its own management performance. receive all direct commercial under its jurisdiction. 39. be empowered to enter into legally-binding including stewardship contracts. 40. 38. Board of Directors of up to 15 revenues from all resources 35. be responsible for requiring independent audits of the performance of tenure holders for compliance with Resource Management Agreements. establish a province-wide log market. be empowered with the ability to borrow against its assets as represented by the standing commercial timber under its jurisdiction. as part of its mandate. be empowered to undertake the management of noncommercial forest values and undertake socially desirable practices for the government in return for an annual appropriation that covers costs.The Forest Resources Commission recommends that the Forest Resources CorDoration: . 32 . and Silviculture Branches.

. by the private It is at the heart of sector. The types of tenures and the length of time attached to them have become very complex and varied. this system of tenures has evolved to cover most of the forested land base in British Columbia. Resource Tenures - Introduction Centuries ago. cattle . The Commission further believes that regardless of the ultimate resolution of these tenure recommendatjons. and is the in wood the Forest in the way made for most of the investments facilities. significant manufacturing In this chapter.g. In the early days of development. no changes m tenure snorn’ be v a’ until the first Land Use Plans /zave been approved . 1. timber. tenures granting rights for different resources (e. . the Commission believes the content and recommendations contained in this chapter should be published in the form of a white paper. it wasn’ feasible OI’ t desirable to carve out huge tracts of provincial land and sell them off to private owners. timbers for shipbuilding. A system of tenures was developed to grant resource rights to private companies without giving them title to the land. and eventually land for farming and settlement. For that reason. ranching) apply to the same piece of land ath that n~mmd.a process that is expected to take up to two years. TENURE FOREWORD: The issue of tenure is difficult forest product Resources stewardship collateral as practised underlying and complex. In many instances. and is used to manage a variety of resources from timber harvesting to fur trapping to range land for cattle ranching. Over the last 50 years. Europeans were attracted to this country by its vast physical resources . While small (relatively speaking) pieces of property were soId to private concerns for such things as timber harvesting and other resource extraction. Towards the end of the last century.animals for furs. This should provide ample time for dialogue. changes Commission recommends all forest tenures are structured and managed.5. it became clear that resource extraction . no one could foresee a time when these seemingly inexhaustible resources would have to be carefully managed to ensure their perpetuation. to be discussed and analyzed over a period of time before being implemented.not necessarily for the practice of good stewardship but for the allocation of rights and privileges among a variety of competing interests.

timber harvesting is by far the most significant. It should be noted that this delegation of the stewardship responsibility to private companies operating on public lands is virtually unique to Canada and particularly British Columbia.. the forest land base is essentially fully committed to widely varied and overlapping user groups .l r~cn. There are no more vast stretches of untouched and unallocated landscapes just over the next hill. the provincial government recognized the need to improve forest management. It is further assumed that the licence holder.JL IUAIUJ UJ >c nffirinntlv L‘IIULIILIJ LLllU c. The rights to harvest were sold to raise revenues. Some argue that TFLs give too much control to the large companies that hold them. the philosophy is based on an assumption that harvesting rights approaching those of private land ownership offer the best incentive to practise enhanced stewardship.L. timber licences and Pulpwood Agreements. area-based iicences were renewable provided that forest management commitments were honored. It did this in two ways.all with one form of tenure or another. and no one gave much thought to other values and uses. In other areas of the provincial forest. The Role of Tenure and Timber Harvesting While a number of resources in British Columbia are managed through tenure rights. will . On some areas of forest lands. In a TFL. the government delegated the stewardship responsibility to forest companies in the form of area-based tenures that are now called Tree Farm Licences. the government issued licences for forest companies to cut a certain volume of wood in areas designated by the Ministry of wic~lw ""IJLIy UJ QC nnrc%ln Jy"JJI"IL.) In principle.VIb tonmArahlm IL. In effect. the company could harvest the trees in the TFL area as long as it complied with the maximum and minimum volume requirements. timber sale licences.Today. particularly in the Interior. Originally these tenures granted the right to harvest in perpetuity in return for a commitment to maintain community stability and practise good forest management (Sloan Commission "I‘ on thaw lanclr l. with sufficient incentive.AIL.LI. The most significant difference between TSA and TFL tenures today is that in the TSA there is no long-term assurance that the licence holder will retain the right to cut successive tree crops on the same land base.3"UIbL. the government retained the responsibility for managing the forest. On these lands called Timber Supply Areas. there were instances of TFLs being renewed even when the terms of the agreement were not honored. however. therefore it is crucial to manage the . The early allocation of forest land tenures in British Columbia was straightforward. As more and more forested lands were logged. 2. The two types of tenures represented different philosophies of forest management. Reforestation was considered unnecessary in the context of millions of hectares of untouched forest.L. In practice. These volume-based tenures include forest licences. How those tenures are awarded and integrated is fundamental to the Vision Statement’ concept of s enhanced stewardship of public lands.) These licences were altered through time to be “evergreen“ or constantly renewable in nature (Sloan Commission 1956.

. while three per cent is owned by the private forest industry and one per cent is held by small private owners. first and foremost.S. compawon . History has shown that while the employment and investment incentives worked very well. understandably. some 85 per cent of the Allowable Annual Cut is allocated under long-term tenures and directly controlled by companies with wood-processing facilities.S. As a result. Another 15 per cent is managed and allocated under a variety of short-term licences to small businesses that are either logging companies or small business sawmills or secondary manufacturers. in Pinlana.5 Timber Supply Areas representing about 75 per cent of the AAC. By comparison. In British Columbia. 15 per cent in the U. the evolution of tenure has shaped not just the way forest land is managed. the forest renewal incentives were much less consistent . I . The award of harvesting rights through tenure had two main goals . The private forest holdings in other countries are divided between the forest industries and other private land owners. And in this country.e. and some didn’ t. 24 per cent in Sweden and 28 per cent in New Zealand. the system has generally worked to the economic and social benefit of all British Columbians.some worked.. There are 32 TFLs representing about 25 per cent of the Allowable Annual Cut and 3. The private forest industry controls 9 per cent of the commercial forest land base in Finland. but the structure of the industry that holds the tenures. The Tenure System Today Virtually all of the forested land is now covered by either an area-based Tree Farm Licence or one of a number of volume-based licences within a Timber Supply Area. should take on that responsibility and ensure that it collects enough revenue from the resource to carry it out. Only the U. is timber harvesting. British Columbia has retained the highest share of commercial forest lands in public ownership with 96 per cent. the government. The overwhelming emphasis of these tenures. therefore.R. Nevertheless. Finland and Sweden have between 23 per cent and 28 per cent of the forest lands in public ownership. The United States. Sweaen ana tne unrtec . with timber supply and have neither the interest nor (perhaps more importantly) the skills to practise integrated forest management. has a higher proportion of public ownership of forest lands than Canada. and to provide incentives for forest companies to carry out forest renewal programs. The encourage job-creating investments in manufacturing facilities through a secure wood supply. as good or better a job of integrated forest management as anyone else (i. forest companies in other countries control on average less than 50 per cent of the harvest.) Forest licences issued under a TSA follow the philosophy that “bottom line” motivated private companies are concerned.S. 40 per Pst law and approximately 46 per cent are public in New Zealand.

The following Figures 3. The degree of corporate concentration in tenure holdings raises greater concern than the degree of corporate concentration facilities. Consider these pressures: society’ changing s Increasing world demand for wood fibre and improved harvesting and manufacturing technologies have had a . . the largest single company controlled 13 per cent of the Allowable Annual Cut. In the same time period. manufacturing In 1975. The largest now controls 17 per cent. it is easy to understand why the tenures themselves have become a factor in industry’ trend to improve s through amalgamation and JAPAN SWEOEM efficiencies concentration. The Pressure for Change The Need for Flexibility The tenure system as described has become very rigid. 4 and 5 detail forest land ownership in major international forestry centres: With such a large percentage of the B.C.Figure 3 INTERNATIONAL FOREST LAND OWNERSHIP GREAT BRITAIN 50 per cent of the forest land base. concentration bz T Public Federal Public Provincial Private c 7 3 Small Prime Private (induslwl Public (other Federal) above There is too much over wood flexibility of control supply and there is insufficient to accommodate values. wood supply coming from secure tenures. control by the 20 largest manufacturing companies has increased from 74 per cent to 86 per cent of the committed AAC (See Figure 4). This issue is discussed in more 4. Financial detail in the following and Economic in manufacturing chapter on Considerations. The NEW lEAlAND issue of corporate concentration relates to tenure holdings corporate concentration as it is different from in manufacturing facilities.

and society is demanding that those other values be recognized and enhanced. At the same time that demand supply. The vast majority of wood is tied up under tenure by companies that primarily produce low value commodity products such as dimension lumber and market pulp. Figure 4 CORPORATE CONTROL OF COMMITTED HARVESTING RIGHTS IN B. not just for specific economic values 1975 Corporations 1990 fJ Largest 10 q 0 Largest 1 Largest 20 fl Largest 5 Other Figure 5 SHARE OF COMMITTED HARVESTING RIGHTS HELD BY THE 10 LARGEST COMPANIES such as timber.C.800.OOO cut m3 . Access to wood by new users is restricted.C. different tree species have become more valuable. People with new ideas for wood products that would create more value and perhaps employ more people in their ideas because they are denied access to timber. As well. The value of the forest land is now much more than just the commercial value of the timber.dramatic impact on the level of activitv in the forest in the last few decades. and poorer quality trees that at one time would have been left standing (or rotting on the ground) now have economic value. .600. . The public is insisting that the forests be managed for integrated use.OOO Cut m3 1975 allocated cut 1990 allocated 63. rights to commercially-viable forests have been all but completely allocated in B. The full range of renewable resource values and demands for their use can now be met only by managing intensively to provide more of all values. 1954 Allocated 26. the demand for other values in the forest has grown. Smaller trees can be harvested economically.

disregard for community large licence areas. for timber resources. consideration and operation. inflexible tenures disregard community watershed insensitive ‘ absentee ownership’ and lack of community . clout to compete in the . Forest Industry Concerns Over Current Tenures . supply. environmentally and regulatory . . The Public’ and the Industry’ View s s heard criticisms of the tenure system from or made the Commission some of the they appeared at the many public meetings The Forest Resources Commission -whether To help understand the many recommendations has drafted to reform the tenure system. too much timber being wasted in the woods because major tenure holders much non-competitive wood available. it would be useful to consider that were raised by all groups. given to other resource uses and users in timber with too much emphasis on timber harvesting. by major licensees in scheduling harvesting over . due to logging practices due to a lack of adequate legislative large. . a lack of security and hence financial global forest products market. . . have too due to re- a loss of jobs due to investments a lack of expenditure forestry operations. . security of timber for better forest management. corporate concentration . are contradictory: It should come as no surprise that some of the Public Concerns Over Current Tenures . no or insufficient harvest planning insensitive controls. processing technologies. mainly and staff ‘ downsizing’ in the early 1980s. . . in high-tech creation and employment particularly stability by major forest licensees in their in forest management. l l a lack of a long-term a lack of long-term a lack of incentives planning horizon. and a resultant loss of potential a serious lack of competition government revenue. a lack of incentive to ‘ modemize’the manufacturing sector to competitive in the global market.5. value-added and innovation and marketing. present timber quota commitments tenure system stymie small business manufacturing forest products to ‘ established initiative licensees’ under the existing in new.too much timber in too few hands. A Critique virtually written concerns criticisms everyone submissions. . a lack of adequate organization regulation and policing by the Forest Service. remain . needs frequently interest.

the unresolved issue of Native land claims being perhaps the most th srgnihcant. on what basis should the tenures be allocated? Clearly. in timber harvesting by other resource users. correspondingly. regulatory burden hindering or precluding the management options of private enterprise. the Crown may have no other alternative than to assume the responsibility itself and recover the full costs from the industry. long term supply of wood fibre. Without a secure. There has been little or .C. inadequate government funding for forestry work. Why invest in something with no guarantee you’ reap the rewards? The history of forest renewal ll practices in British Columbia provides overwhelming evidence of the truth of these principles.. . The Commission believes that the structure it is recommending will accomplish that goal. but there are other factors that might work against it . and if so. The Commission has concluded that selling off the province’ public lands is not a s realistic alternative.can a tenure system achieve the enhanced stewardship requirements of the future. . through legislation and regulations. the risk is much higher. has had to force tenure holders to reforest their harvested areas . Investments in manufacturing facilities are expensive and risky. Financing costs in Canada are already higher than in many of the jurisdictions with which the B. The challenge is to implement a system of tenures on those public lands that provides the highest level of enhanced stewardship through “self-interest. Other jurisdictions rely much more on principles of private ownership and contractual relationships to guarantee enhanced stewardship and secure wood supplies (Figure 3).” while retaining public ownership. The Commission believes that the “self-interest” represented by these principles of private ownership should lead to better stewardship and a better representation of other this case tenure works. The province of British Columbia. a lack of secure tenure makes any major investment in reforestation pointless. A New Tenure Philosophy - Goals and Principles The detailed study of existing tenures systems in British Columbia and the methods used in other jurisdictions raised two fundamental questions for the Forest Resources Commission to deal with . is the cost of financing the investment. and so.and until very recently that reforestation was done almost entirely with public tunds. or any other iactor. As well. If this. the erosion of allocated timber harvesting rights and the loss of the timber land base to other users or uses. performance and . mterteres wi‘ practising an appropriate ievel of stewardship. too much interference 6. forest products industry competes. Forest companies want secure tenures for strictly economic reasons. any attempt by society as a whole to praCtlCe enhanced SteWaraShip on tne forest land base will succeed only if the management system .

the Commission sees a tenure system that significantly reduces the volume of timber now controlled by a relatively small number of large corporations. The Commission is satisfied a more diversified tenure system coupled with a healthy. on the conversion of existing tenures. flowing from these conclusions follows The Forest Resources Commission recommends that: 44. These allocations will supplement the share of the Allowable Annual Cut that will be dedicated to the development of a province-wide log market. the remaining tenured wood supply will be more secure than it is now. There is ample precedent for just such an approach in s virtually every jurisdiction with which the B. There is evidence of some companies doing significantly less. A log market with a significant piece of the action will also ensure that log prices reflect the species and grades of logs and their value in production. wildlife. and transfers that freed-up volume to the development of a competitive log market. A bigger share of the Allowable Annual Cut should be allocated to smaller tenure holders who will manage the forests with emphasis on such values as community watersheds. competitive provincial log market will not harm the competitive positions of B. This allocation of the cut should be only to tenure holders without processing facilities. in assuring that prices are maximized in keeping with the true market value of the resource. At the same time. 45. obligations and remedies of the tenure holder. Detailed discussion of the recommendations in subsequent sections of this chapter. however.C. and that the wood freed up be used to create a greater diversity of tenures. will also reduce waste in the woods and ensure that the most economic value is captured through manufacturing higher value-added products. There has been no financial justification for private companies to do otherwise. the Commission believes that the present concentration of holdings of tenures is too narrow and limits the types of timber management evidence of companies doing more than they are requited by investing in silviculture.C.‘ forest products companies. Those forest lands representing the current 15 per cent not allocated through existing large tenures would also benefit from more diverse holdings. . range. The log market. In essence. as well as the potential values for which the forests can be managed. The Forest Resources Commission concluded that the allocation of secure tenures to companies with manufacturing facilities is essential to mgintaining a competitive forest products industry and to developing a diversity of forest management practices. recreation and community forests. industry competes. there continue to be tenures granted that specify the rights. Nevertheless. the amount of the Allowable Annual Cut held under tenure by companies with manufacturing facilities be reduced to not more than 50 per cent of the lesser of either their processing capacity or their present cut allocation.

s Area and Volume-Based Tenures Area-based tenures (e. timber made available by the Forest Resources Corporation and other small. that one would necessarily be superior to the other in terms of stewardship. for the most part the results have been less than satisfactory. to make a definitive statement about them. As a result.46.g. While attempts have been made in recent years to introduce the concepts of integrated resource management to the existing tenure framework. and the best opportunity The recent history of forest management on these two types of tenure made it difficult for the Commission. These small tenures will be restricted to those who do not own or control processing facilities.C. A number of operational factors in the last decade or two complicated the Commission’ attempt to s make a determination in that regard. l In the recession of the early 1980s the government practised ‘ sympathetic administration’ to soften the impact of the economic downturn on mills and their employees. This section s spells out the Forest Resource Commission’ recommendations for tenure reform. If tenures are to reflect society’ changing values. they must be reformed. Harvesting rates and controls were relaxed to ensure that companies and communities survived the recession. 7. The loss in confidence . initially. while volume-based tenures (within Timber Supply Areas) represent 75 per cent of the AAC. Which of these two basic forms of tenure is generally appropriate should rest on two fundamental factors -the biological resource capabilities of the land as determined by the Land Use Plan. . Prime timber areas within tenure agreements were re-designated to other uses. They cover a variety of resource values and offer varying degrees of security with corresponding management responsibilities. area-based tenure holders in (46) be used as the basis to develop a competitive log market in British Columbia. l and public confidence in both industry and government suffered. 47. It was not originally foreseen. Tenure Reform - How it Will Work As has been outlined in previous sections of this chapter. tion. to ) Bands and woodlot operators. Other resource values were rarely considered. are varied and complex. industry lost its confidence in the security of tenures. forest tenures in B. Tree Farm Licences) provide about 25 per cent of the Allowable Annual Cut. when the two types of tenures were implemented. etc. The long-term health of the forest was compromised. the Allowable Annual Cut freed up in (45) either be managed by the Forest Resources Corporation or reallocated .

was compounded when the government reallocated. These lands will include areas not presently viable for timber harvesting. if enhanced stewardship for multiple values is a primary goal of tenure allocation under the Land Use Plan. distance to mills. the tenure must be area-based. This is discussed further in a section of this chapter. The very nature of volume-based tenures. as the other 42 . to maintain its overall flexibility in forest management. However. areas which permit timber harvesting under the Land Use Plan (but not as the primary management value). and the suitability of the resource base to be included in a single management unit (i. wildlife habitat. the number of area-based tenures should be increased.) Tenures their nature represented subsequent related to woodlots. five per cent of each tenure holder’ annual volume to the Small Business s Forest Enterprise Program. The share of annual cut that is by these tenures should be increased.) These problems made it impossible for the Commission to state a clear preference.e. should still manage some forest lands to provide wood on a volume-basis. area-based tenure holders. Over time. Within that general principle the decision over tenure types will be a regional consideration and will depend upon the forest history. where the forest company has no long-term stake in a given area of forest. community watersheds. The Forest Resources Corporation will enjoy on its lands the same rights and privileges. or areas requiring substantial management planning and expenditure for multiple uses or values. Forest areas should be evaluated for their capacity to provide all renewable resource values. virtually assures a level of stewardship no higher than required by the term of the licence. Hence. within its contract. areas that do not fit easily within other area-based tenures. 1ne horest Kesources ~ommnsron nas concluaea tnat area-basea tenures. The Forest Resources Corporation. based upon past performance. decisions concerning individual tenures must await the development of a Land Use Plan and improved inventories for all renewable resource values. l Budget cuts and staff reductions in the Forest Service during the early ’ also 80s led to similar stewardship concerns about the government’ ability to manage s on Timber Supply Areas (TSAs) and to regulate forest management on Tree Farm Licences (TFLs. will best achieve stewardship goals. for either form of tenure. the primary values that will be managed for on each forest unit (the Land Use Plan). as well as obligations and requirements. community forests. as well as problem stands. and Native Indian Bands are by most suited to an area-based tenure. uasea upon long-term contractual commitments.

etc. Governments would be extremely reluctant to take that kind of action. penalties against a forest manager for poor forest practices could close down a mill. wherever possible. through the Forest Resources Corporation. For example. the Crown retain and manage. 49. Exacerbating the situation is the limited recourse available to all tenure holders for damages related to changes in policy or land-use decisions by the government. With that perception in mind. The proposed terms and conditions for the contracts are reviewed in the following section. the Forest Resources Commission recognizes the need to significantly increase the level of security for all forest tenures and solidify the levels of commitment on both sides of the tenure agreement. or lack of it. A significant wood volume made available through a log market would substantially remove this threat as market wood would still be available to the company. the government has limited tools at its disposal to penalize poor performance by tenure holders.with remedies available under contract law for failures by either signatory to perform to requirements.The Forest Resources Commission recommends that: 48. Such contracts provide a full measure of security for management’ investment decisions and for the government’ stewardship s s requirements . . sufficient forest lands from which wood will be available on a volume basis in order to retain forest management flexibility. Ministry of Forests officials have told the Commission that “the issue of performance. doing more damage to individual employees and the communities they live in than to the actual corporation being penalized. The Forest Resources Commission believes that the most secure form of tenure agreement for both parties is a legally-binding long-term contract .) in British Columbia provide little security to companies with investments in manufacturing facilities and few incentives to practise intensive silviculture. The security for Forest Licence holders is even worse. and the creation of a log market with the resulting freed up volume may initially be seen by industry as an erosion of its competitive position. The Forest Resources Commission has concluded that these agreements should be introduced for area-based tenures.a Resource Management Agreement. tenures to which stewardship responsibilities are delegated be area-based. On the other side of the bargain. is decidedly not tied to the replacement process. The Transition to Area-Based Tenures A reduction in tenured wood supply volumes for manufacturing companies.” Because the overwhelming majority of wood fibre comes from tenured lands dedicated to specific companies and mills. The present area-based tenures (Tree Farm Licences.

the greatest the tenure private ownership. penalized. Provision of Resource Management and Wood Supply Agreements The Forest Resources security holder Use Plan. the rollovers into Resource Management Agreements and Wood Supply Agreements should await development of the first Land Use Plans. Since the new area and volume-based tenures will incorporate the values and objectives of the Land Use Plan. manufacturer to in an area-based These two forms of contractual P classifications The development of land-use under the Land Use Plan should be completed in two years. The biological being managed. obligations and remedies to give greater security to the tenure holder and to the Crown. for wood supply. or where local circumstances preclude the granting of an area-based tenure. Resources Commission commitment the following Wood Supply Agreements would in total provide would agreements have been entitled are discussed These Wood Supply Agreements tenure. a contractual Wood Supply Agreement should be developed by the Forest Resources Corporation also with appropriate rights. equal to what the forest product section. and physical as determined capabilities under available Commission short of outright should Agreements believes that tenures stewardship should provide however. In return. The Forest 50. obligations and remedies for existing tenure holders that do not want to convert their volume-based licences to area-based tenures. must be set out in the basic The Forest Resources Commission in the contractual also contain Plans should of the tenure obligations Management document. Resources Commission recommends that: present area-based tenures should be re-written and new area-based tenures should be issued in the form of a contractual Resource Management Agreement with appropriate rights. 52. conditions management the tenure.Manufacturing tenure should facility owners who do not want to develop of signing a legal contract has concluded that contractual or manage an area-based The Forest a volume in should have the option be developed. should that reflects the goals of the Land by a public review. 51. and goals must be included and Working contractual . more secure Resource Management Agreements and Wood Supply Agreements should await land-use designation. This will be two years in most cases. should be and the audits monitored while poor management High quality be rewarded of the land and the range of other values believes that obligations of the Land Use Plan. must practise a level of enhanced Performance management be audited. the Forest Resources Commission has concluded that rollovers of existing tenures into new.

There will be a transition period as old volume-based tenures are replaced by Resource Management Agreements and Wood Supply Agreements. a combination of area-based Resource Management Agreements and Wood Supply Agreements with “evergreen” provisions will be allocated.obligations that can be measured. Should there be insufficient forest lands suitable for area-based tenures. The Provincial Forester will have overall responsibility for these audits and will develop a list of private auditing companies capable of conducting forest management audits according to acceptable standards. should be clearly defined. At the end of existing licence terms. The public. Present forest licence holders (with manufacturing facilities) who do not want to manage an area-based tenure can arrange a contractual Wood Supply Agreement for a volume equal to what would have been available from the area-based tenure. and make those audits public. the right to make up the balance by retaining existing volume-based licences until the end of the next licence renewal period. companies will have no more than 50 per cent . Any penalties for non-performance. The Forest Resources Corporation should also commission independent audits on lands that it manages. By including specific. is entitled to know what management goals and obligations have been established and whether or not those goals and obligations have been achieved. the Forest Resources Commission is proposing they be guaranteed the lesser of either 100 per cent of their present harvesting quotas or 100 per cent of their present manufacturing capacity. including the loss of tenure. Existing area-based +0n_WcJr /I-ma &rrn 1 bResource Management Agreements will involve no reduction in area or volume. a system will be open to audit. OR . measurable goals within the ManageWo&ngUns. To protect existing volume-based tenure holders with investments in manufacturing facilities. subject to wood availability. The following conditions will apply: . Independent audits will be subject to public review and should be performed at the tenure holder’ expense. capacity and. Appropriate “evergreen” renewal provisions can be written in the Wood Supply t\greement. A direct relationship between s performance and the retention of tenure will then be established. It should be understood that any subsequent reductions in manufacturing capacity will result in a corresponding reduction in tenure. the right to convert existing volume-based licences to more secure contractual Wood Supply Agreements until the end of the next renewal period. an area-based contractual Resource Management Agreement that will support 50 per cent of the lesser of either their present harvesting quotas or their present manufacturing . as the owner of the resources.

except those will occur above the 50 per cent level that have been grandfathered. to a large extent. as long as wood supply falls below the 50 per wood supply is still greater than 50 per cent of the AAC or 50 per cent of (whichever Once tenured will no longer apply to sales or transfers. that returns the absolute the present to investments provided of the agreement is not as important be ‘ evergreen’ clause in TFL agreements can be realized. while based on management for negotiated The lo-year performance.75 per cent of the committed inequity is offset. and loss of tenure 46 . area-based At that time. Resource continue or This or volume-based Wood Supply Agreements in force until the term of the existing cut will revert to the Forest Resources reallocated roughly to smaller. by the fact that Interior tenures producers a substantial into more secure area- based Resource Management While this solution outweigh sufficient is not perfect. volume of the Resource Management Agreement. of forest stewardship one of the out by some licence holders Commission’ s principal In no other way can a of wood be freed up to create a viable log market recommendations. TFLs “grandfathered” under the new system will still be Sales or transfers subject to surrendering the tenured the mill capacity to the government is lesser. This feature should is proven. the Commission It recognizes on existing area-based believes that the advantages carried the disadvantages. tenures that are not converted volume-based Corporation tenure Existing volume-based Management Agreements to either area-based should expires. portion of their volume-based Agreements. provides retained certainty tenures should be long enough length to provide security for However. only to the tenure in the Interior. recognizes tenures. in an orderly and timely a 15-year supply of wood There will be no holder the Resource Management on sale or transfer not be renewed.(or contractual requirements Wood Supply Agreements) on a competitive of existing and will purchase their remaining basis from the log market. interval security. where most of the volume-based in excess of the 50 per cent level. and Annual only 3. For example. to be either managed to processing tenures not connected Annual Cut. in the new agreements. the five per cent removal The Forest Resources Commission based tenures. should reductions Agreements should changes renewal be for a term of 25 years. wood will then find its way into a growing one half of the provincial Allowable log market that eventually could equal The terms for area-based capital investments. performance The Forest Resources Commission has concluded that the Resource Management allowing fashion. as its renewability. renewable These terms should conditions gives the tenure provide to contractual Agreement every 10 years. and not volume-based tenures applies most of the area-based this “grandfathering” that it represents The apparent can convert appears to give coastal producers It is important Allowable to recognize Cut. the directly facilities. volume the long history tenures.) a five per cent share of the AAC. that ‘ grandfathering” over companies existing area(where that cent level. are located) an advantage tenures are located.

the Forest Resources Commission has drafted an example of the government lease to the Forest Resources Corporation and sample Resource Management Agreements.renewable every10years. The compensation provisions should cover the tenure holder. To provide a better understanding of the contractual agreements discussed in this section. from a social point of view. Remedies for losses suffered due to land redesignation should include an option to provide an equivalent and/or offsetting area-based tenure or Wood Supply Agreement if possible. or financial compensation established through market price valuations. of the s . At present. there is little incentive for forest companies to invest in intensive forestry programs to increase the yield of wood from managed forests. will lead to a high level of enhanced stewardship. contractors and/or other tenure holders for land within the area of the tenure that is redesignated under the Land Use Plan to uses that are incompatible with the continued exercise of the contractual rights. Even though the government will forego stumpage on the increased volume of timber. provide greater net benefits than that of the previous use. all directly affected employees. In recommending compensation for a loss of contractual tenure rights. about 75 per cent. the Forest Resources Commission is implicitly recognizing the private cost of changes in social values. They have no guarantee they will capture the fruits of those investments.only if the licence holder fails the management oerformance audits audit. The Commission believes that allowing both area-based and volume-based tenure holders to profit from the value of intensive forest management programs. A new use or value of the land should. Wood Supply Agreements shouldbe for a termof 15years. including any earned increase in the volume of harvestable timber. The gradual change at renewal period to a mix of area-based Resource Management Agreements and Wood Supply Agreements will provide increased security of tenure and wood supply for about 50 per cent of the AlIowable Annual wood freed up will be used to establish a competitive log market. These remedies should also be available to the Forest Resources Corporation for lands under its management. The increased security of tenure provided by contractual agreements and the industry’ ability to capture the results of increased investment will establish the s appropriate conditions for enhanced stewardship. They are appended to this report. it is important to understand that the Crown still realizes through taxation the lion’ share. The transition from existing tenure systems to the Commission’ recommended s system has been designed to avoid any sudden or dramatic changes in the fortunes of any of the many players involved.subjectto management The tenure documents should also contain provisions for compensation for the removal of timber harvesting rights from land that is redesignated in the future to other uses.

until reduced to the 50 per cent level or lower. 56. 48 . The Forest Resources Commission 53. and the results made public. the maintenance of access to public forest lands must be an integral part of the development of tenures and management plans. 59. 55. The Forest Resources Commission has concluded that the costs of managing for the enhancement of such non-commercial values as wildlife habitat should be reimbursed by the provincial government. subject to wood availability and the other conditions discussed in this chapter. These tenures should still be subject to a five per cent reduction in volume when the tenure is either sold or transferred. for example. holders of area-based tenures that exceed 50 per cent of the lesser of either their manufacturing capacity or their harvesting quota be permitted to convert their Tree Farm Licences into the more secure area-based Resource Management Agreements with no loss of area. These tenures should not be subject to the five per cent reduction in volume upon sale or transfer. 58. and the results made public. five-year Management and Working Plans reflect the management goals and objectives contained in the Resource Management Agreement and those contractual obligations that can be measured. Only in special circumstances related to.Resource management requirements for each individual area-based tenure agreement must be tailored to suit the Land Use Plan. safety or other special conditions that are noted in the Land Use Plan should public access be limited on public forest lands. 57. or where no suitable lands exist for an area-based tenure. tenure holders who have less than 50 per cent of the lesser of either their manufacturing capacity or their harvesting quota in area-based tenures be permitted to convert their existing licences to area-based Resource Management Agreements. This could well mean capturing noncommercial values and incurring costs that neither the tenure holder nor the Forest Resources Corporation can effectively recover. there be an obligation on the tenure holder to have performance verified by independent audit as specified by the Provincial Forester. Last but by no means least. In this manner the private cost of managing for social values will be recognized. the management performance of the Forest Resources Corporation be subject to independent audit. ecological sensitivity. be permitted to convert their existing tenures to a contractual 54. recommends that: management goals and objectives derived from the Land Use Plan be included in the area-based Resource Management Agreements. tenure holders who do not want to take on the management obligations connected with an area-based tenure.

exuressed sunDort for the modification and exuansion of the woodlot program. 66. Resource Management Agreements be for a term of 25 years and renewable every 10 years. 64. unsafe working conditions. Wood Supply Agreements be for a term of 15 years and renewabIe every 5 years. there was wide-spread criticism of the impact of the competitive bid sales conducted under the original small business program. area-based tenures such as community forests and tenures managed by Native Bands. performance as determined throuw. the tenure holder be reimbursed by the government for costs incurred in managing for non-commercial renewable resource values where such management is a requirement. 63. On the other hand.“evergreen” Wood Supply Agreement equal to the lesser of 50 per cent of their existing manufacturing capacity or their total harvest quota. the results of private investment in intensive silviculture and forest management. as measured by contractual standards and verified by independent audit. There was also strong support for other small. changes in uses and changes to agreed management plans be detailed in the tenure contract. be detailed in the agreements. existing tenures that are not converted to either an areabased Resource Management Agreement or a contractual Wood Supply Agreement be allowed to expire at the conclusion of their present term. subject to satisfactory ’. employees and/or other tenure holders. subject to satisfactory performance as determined through independent audit. 67. and be considered the 61. 60. The Commission favours the gradual expansion of tenures such as these. above the level of basic silviculture. or filed written s submissions. Other Timber Harvesting Licences Many who attended the Commission’ public meetings. as it believes they will lead to overall greater diversity in tenure holders. the terms and conditions of compensation for redesignations of land out of the area-based tenure. 65. penalties for non-performance. property of the tenure holder. including conditions for loss of tenure. the Forest Resources Corporation be reimbursed by the government for costs incurred in managing for noncommercial renewable resource values. 62. not be subject to stumpage or other government charges on Resource Management Agreements. and financial failure for many small . Stiff competition for the ‘ cut’ allocated under categories 1 and 2 of the small business program led to poor harvesting practices. These terms and conditions should include compensation to all directly affected contractors.

etc.usually from under-utilized species . As wood then becomes available. This led t the government to make some wood available through volume-based value-added sales. Woodlot operators presented evidence that the administrative requirements on these small area-based holdings are essentially no different from the requirements for large area-based Tree Farm Licences.for such ventures as particle board plants. Native Bands. All of these new tenures should be tailored to the site and species in each region. The Commission believes that while regulations to ensure good forestry practices are clearly necessary. it should be reallocated to small.businesses. where possible. the whole administrative requirement currently placed on woodlot operators should be reviewed and simplified. given the nature of their operations. Large tenure holders. couldn’ hope to compete on such an uneven field. or managed by the Forest Resources Corporation as is appropriate. category 1 and 2 of the small business program be phased out as the new tenure system is introduced. The Forest Resources Commission recommends that: 68. Th@wood simply wasn’ available at an economic price. if for some reason the sources of residual wood from sawmill operations dried up. More recently. Wood lots should be matched. and should be big enough to make them economically viable for their operators. Pulpwood Agreements were also brought to the Commission’ attention as an area s of concern. the Commission has concluded that the practice of issuing Pulpwood Agreements should cease and existing agreements be allowed to expire at the end of their contract period. The present size restrictions (400 hectares) and regulatory requirements should be altered to reflect the legitimate requirements of the tenure holder. Security of wood supply to value-added manufacturers would be enhanced if the current volume-based tenures were converted to area-based tenures with appropriate renewal clauses. to grazing leases. Pulpwood Agreements have been used to provide fibre . lacking secure tenure and economies of scale. The independent small business sector. ended up with much of the wood because of their ability to bid high for the small volumes and swallow the extra cost. . t The Commission heard repeatedly that the absence of a truly competitive log market killed many innovative value-added manufacturing proposals before they could get off the ground. The Commission views this as a successful program that should be continued. These tenures would match those of the area-based Resource Management Agreements and be subject to similar conditions. Accordingly. such as a Wood Supply Agreement. The development of a viable log market will negate the need for this type of agreement. nonprocessing area-based tenures managed by woodlot operators. Pulpwood Agreements are designed to provide pulp and paper mills with backup security for fibre. communities. and represent an excessive burden. This is not an appropriate use of Pulpwood Agreements and another form of tenure. through surrogate bids. should be used.

) The Corporation would retain reSpOnSibility for management among all users. among others. the administrative burden presently placed on woodlots be reviewed. 71. there may be specific sites where an area-based tenure is not practical. More than 75 per cent of the range lands are forested areas.C. weed control. fencing and stock water development. from the Kootenays in the southeast up through the Okanagan. Grazing on range land represents a significant economic benefit to many communities in the B. altered and simplified to reflect the needs of the expanded small woodlot program. A Forage Supply Agreement held by each range user. responds well to enhanced stewardship techniques such as re-seeding. however.. This agreement would be the same as a grazing licence or contractual permit administered by the Forest Resources Corporation (in place of the existing Forest Service. Interior. no new Pulpwood Agreements be issued and existing agreements be allowed to expire at the termination of their contract period. The economic feasibility of further range development is limited. While they frequently share parts of the same land base. and stewardship ot these areas and act as a liaison . like forest renewal. the forest industry and the cattle industry have entirely different structures. Range forage production. and into many northern areas. Where practical. which means grazing takes place as part of an integrated resource use with timber harvesting. the volume-based allowable cut presently allocated under Section 16. tenures for grazing should be area-based and managed through a Resource Management Agreement. 72. by site type and geography. Agreement) that is shared jointly by 2. While timber harvesting involves a renewable resource that takes several decades to regenerate. A range area that is shared by several range users should offer a choice between: 1. 70. The Resource Management Agreement will reflect the renewable resource values identified through the Land Use Plan and provide for the integrated management of those values. cattle ranching involves forage production that regenerates every year. However. fertilizing. area-based tenures that are not tied to manufacturing facilities should not be subject to size limitations but rather be determined on a site-by-site basis and be sufficient in area to be economically viable. the Cariboo.69. An area-based tenure (Resource Management the various range users.1 of the Forest Act to the Small Business Forest Management Agreements where possible.

range tenures should defined performance criteria written into the agreements and penalties performance. structure of range tenure. and energy and mineral exploration development tlmDeK and The Forest Resources Commission timber harvesting tenures in order to provide increased security and promote . hunting. area-based tenures for range lands reflect the same terms. up to and including loss of tenure. the market animal. These include. lower. Cattle and people often and Coordination outlining of access for other users must be accounted plans. The Ministry of Crown Lands is currently responsible for administering grazing leases on leased Crown land and should retain that responsibility. forest management go to the tenure holder making the of Forests under the terms of an Just as the fruits of intensive forestry investments. rights and obligations as timber-based Resource Management Agreements. has proposed a general increase in area-based enhanced water licences. for in maps and plans of grazing livestock. or Resource Management a method of conflict Agreement. the management the safety of other users demands don’ mix well. should the fruits of enhanced forage production tenure holder making the range investments. range are substantially higher than they are on private grazing land. The Ministry of Crown Lands should continue to issue and record grazing leases. peKmltS and licences available to resource users OVeKlap harvesting tenures. guiding and trapping licences. with whatever changes are necessary to recognize the structural differences between the forest and range industries. there is no comparable therefore. Likewise. permits. plus a formula which varies with the price of the product recognize compared. go to the have well for non- Charges for grazing rights should be based on a basic land rent. among others. and cannot Operational to prices for grazing on private land. Other Renewable Natural Resource Tenures A variety or tenures. The price must be fairly costs on Crown of private range available. grazing permits. an8 conflicts t can be avoided by proper management. Conflicts Agreements should be settled according to the provisions outlined in the Land Use Plan. Management responsibilities Interministry are carried out by the Ministry protocol agreement.The area-based tenure. held jointly between by several holders of for range users must provide Resource Management dispute settlement resolution. conditions. so too. and the quality forage on Crown range is generally The Commission is already sufficient sees no need to alter the current diversity among tenure holders. The efficient a coordinated management approach. as there The Forest Resources Commission recommends that: 73.

stewardship. Other forest resource users and values must have equitable treatment in forest management decisions. Other tenure holders should have the same rights, obligations and remedies as those of timber harvesting tenure holders. In essence, they should have similar recourse to remedies in the event of damages to their tenured rights. The Forest Resources Commission believes that timber harvesting tenures must respect other forest uses. Rights, obligations and remedies can be provided to other resource users on the same land through tenure agreements. This will yield a stratification of tenures and will strengthen all users’ and tenure holders’ rights. One cannot preclude the other without consultation and/or compensation. All tenures must reflect the Land Use Plan for the area. The Commission has concluded that the government should review the variety of user permits on forest lands for their suitability for conversion to compatible areabased tenures. Without reducing the generality of the foregoing, the above conclusion should not eliminate the opportunity for a forest manager to utilize temporary tenures where they will serve operational needs.

The Forest Resources Commission recommends that:
the government review the variety of user permits and licences that are issued on Crown forest lands to determine the appropriateness of converting them to contractual areabased tenures.

Sale or Transfer of Renewable Resource Tenures
As demand for timber has increased in the province, and as companies have attempted to consolidate and secure their log supplies, the value of tenures has increased. At present, all tenures sold must return to the Crown 5 per cent of the Allowable Annual Cut. This volume is used to support the expansion of the small business program. The Commission believes that the proposals contained in this section will secure the volume of wood necessary to meet the needs of small businesses. Therefore, the Forest Resources Commission has concluded it is no longer necessary to carve 5 per cent of the AAC volume out of tenure sales, except in cases where the tenure holder controls more than 50 per cent of the lesser of his manufacturing capacity or his AAC under the Resource Management Agreement. The Forest Resources Commission believes, however, that the public should share equally in any “windfall” appreciation in the value of the tenure due to economic conditions. This could include, for example, real price increases in the value of standing timber due to scarcity or increased market demand. Half of any such ‘ nonearned’ asset appreciation should be returned to the Forest Resources Corporation on the sale or transfer of a tenure.

The Forest Resources Commission recommends that:
the Forest Resources Corporation receive a 50 per cent share of any windfall gains realized from the sale or transfer of timber harvesting tenures.

Timber Supply Areas, Tree Farm Licences and Non-tenu;ed Areas of British Columbia



supply Are0






PRODUCED BY: Rsscurco Syr;ams N.anolno, D.C. aprf I, 1990 SYSTEtl USEO: TerraSoT



SOURCE: Province of British Columbia, Ministry of Forests, Integrated Resources Branch

1. Introduction
In the previous chapters, the Forest Resources Commission detailed a blueprint for enhanced stewardship through a comprehensive Land Use Plan, a new administrative and financial structure, and a reformed system of tenures. In this chapter, the Commission will examine in some detail the economic foundation that will make enhanced stewardship possible. Assigning financial values to the forest resource and the multitude of activities that take place within it, is a daunting task. Some values -wilderness preserves, parks, recreation, wildlife, watersheds - are almost impossible to quantify in any concrete, reliable way simply because society has never thought in terms of assigning monetary values to such things. The phrase “the best things in life are free” comes to play time and time again. Even assessing the obvious financial component - the forest industry - is not the simple task one might think. While the nuts and bolts of the industry the mills, the trucks, the employment factors - are readily quantifiable, the most significant asset, the forest itself, is not. Because it is publicly owned, and timber prices are set by an administrative formula rather than a free market, the value of the forest asset base is difficult to compute. With that in mind, the Forest Resources Commission had several studies undertaken to produce the most reliable professional assessment possible of these values. Out of those studies, the Commission reached the following general conclusions:

The forest industry is the most significant economic force in the province, and will likely remain so for the foreseeable future. It should in no way be seen as a “sunset” industry. Its impact varies dramatically from community to here Making onomic impact of certain actions on “the industry” ignores that vital factor. Although there is no generally accepted means of determining the value oE the standing timber in the commercial forest, there are strong indications that it is probably significantly higher than is reflected by the stumpage paid to the provincial government for its use. Society, over time, should collect a higher proportion of that value to ensure that enhanced stewardship takes place. It is possible to weigh the effects of different forest management goals and techniques on all values in the forest, and give forest managers a wide range of options to consider in preparing and implementing plans. Values for non-industrial activities - recreation, wildlife, etc. - cannot be reliably quantified with existing information. The development of inventory information (discussed in a subsequent chapter) should help in this regard. The following sections of this chapter will outline in more detail those conclusions.




2. Income and Employment Impacts of the Forests
As a generalization, the more economically important the resource, the more good information there is about it. There are, for example, several sources of current information on the volume and value of forest products produced in the province. Monthly qrrveys are taken on employment in sawmills. But little is known about the annual harvest of fresh water fish - how many people participated, for how long and at what cost. Similarly, while there are statistics available to estimate income generated by downhill skiers on specific ski-hills, their cross-country counterparts are scattered through the forests all over the province. Estimates of the economic impact of the forests are therefore heavily towards commercial or industrial uses. Even the tourism sector does not statistics of forest-related employment or income and makes no attempt value of the scenic views British Columbia offers. A study on tourism to deficiency is under way, however. weighted have reliable to assess the redress this

Following an initial review of a broad array of economic studies of the values of alternative uses of the forests, the Forest Resources Commission determined that there was little to be gained by trying to provide an all-encompassing value estimate for the forests in all uses, Instead, the Forest Resources Commission worked with the Planning and Statistics Division of the Ministry of Finance and Corporate Relations to develop an estimate of both the employment and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) contributions of the forestry sector to the province. As well, estimates were made of the importance of the forest sector to individual, representative towns in British Columbia. These studies will be made available with the release of this report. However, the statistics related to direct employment and contribution to GDP tell only a part of the impact of this sector on the economy. Also important are the impacts upon supplier industries, and the further impacts of expenditures of income by employees of these industries. These are commonly called the ‘ multiplier’ effects of the sector on the economy. To assess these “multiplier” effects, computer models have been developed to tell planners what will happen to a large mix of variable factors if changes are made in one or more of the variables. In simple terms, it allows planners to project what will happen F “11it3 of1 (111 r employees. These types of computer models are now used extensively in economic forecasting. Unfortunately, the most recent British Columbia government model of the economy was developed using 1984 data. Attempting to use a 1984 structural model to examine the total contribution of the forestry sector in 1989 or 1990 can produce misleading results, as the structure of industry relationships and relative sector sizes have changed. To overcome this problem, the Planning and Statistics Division of the Ministry of Finance and Corporate Relations used such known 1989 statistics as


Reference to the tables below show that the total impact is roughly double the direct impact.39% Other Sectors All Sectors 5. Jmpacts of the Forest Sector 1989 (per cent of total provincial GDP) Forest Sector Final Demand Impact Indirect Impact Induced Impact Total Effects of Other Sectors Total Forestry GDP 5. In order that the relative importance of the sector be understood better.25% 16. 1990 Options Paper. In this table.60% 15.88% 0. These results are summarized below. The following tables show the magnitude of the linkages between the forest sector and the rest of the economy in 1984 and 1989. EMPLOYMENTAND GOPIMPACTSOFTHEFORESTSECTOR-1984&1989 1 A. the contributions for 1984 and 1989 are given below in Table 1.45% 16. The total Gross Domestic Product (a measure of the value added to a product as it goes through all its processing) and total employment figures can be compared to the total impact for all sectors to show a flow through of benefits to the rest of the economy.40% 1 B. sector activity is the direct contribution of the Forestry Group to employment and Gross Domestic Product. etc.96% 9.56% 2.45% 2.69% 5. that shows a shift to manufacturing higher value products.56% 5. In part. Impacts of the Forest Sector on the Provincial Economy 1984 Direct GDP Impact Total GDP Impact Direct Employment Total Employment Impact Impact 8.00% 14.05% 8. pole manufacturers.70% 8.49% 0.employment figures and GDP figures to partially update the model.88% . all processing such as sawmills. The Forest Resources Commission further refined these figures from its September. pulp and paper.57% 5. veneer and plywood mills.40% 1989 9.75% 16.88% 7.18% 7. TABLE 1. The ‘ group’ includes logging. The table shows that while employment decreased over the five-year period. the productivity of the sector grew and contributed to an increase in the GDP.

) see suppo&ng TABLE 2 EMPLOYMENT DEPENDENCE ON FORESTRY Williams Lake Kitimat Castlegar 55. GDP. picture in logging provincial In generalizing the impacts of particular we get a false of what’ really going on in the economy.5% 67. British Columbia magnitude government employment each town.0% 58 .Other Sectors Induced Total production for Final Demand In 1989. This requires Volume industries’ in each centre that is related and other support (For technical: to employment 4. The overall is significantly more dangerous actions. out ‘ basic’ industries In essence. But it would have a devastating For example.9 per cent. To demonstrate Division in forestry the of the activity in the share of separating in and Statistics in and they are split along urban/rural the Planning estimates of the impact of local changes several towns in British Columbia. contribution contributes (direct. indirect and induced) contribution to the 14.6% 22. the fact that there are two economies lines. contributions documentation. of this economic developed takes place.TABLE 1. The use of these numbers faulty conclusions.4% Production for final demand Final Demand Indirect .” This is derived 50 per cent of manufacturing are only one component economy perhaps shipments fact that the forest sector contributes manufacturing of the GDP.7% 5. continued EMPLOYMENT AND GDP IMPACTS OF THE FOREST SECTOR . they were asked to estimate to forestry activities. the forest sector’ total s provincial economy cent of total employment. Impacts of the Forest Sector 1989 (per cent of provincial employment) Estimated Employment Impact 4. impact a 10 per cent reduction a net effect of less than 2 per cent on the on the small communities where the 10 per cent reduction This is not a small matter.C. This should On the same basis it contributed not be confused with the often used phrase “the shipments.0% 2.6% 14. s and forestry activity would produce actually It highlights duality.1% 2.4 per from the (GDP) was 16. of the forest sector to the provincial can produce another. forest industry However.1984 & 1989 1 C. less.Forest Sector lgdirect . set of 50 cents out of every dollar in B.

). . None of .5 n/a n/a n/a n/a lnternatibnal Paper Georgia-Pacific Weyerhaeuser Fletcher Challenge (1) Stora Group James River Kimberly-Clark Stone Container Champion International Scott Paper Oji Paper (2) Mead Boise Cascade Noranda forest Jujo Paper (2) Great Northern Nekoosa Svenska Cellulosa Sanyo-Kokusaku Pulp (2) Honshu Paper (2) Modo Grout Amcor(1) ’ Daishowa Paper (2) MacMillan Bloedel Union Camp Abitibi-Price Bunzl PLC Kymmene Wiggins Teape Enso-Gutziet Buhrmann-Tetterode Canadian Pacific Forest Westvaco Domtar Temple-Inland Rengo (2) Metsa-Serla Louisiana-Pacific PWA United Paper Mills Jefferson Smurfit (3) Willamette Industries Mitsubishi Paper Mills Taio Paper (2) Feldmuhle Bowater La Cellulose Du Pin Federal Paper Board KNP Potlatch Fletcher Challenge Canada USA USA USA New Zealand Sweden USA USA USA USA USA Japan USA USA Canada Japan USA Sweden Japan Japan Sweden Australia Japan Canada USA Canada United Kingdom Finland United Kingdom Finland Netherlands Canada USA Canada USA Japan Finland USA Fed. Rep. The Commission believes that its recommendations for the diversification of tenure holdings (see chapter on Tenures) and the establishment of a viable provincial log market (detailed later in this chapter) will ensure the maintenance of a diverse. Rep.). and “averaging” the impacts of reductions in forestry activity gives a grossly misleading picture of the real impact on resource-dependent communities throughout the province. Esselte Business Systems (U. is a different matter.No review of economic policy can ignore these estimates. Elders Resources. The Forest Resources Commission also heard concerns about corporate concentration in the B. Reed International (U. (1) Fiscal year ended June 30. however.A.A. Rauma-Repola (Finland). ‘ The1988 sales revenues have been restated’ * by companies where appropriate to reflect acquisitions. divestitures and restructurings. . They underline dramatically the importance of forestry to the rural economy.).1989 Based on Price Waterhouse Study.f!l . Sonoco (U.1989 (2) Fiscal year ended March 31 1989 (3) Fiscal year ended January I&.C. depicts the 50 largest forest products companies in the world. Germany Finland Ireland USA Japan Japan Fed. Germany USA France USA Netherlands USA Canada * For companies to be considered. Meyer International (U. forest industry. Tampella (Finland).A.K. Figure 6 FIFTY LARGEST FOREST PRODUCTS COMPANIES IN THE WORLD* (based on TotalSales) Rank 1988’ ” 2 3 1 4 : 6 14 7 t92 :: 13 1: 16 .).S. The following companies did not meet this criterion: ORG (U. Any discussion of corporate concentration must take into account the industry’ inters national profile and its ability to compete in world markets. Corporate concentration among tenure holdings. competitive forest products industry. NZFP (New Zealand).. The following figure. Avery International (U.K. That may mean further amalgamations of wood processing facilities and a further concentration of existing processing facilities. excerpted from Price Waterhouse’ Forest Products Industry s Survey (1989).S..S. they are not large when compared to their international competitors. A. 34 :: 22 19 2: :: z :: :.K. Ahlstrom (Finland). While some individual forest companies are large compared to other corporations in the province.). consequently 1988 reported sales may be inconsistent with 1988 rankings. 39 37 47 :: n/a 48 4”: 4. The Commission has concluded that the wood processing industry must be allowed to evolve into whatever structure is needed to maintain its ability to compete in world markets. the top 10 cm and only a few of the 50 are from Canada. greater than 50% of revenues must be derived from forest product sales.).

“Adventure Travel And Land Use. However. visitor days or expenditures. is an overview of tourism activity and an estimate of the current forest-dependent market. two background reviews were carried out for the Forest Resources Commission. Tourism Canada surveys cover the entire tourism sector and do not separate out forest related tourism activities. level of activity and economic impact for various sub-components of the tourism and recreation sector which are dependent upon the forest lands.” carried out by Woodbay Consulting Group. Numerous studies have been carried out on individual sectors but differing approaches. t However. “Preliminary Assessment of Forestry Related Tourism Values. and guest ranches include clients counted in studies of activities such as fishing.3. this should in no way diminish their importance in Land Use Planning and forest management and in carrying out the Vision Statement’ concept of enhanced s stewardship. Other Renewable Forest Resource Values an Economic Point of View of economic analysis to the broad range of values society now recognizes in its forest land base does not produce a reliable estimate of their worth. As stated previously. as part of its research program. fishing lodges. or measures of value among user groups impossible. The second background study.) The data base for determining the extent of forest-dependent tourism and recreation is fragmented with no overall view of the patronage base. Tourism Canada. or their contribution to the provincial economy. Tourism British Columbia has estimates of the total provincial market which encompass all tourism activities but do not break out separate measures for forestrelated activities. applying the standard forms To&km. wilderness settings. Wildlife and Recreation Values A number of studies have been carried out by provincial ministries on demand. Further. makes estimates of the economic impact of tourism on provincial economies. survey methods. Including clients of the wilderness or back country as well as front and mid- 60 . revenues. There is some data available. The first. In addition to a review of existing data sources. In summary. focused on that tourism market component which is outdoorsrelated and generally takes place in more remote. Volume 6. hunting. These studies. have covered only specific recreation markets and do not offer a comprehensive view of forest use. and wildlife viewing. it appears that a minimum of 3 per cent of non-residents come to British Columbia solely for its back country or wilderness values. (These studies are contained in background papers released with this report. In the order of 9 per cent to 11 per cent spend some of their time in a British Columbia wilderness/adventure pursuit. these estimates are based on national account data. The data base required for such analyses simply isn’ there.” carried out by Pacific North Consulting.. and this section will examine it briefly. however. Recent year data is shown in Table 3. Businesses such as guide outfitters. and terms of reference make simple addition of the number of clients.


4 2450.9 23.1 2.9 11.0 1393.9 Adventure He&ski travel (1) X ski/ski tour Mountaineer/backpack Hor$e/trail riding Nature observation Scuba diving Rafting Kayak/canoeing Sailing tours Boat tours Other Fresh water sport fishing Resident Non-resident Fishing ledges:(3)(4) Salt water fishing Resident Non-resident Wildlife viewing 820.2 121.6 188.4 158.0 245.3 0.l 10.2 2.0 140.0 1.9 2.3 53662.0 522.0 80.5 8.7 39.0 40.0 16262.3 4754.8 wildlife 62 .7 35. 1988 $ mill 78.0 52.5 206.6 631.4 9.3 113.1 0.9 0491 .TABLE 4 Forest-Related Tourism and Recreation Activity Activity/Market segment Employment (persyrs) 1555.0 65. activities (6) 10153.0 170.6 65.8 225.0 393.2 17.2 1915.0 250.1 Rev.5 61.4 Value-added 1988 $ mill 34.0 1.8 Client days (660) 1044.7 5.9 3.6 15.8 61.7 46.0 1.0 1317.8 (non-res & com’ (50%) (5) l) Wildlife Direct Indirect Hunting (7) Resident Non-resident Total: Total: all activities excluding (8) activ.8 6109.4 3.3 124.7 22.I 472.5 59.9 465.6 51 .3 21.0 4281 .8 70713.0 3.0 115.0 110.0 930.0 (2) 1783.9 138.1 9.3 2390.5 27.0 60.0 484.7 43.0 65.7 2.6 54.5 413.0 188.9 58.9 97.8 15.l 62222.0 47.2 203.3 9.5 50.0 315.1 5.0 70.8 536.2 6.3 3.3 30.7 4.5 25.8 14.4 26.2 1.2 8560.2 6.2 2.6 414./exp.

res/nonres split 73%/27% (DPA p. willingness to pay ($60. of Env. rev/exp table 5. 1985.” 1985. angler-days derived from Table 2-4). guest ranches.. counted.5 jobs/$mill exp. Watershed management of Crown lands has focused chiefly on community watersheds.42 x dir. exp. cruise ship passengers..(8). while 135 community watersheds are entirely Crown land.5.. . 7) 8) Combining commercial tourism and wildlife recreation activities gives an order of magnitude estimate of 70.) 2) 3) Economic Values and Impacts of Freshwater Fishing in British Columbia. so too. 1980). (DPA Group Inc. recreational and cultural uses.4mill) not included. Approximately 240 community watersheds (which represent 86 per cent of the total) are more than 50 per cent Crown land. Wildlife Viewing in British Columbia. the estimated commercial recreationist impact amounts to 8.59 (DPA p.C. industrial and municipal uses.” 1986 (Roger Reid et al) updated in (7) below. But while demand for consumptive uses is growing. Min. trapping. in (7) below.“1 989. Any attempt to weigh competing forest resource values and make value trade-offs needs to take this fact into consideration.2 (client days. 8-12). days 4) 5) 8) “Report on the British Columbia Survey of Non-hunting and Other Wildlife Activities for 1983. and $200 million value-added. Advent. (employment) “Update of the Values of Wildlife. preservation ($126mill. Table 7. 1989. based on direct expenditures by residents and non-residents (Tables 3-l. 1988 (Michael Stone. 6.5 days. March 1988 (Ethos Consulting/Land SenseNouds Planning Consultants).O exp. scientific.3-5. If the Ministry of Environment wildlife activity estimates are excluded. 3-4. Not included are Guide Outfitters of British Columbia: (“Opportunity Analysis. ratios of 20.5 million user days. DPA Group for 8C Ministry 01 Tourism and Provincial Secretary). Value-added=O.4-2).sources: Economic impacts of the Adventure Travel Industry. or non-lodge/resort saltwater fishing. Tables 11. Min. The health of the tourism sector depends heavily on the ability of B. Report of Task Force. is the desire to retain water in rivers and lakes for environmental. (expenditure). res. Tidal/Freshwater Fishing in British Columbia. (Guidelines For Watershed Management of Crown Lands Used as Community Water Supplies. social. and $0. trav. of Env. as quoted in (3) above.100 jobs. indirect wildlife activity days counted as 0. Department of Fisheries and Oceans. Fishing Lodges and Resorts in British Columbia.1/8. 1981) “Value and Characteristics of Resident/Non Resident Hunting. 1988. residents to “purchase” recreational pursuits of all kinds . Watershed and In-stream Water Values Government regulation of rivers and watershed lands has generally focused on fishery conservation and water supplies for agricultural. Roger Reid.35 value-added/$1 .value-added to revenue based on ratio 0.).). salt water lodge/resort segment expenditure Tables 8. 16.3 thousand person-years of employment and value-added contribution to GDP from direct expenditures of $400 million. & MacLaren Plansearch Corp. Roger Reid.) and willingness to pay ($228mil) values non Table 3 & 4.50% counted as non-res.and that requires a relatively well-paid work force in the province.fB87 (DPA Group Inc.7 million client-days. (2).

Ministry of Forests. in some areas of the province. equitable allocation among competing uses suffers from lack of knowledge of in-stream flow requirements and the difficulty in establishing values for the non-market element of the resource.. 1988). inundation and erosion of riparian properties and degradation of aesthetic and recreational values. 64 . naturally occurring range land is more limited and there is more reliance upon private and Crown improved pasture land and grazing of hay fields in late summer and fall. The provincial beef industry consists of the ranching sector producing feeder calves and yearlings and a relatively smaller feedlot industry located in the Southern Interior and Lower Fraser Valley. deterioration of water quality. In the Southern Interior. Crown range provides in the order of 924. In the North Central and Peace regions. herds spend mainly the spring. summer and fall on Crown and private range lands. the great increase in wilderness recreation. equivalent to perhaps 20 per cent of the present resource or 200. Issues surrounding in-stream water values include fisheries habitat. almost 85 per cent is Crown range administered by the Ministry of Forests. As pointed out in the 1985 Inquiry on Federal Water Policy (Pearse. (A New Approach to Angling Guide Management. commercialization of sport fishing.H. s The structure of grazing fees is based upon traditional use by the cattle industry.C.As discussed in a recent paper from the Recreational Fisheries Branch. 1989 (Talisman Land Resource Consultants). Forecast growth in the cattle industry would indicate a deficit in Crown forage. However. grazing by horses and use by guides. Income and employment impacts generated by beef producers.C. excluding activity in the slaughter and processing industry. outfitters and packers are major activities. Range Land Values Of the approximately 10 million hectares of range land in British Columbia.000 AUM’ by 1993. B. and the threat of deterioration in quality through overuse is prompting a more active management role to preserve wilderness fishing. are shown in Table 5: TABLE 5 Impact &TlJ of the Primary Beef Production GDP (1988 -$millionI 81 Sector EmrYovment berson vears) Direct (producer) income Indirect (supplier) income Induced imoact Total income Source: 2207 418 443 3068 29 19 129 B. Environment Canada). changes in siltation.000 animal unit months (AUM) of forage per year. Some sheep are also grazed on Crown land. The most extensively used range lands are located in the South and Central Interior. deterioration of bird sanctuary. P. Beef Industry Study: A Statistical Profile. Ministry of Environment. Most is located within provincial forest boundaries and managed in a multiple use context. B.C.

This figures includes licence fees. In 1988/89. B.7 million versus expected grazing revenues of $1.C. a total of 2. In the examination of cost recovery goals for the range program. these approaches tend to underestimate the economic value of range land. Most trapping in B. and given that there is a shortage of Crown Range at current rates. Hunting and Trapping Values Again. This asset-based approach used three indicators to determine the underlying value soft(this study is appended to the Commissi .5 million. The Forest Resources Commission asked consultants to examine alternative approaches to measuring the ‘ value’ of the timber in the commercial forests. other sectors such as wildlife. revenues from commercial grazing would have to be increased between 4.5 per cent to cover those government expenditures in support of the commercial livestock industry. or as a tradition. is done to provide a livelihood. For 1988/89 the Commercial Use portion of the Ministry of Forests Range Program budget was estimated at $2. butchery.8 million.5 per cent and 5. however. transportation.As pointed out in a Ministry of Forests Range Program study. 1989. this amount would constitute less than five per cent of net income or GDP generated by the beef ranching sector. many of the statistical estimates of the impact of hunting activities are included in estimates for broader-based topics such as tourism and recreation. and related equipment. The contribution to the provincial treasury of all this activity was $6. As noted in the 1989 Ministry of Forests Range Program Review. residents spent an estimated $125 million on hunting activities throughout the province in the 1988189 season. food. If the average fee per AUM were doubled. few of the normal indicators of value apply. but there are significant numbers of people who trap for recreation. In the absence of free market prices. Since grazing fees are administrated prices with perhaps only coincidental relationship with actual market rates. recreation and silvicultural programs also enter the range land calculus as joint costs and benefits. Ministry of Forests.) These are direct revenues. ammunition.C. and do not take into consideration the many economic benefits that flow indirectly to local communities. To complicate the issue. (Range Program Review. An Asset-Based Approach to the Value of the Timber Determining the value of publicly-owned commercial timber harvested at government controlled rates and government controlled prices is extremely difficult. guns.428 trapping licences were sold to the general public. values of range and Crown tenures not accounted for in grazing fees tend to become capitalized into private ranch land values. taxidermy. the diversity of forage opportunities and the range of values among areas do not permit any definitive estimate of the net value of range land. 4. and an unknown number of First Nations people also trap. as well as to the other users of the land. accommodation.

equal to its net stumpage revenue. Three separate discount The techniques They are: 13. The following table summarizes TABLE6 the income and expenses for that period.Income & Expenses CURRENT STIJMPAGE INCOME VALUATION MlNlSTRYOFFORESTS. must be fairly determined to produce a useful estimate The analysis was conducted using the most recent income and expenses available for the Ministry of Forests. results are detailed in Table 7: The income valuation . regulated recaptured ‘ utility’ rate of return that allows for inflation in prices. and of value.1 $153.2 $224.15% a normal a weighted of interest rates were used in modeling the asset valuations.0 $351. stumpage as though it were interest paid on an have to own It asks. Ministry of Forests . 1990. in essence.0 $153.50% 11.March31.2 $206. is a key factor in doing this “reverse” calculation. to receive an annual treated provincial dividend.3 The ‘ cash flow range’ in the above table is designed to allow for market fluctuations and represents a variance of 10 per cent in revenues.44% 7.1990 REVENUE OPERATINGEXPENSES (millions) $711. how large a bond would the government the rate of interest or interest payment. used to develop these rates are described in the background return to equity investments rate of return using a “utility”debt/equity ratio of 80/20 to be a real. fiscal year ending March 31.8 $359.2 OPERATING INCOME SILVICULTUREEXPENSE NETCASH FLOW CASHFLOWRANGE LOW BASE HIGH $ 82. Obviously.The consultants investment. study.

While the majority of the province’ timber is harvested on tenured public lands s and processed by the companies that harvest it. In addition. at least provide an opportunity to make a market t-r. (discount rate @ 13.96 In essence. the tenures themselves are bought and sold by private companies. the private transactions produce an asset value more than four times higher than that found for stumpage. the present stumpage return to government. there are some market mechanisms in place matter which of the three private valuations or the three discount or interest rates is used. a value of the asset base. rather than regulated price for access to timber. In fact.15% Clearly. imperfect as they are. Stumpage payments are not capturing the full value of the resource.61 Base Case ($ billion) 1.TABLE 7 Current Stumpage Income Valuation Approach Low Equity Model. Using the values represented by these private transactions. val1 The industry purchases logs on the Vancouver log market and through the small business enterprise program. This suggests that industry is capturing a much higher value from the forests than is the government. suggests a value of timber assets in British Columbia of $1.7 KG 6.5%. The table below details these values: TABLE 8 the consultants produced Market Valuation Approach Summary Valuation b\ B Average OL Base Case ($ billion) 4.5% c) discount rate @ 7.66 1. . The difference between these two values is presently being captured by private industry upon the sale of tenures and not by the Crown.5%) Leveraged Model (80/20). the asset base generated through private transactions is markedly higher than the asset base generated through provincial stumpage .44%) 0. It is the view of the Forest Resources Commission that this ‘ gap’ in vaiuatron should be closed.14 High 1.14 billion.72 1. It also suggests that companies are willing to pay a competitive. using an industry rate of return on equity of 13.8 a) discount rate @ 13.34 (discount rate @ 11. 0.

extended rotation periods. that the quality of the inventory data was not uniform across the full range of values. however. (A complete discussion on the valuation estimates is available as a background document in Volume 4. a ‘ pilot study’ for a forest estate was prepared for the Forest Resources Commission by a consortium of consulting foresters and economists. Management Options for a Forest Estate The role of enhanced stewardship and managing the forests for all renewable resource values has been a central theme throughout this report. This study analyzed the impact of differing silviculture regimes. The results of these alternatives are presented in Table 9A & 9B. In much the same way as computer models are used to analyze the economic impacts of a variety of economic factors. Area-based tenures and lands managed by the Forest Resources Corporation will directly relate the Land Use Plan to the management plans for the tenure. taxes and the ‘ bonus’ that could be bid by an operator to manage under each option. Within that strategy. goals will be established for protecting and enhancing ail values. The study produced fourteen alternative management options and estimated the results in terms of Allowable Annual Cut. range. This underlines the need to generate improved inventory data . different utilization standards.C.sometimes emphasizing the timber production values. and alternative harvesting methods. Nevertheless. A land use strategy has been proposed to assess the land capabilities.) 5. harvest area.3 and $8. the information available was sufficient to meet the illustrative goals of the pilot study.a need that has already been outlined in other chapters of this report.The conclusion of the study was that. Fundamental to these proposals is the belief that a variety of management options exist that are both economically feasible and sustainable through time. net revenues. employment. The study used data specific to a particular land base in B. other times emphasizing the recreation or wildlife values. a value of s the timber of between $8. wildlife. To demonstrate the broad variety of management options possible and provide an example of a potential system of accounts. It put those variables together with management goals and objectives that vary among the full range of values . they can be used to analyze a variety of forest managementscenarios. Any option selected can and should be audited to ensure that performance reflects both commercial and non-commercial management objectives.5 billion was supportable. recreation. from the province’ perspective. It is important to point out. .

8 149 71@ 739m 256 294 3400 3400 3 3 200 200 295 295 12500 12500 3 3 96.2 t&!i 92. Range and Wildlife’ 89. Allow Lower Utllirelbn Slandsrds Nalutal Regenersllon MOF Easlo Sllvkuhure Select Sllvbutture 105 115 131. 65 :& 270 311 255 107 157 157 3400 3400 3400 3 3 3 160 180 160 12000 12000 12000 3 3 3 Extend mlallon perbd Old GroMh Forest and 8.) User days&ear Empbymenl (man-years) Allernallve Slkbullure Regtmss a1 Slsndard U1lllralbn Natural Regenatallon 1.7 249 177 3400 3 1M) 235 12000 3 130. MOF Bssb Sllvkutture Akernalbe Hafvestlng Methods 9.8 97. MOP Basic Sllvkuhure 2.5 338 336 343 416 204 227 262 347 3400 3400 3400 3460 3 3 3 3 160 160 160 160 12000 IMOO 12000 1200 3 3 3 3 5. 14. 7. Select sMc!Jnure 3. WIldMe . Recreatbn 12. Pop. PHYSICAL OUTPUT INDICATORS RECREATION INDICATORS z TIMBER 290 Year Average MANAGEMENT SCENARIO INDICATORS RANGE INDICATORS WILDLIFE INDICATORS Harvested Land (haFlr) Employment (man-years) Animal UnA monlhsfyr Empbymenl (man-yesra) Deer Moore Pop.SUMMARY RESULTS OF ALTERNATtVE MANAGEMENT SCENARIOS. SltVblltlUre Management Emphasis Olher Resources 11.6 253 255 349 251 191 191 2116 181 3400 3400 lQzJ!cL 7M)o 3 3 a 9 160 370 1111 330 235 470 23% 450 24000 14000 -t2aoII 13500 6 3 x 3 . 6. (ove~~lnledng pep. Sholterwmd Harvesland MOF Baab Sltvkuhure Shellerwood and Selocl 10. Maxlmlre Wood Pmducllon 4.3 174.

2.8 149 $1.5 $ 920 $1.26 5 5 $ 5 630 760 869 672 $503 $476 $517 5443 $ 755 5 714 t 776 $ 665 $5. Hatvesllng Methods 69.5 174.040 $1. MOF Baal~Sllvkuhure Select Sllvkulture 3.73 $13. Maxlmlze Wood Producikn 4A.653 $1.717 $13.35 $ 6.81 $11.192 $7.SUMMARY RESULTS OF ALTERNATIVE MANAGEMENT SCENARIOS.633 5 6.84 s 869 5 953 $1.104 $1.84 $ 9.16 $14.8 97.67 S 9.459 $ 953 $546 $563 $652 $860 $694 $ 820 $ a75 $ 978 $1.94 $ 746 $467 $ 700 $7. Lower Ulillzalion Standards Natural Reganerallon MOF Bask Sllvkutfure Soled Sllvkukure 105 115 131. Maxlmlze Wood Produdlon 4.322 5 4.029 6 672 $12. 7.91 $10.3 174. 6.450 $1.007 Management Emphasis Other Resources RCCIW3llOn 11. Wildlffe 12.220 d 862 $1.717 $1.2 105 92. Ranae and Wildlife” 14.249 $631 $719 s 947 $1.5 $1.916 $11. C&In% (‘ 00051 200 Year Averege MANAGEMENT SCENARIO Average Net Vslue Ginerated Per Year ww 200 Year Aversge V&M (t/m’ ) Average Slumpige Payment PoOO$l Laba and Company TFiXF& L Surplus’ Value POOOSI Allerna!bs Silvkulturo Re~tmer at Standard Ulllbalkm Natural RsaeneraUon 1. 10.447 $6.5 $1.370 $1.250 $13.290 61.381 $ 8.160 $16.039 s 3.64 $ 495 $ 693 $ 690 $294 $405 $417 5 441 $ 607 t 625 $6.43 $ 9.079 $0 $3.7 $1.420 $5. VALUE INDICATORS FINANCIAL INDICATORS Labor and Company T&sty.60 5 7.370 $1.548 $2.420 Old Growth Forest and MOF Bask Slivkuhure AlternatIve 9.055 $1. No Stumpage on Increment” Allow 5.07 $9.408 0 0 . Range” 13.71 $1.560 55 79 79.055 $1. 90.546 Shellerwad Hawest and MOF Bask Sllvkullure Shelterwad and Select Sllvkuilure 130.

I. With the exception of one of the shelterwood systems (with the basic silviculture requirements of the Ministry of Forests). given guidance by public choice and established goals. a stable grizzly bear population may depend on a . The second is that the results simply show what happens to a whole range of variables when any one or more of them is altered. All the options presented in this study are sustainable. While the value of timber harvesting is measurable. minimum numner or m rn a the population will decline. Equally important are assurances that the ‘ plan’ adopted is sustainable through time. Establishing a framework for monitoring the performance of a tenureholder/resource manager in meeting these goals is an important consideration. at worst. at best. several points should be borne in mind. To do so will. . The primary gains from intensive silviculture go to the government in the form of increased tax revenues and increased employment. A System of Accounts for a Forest Estate As shown in the previous section. once management goals and objectives are established. all would permit a ‘ bonus bid’ (revenues to the government) in terms of excess income over costs. Many forest values have no income statement to verify that values have been produced. there is a great degree of flexibility available in achieving those goals.. 6. A system of accounts is presented below that could form a basis for this audit. The primary concern lies in the difference between depleting a resource and ensuring that sufficient income is re-invested to ensure constant income flows or wealth creation through time. A basic rule of renewable resource exploitation is to not harvest in a particular time period more than the incremental growth of the resource in the same time period. the loss of other values through the timber harvesting process may not be measurable. that the private manager’ choice in the above options would be to do s nothing in terms of silviculture and let the site regenerate itself.In reviewing the results of this study. They do not give a ‘ best’ option that’ the decision made by society. The first is that these results apply to the specific area studied. however. the security of the tenure will be based on performance audits that show goals and objectives have been achieved. Neither will it be simple to assess the value of the depletion of the timber resource through too rapid a rate of harvest. It is interesting to note. A full range of alternatives is available to managers of individual forest estates. and while the principles might apply to other parts of the province. For example. lower future yields and. and selecting any one always has benefits and costs. As stated in the tenure section. The study for the Forest Resources Commission also provided an accounting or auditing framework with which to track the performance of the manager in meeting these goals. s What the study demonstrates clearly is that there are all kinds of options for society to consider. might exhaust the resource. the specific data and conclusions definitely do not.

the coastal link between large numbers There was a plants and export markets. The government 5 per cent of 72 . A Province-wide British Columbia’ s established waterways independent distinct upon a competitive of British Columbia between Log Market and wood processing a cost-effective industries were of log market. accounts for the Forest Resources Commission on a forest estate performance that could be used to ‘ track’ management Two principal throughout recreational silvicu~tural can be established attributes. It provides a first step in establishing a long-term Commission adequacy or rotation-length of management approach to forest management. with the addition This type of accounting of non-market is typical of factors or values. and two things became the competitive integration price calculations log market would ultimately was open to challenge. provided Prior to World War II. By the mid-1950s.) can be established expenditures. and its usefulness in providing competitive if the trend towards total stumpage To date. ‘ Physical’ accounts transactions deletions annual to physical corporate and ‘ value’ accounts stock (such as wildlife. has halted the trend. The Forest Resources in the forest values. such as wildlife forage production such as timber harvesting use. it was clear that the number of small and large independent loggers was steadily declining. as the long-term 7. harvesting timber for sale on an open market. to monitor and additions market and such as Log sales and management reports. had virtually function of large integrated Logging had become a resource extraction simply cutting wood on a variety of licences for their own mill requirements. nothing rights to harvest the Crown timber. as well believes this approach sustainability will generate a high level of confidence for non-market efforts and expenditures of all values. The high number of relatively large companies that worked exclusively disappeared. The large capital requirements of developing operations and maintaining operations efforts among milling of building international processing facilities and the major costs of backwards into logging markets led to both a consolidation and a move to integrate to ensure supplies of logs. that harvested timber harvesting loggers and wood processing separation logging companies trees and the sawmills that processed them. Fewer and fewer companies has had to withdraw control disappear were not stopped. The pilot study established a format that would be useful in auditing ‘ tangible and measurable’ results from stewardship activities. and other market-valued activities. companies in the woods.The pilot study conducted established in a business a system of accounts plan format. to monitor additions and deletions or and a year of both physical expenditures. clear: Twenty years later the trend was still going strong.

S. This re-adjustment in tenure allocation includes an increase in small area-based tenures for companies or individuals without primary processing facilities and a significant share of the Allowable Annual Cut being put on the market by the new Forest Resources Corporation. the value of the forest asset base has been assimilated by forest companies. The recent introduction of a tax on log exports from the south coastal region will move the concentration of log exports to the north coastal area of the province.industry’ cutting rights in order to allow the establishment of new. And. . Pacific Northwest States and Alaska. In other chapters of this report. however. with a consequent reduction in the stumpage collected by the government. value-added s manufacturing operations. Given open access by sufficient buyers and sellers. While log exports have represented a small proportion of the total provincial Allowable they are concentrated. The measures foreseen by the Forest Resources Commission in establishing a market are neither cumbersome nor costly to implement. the market will ‘ make’ itself. The absolute level of log exports in the province has historically remained low. Wood Fibre Exports Log exports have been restricted in British Columbia since 1912 through legislation in the Forest Act. The common rule of thumb in qualifying for an export permit is whether the logs are surplus to the needs of domestic processing facilities.) Any changes considered to the present export restrictions should be reviewed within the context of a potential loss of this exemption. species and where possible grade. a notification system that lists (by location) the present and future availability of logs by size. The Commission believes that the establishment of a province-wide log market represents the only way that the province can realize full value for its resources and generate the income required to fulfil1 the enhanced stewardship role of the Vision Statement. the Forest Resources Commission has recommended that a significant volume of logs be made available to the processing sector on a competitive basis. particularly in comparison to exports from the U. with few logs originating from the Interior of the province. as seen in the ‘ asset’ valuation analysis conducted for the Commission. The basic requirements are simple: a sufficient volume of logs available for interested purchasers. 8. The British Columbia Government cooperates with the Federal Government (which has jurisdiction over international trade) in determining whether unprocessed logs can be exported. The fact that the restrictions have been in place for so long a period of time has allowed Canada to retain an exemption from the prohibition on resource export controls under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT. and a reporting of transaction prices on a similar basis. Provincial statistics on log exports are misleading. With few exceptions. the export of logs is a ‘ coastal’ practice.

markets logging would not take place without A lack of domestic renders public for certain types and grades of logs. facilities. and the salvage of logs from logging sites for chipping. At the same time. Discussions between should at the Commission’ s any other type of market uneconomic. The Commission to re-visit these topics in subsequent . exports provide activities. British Columbia If the primary reasons in the world. as most were concerned chips to pulp mills. the need for mills to recognized by to be be able to compete such an overriding restrictions markets was generally that few felt that mills should be made inefficient or trading of logs. and in some cases avoids wasting believes The Forest Resources Commission certain intends instances. products some of the most efficient for logs. indicated the ‘ export’ of logs forest districts was a more common be used to supPort concern local manufacturing commodity in international Many felt that local forests However. with favourable costs compared for these premiums lie in the production or in market control. where much exports. The development market log market will substantially interest The Commission it is in the long-term be processed of British Columbia is interested that as much wood as why foreign manufacturers to producers buyers are in to the province. chips and cants prior to export. is valuable in in (square logs) does. on the movement restrictions The present availability province-wide further believes possible reduced on log exports go a long way towards ensuring improve distribution the prospects mechanism.In remote coastal areas. be explored but that other alternatives more vigorously of logs. a loss of opportunities income for further processing other of in much the same way that the export of logs or cants that permits of resources. into these production it would be of some value to the province and market access that would in British Columbia. in understanding softwood product The Forest Resources Commission can pay large premiums such markets of specialty develop enable as Japan. opportunities further both the product market information the expansion There was little discussion concerning in submissions to the Forest Resources Commission with the appropriate pricing of wood chip exports. meetings problem. terms of further processing that the export option should reports. of the forest is over-mature. of exports domestic of a being of logs while providing by a more efficient within an ‘ outlet’ for surplus logs. or the overall cost of logging. The export of chips does indicate wood products economic in-province.

Forests. It is imperative that inventory deficiencies be addressed as quickly as possible. Transportation and Highways. on current activities in the forests. Integrated resource management and enhanced stewardship. at the same time. B. Parks. retaining the values for which they were originally intended. based on a recognition of all forest values. given the importance of all renewable forest resources to the people of British Columbia. completeness and availability. the B.C.the Department of Fisheries and Oceans and the Department of Indian and Northern Affairs . Environment. Tourism. and Native Affairs. Assessment Authority and the Royal B. Municipal Affairs. Planning must go ahead. FOREST RESOURCE INVENTORY AND ALLOWABLE ANNUAL CUT 1. In addition. Recreation and Culture. different land boundaries. They form the basis for land use classification decisions and provide the raw materials used to determine the appropriate level of enhanced stewardship called for in the Vision Statement. and decisions must be made using the best information available.7. Rail.C. B. Museum have their own specialized inventories. Without this information. Early in its deliberations. are extremely difficult with such a fragmented and inconsistent body of information. They are the Ministries of Energy. There is a wide range in quality. and woefully inadequate at worst. responsible for collecting data in their specific areas of jurisdiction. therefore. the Commission recognized these shortcomings and in its interim report recommended that: “The government immediately examine and implement ways by which the full range of forest related inventories can be made standard and able to be used on compatible systems while. Different ministries and other agencies use different measuring standards. and have different goals and objectives -with the predictable result that the various systems are largely incompatible. But the Commission believes that the current state of inventory information is a disgrace. A significant number of British Columbians depend. Agriculture and Fisheries.” Ten provincial ministries maintain a wide variety of resource inventory data. The province’ renewable forest resource inventories suffer from an uncoordinated s approach by the several ministries and agencies. it is not feasible to shut everything down while these inventories are fully developed. Land Use Planners and forest managers are severely hampered in making intelligent choices and recommendations. Hydro. Inventory of Renewable Forest Resource Values As stated in the chapter outlining the Land Use Plan. accurate and up-to-date inventories of all forest values are critical to the success of any resource management policy. in one way or another. both federal and provincial.C. the state of renewable forest resource inventories in this province is inconsistent at best. Mines and Petroleum Resources. Crown Lands.C. At least two federal government departments . Sadly.

They will also be useful in helping to quantify what benefits accrue to society from land use decisions that involve value trade-offs. The inventories must also satisfy the needs of resource user groups. Only with a complete picture of resource values in all lands can the best land use decisions be made. reasoned Land Use Plans and renewable forest resource management plans.-are also directly involved through agreements with the provincial government for anadromous fish inventory and water resource management. The Commission believes it is important that the inventory process apply to all lands. and would establish inventory priorities. . etc. soils. but with only limited success. These deficiencies are discussed in detail in subsequent sections of this chapter. timber. established to plan and develop a program for these inventories. This policy making committee would be comprised of technical experts from the resource ministries and representatives from industrial and non-industrial resource user groups and individuals. ecological reserves. Inventories for other values must be brought up to much higher standards. The Forest Resources Commission has concluded that a Provincial Forest Resource Inventory Committee is needed to plan and guide this process. Because of the economic importance of timber production in British Columbia. This multi-disciplinary representation must ensure that a standardized compatible system for conducting and maintaining forest resource inventories in the province is developed. However. 4% 76 . Improved inventories of wildlife and fisheries habitat. The Committee would report to the Minister of Crown Lands and would develop general objectives and standards. The Forest Resources Commission raised this concern in the chapter on Land Use Planning and has recommended that the Ministry of Crown Lands be responsible for coordinating all forest resource inventories on Crown lands in the province. timber inventories are. there are serious deficiencies in the province’ timber inventories that also s require attention. in general. recreation and tourism potential are needed to assist in the preparation OE sound. A complete list of these ntory responsiomties 1seontamed in the last section ot this chapter. water. There have been attempts in recent years to rectify these inconsistencies and inadequacies and implement a more coordinated approach to inventory collection. more comprehensive than inventories for other values. The Forest Resources Commission recommends that: 76. including parks. An overall master plan is essential for the development of the inventories of renewable forest resource values. These inventories should be developed within a framework that ensures all data essential to forest resource planning is collected. wilderness areas. range. the Government of British Columbia undertake a commitment to complete inventories for all renewable forest resource values using standardized compatible systems. and the public must have ready access to the information contained in them.

nor can it provide dependable estimates of site quality and growth potential.. It must also provide the information necessary to predict the yields these new crops of forests will produce so that reliable projections of future wood supply and potential harvest levels can be made. A more detailed account of the industry’ importance to the province is contained in the chapter on s Economic and Financial Considerations.2. planners and forest managers have limited confidence in the information they must use as a basis for planning and assuring enhanced stewardship. younger coniferous stands and stands considered non-commercial received low priority for Adding to the importance of this information is the fact that changing social values are demanding more from the forests than commercial timber. As the industry moves from harvesting mature. As well. the importance of accurate and complete inventories of the trees growing on provincial lands. . It provides inventory statistics for large geographic areas. Data collectors concentrated on commercial timber volumes at the expense of other information. After reviewing several diverse timber inventories. As a result. with cut levels neither over nor under what is deemed appropriate. the different productive capacities of those lands. natural forests to growing “second growth” managed forests. As a result. There is tremendous pressure to withdraw forest lands from commercial timber production for parks. The timber inventory must provide both an account of growing stock in the mature forests and an accurate assessment of the growth rates of the immature forests. The existing provincial timber inventory was completed more than 20 years ago. the reliability of inventory information becomes even more important. wilderness -V I:cnoices. the inventory was not designed to provide reliable data on site productivity or growth rates. And there is no regular schedule for updating the inventory. . and hundreds of million of dollars annually in provincial revenues. and the reliability of future growth forecasts cannot be overstated.-. ro resources are there and what the physical and biological capacities of the land are. 7-l 1 . A more accurate timber inventory must be completed province-wide over the next 10 years to give Land Use Planners a reliable information base. the Forest Resources Commission concluded that the provincial timber inventory is outdated and weak in several aspects. and so is of little use in forecasting future timber yields. The current inventory cannot reliably estimate the volume of specific timber stands. representing billions of dollars of capital investment. Problem areas. A good inventory is also important to ensure that harvesting rights are allocated equitably. In that context. should be given priority and completed within 5 years. thousands of jobs. to allow general strategic planning and determination of harvesting volumes through Allowable Annual Cuts. . and those areas under pressure already. Timber Inventories is cry far-the mosr srgnmcant economic force in tne provmclal economy. deciduous tree stands. soaety must know wnat .

This Timber Inventory Task Force would report to the Provincial Forest Resource Inventory Committee. it also believes that a program of continuous inventory updating should be introduced. In 1988. This will provide greater reliability for planning and a higher degree of confidence. The Ministry of Forests is responsible for maintaining the inventory of Crown forests. The inventory data base will have to be expanded to include information from operational inventories and silviculture surveys. The data base should be tied to a uniform system of geographical references. and what aspects of the reinventory program should be cancelled or revised. As the Forest Resources Commission is recommending that a new provincial inventory be planned and implemented. This review must assess the technical merits of the re-inventory program and recommend what components to include in the new inventory. it is essential that the end-users have input into the new program. incomplete inventory data base. This will.ensure that the most recent inventory statistics are available for local resource planning and yield analysis. It appears logical to retain the supply block boundaries as they can be used to define the Land Use Planning units. Thus far. it did nothing to improve the accuracy of the information or the design of the data base. The largest unit for inventory design will be the supply block. While the Forest Resources Commission recognizes that the Ministry of Forests is already using these techniques. New computer-based inventory techniques make it technically feasible to maintain and update a timber inventory more easily. In general. The task force will be responsible for setting technical standards and determining priorities for completion within a 10 year period. It can be accomplished in the design of the new inventory program. The Timber Inventory Task Force should conduct this review on a priority basis. The lack of a continuous inventory program has meant that forest planning is often completed with an outdated. .The Commission has been advised that the statistical reliability needed for Land Use Planning and enhanced stewardship will require a greater emphasis on field sampling. the first priority for attention should be areas where overcutting is suspected. This will allow forest planning to take full advantage of the utility of computer-based mapping systems. As the new timber inventories will be designed for use within a Forest District. The current inventory is based on units larger than the supply blocks. The new statistical information should follow supply block boundaries within Forest Districts. the forest industry and other resource groups have had no involvement in conducting the timber inventory in Timber Supply Areas. the Ministry of Forests began implementing a new 10 year re-inventory program. it is essential that an immediate and critical review of the current re-inventory program be completed within the next 12 months. The Forest Resources Commission has concluded that a Timber Inventory Task Force comprising a mix of public and private technical experts and inventory users be formed to direct the development of the new inventory program. It should also define what data in the current inventory is still useful. While the new program improved the updating of classification and made data more accessible.

the Timber Inventory Task Force should immediately conduct a critical review of the present Ministry of Forests’ Re-Inventory program and report within the next 12 montns. The Forest Resources Commission is aware that the Forest Productivity Councils of B. have been established to oversee the development of a provincial data base of growth and yield research plots. the timber inventory areas. 82. complying with new standards. 80. comprised of technical experts from private and public resource users. the Commission concluded that data on stand dynamics and growth rates is woefully inadequate. There is a strong public perception that second growth forests will produce less volume per hectare than the mature stands. 79. The inventory data is easy to retrieve and available for use in planning. reliable computer projections about future timber yields in these forests cannot be generated.C. Users are unable to predict with confidence future harvest levels.The current timber inventory is maintained on an extremely large computerized geographically-referenced data base. and they can’ reliably t predict the impact on yield of various silvicultural treatments. As a result. be established to design and plan the development of an accurate timber inventory. update must initially focus on problem them within the next 5 years. be completed over the next 10 year period. and to coordinate the establishment of new field installations designed to assess the growth response to silvicultural treatments. For this reason. and complete a Timber Inventory Task Force. These Councils could be more effective if they were coordinated through an independent body reporting to the Minister of Renewable The Forest Resource Commission recommends that: 78. After reviewing inventory data. The Councils also facilitate cooperation in the program between the forest industry and the Ministry of Forests. As a result. this failure to provide reliable growth and yield projections is quite disturbing. The system is easy to access and can respond to specific requests for inventory reports. When one considers the hundreds of millions of dollars spent annually on forest renewal. the new inventory program must be designed and funded to provide reliable statistically sound data that can be used by local resource planning groups (and other resource interests). a number of outside groups and agencies have made requests for inventory information. . the new provincial timber inventory should be structured on land management units with boundaries approximating 81. a quality assurance/quality control system is needed to ensure standards of definition and compatibility within and across data bases. an updated provincial timber inventory. and that this in some way indicates poor forest management. 83.

85. a system for continuous updating of the provincial inventory must be established.that the present level of harvest is not sustainable in the 11* M Allowable Annual Cuts determined for seven forest management units in the province. the need to preserve wildlife and fish habitat. the growth rate of the new forest that regenerates after logging. the production capabilities and fibre requirements of the timber processing industries. . . its maximum annual growth rate occurs within the first 100 years or so.) The determination considers several key factors: . Economically. 3. the utilization standards used . rather than wait another 200 years to get a little more total volume. inventory designs vary to suit the objectives of the intended use. this volume is based on the length of time it takes for a stand to reach and maintain its maximum annual growth rate. A yield analysis. priority basis. in simple terms. aesthetics. ana other resource needs. The Ministry of Forests regulates the volume of timber harvested annually from Crown land through a control mechanism called the Allowable Annual Cut (AAC.the supply blocks within Forest Districts. An important part of any AAC determination is a technical yield analysis. Allowable Annual Cut Determination The Forest Resources Commission heard a great deal of concern that the provincial forests are being overcut . the w&he . The report detailing this review is available as a background document. . While a tree might increase in volume (keep growing) for 300 years. sensitive soils. the rate of timber production the age of the trees. be_ wth rv&. must be established on a systematic. Currently. looks at the size of the accessible and operable forested land and calculates the volume of wood that can be grown on the land based on a particular management regime. that can be sustained on a given land base. . timber a growth and yield program to quantify the growth rates of the second%rowth forests. it makes sense to harvest the trees near the end of this maximum annual growth rate. 86.that is how much of the wood is deemed economically usable and must be brought out for processing. for all commercial species in the province. 84. The same boundaries should be used for the inventories of all renewable forest resource values. .

Figure 7 illustrates for Crown lands the various provincial AACs and compares them with the actual harvest levels over the past 20 years. a yield calculation is made of the estimated volume of timber that can be harvested annually over time. . under current management regimes. excludes firmwood rejects prior to 1981 8 Timber licences outside TFLs With these thoughts in mind.000 ma Source: Ministry - Harvest Level in 000. The AAC determination is largely based on the yield analysis. That means there could be a nfaIldown” of the inventory volume.) The current timber endowment consists largely of “old growth” trees that have a greater volume of wood at harvest than will the “second growth” trees that replace them. especially in the Timber Supply Areas (TSAs.000 m3 Source: Ministry of Forests Annual Report of Forests Annual Report 1. Since 198W tables are Volume committed 2. however this policy has not been consistently applied. Harvest level includes private land within TFLs. Those current timber management regimes and yield calculations are not designed to replace old growth inventories with an equal volume of wood. This calculation balances the harvest of the current endowment of timber with the growth of future timber.Figure 7 ANNUAL HARVEST LEVELS COMPARED WITH AACs ON CROWN LANDS AAC in 000. The yield analysis process and resultant AAC determination are reviewed as a matter of policy every five years. The planning horizon used in making this calculation is usually 200 or more years.

take into the timber volume could actually be increased The real problem. In other words. outdated and growth and Given the of there can be only is too with an inconsistently estimates capacity. Wood that might be available for pulp and paper. of the working of volume and production Yield analysis is often forest area. used. significant timber volumes are excluded from the yield calculations. improved timber supply analysis process linked with improved inventories and growth and yield predictions will provide new opportunities to evaluate both the biological and economic opportunities for a sustainable fibre supply. and . or other uses. information completed and unreliable uncertainties assumptions limited the Forest Resources Commission defined estimate has concluded. But the AAC is determined to harvest a volume of sawlogs. is that the used to calculate invehtory these yield results is very unreliable. As a consequence. It also doesn’ t forest management but it has that B. s in some areas. Inventory data can reflect all wood fibre volumes .in either direction . There may be some circumstances decrease or an increase The forest industry’ s will indicate that a of sawlogs rather in AAC can be supported. Allowable Annual Cut regulating policies may be exacerbating the wood supply issue. As a t result. it is possible that the information AAC determination It is equally possible that the AAC determination where current These should be acted upon.‘ forests are being overcut. deficiencies results. in the data base. If the additional volume is included by altering the utilization standard to include those other volumes. technical in the yield analysis is too high. the Forest Resources Commission has concluded and the large number confidence In other words. isn’ part of the formula. without any changes in the actual volume of standing timber. Any adjustment to the AAC .not just sawlogs.C. The “falldown” widely predicted when looking at mature forest harvesting in transition to managed forest harvesting may well never happen. The Forest Resources Commission further believes that the yield analysis process is too inflexible. The Forest Resources Commission is concerned that these opportunities are not being examined in the current yield analysis process. the working forest area delineated for yield analysis comprises only the timber economically viable for sawmills. yield forecasts that do not reflect the actual growth rate of the forest.can’ be justified until these deficiencies t in the yield analysis process are rectified. The potential to improve forest yieIds by silvicultural practices and the management of stand harvest cycles could be significant. is based on the utilization than on a total wood fibre supply.C. As a consequence the timber harvest goal is set without adequate consideration of the other forest management goals. As a result.This does not necessarily led to a perception account the possibility imply that current that through intensive harvest levels are not sustainable. This needs to be examined by yield analysis. the AAC can be changed in either direction simply by changing utilization standards. At present. the process results in an Allowable Annual Cut determination before the Timber Supply Area plan is developed. then the AAC could be increased. There is no well defined management strategy to alleviate this falldown or to minimize the economic impacts. wood quota in B. A new. low.

The Forest Resources Commission believes that determining AACs on the smaller supply block levels. and are unresponsive to changes in the economy and market cycle.that is determining the AK for the TSA and then dividing the total by the supply block areas to produce the AACs for the smaller units. Timber Supply Area plans are rarely finished. Using smaller units will also have a beneficial effect on determining AACs as it will project with greater reliability the sustainable harvest by unit. The Committee would have the authority to acquire the multi-disciplinary expertise required to prepare the forest management plan. But divided responsibilities and different levels of authority cause lengthy delays.the protection and enhancement of all other values could be compromised. Both the yield analysis and the District Forest Management Plan need to be carried out as one planning process. The yield analysis would be completed within the framework of some general principles and procedures. Resource management opportunities need to be defined for each Forest District opportunities and the social values and costs at a local level within a provincially acceptable strategy. Yield analysis can be used in an interactive process in developing the forest management goals for the Timber Supply Area. It then becomes difficult to develop a Timber Supply Area plan that equally considers all the renewable forest resource values. which can include several Forest Districts. However. The responsibility for completing the yield analysis process is currently shared between the local Timber Supply Area Committee and various branches of the Ministry of Forests. As a result. present harvesting levels might have to be reduced to reflect the forest composition and age class distribution on the smaller land units. and would conform with units to be used by Local Resource Planning Groups as described in the chapter on Land Use Planning. Representation on the committee needs to be expanded to broaden public involvement. To be effective strategically these plans must be prepared and updated every five years. and then adding them together will produce a far more accurate picture of feasible harvest supply from the forest than doing the reverse . . The sheer size of the Timber Supply Area. and a yield analysis can take five to seven years to complete. The Forest Resources Commission recommends that a Forest District Planning Committee be formed with the responsibility of preparing the forest management plan for each Forest District. Smaller forest planning units based on the Forest District boundaries would be more manageable. It is also important that the management assumptions be monitored during the implementation of the forest management plan. This would include a structure that is responsive to changes in strategies or assumptions. The Forest District Planning Committee must be accountable for completing the yield analysis and preparing the District Forest Management Plan. The Committee must develop a thorough understanding of the impact on short and long term wood supply of integrated resource use goals. are soon outdated. also creates difficulties.

91. The following is a brief description of those responsibilities. except in those obvious cases where current information strongly support a change. Ministries and Agencies Responsible for Inventory Development As outlined in the first section of this chapter. Mines and Petroleum Resources. These consist mainly of computerized data bases and maps. Sub-surface inventories of mineral. a wide variety of ministries and agencies are responsible for collecting inventory information for a number of forest resource uses. 4. the yield analysis task be decentralized and become the responsibility of the Forest District Planning Committee. The Forest Resources Commission recommends that: 87. the Allowable Annual Cut for Timber Supply Areas and Tree Farm Licences be determined within the context of the forest management goals for all values on the management unit. 88. The representation must include technical specialists and the public. natural gas and geothermal resources in the province are kept by the Ministry of Energy. the Allowable Annual Cut of Timber Supply Areas or Tree Farm Litiences not be raised or lowered until and unless new timber inventory data and subsequent yield analysis clearly justify an adjustment. 90. such as petroleum exploration and production. The Ministry of Crown Lands maintains the Crown Land Registry Information System and is the lead agency for the development of a 84 . 89. The Ministry of Fbrests maintains a timber inventory of all the Crown forest land in the province. The Committee would solicit comments from all levels of the resource ministries and from the public. as well as a rangeland capability inventory. the yield analysis task be changed to become an integral part of the process of developing a forest management plan rather than used solely to determine Allowable Annual Cut. Forest District Planning Committees be formed with the responsibility to prepare District Forest Management Plans. the Committee would present to the Provincial Forester a recommended Allowable Annual Cut that has been developed by consensus. This information becomes important when exploitation plans. potentially impact on the resources above the ground. or uses that might affect the forest resources. petroleum.The Forest District Planning Committee should also have the responsibility for developing the Allowable Annual Cut recommendation. As a final step. An inventory of recreation potential has also been completed and the Ministry is currently focusing on identifying wilderness values.

The Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries has completed a coastal biophysical inventory for marine finfish for the South Coast. The Ministry of Native Affairs has information pertaining to Indian Reserves and to Native land claims. Rail has information relating to rail routes throughout the province. . For example. Recreation and Culture maintains a record of archeological sites and is initiating an historical resources data base.C. The Water Survey of Canada manages the jointly funded federal-provincial stream flow network program. These include lake inventories. biophysical habitat. . The Ministry of Transportation and Highways maintains records and maps of the provincial highways network. critical fish and wildlife habitat mapping. vegetation data base and flood plain mapping. including potential parks. soils data base.C. The Ministry of Environment has extensive map inventories and data bases for numerous resource values. such as wildlife populations and vegetation mapping of Provincial Parks. The Agricultural Land Commission has inventories of soil type. B. The level of I detail and information has depended on how critical the management need is. The Ministry of Municipal Affairs. 85 . Hydro has information concerning reservoirs and transmission line corridors in the province. Assessment Authority keeps information on timber inventory and soils of private forest land for preparing property assessments. for planning and management purposes. The Ministry has several resource inventories on the capability of Crown land for various uses which were . The B.C. stream flow stations. The Royal B. cover and land use within the ALRs. The Federal Department of Fisheries and Oceans maintains an inventory of the anadromous fish resource and habitat. water quality sampling. wildlife inventory has been concentrated on ungulates as they are important game species. The Minis&v of Tourism keeus a rudimentary province-wide tourism resource inventory and will inventory tourism values in areas where land use conflict occurs. The Ministry of Parks keeps resource inventories. . river and stream inventories. wildlife population.C.provincial information strategy. No inventory of cultural values on forest land exists. The Federal Department of Indian and Northern Affairs has information concerning Indian Reserves and Native land claims. a network of snow survey stations. B. ecological reserves and areas of biological significance. climate data base. Museum makes and maintains inventories of animals and plants in areas throughout the province.

silvicultural and aesthetic criteria. much broader values is most evident in public attitudes towards timber harvesting and other related forestry practices. administrative forestry whose main concern is timber production. Harvesting policies and philosophies have been kept separate from forest management policies and philosophies. it doesn’ look pretty. the situation has improved. Nevertheless. and steps have been taken to require consideration of other values before harvesting plans are approved.8. harvesting and forest management have always been more closely coordinated than on the coast. The Forest Resources Commission has heard wide-spread concerns that values are being lost or not considered within a centralized. ” but does not spell it out in sufficient detail. As the enhancement of all forest values through the practice of Land Use Planning. An ecologically sound and socially responsive forestry is now required. management for other values . The . Even the most ardent supporters of the practice of clearcutting will readily concede that. less visuallv intrusive harvesting techniques. As a result. when a forested area is ciearcut (a harvesting technique that involves removing all the trees in a given area) the change is immediate and dramatic. so too. timber harvesting techniques have become the symbol of what many British Columbians feel is wrong with current forest management systems. harvesting techniques were historically based on technical and economic criteria. The Need for Established Practices Much of the public’ confusion over what is or isn’ good forestry can be traced to s t the fact that there is no universal code of practice that covers all the aspects of harvesting and silviculture.4 approach. FOREST PRACTICES 1. Introduction The clash between the traditional economic values of resource development and the new. In coastal regions. . rather than on considered important by society . with many concerned people calling for harveent bv other. As a result. does the practice of determining timber harvesting techniques.was not actively considered until after the harvesting activities had already taken place. at least for the first few years. The Forest Act requires “environmentally sound practices. the debate over harvesting t techniques has often become quite emotional. In the Interior. By far the most visible component of industrial forestry. Within the last 20 years. This chapter examines ways of ensuring that socially responsive forestry is practiced. there is still much more to be done in both regions. It is there in pieces. 2. Obviously.

special soils or soil cover areas. create ‘ monocultures. such as water in community watersheds. but are site-specific all the elements There is a need for a single code that governs such as: or selection logging as a harvesting good forest management. Four out of the five major types of world climate are . the threat of loss of biological in this debate. the need for site-specific determinations that while many of these it would be valuable to provisions of this code should A new. . reduce biological to disease or insect attacks.Professional specihcally Foresters Act establishes precludes The requirements Prescription standards for the conduct of foresters. amalgamate recognize them in one code of practices. come closest. It includes greater ecological diversity than many areas that are significantly larger. the size.C. in the tronics! has fired the nubiic’ imagination. wildlife habitat and migration corridors.’ esneciallv and the subsequent Such practices. but and Preof them from having any authority and standards (PHSP) perhaps over timber harvesting of the recently-introduced road construction. A single. the choice of clearcutting the silvicultural system within prescription. a minimum alone Forest Practices Act is the appropriate Development stewardship. areas of high visual or recreational value. harvest Silvicultural rather than general. (outlined for this amalgamation. distribution approaches to be taken during values. streams and lakes. s the fact from the emotion British Columbia has one of the most ecologically-diverse in the world. issue. 3. Perhaps and increase susceptibility more than any other environmental that caused bv deforestation to separate It is important diversity.) The Forest Resources Commission recommends that: 92. The Forest Resources Commission has concluded standards exist in different parts of different statutes. . slope instability. standstandard of The general mechanism of actual procedures. harvesting to consider a wide range of other . and timing of clear cuts. of a single code of practice will establish essential to the Vision Statement’ s a clear standard through the independent of forest management forest managers goal of enhanced audit process It will also provide can be measured by which the performance in the chapter on tenures. More than two thirds and perhaps as much as three quarters of all the ecological diversity in Canada is represented in B. heard many concerns replanting about the impact of areas with one OK of harvested a few it was argued by some. Biological Diversity The Forest Resources Commission clearcut harvesting types of tree species. estuaries. all-encompassing code of forest practices be established through the introduction of a Forest Practices Act. landscapes diversity.

The patterns of change in all types of plant. a function of the plant community). forested land is systematically replanted after harvest. therefore. we judge the recovery of the ecosystem back to its full potential harvesting. we must understand the degree to which the physical and chemical conditions of the particular ecosystem have been altered.L Y. 89 .C. tree species diversity varies greatly from one part of the province to another. react u’ niquely to any man-made or natural disturbance. unless the climate changes dramatically or the soil make-up changes dramatically. However. The comparison is an unfortunate one. animal and insect life generally corresponds to the number of tree species. and from semi-arid/semi-desert grasslands to temperate rain forest. both with time and from site to site. and sometimes won’ apply t even to different areas within one biogeoclimatic zone. animal and insect life are as varied as the ecosystems on which they take place and are affected by the different types. These are called biogeoclimatic zones. The life forms they contain are highly variable. has a lot of different ecosystems in its different regions. CA&nxt. Each plant species has its own particular soil and climatic (including microclimatic) requirements and tolerances.represented in the province with a corresponding diversity of vegetation that varies from arctic and alpine tundra to broad-leaved evergreen and deciduous semi-Mediterranean vegetation. ” 1L In British Columbia. Ecosystems are complex and dynamic. Components (like the soil) that determine which plants can grow are less variable over time. and the extent to which its ability to fully recover has been changed. In considering the ecological constraints on harvesting methods and frequency. In view of the wideranging opinions on this topic. the same kinds of plants will usually grow back after a disturbance. and less affected by manmade or natural disturbance. if for no other reason than that land in the tropics is being cleared for agricultural purposes.L. while B. Global concern about reduced biodiversity in the tropics is likewise applied to the forests of our province. Within each of the major climatic belts there are climatic variations great enough to result in significant ecological variation. the biodiversity of each ecosystem in itself is relatively low by world standards. the forest manager must evaluate the successive stages of change that will be caused by logging and silvicultural activities. though not solely. While B. the Commission believes it is important to provide a Rr <. Different plant and animal species are found in different stages of any particular ecosystem type. Timber harvesting in British Columbia has been unfairly equated with deforestation in the tropics. While those statements are related to trees.C. Therefore. the biodiversity of other plant.. and will. Each species of animal has its own habitat requirements (largely. frequencies and intensities of disturbance. No generalization about biological diversity is accurate for more than one or two biogeoclimatic zones.

Harvesting to take or all bad. isolation. for forests in which frost creates regeneration Traditional even-aged management is generally for areas where certain wildlife. mature This is not to be confused harvesting at about the same time. New Forestry attempts enhances to conduct timber harvesting in a manner that preserves where and values such as water. ecosystems. for protection recreation. OfeDnq has inPntlfiPrl even-aged silviculture vs. of all these factors and modified values society now system: Tree crops can be grown under one of two major types of silvicultural managed even-aged regenerate and uneven-aged. and It is also beneficial the disturbances whether insect. watershed. energy and nutrient cycles. from seedling to full-grown the best possible All these components are to generate species and maximize interrelated. . takes place more and there is always a mix of old and young trees. highgrading. and mature starts all over again. or are a combination In an uneven-aged the same rate. to prosper in disturbed harvesting Western or occur naturally from forest fires. more climates or cold entering for are manor forests. appropriate for shade-tolerant for some sub-alpine permanent appropriate Traditional tree species. including feels are important. left behind. by these many factors. factors. harvested. that any particular harvesting system is all good. or other values require a for tree species that need full sun. leaving smaller trees to continue There is always a significant in which only the best specimens are taken while weaker. and disadvantages. etc. naturally. forest cover. treatments the biological be viewed in tree. growing. In an even-aged. disease and wood damage problems. between number In a managed of silvicultural Cycle: Silvicultural employed.4. forests. uneven-aged and each system is appropriate management may be problems. . . and in situations the forest too frequently accompanying wildlife adapted made through RP~ equipment damage to tree roots. they will all grow at approximately managed forest. Each system has its advantages given the right circumstances. frequently. fails to take into account into account these many interdependent the non-commercial systems must be selected after consideration many other variables. a mix of tree cycle that spans 60 and 120 years. They are all harvested and the cycle trees are with trees are of the two. only the large. cannot of a growing Systems regardless of the technique forest. dry climates. soils. . in hot. The Tree Crop Production Timber harvesting. forest there is a final harvest in which all or most of the trees are removed. soil. This “New and social with the other ecological not fit neatly into the traditional Forestry” attempts to incorporate values in the forests. uneven-aged dichotomy. therefore. for forests with moderate in which it is undesirable to have harvesting because of soil compaction. wind storms. For instance. Whether or not the new trees are planted. and the harvesting ultimately selected will be governed To suggest.. inferior forest canopy. it is one component As the forest matures are applied technique growth rates.

establish ‘ geneticallyimproved’ seedlings of the same species.) . a scattering of ‘ seed trees’ may be left standing to regenerate the site naturally. The Commission believes that substantial research. in turn. Planting also allows foresters to change or add tree species. brush buildup. necessitates much longer road systems. Much of the recent planting has been to reforest ‘ not satisfactorily re-stocked’ (NSR) areas where plantations or natural regeneration failed in the past. Natural regeneration can be used if. it should be ‘ spaced’ in much the same manner as a gardener might space a carrot crop. there has been an increasing dependence on the planting of nursery-grown seedlings. The remaining trees grow more rapidly. fire. “Pioneer” species such as lodgepole pine self-regenerate readily after clearcut logging or wildfire. The number of trees that constitute ‘ adequate stocking’ varies greatly as a function of stand age. Even-aged Management A site with all the trees removed . Until the new trees have grown taller than competing types of vegetation. Alternatively. but 1500-1800 trees per hectare are needed in a young lodgepole pine forest in the Southern Interior. the New Forestry recognizes the value of this debris for water retention snags that were removed as a worker safety consideration. the Forest Resources Commission has recognized the need for managing the forests for all values and the need for an ecological basis for forest harvesting practices. which pose their own particular set of environmental problems. Throughout this report. Therefore. and use harvesting methods that mitigate against natural regeneration. and safety hazards from snag trees left standing. Other disadvantages include the cost of repeated entry for harvesting. 400 trees per hectare are adequate in a young ponderosa pine forest. musr be unaertaken to develop or rehne appropriate silvicultural systems across British Columbia. weed competition. Natural regeneration is susceptible to seed predation. susceptibility to forest fires. weed control may be necessary. the acceleration of tree loss from windfall. and species (e. both in eia. seedlings and saplings are already established in sufficient quantities.traditionally large organic debris has been removed from the forest floor after harvesting. That. or other natural causes . in harvesting the original mature forest with care. and 1U are left standing for cavity Critics of New Forestry point out that the smaller. ecosystem type. wind. bad seed regenerated.g. and other factors that may cause regeneration to fail. more dispersed clearcuts need a much larger forest area to support the same volume of harvest. nesting birds and wildlife. Once the new tree crop is well established.either from clearcut harvesting. either naturally or by planting seedlings. proliferation of insect infestations and diseases such as mistletoe.

All final h&vesting should be designed with the regeneration needs in mind. The forest maintains an appealing visual appearance over the entire cycle of growth and harvesting. called a Preharvest Silvicultural Prescription (PHSP). has been prepared and approved. In order to further stimulate the growth of the stronger trees. It is a good system for very small forest units because a small supply of logs can be harvested continuously. In fact. Group selection system: small groups of trees that are similar in sizeand age are removed at one time.+ area that is to be harvested. and the method of reforestation. C. stronger companions shade them. There are significant benefits to using selection harvesting techniques. including natural regeneration or planting. creating small patches of even-aged regeneration. Wildlife habitat conditions remain fairly stable over time. It includes a recommendation about the type of equipment that should and should not be used. harvesting now cannot proceed until a regeneration plan. the type of site preparation treatments that are to be applied. as the trees are never all harvested at once. rather than intermittently. leading to a . b. Harvesting operations take place much more frequently. Biological diversity doesn’ fluctuate as much in the short term. Shelterwood system: multi-storied systems in which the forest may have two or more distinct crown levels representing two or more age classes of trees. rather than a mixture of all age classes. t But stacked up against these significant advantages are some equally significant disadvantages. There is always a forest cover of some size and scope.providing a small volume of wood for processing and space to grow for the remaining trees. Additional harvesting costs can be offset by lower site preparation and planting costs. Single tree selection system: individual large trees are harvested and smaller trees are cut in a manner that maintains a desired age and sizeclass distribution and structure in the stand.As the trees continue to grow. There are several different silvicultural systems for managing an unevenaged forest: a. The final clearcut harvest removes the present crop and prepares the site for regeneration. benefiting species of animals that are favoured by continuous cover of multi-storied forest. Snow melt is easier to regulate. and the spacing and stand maintenance activities that should be undertaken. Uneven-aged Management Uneven-aged management attempts to maintain the full range of desired tree age classes over relatively small areas. the smaller ones will begin to wither as their healthier. This cl-v. the smaller ones can be harvested in a commercial “thinning” program . the species and type of seedling for planting.

whether they be economic or aesthetic. The lower volume of logs removed at each harvest will generally increase the cost of harvest per cubic metre. That damage leads to root rot. Whichever harvesting and silvicultural system is used. non-ecological factors such as aesthetic values. As has been the experience in Sweden. The harvesting and silvicultural system used in B. timber harvesting should be conducted sound manner. increased susceptibility to windfall. it will also determine the size of the clearcut. The Forest Resources Commission has concluded that in most of B. forest management must reflect the physical condition and soils of the particular site. selection harvesting is an appropriate system in some Interior dry-belt regions. and stem decay. Selection logging techniques used in Sweden’ s spruce and pine forests in the first half of this century led to a significant degradation of .C. The Swedish government responded by making clearcut harvesting techniques mandatory for the final harvest. ” the c-est. in an ecologically . and gully erosion on steeper slopes. and ecological reserves should be given special site-specific attention. wilderness areas. They must also be based on the needs of the full cycle or rotation of the forest . More roads are needed.s been called the “green de&rot? .C. The Forest Resources Commission recommends that: 93. Nevertheless. is now required by law to be decided prior to harvesting decisions on the basis of an ecologically-based pre-harvest site assessment. The Choice of System If forest management is to be successful. This should lead to a reduction in the number of conflicts caused by timber harvesting in the future. the ecological requirements of the forest plants that are to be grown. lnese ractors will determine tne cnoice or the harvesting system.and not on short-term considerations. productive forest. In addition. selection harvesting in uneven-aged forests at cold northern latitudes does not result in a healthy. the harvesting and silvicultural systems used must be fully integrated and ecologically sound. If a clearcut system is chosen. pleasing forest with rates of growth significantly below those in forests that had been clearcut and fully replanted.wide range of environmental impacts on the whole ecosystem.‘ commercial s forests. Damage is done to the roots and stems of the trees left standing by the frequent movement of equipment.. compaction on fine-textured materials. The I +. The clearcuts will be further modified by other. and the habitat requirements of a broad spectrum of animal ana microbial species. !t b2. and on some steep hills they may take up a substantial portion of the site. harvesting systems in forests that surround parks. silvicultural considerations alone will point to clearcut harvesting techniques on even-aged stands as the most ecologically sound.

Forest Roads and the Environmental Impact of Harvesting While much of the blame for environmental degradation in timber harvesting is _%I -sting techmques. the requirements of the trees that are to be grown. should be modified by the consideration of other non-ecological factors such as aesthetic values. fire. the rate of harvesting must be designed to retain local and regional biodiversity throughout the rotation and reflect the management goals for all values. More rapid removal of these remaining stands may be permitted in case of windthrow. poorly maintained. minimized the environmental Impact of roads. An intimate part of any harvesting system. In this practice. poorly located. 5. new clearcuts were created adjacent to the previous clearcut. This practice kept road costs down. secondary roads. In the early 197Os. These. and poorly ‘ to bed’ for the period of several decades between their use put for silvicultural or other management activities. and reduced the number of trees susceptible to windthrow. in turn. and other temporary roads have sometimes been poorly constructed. as well as the impact upon other forest values through time. In the past. progressive clearcutting is no different from strip clearcutting. The major haul roads are generally well built and maintained. This is a widely used and well respected silvicultural system in Europe. the high cost of roads and the risk of windstorms blowing down remaining trees encouraged the practice of ‘ progressive’ clearcutting.’ Once the new trees in the cut areas have matured to the point where the land once again looks forested. or insect attacks. poorly drained with inadequate culverts. Unfortunately. If the clearcuts are small and elongated.and biological capabilities of the site. 96. spur roads. b. the site and site condition should determine the size and dispersion of clearcuts. If the “green-up” period is short. inact many of the environmental problems are related to the access roads. progressive clearcutting on the coast was stopped and replaced with a system in which only 50 per cent to 60 per cent of a valley would be logged in pieces on the ‘ first pass. a road network is equally important for forest renewal and forest protection. a valley may look much the same after the second or third ‘ low . ultimately creating one large clearcut. the remaining areas may be harvested. rt even-aged management is the silvicultural prescription. But progressive clearcutting can be aesthetically unattractive and cause wildlife problems. In some climates and with some forest types it can create difficulties in natural tree regeneration and alter river flows and fish habitat. subject to constraints for wildlife or other resources. It also provides many benefits for some kinds of forest recreation.

. 98. clearcutting with cable yarding may require only a small percentage of the area in roads. selection logging techniques require more and longer roads with their associated environmental risk. in many cases. environmental damage is caused more by improper road construction and maintenance than by any particular harvesting technique. increased emphasis should be given Roads constructed initially for timber harvesting become access roads for other users of the forests. In contrast. While the forest canopy might look better. Where the green-up period is long. Certain wildlife species and environmentally-sensitive ecological systems may not be able to tolerate significant increases in numbers of people. The choice of timber harvesting system in areas adjacent to sensitive wildlife or ecological systems should emphasize the shortest road system possible. Integrated resource management plans should pay particular attention to the impact on other forest values of increased access. Therefore. increased emphasis be given to harvesting systems that minimize the number and length of forest roads. these roads should be reclaimed. There is also an increased risk of site and environmental damage . causing the will have a to be spread over much mosaic of different aged stands. and these roads should be reclaimed following harvesting and replanting. The Forest Resources Commission has concluded that. and the effects on other resource values may be similar. increased emphasis be given to other resource access where access provided by logging roads endangers environmentally-sensitive areas or wildlife it would at the same time after a progressive clearcutting system. The Forest Resources Commission recommends that: 97.particularly in steep mountainous terrain where up to a third of the site may be occupied by skidroads. where only some of the trees are harvested in any one operation. 99. A significant number of people and groups have argued that clearcut logging techniques should be replaced with selection logging.

through job me or rhe resource requires a thorough understanding must be made. 2.9. The key to the smooth operation of this new system and the corresponding enhanced stewardship promised in the vision statement. EDUCATION 1. through changes in tenure rights and the way forest management is financed. intermediate. is education. of the issues involved and the choices that From the comments and questions of virtually everyone who appeared before the Commission.” . Those who work in forest-related industries and services must be well trained and possess a thorough understanding of the role they play in that system. In its Interim Report. intermediate industries.from Land Use Planning s through a new Ministry of Renewable Natural Resources. and effective public involvement demands an informed public. and generally in helping to of forest practices. to the social structure and to the economy of the Province. the Commission stated: “.the Commission the primary. Public involvement must be comprehensive at all stages in the system.‘ forest resources . it is clear that much more must be done in the field of education. Introduction The Forest Resources Commission has recommended the establishment of an integrated management system for B.. particularly “The Commission communities.. There was general consensus that the social. believes thatgreater emphasis is needed in the curriculum throughout and graduation years on the overall importance of the resource the the forests. and graduate levels. in maintaining certain in providing for services such as health and education. believes that t!re educated public of this Province should understand importance ofour forest industries in shaping the Province. The interest shown in this topic was so compelling that the Commission made public education recommendations in its July 1990 Interim Report.C. Public School Curriculum A large number of people and advocacy groups at the Forest Resources Commission’ many public meetings expressed concern about the lack of course work s and teaching materials related to forest ecosystems and various forest management practices. “The public should also have a better understanding and what their effects are. At all levels from public education at the primary. environmental and economic importance of British Columbia’ forests is not being reflected in the public school s curriculum. why they are used maintain a lifestyle unequalled in most areas of the world.

but will have little effect on the general public. particularly the forest resource. These types of programs provide a valuable source of factual information for the public.from Land Use Planning down through specific resource decisions. the Commission is calling for a greatly increased role for the public in all forest management issues . TV . public information and education programs conducted all forest user groups be expanded wherever possible. The Forest Resources Commission is pleased to note that the recommendation put forward in the Interim Report and restated above was immediately accepted and is being acted upon by the Ministry of Education. Both government and industry are currently operating a variety of public information programs designed to give average people a better understanding of the forest management issues society faces. The Commission wishes to emphasize that the curriculum it envisages will lead to a balanced understanding of the economic. should The Forest Resources Commission recommends that: 100. forests. Public Information Expanded formal education programs will deal with the need for good student and professional training through appropriate curriculum. . Efforts to develop a thorough and balanced public school forestry curriculum have been initiated and are ongoing. A Ministry of Education response to this recommendation is attached to this report 3. forest operations. They also provide an opportunity for the public to get “first hand” information from foresters and other professionals in a cooperative environment. environmental. the Forest Resources Commission recommended . Throughout this report. by 98 . and to include accurate balanced material about forest management practices at all levels of the curriculum. as well as publication of brochures. In view of the increase in the level of public participation in Land Use Planning and forest management. be a’ that: lrected to include significant information about the importance of the resource industries to the Province of British Columbia.Accordingly. These programs include conf mills. and social importance of all renewable resource values. etc. and demonstration pamphlets. the Commission believes that both industry and government expand these programs wherever possible. An informed public is essential to the success of public participation.

and improper use of heavy machinery compacted the soil and led ultimately to excessive erosion. Thorough and intensive training must take place before workers are placed in the field. including the more extensive use of apprenticeship systems. it should leave the responsibility for proper training and accreditation with the industry. and failure to pass these performance audits could lead to loss of tenure. flat valley bottoms were clearcut. For example: some forests were “highgraded. The program would lead to certification prior to their being allowed to work in the forests. roads were improperly constructed. The majority of problems associated with harvesting systems are now being addressed by the Pre-harvest Silviculture Prescription (PHSP) . and areas where the forest had not been properly regenerated. It will be in their own best interests to ensure that the security of their tenure is not jeopardized by improper practices or poor worker training. However. But poor practices caused by lack of knowledge and understanding at the field level can defeat the best plans and systems. carry out the multifaceted policies determined to be in the best public interest. as well as forest ecology. Commission members then visited these sites to see firsthand what is good and what is bad about current forest management practices. industry and environmental organizations to cite specific examples of good and poor harvesting practices across the province. use of the wrong system.which is essentially a comprehensive plan that must be approved before any harvesting can take place. success in achieving the goals of the Vision Statement will depend upon the skills. In British Columbia we are well beyond the point where “learning on the job” in the absence of formal training and apprenticeship programs is an acceptable training technique. and finally. The Forest Resources Commission considered an option of proposing that all forest workers be required to undertake training in forest management and timber harvesting practices. Ultimately. With that in mind. Certification of Forest Workers Ihe best system in the world is worthless without the skin and dedication of the men and women in the field who must. We also saw many examples of poorly executed harvesting systems. poor practices on the sites themselves. This can take many forms. d twnt industry and labour organizations should begin to develop voluntarily forest training . leading to a rise in water table that reduced the capacity to support another crop of trees. experience and understanding of those who work in the forests. the Commission ultimately concluded that rather than impose yet another level of regulation on the forest industry. the Forest Resources Commission asked government. Their management practices will be subject to audit. landing areas were too large.4. on a day-to-day basis. We saw a large number of good forestry practices and many thriving new forests.” where the best and biggest trees were cut leaving behind the inferior trees and a thoroughly degraded forest. Forest tenure holders will be obliged to manage the forests for a full range of values.

As well. in cooperation with industry and labor organizations. Existing professionals will need to upgrade their skills. Eventually an industry-wide educational standard and a voluntary moustry certmcation program could be established.a guides and educational materials that would be broadly distributed and available to new forest workers. Just as forest management must become multidisciplinary in approach. as there is already a strong demand for local access. A management and financial structure was detailed that will ensure that the full range of values is reflected in forest management. integrated resource management will require a new diversity of resource managers and resource management skills. All this will place a tremendous strain on both the existing core of professionals in a number of fields. must it be broadened at the technical and professional level. develop a voluntary training program for forest workers that will eventually lead to certification and become a standard for forestry employment. and on the reacning mstrtutions and the curriculum they offer. it would increase the diversity of tenures and management practices in the forests while making management performance a condition of retaining tenure. Students want to be able to continue their s% move to Vancouver or Victoria. new resource inventories. All this will require a major expansion and change in direction in the approach to technical and professional training. The Forest Resources Commission believes that as the emphasis is broadened on forest resource education at the public education level. The Forest Resources Commission plans to monitor the progress that is being made in introducing a voluntary industry program and prepare subsequent reports. intensive silviculture and a better understanding of the inter-relationship of the various forest values under intensive. A forest tenure structure was developed that would provide greater security and incentives to existing tenure holders. government. The development of land capability information. Technical and professional graduates will need a much broader range of skills and knowledge than they are currently being given. . A Land Use Han has been proposed that will permit an evaluation of the capabilities of the province’ land base to attain social goals and retain important forest s values. Technical and Professional Education Enhanced stewardship of the forest resources has been a constant theme throughout mis report. the training programs for tomorrow’ forest managers must be s complementary and coordinated. and will provide the financial structure and commitment to achieve those management goals. so too. 5. The Forest Resources Commission recommends that: 101. It is equally important that services and facilities be available in the various regions of the province.

000 54.000 17. The Forest Resources Commission is of the view that the training of mediators and the development of a conflict resolution process must be initiated.900 14.International Estimated Hectares/Forester 2. and the resolution of conflicts over resource use. TABLE10 University Region Trained Foresters . The Forest Resources Commission concluded that college and technical school resource management courses will need to be expanded to meet future demands.000 9. as are currently working in those areas of the world where intensive managemms now practisea.000 .000 128. The Commission believes that the integrated. will need university trained resource managers in the same numbers. A high degree of cooperation and coordination between college and university programs should be encouraged. Concerns were raised that a new faculty would draw down funding for the forestry faculty at the University of British Columbia. s Pour college3 Institute of Technology has a natural resource management program. The emphasis on integrated resource management. intensive forest management envisioned in this report will require many more professional resource managers with a broader range of skills than we currently have. The Forest Resources Commission also heard a great deal of support for a new Forest Resources Management Faculty at the new University of Northern British Columbia.C. will create a strong demand for people with specialized resource skilled negotiators and mediators will be needed. Expansion of the availability of transferable university credit forestry course work to more colleges and to second year course work should be a goal.Three provincial colleges have already committed to offering first year degree credit programs that are acceptable to the University of British Columbia’ Faculty of Forestry. B. proportionally. and that there might not be sufficient employment opportunities for graduates of both schools. and must be broadened to reflect integrated resource management objectives and skill requirements.000 17.000 Comparison United Kingdom Norway Sweden United Sates Canada British Columbia Coast Southern Interior Northern Interior 24. particularly in the Interior. Simon Fraser University offers a graduate program in natural resource management through the School of Resource and Environmental Management.

a Faculty of Forest Resource Management be established at the new University of Northern British Columbia. The same can be said of the potential for developing new products or processinz t< that rs ultimately harvested. industry and interest groups. 6. 105. . 104. A high degree of cooperation between the existing university forestry and resource management programs and the proposed Faculty of Forest Resource Management should be encouraged. in its components Ear the new faculty: “The faculty will produce high quality field foresters with a solid grounding in integrated resource management together with communication and business skills. the training of mediators and the development resolution process be initiated. on a firm belief that there is much more to be learned about the complex ecosystems of the forests. Research and Development The Forest Resources Commission’ recommendation for a comprehensive new s approach to forest resource management is based. upgrading for technical school graduates.” The Commission believes the recommendations of the Northern Faculty of Forestry Committee represent a good blueprint for the development of the faculty. 1989 report. so does our ability to manage effectively the many resources and values the forests represent. 103. I The Forest Resources Commission recommends that: 102. “The faculty will be a centre of excellence in the management of forests of northwestern Canada combining under-graduate and graduate studies. in part. the availability of university be extended to more regional level credit courses in forestry colleges and be expanded to include both first and second year level courses. recommended three major a new Faculty of Forest Resource program with its own forest of Forestry Committee. and basic and applied research. of a conflict the training of professional forest managers be expanded to include a broader range of skills. As our knowledge base grows.The Forest Resources Commission believes that Management could develop its own forestry degree syecializarlon. “The faculty will be intimately linked to the Eorest community in all its endeavors. 1he Northern Faculty September. through faculty and student interaction with government. including more environmental training and training in public participation and conflict resolution techniques. tes Commission believes that a strong demand for a broad variety of forest management skills and expertise will evolve from the recommendations of this report. continuing education for practicing professional foresters.

Developing growth and yield information for all varieties of trees in managed stands all over the province.B. .C.on other forest values such as water. s And because many B. of the availability of forest licence allocations under the Small Business Forest Enterprise Program and opportunities to fill niche markets in areas such as Europe and Asia. and an expanded log market are introduced.harvesting. C. and dimension lumber.C. etc. etc. Discovering the implications of various forest management on such things as employment and community stability. The rapid growth of much of British Columbia’ forest product manufacturing was s based upon a relatively narrow range of “commodity” products . u. research and development in B. . recreation. The Forest Resources Commission believes that opportunities for expansion and diversification in specialty product manufacturing will grow as its proposals for woodlot licences.‘ s Faculty of puIp. increasing the returns to the forest and to the public owners of the resource. /” fthe provincial economy of such forest uses as tourism.‘ forest products industry is still quite low by world standards. forest companies are foreign-owned. planting. in part. newsprint. community forests. it isn’ available for specialty t r small scale projects across the province.lL”fweoInce must be supported. While some companies have used the financial strength developed from these product lines to conduct long-term research into the development of higher value products. The proposal for a Centre for Applied Conservation Biology. paper. Determining what techniques to use to manage a stand of trees for old growth characteristics. e. While this type of information is readily available for standard forest product commodities. Perhaps the most pressing problem faced by the small business manufacturing sector is a lack of information related to foreign market demands. under U. Learning the impact of various silvicultural systems . The Forest Resources Commission believes it is imperative that the continuing development of the g. practices b. fish habitat. hunting.C. guiding. But it will need some help. A surge in the expansion of specialty products manufacturers in recent years is a reflection. the majority have not. This information is vital for determining how many trees can be harvested at what optimum age. recreation. The fibre resource will be allocated to its highest and best use. Research is also needed in areas such as: a. etc.C.That knowledge can come only from research and development. is exactly the kind of program the Commission has in mind. As a result. much of their research is done outside B.

.C. . The Forest Resources Commission recommends that: 106. 107.Governments and industry associations are best suited to generate this kind of international trade information. continued support be given to the development of the Faculty of Forestry at U. . The Commission believes the development of an up-to_dateO~lfV. major efforts be undertaken by governments and industry associations to expand the market and product specification information available to the developing secondary manufacturing industry in the wood products sector. as a centre of excellence in forestry.B.

the democratic decision making process of government has. Introduction The evolution of democracy has seen an interesting divergence in the concepts of participatory democracy and representative democracy. People are no longer satisfied with a system of decision making that provides formal input only at the ballot box. is to devise a system of nublic participation that fits into the more complex. People are becoming more interested in the issues that affect them and their society. the various government ministries and departments established to carry out policies enacted by parliaments and legislative assemblies also became further removed . therefore. PUBLIC PARTICIPATION IN FOREST 1. the trend has reversed. Representative governments evolved. In keeping with this trend. and the desire of all concerned to develop timely and efficient mechanisms that will avoid future conflicts.10. than in forest management issues. however. and they occur frequently. Simple “town meeting” styles of government . over time. there were few formal processes that allowed people to be directly involved in the decision-making that affected them. The increasing complexity of society and the issues it deals with makes a complete return to simpler forms of democracy impossible. moved further and further away from the people being governed.” The Commission is impressed with the depth of public interest and concern on this issue. The challenge. The history of public involvement in forest planning and management in British Columbia is very brief.where all electors gather together and vote on the issues of the day became too cumbersome and inefficient as societies grew in size and complexity. very little is enshrined in legislation. Nowhere is the demand for direct involvement pronounced. more vivid.concentrating on the elected government representatives above them rather than the people they were in fact serving. asking for formalized elector input only once every number of years in the form of an election. As a result. representative style of government now needed to run a complex society. Ultimately. Differences of public opinion are sharp. and they want the kind of direct involvement that “town meeting” democracy once offered. Public participation has been tacked on to a forest management system which reflected that earlier trend towards a reliance on decision-making by elected representatives and administrators. As a result. In the last decade or two. nor the challenge more The Forest Resources Commission was specifically asked to “recommend ways to improve public participation in forest planning and management. with little thought for public involvement. and most or what has been introduced .

the harvesting of timber. the grazing of livestock and the realization of fisheries.C. evaluation techniques for planning purposes. the only precise references to public participation in forest management tim GYt+ons 37/9 and 34(3) of the Forest Act. wildlife.“The Minister shall not enter into a Pulpwood Agreement under this section unless he advertises as provided in subsection (2) and a public hearing is held on the application. water. methods of making land use decisions. A 1984 resource planning manual laid out the basis of public In summary. in consultation and cooperation with other ministries and agencies of the Crown and with the private sector ” (BC MoF 1978b. Even at this late date.. In the absence of much home-grown information or experience.. Guidelines for developing a “good decision making process” were presented and included elements that would produce effective public participation. under the direction of the Minister. The study team also provided an evaluation of the present public participation process in the Ministry of Forests.” 34(3) .-) 27(2) . so that the production of timber and forage.” of public participation in the planning process of the Ministry of Forests is found in section 4 (c) of the Ministry of Forests Act which states: “The purposes and functions of the Forest Service are.) The only reference in the legislation to a general requirement The “private sector” is interpreted by the Ministry to include the public. the decision criteria employed and the process of public involvement in planning and management. (c) plan the use of the forest and range resources of the Crown. outdoor recreation and other natural resource values are coordinated and integrated. in the form of broadly-worded policies and regulations for specific functions. . there is no single comprehensive document that defines the roles of participants.“The Minister shall not enter into a tree farm licence under this section unless he advertises as provided in subsection (1) and a public hearing is held on the applications. and the present Crown land allocation and management planning process in B. A public involvement handbook was published in 1981 to guide Ministry staff in conducting public participation programs. In 1980. the Forest Resources Commission asked Simon Fraser University’ Natural Resources Management s Program and the University of British Columbia’ Forest Economics and Policy Analysis s Research Unit to study this issue. wl=-b state . This wide ranging study examined topics such as: public involvement in other provinces and other countries. the Ministry of Forests hired its first Public Involvement Coordinator and began actively promoting its public involvement program.

they must be able to see for themselves. and how it will work under the Forest Resources Commission’ recommended new s inte@ed resource management system. This chapter outlines public participation as it works now. the Commission concluded that provisions for ensuring public participation must be formally enshrined in legislation. and others. 2. Public Participation and the Ministry of Forest’ s Planning Process . Five levels of planning 1) provincial level include: 2) regional level 3) TSA and TFL . at th&vd.In general. There are 32 Tree Farm Licences (TFLs.are contained in the appropriate sections of this report. programs and procedures which are based upon government priorities. If the process is to work effectivelv. Specific recommendations for public participation mechanisms .early enough to have an impact on decisionmaking. As well. inventory development.Today’ Policy s The Provincial Forests are divided into 6 Forest Regions and 43 Forest Districts. It should not occur during the operational phase. The Forest Resources Commission recommends that: 108. that their participation is having an impact. when technical decisions are being made by professionals in the field. Iegrmmres reports outlining a 5 Year Forest and . * cmlsm. the new Ministry of Renewable Natural Resources.and the legislation required to implement them . the public must be convinced that more than lip service is being paid to the concept of public participation. They are an intrinsic part of recommendations for the Land Use Plan. through an open process. tenure reorganization. It must be emphasized that public participation should occur at the appropriate times in the planning and management process .). resource use opportunities and socio-economic .resource management 4) local resource use planning 5) operational planning level Provincial planning establishes policies. The Forest Districts correspond to many of the 35 Timber Supply Areas (TSAs). all major planning enshrined areas where public participation is required in the and management of forest land based activities be in legislation.

The Chief 108 . objectives and options 2) Information Assembly 3) Development and Analysis of Options . although the Minister may develop special commissions and working groups to seek public opinion. There is no formalized public involvement at this policy and planning level. nor in step 2 (information assembly). and the Ministry of Forests is required to notify the public of this opportunity. the public is allowed to review the options report and the draft TSA Resource Management Plan. The public is also allowed to review the draft terms of reference. along with other potential uses or values for the area. although minor differences occur. The seven general planning steps identified in the Resource Planning Manual (1984) include: 1) Preliminary Organization . through the Chief Forester. report on trends and provide goals and policies for managers. These reports establish inventories.Includes completion of Timber Supply Analysis. Recreation Analysis and Range Analysis 4) Evaluation of Options S) Selection of Option 6) Implementation 7) Monitoring I lmber Supply Area Planning Process TSAResource Management plans cover a 20-year planning horizon. or step 3 (analysis of options). Public input is not required at any other stage of step 1. Timber supply forecasts under a variety of management analyzed. Regional level planning establishes a linkage between provincial goals and policies and industry and other ministries. Allowable Annual Cuts for the TSAs and TFLs. For the draft plan. completed analysis reports are public documents and assistance in identifying issues is often solicited.Range Program and a 10 Year Forest and Range Resource Analysis. The 5 Year Forest and Range Program establishes. the Ministry of Forests must notify the public and allow for written submissions. but are revised every 5 years.Includes identification of issues. Planning steps for the development of a TSA Resource Management Plan or a TFL Management and Working Plan are fairly similar. There is no formal process for public involvement at this planning level. During the evaluation of options (step 4). The most comprehensive planning occurs at the resource management level (TFLs and TSAs) and it is here that the first formal provisions for public participation appear. Nevertheless. scenarios are Public input is required by policy to identify issues and management objectives.

Monitoring opportunities in TFL planning are now mandated by legislation. There is no requirement for public participation at this stage. Public participation is more frequent at the Local Resource Use Plan level where the goals and objectives of the plan are more quantifiable and measurable. following of Forests based on Section 28 of the Forest Act (1979). Tree Farm licence licensee Planning Process and Working established Plan is completed by the guidelines by the Ministry The planning process for a TFL Management every five years. The public participation process can range from nothing right up to a full-blown task force. public interest groups. Like the TSA process. Participants of task forces include the government. even though they remain only an advisory body. Geographically. although increased public participation opportunities may occur at the discretion of the TFL planning staff. the degree of potential conflict dictates how much planning and how much public participation are necessary. Task forces involve the highest level of public participation. where the public may participate. the more comprehensive the planning process.with no provision for public participation. In fact. the planning unit usually involves a watershed. The next opportunity for public participation occurs in step 4 of the planning process where the licensee must notify the public about an open house to view the draft Management and Working Plan. The public does not traditionally participate in monitoring at the TSA planning level. . Local resource use planning covers sections of TSAs where more intensive analysis and planning is required. and public participation opportunities are limited. the Region and the District. the TFL planning process allows 30 days for written submissions. Integrated management conflicts are often resolved at this level. Public participation is required at only two steps of the planning process.Forester may approve a TSA Resource Management Plan based on the recommendation of the Integrated Resources Branch. No steering committee is required. Implementation of the TSA Resource Management Plan includes using the plan for management and in the development of sub-unit plans and development plans (see below). Native representatives and general citizens. and planning is typically concerned with establishing more site specific management guidelines. the licensee must advertise that the Management and Working Plan is being prepared and that the public may make submissions. industry. although not at the same level as in TSAs. The more complex the issue. although any public comments gathered informally are referred to the Chief Forester for consideration. At the beginning of the process (step l). Once a task force has leted its work! the next step is a ioint planning team .

3. decisions on resource management issues and objectives are made by the Ministry of Forests and industry representatives . After drafting a Management and Working Plan.about the public participation process for forest management issues. There are two types of plans drafted here . . While the specific cutting plans. which broadly outline proposed cut blocks. they are not subject to public comment. ” ’ uoiic Input opportunmes. drawn up by Ministry of Forests other interests are included. was with these concerns in mind that the Commission set out to design a comprehensive public participation process and weave it through every aspect of the overall package of recommendations.Development Plans. there is no legislated process for public involvement. Following is a representative listing of concerns raised by the public and industry. . .complete with a built-in timber bias -when the public first gets to review them. Before approving the plan. the District Manager will consider the comments made by government agencies and the public. there is no formal appeal process on administrative public access to information analysis. How the Process is Viewed by the Public and Industry The Forest Resources Commission heard and read a wide range of concerns from both the general public and industry . the TSA planning issues are already framed .Operational The level . and inventories is limited. planning process looks at details of how and where timber harvesting will take place. It . which outline specific cut-block boundaries and list conditions or harvest restrictions to protect non-timber resources. Since public participation has been an ad hoc question of policy rather than a formal process guaranteed in legislation. that should come as no surprise. . . the licensee is required to display the plan and receive comments from other government agencies and the public. and Pre-harvest Silviculture Prescriptions and cutting plans. theTI%~rip only policies. precluding effective . must reflect consideration of those comments. there is no well defined public involvement process. decisions.

constant changes to plans are costly. While the Forest Resources Commission has recommended a major expansion of the public participation process to cover the entire scope of the recommendations in this report.unlike industry employees and their communities . there is no end to the process. many special interest groups . In response to this issue. existing efforts have met with a poor response. the Forest Resources Commission included a recommendation Report to Government that: in its July 1990 Interim “The Ministry of Forests should re-examine the purpose. it also has identified deficiencies in the current process as it relates to Timber Supply Areas and Tree Farm Licences where some urgent remedial action is required. there is a good public involvement process already.r the costs to private individuals of constant consultation are excessive. and reviews of plans lobbying by special interest groups at the provincial planning level favours urban over rural interests. the harvesting agenda is always in the forefront of public involvement the question is always how to harvest. - Industry Concerns: . the number of splinter groups or stakeholders that must be satisfied is never-ending. not whether to harvest. but a public and political will to make decisions is lacking. with little or no benefit at the end of the process.suffer no economic or social consequences as a result of the planning decisions they are trying to influence. the general public has only a limited knowledge base on which to provide input. . the government has reaffirmed its commitment to the TSA Steering Committees and has already begun to expand government ministry and private sector renresentation on them. A report to the Commission on this process is attached to this report in the Appendix. One of the basic concerns in forest planning lay in ensuring that all forest values were recognized when management decisions were made. make-up and commitment to its Timber Supply Area Steering Committees with a view to making these more effective.” In response. requirements for public involvement are costly and time consuming for companies.

a. quality and availability of educational British Columbia. i* There must be an appeal process The proposals made by the Forest Resources Commission in this report will dramatically alter the current approaches to land use decision making. It also provides a clear and consistent set of rules for managers to ensure that responsibilities have been complied with and performance is accountable. e. Those involved must be accountable Public access must occur at key levels of the process Provision must be made to notify interested parties People must have access to information Participants must have adequate resources s are essentral There must be a conflict resolution mechanism d. l Public involvement overlays all of these topics. It must have a legal mandate b. public involvement is very much a policy decision. Elements of an Effective Public Participation Process Studies conducted for the Forest Resources Commission looked at practices in other jurisdictions and analyzed the existing process in the Ministry of Forests. k. availability and variety of resource inventories. g. Among the components that will change are: l The structure and approach of government developing management goals. The nature. Legislation establishing the Land Use Com- . to enhanced stewardship and l The management of timber lands and the nature of rights and obligations accompanying their use and stewardship. f. The process must be easy to understand C. At present. the Commission has outlined what it believes are the principal components of an effective public participation program: a. i. From those studies. The Legal Mandate - Legislation: Legislation guarantees that the public involvement process will be unequivocally applied in the resource management decision making process -because it is the law. I ne rorest Kesources Commission has recommended that the public be involved at key levels of the Land Use Planning process. The quality.4. Following is a brief description of the above components and references to their incorporation into the report of this Commission. support to the public in .

A clearly-defined public involvement process will reduce administrative flexibility to some degree. integrated resource management and enhanced stewardship. The development of a new Act to coordinate the management of the forests for all values by government will further ensure protection of the public interest. . c. since those audits will be made public. It was further recommended that the legislation of all ministries be reviewed to ensure that they support both comprehensive Land Use Planning. and other interested parties. The audit process established to monitor public and private tenure holders (tenure recommendations are explained in chapter 5) should also be considered part of the public participation process. will expect that involvement will result in some influence on the decision making process as well as upon final decisions. It should detail the nature of involvement that is < decSonsJ the decision makers and decision points in the process.) . Accountability An effective public involvement process will ensure that all values are considered in the planning and decision making process. Ultimately. Cat to the Legislature on the state of the forest (administrative recommendations are detailed in chapter 4. setting with local land capability analysis and land designations. Hence. With decision making power comes responsibility. accountability for decisions should be increased and the basis for conflicts over decisions should be reduced. Accountability has been further strengthened by the Forest Resources Commission’ recommendation that s . However. A single document that shows the public where and how it can get involved at key stages in the planning and management process is required. The decision makers and administrators in the Land Use Planning structure (chapter 3) proposed by the Forest Resources Commission will be appointed. Participants. . The Regional Planning Groups. Neither the public nor resource managers want to see decisions made by those that will not be affected by or be held accountable for their decisions. politicians are held responsible to the public in elections. Responsibility for “triggering” public involvement should also be detailed. and the roles and responsibilities of all involved in the process.mission (documented in chapter 3 of this report) and its regional and local planning groups will ensure accountability for decision makers. Understandable Process The public participation process and the planning and management functions it supports should be open and easy to understand. b. accountability has been proposed via the legislation establishing the Land Use Commission.

This is particularly true when data is required for specific planning areas. that: including public participation. and interested parties are notified of pending developments. the public is notified when a forest planning PTOreFv there is an opportunity to review a draft TSA Resource Management Plan or TFL Management and Working Plan.d. This should spur a greatly renewed interest in public participation at the policy level. The neutrality of the Land Use Commission and the reporting requirements of the Provincial Forester should dispel any lingering concerns that the process at the policy level is subject to undue political influence. Notification of Interested Parties At present. The quality of information also varies widely. This concern led the Forest Resources Commission to recommend in its July 1990 Interim Report to government The government immediately examine and implement ways by which the full range of forest related inventories can be made standard and able to be used on compatible systems while. the present forest planning and management process lay in the quality of resource inventory information for all resource values. e. Access to Information One of the primary shortcomin@&&&d by the &e+&smrccr . The Forest Resources Commission agrees and has recommended the involvement of the public at all levels. +mm-mtainii . as was the desirability of placing the public involvement process into legislation. the most effective means of ensuring that consultation and public participation takes place. f. occurrmg at key levels of the planning process from policy to the monitoring of the implementation of plans. CWUII II-I . However. A primary source of public access to policy development will also continue through the permanent status of the Forest Resources Commission. Public Access It was recommended w to the Commission that public participation should be development . Different ministries have developed their inventory storage and retrieval systems in ways that make them completely incompatible with those of other ministries doing the same basic job. The need to detail key ‘ entry points’ for public involvement was discussed earlier. will be the contractual arrangements between tenure holders (chapter 5) and the government. The remedies for failure to comply will also be contractual and will include the risk of losing the tenure entirely. A lack of relevant information severely limits the effectiveness of all planning. . at the same tne valui . .

The Commission has further recommended in this report that the restructured Ministry of Crown Lands be made a ‘ focal point’ for public access to resource funding to individual ministries for inventory development. It also provides a backdrop from which to measure changes in management practices and changes in social values. written justification for actions taken. and might function much the same way court records do in the legal system. Conflict Resolution. Section 2. non-binding manner. however it is limited to explaining the reasons why a particular course of action wasn’ taken. Reasons for non-acceptance of recommendations must be provided. This process will be an important step in confirming the sustainability of forest management practices and ensuring that stewardship reflects all values. The cost of conflict over resources uses and their allocation between interest groups runs high. and has proposed a Land Use Plan that would relate land capabilities to provincial goals. means ot resolving conflict. under narrowly-defined circumstances.” There is merit to this approach to justifying decisions. those members of the general public or special interest groups who lack the resources to participate fully in the process. with a listing of the criteria upon which decisions were made. believing that it would be better addressed on an individual basis by such responsible bodies as the new Land Use Commission. It would be t more useful to provide.16 of the Ministry of Forest’ Resource Manual states: “All questions and s recommendations from the public will be responded to. Nearly everyone who addressed the Forest Resources Commission argued that a comprehensive Land Use Plan presented the best means by which conflicts over land use could be resolved. g. albeit in a less formal. But an integral part of the Land Use Plan will be its ability to use mediation as a * . Adequate Resources The Commission considered a proposal to assist. in addition. TA the Land Use Commission be empowered by legislation to make decisions upon land . i. Appeal Mechanism The use of conflict resolution techniques has been proposed as an alternative to the present use of task forces or ministerial discretion. The Forest Resources Commission agreed. Over time. such a policy would provide a valuable source of information for all interested parties involved in resource issues. The Forest Resources Commission has not made recommendations relative to this proposal.

dispute resolution will be much more defined under the Forest Resources Commission’ proposals than it is at present. Public participation is essential at the planning and management levels . be they tenure holders for range or forests. -These are developed for both Tree Farm Licences and for Forest Licences. 116 . The equitable treatment of the public at this level of planning ensures that all values are recognized and accounted for with the initial establishment of management objectives. This will be s due primarily to the establishment of rights and obligations within tenure documents. programs are contained in Chapter 9. and that this could be accomplished for educational em and the new Land Use Commission. Public Involvement in Planning and Management Commission’ Proposals: s Under the Previous sections of this chapter outlined the general philosophy behind the Forest Resource Commission’ recommendation to superimpose a public participation policy s on Land Use Planning and integrated resource management. Public involvement will be established as a balance to the interests of the primary stakeholders in the plan. At the forest land management level. all tenure holders must be satisfied that their interests have been reflected in management of plans win ensure contormity witI objectives for the area. It has proposed that every effort be made to develop a trained group of mediators. The development plan is an annual update of the five year plan. .use conflicts for all those disputes that fall within the provisions and goals of the Land Use Plan. or operational level . The establishment nrec_. or other licence holders. Performance requirements built into tenure contracts. Again. and the penalties prescribed for non-performance will provide incentives to all interested parties to reach agreement and understanding on management planning and implementation. The framework for management planning is established in the development of the five-year Management and Working Plans. The Forest Resources Commission is aware of the growing need to establish a core of trained mediators to facilitate conflict resolution. of an independently-appointed three-member .) (Recommendations 5. Appeal As arP independent arbitrator accountable for its decisions.not at the technical. the Land Use Commission will reduce the present waste and exhaustion felt by all parties to the present Land Use Planning process.and is concentrated around the Land Use Planning prorated management um tti follow-up audits conducted to monitor performance. It establishes a more concrete sequencing of harvesting and other management operations. At this stage the goals and objectives are established for forest management. This section explains how that philosophy is carried out in the various aspects of the new system.

. to ensure that management practices met the agreed goals and objectives as set out in the management plan as part of the Resource Management Agreement. But preparing the Pre-harvest Silvicultural Prescription is a technical process done by professionals in light of planning decisions already made with ample public involvement. the Resource Management Agreement holder (or the Forest Resources Corporation if it has the management responsibility) will be responsible for arranging an independent audit.Application can then be made for approval of cutting permits. The release of an independent audit will allow all interests. or resolved by the Forest Resources Corporation. as the follow-up audit process established to monitor performance is subject to public review. The cutting permit application stage will be the point where planning disputes and conflicts between individual values must be resolved. The Land Use Appeal Board is available for those disputes that can’ be resolved at the t W-J Once cutting permits have been approved. including the public. which is ultimately responsible for ensuring good stewardship. Conflicts between tenure holders for different values or uses can be negotiated. There is no need for further public involvement at this stage. The public will have a say through choices in the management options that are proposed. A Pre-harvest Silvicultural Prescription (PHSP) must back to the biogeoclimatic underpinnings of the Land Use Plan and the ecosystem requirements discussed in the timber harvesting sections in relation to the PHSPs. which involves timber cruising and block design.

..................................................................................... 17 ........................... 11................ 7............ 10.................................................................................................... 4.................. 5. 9............................... ...........................................................................39 List of Participants Bibliography Glossary 43 .......... 25 2.............................................. 12... 3............................................................... of Commissioners ..................................................................................................................................... 90 .... Mandated Tasks 3 ............. 7 .................27 35 ........... 5 ......................... Ministry of Education Response to Interim Report Draft Lease Documents Background Biographies Papers ......................................................APPENDICES Table of Contents 1..................................................... 21 ................................................. ................................. Terms of Reference Historical Sketch An Interim Report Ministry of Forests Response to Interim Report 6.................................................... 65 ...................... 8..................................................................................

focusing on clear-cutting and its associated forest practices and their impacts. how the forest might be managed to protect and enhance those values and the total economic impact of the forests to the Province. . the Government. To provide the Minister of Forests and through him. To advise the Minister of Forests and through him. November 1989. with a comprehensive view of what the forests of British Columbia should represent. To recommend management.Appendix 1 1. the government. This view would take into account the full range of forest values. 2. on the 3. effectiveness of Tree Farm Licences as a form of tenure. To review and recommend ways of improving forest harvesting practices. ways to improve public participation in forest planning and 4.

The Chairman shall be responsible for the supervision of Commission activities. The Commission shall report to the Minister of Forests. powers and (b) undertake special studies and investigations on topics referred by the Minister for advice and recommendations. The Commission or its members may be invested powers of inquiry under the Inquiry Act by the Lieutenant Governor in Council. 3. .‘ forest and range s lands. to the 4.Appendix 2 CJ. The Commission shall establish its own procedures and make recommendations Minister of Forests with respect to its funding and operating requirements.1989) Revised March 7. .C. Membership on the Commission is to be broadly based and reflective of the various sectors with identifiable interests in the management and use of B. The Minister of Forests is responsible for appointments. 1990 1. guided by the advice of Cabinet 29. The British Columbia Forest Resources Commission (the Commission) further to the Ministry of Forests Act. is established (4 advise the Minister of Forests on those matters related to his duties. The Commission shall make recommendations on topics referred to it from time to time by the hdinister. 7. undertake cc> special studies and investigations . on topics deemed to be important by 2. 5. 6. Section Z(3) (la) to: functions which he refers to the Commission.

Only 21. fire and disease.C.S. few settlements occupied the northern half. s The forests are changed by their own natural cycles of growth and decay. The forest cover is extensive. Vancouver Island boasts some of the finest conifer stands in the world. British Columbia has IV munon nectares of usable ey IO per cent of the total provincial land base. An estimated 8. etc. who had occupied the land for centuries. cedar. The rainy coastline is fragmented and steep. and the province as a whole has close to two dozen commercial species of trees. dams. Private ownership of forest land is much more significant in the United States and Scandinavia. park. 72 per cent of the commercial forests are owned privately.9 million hectares is open and . varying with altitude and region. Remarkable for its diversity. while in Sweden 50 per cent and in Finland 63 per cent are privately owned. At present 6 per cent of the province is officially protected as wilderness.and all the lakes and rivers that occupy the valleys . B.concentrating their settlements in the mild coastal climate and the fertile north-south valleys of the south.C.‘ forest land is owned by the province. utility lines and suburban development. affected more by nature than by man. The Ministrv of Forests is responsible for managing the provincial forests of British Columbia and administers them through the Forest Act. First Nations peoples. The provincial forests cover 82 million hectares or 86 per cent of the land base of the is the envy of Canada and indeed the world. available and suitable” for timber production. Introduction By any standard. Hemlock. and Douglas fir dominate the coastal forests while lodgepole pine. the Range Act and related regulations. railroads and cities . From the rugged coastal rain forest to broad interior plateaus to the Rocky Mountain range . spruce and balsam prevail in the interior.. British Columbia is a spectacular landscape. has four out of the five major types of world climate. although this includes some of the finest and most productive timber stands. Only 4 per cent is privately owned. There are 14 biogeoclimatic zones and the largest number of distinct ecosystems in Canada. The present commercial forest constitutes less than 24 per cent of British Columbia’ land area. In the U. Large areas of the northern interior are still de facto wilderness. The remaining forest land is not commercially productive at present for economic or environmental reasons. Initially. watched European settlers pursue resource development and build roads. the Ministry of Forests Act. Roughly 95 per cent of B. muskeg and alpine tundra.National Parks and Indian reserves. a cold land of boreal forest. The forest land base is subject to change through reclassification for parks. as well as by timber harvesting. highways. Another one per s cent is federal land . or because it was once logged or burned by wildfire but is not satisfactorily restocked (NSR) with commercially valuable trees.Appendix 3 HISTORICAL SKETCH 1.3 million hectares of this are classed by the Ministry as “presently productive.

After World War Two.such as tourism and mining . often found in valley bottoms. Despite the land grants.have prospered in B. ‘ he privately held lands (roughly 1. The forest industry s is export-driven. granting only the right to cut timber. any significant scale. 2. The forests support livestock and wildlife. and a centralized administration structure was . Up until 1907 another form of grant. History of Forest Management Before 1910. While other industries . Three quarters of British Columbia’ forest products are sold in world markets. the forest industry is still the cornerstone of the provincial economy. These ranges are the most valuable spring and fall grazing lands.forested Crown range or range land leased from the Crown. The forests have many values other than timber. .. royalties. A royalty or fee was paid on timber cut but there was no obligation to replant. 460 resident bird species (of which 285 breed here). Commercial timber production has provided a high standard of living for British Columbians since its start in the latter part of the last century. volume. licence fees etc. 70 species of fish. timber harvesting in B. introduced.C.1 million hectares) tend to be open I range. and they are used primarily for summer grazing. and more than 3. Forest watersheds supply drinking water for communities and they are the critical habitat and migration routes farylortaasL commercial fish species. allowed holders to rent land and cut mature timber only. Direct forest revenues to the Crown from stumpage. although modified several times. 14 species of reptiles. Through these Crown grants or alienations some of the best timberlands of Vancouver Island and the southern mainland passed into private hands. 20 species of amphibians. the government granted forest land for the building of railroads or sold it to firms and individuals. cyclical and highly concentrated.000 species of plants.6 million. Most of the Crown ranges are found in the forests and higher alpine meadows. has shaped the use of the forests for timber production to the present time. The forests also represent recreational opportunities as well as cultural and spiritual values. British Columbia is home to at least 280 species and subspecies of wildlife. For the first time. and in fact the primary motivation for felling trees was to encourage settlement and farming. It has been a major factor in the spread of development away from the coastal communities and into the interior. aAndi made to calculate how much timber could be harvested on a sustained yield basis. The first reforestation programs were introduced. The Land Ordinance of 1865 stipulated ’ 7 that the land . in 1988/89 totalled $623. timber harvesting in the interior grew substantially. the principle of public ownership of the forests goes back a long way in British Columbia.C. known as “temporary tenures”. was unregulated. Trees were considered inexhaustible. A tenure system was introduced in 1912 which. but not until the 1960s did those programs attain When timber harvesting started in the 19th century. particularly at the manufacturing end. .

r The population of British Columbia grew 700 per cent between 1871 and 1911 and demand for lumber triggered a scramble to obtain land grants and tenures. By 1911 there were 224 sawmills in the province. while huge stands of untouched timber grew in the interior. although by 1926 two of these had closed. Fulton noted that lack of a reliable forest inventory made it difficult for the government to formulate sound forest policies. Perhaps equally significant. Some of the sawmills were connected to small communities and local men often combined logging with farming and fishing. By the early 194Os. A fledgling industry took shape. The Forest Branch later became the Ministry of Forests. timber sales became important because until 1948 (when Tree Farm Licences were introduced) they were the only significant means by which new entrepreneurs could gain access to Crown timber. and that the future yield of those lands needed to be considered. starting with a small Port Alberni mill that produced paper from rags in the 1890s. By 1923 the province had seven pulp mills and one newsprint mill. Ironically. Special needs could be answered through competitive timber sales. and short-term timber sales couldn’ make up the t difference. and a s s Forest Branch of the government was established. In 1945. designing appropriate policies for timber harvesting.J. the Hon. But. completed in the late 188Os. In his 1910 final report. As a result of Fulton’ inquiry.” This money was to be set aside and used for the protection and restoration of the forest. But there were also dozens of entrepreneurs from other parts of Canada and the United States who saw an opportunity to get rich logging the timber valleys of British Columbia. a burgeoning forest industry was pushing up against the supply limits of the committed forest lands. the province’ first Forest Act (1912) was passed. he concluded that two-thirds of the merchantable timber land had already been alienated and that this shquld satisfy the needs of the forest industry for several decades. Fulton advised the province to put the royalties it collected from timber harvesting into a “sinking fund. Pulp and paper production came later. (later Chief Justice) . Fulton was appointed to head a three-man Royal Commission of Inquiry on Timber and Forestry. however. F. Speculative lumber staking at the turn of the century convinced the government it needed some rules and regulations. Larger mills were being built and they needed a secure supply of wood fibre. It was the first formal recommendation to government that it provide for the future health of the forests. They sold their products to other growing communities back east through the prairies. As a result. some of the coastal areas had in fact been overcut. working with available statistics. It was becoming clear that the province needed a system of tenures that would allow mills long term access to timber on public lands. was a recommendation that was not adopted. He advocated retaining the rest of the forest land intact as a reserve for the future. gave birth to several lumber-based communities all along the corridor. utilizing comparatively new mechanical and chemical technologies. It gained momentum after 1910 when commercial production of pulp and paper began on the coast. primarily along the coast because water offered a cheap way of moving logs to mills and export markets. The Canadian Pacific Railroad.

Commissioner Sloan conducted a second review of the forests in 19. while the unit was managed by the Forest Service. the new harvest level was below the cut established operators had been accustomed to under the competitive bidding process. Tenure reform appeared to accomplish several government objectives.. too. game sanctuaries. ken v 3. The government believed it was giving industry both the access to timber and the security of tenure it wanted. his tenure recommendations had far-reaching effects on the forest industry. The quota system s became entrenched in the tenure structure. the Forest Service introduced a sharing or “quota” system proportionate to the licensee’ former cut. while. an Allowable Annual Cut (AAC) was determined for each PSYU based on its timber inventory and productive capacity. But he warned that both the private sector and the Forest Service needed to greatly increase their rate of tree planting if productive forest land was to be maintained and not satisfactorily restocked (NSR) land reclaimed. was derived from a s levy on stumpage. if the government continues to be influenced unduly by the profit motive.. a Silviculture Fund was established. The public continued to own the land but the private sector got the right to use it. As a form of tenure. if successful. The forest management licence (renamed a Tree Farm Licence in 1958) was designed to enable owners of Crown-granted land and old temporary tenures to combine these with enough Crown forest to form a self-contained management Unit. to be managed for sustained yield.that is harvesting in each year only that volume of timber that the forest . In some areas. sustained yield management would ensure that the province never ran out oE trees.) smaller enterprises that could not afford or did not wish to take on the responsibility for managing the forest had access to the regulated harvest through competitive Timber Sales. it is inevitable we will pass on to future generations an impaired and diminished forest resource.Gordon Sloan was asked to look at the concept of managing the forests for perpetual or sustained yield . He commented: “. To reconcile this difference. it was popular with the industry. and in 1956 was replaced by an annual statutory appropriation from the province’ general revenues. Two types of tenure were introduced. The fund lasted only ten years. I ne holder secured exclusive cuttmg rights m thus licence area for a renewable Z-year term in return for a commitment to conduct sustained yield management under Forest Service supervision.q years+& inColumbia felt the time had come for B. and essentially endorsed the existing policy. The ongoing annual volumes of timber that IIOlderS were authonzed to harvest became known as then “quota” position m a 1-5Y U. and aesthetic values. to adopt similar policies. It. In Public Working Circles (renamed Public Sustained Yield Units -PSYUs. Sloan also pointed out the benefits of maintaining forest cover for such important non-timber values as watershed protection. It was applicable s only east of the Cascades and financed from the royalties or stumpage collected from timber harvesting.” After Sloan’ first report in 1946. Under the new sustained yield policy. Four other government . Incorporated into legislation in 1948.56. Sloan recommended the division of the Crown forests into private and public management units. but was subject to the vote of legislature.C.

These Agreements were intended to provide for a start-up or emergency source of chips and. The quality of forest management became a public concern after the Second World War. at best. sawmills and plywood plants at railhead. policies and the proximity of good railroads spurred the rise of a vigorous pulp industry in the central interior. either through direct funding or through deductions made to stumpage paid by industry.attempts were made beEore 1978 to support reforestation with committed funds. The introduction of “close utilization” in 1966 was a milestone in British Columbia forest history. small or defective timber was either left standing. In the 196Os. The CPR line linked the coast and Eastern Canada while the Pacific Great Eastern line had been extended in the 1950s from Vancouver through Prince George to the Peace River area. If the sawmills of the area could not provide enough chips the Pulpwood Harvesting Area Agreement allowed the licence holder to cut timber unsuitable for lumber. but funds were appropriated only when the economy was strong. processing the rough lumber originating from the hundreds of local bush mills. . Three years later the Forest Service was authorized to examine denuded private forest land and enforce replanting on not satisfactorily restocked (NSR) land. The interior’ first integrated lumber and pulp mill was built at Castlegar on the s Columbia River in 1961. can be left on the ground) in both the woods and mills were rough or. and went hand-in-hand with the development of the pulp and paper industry. Utilization standards (regulations governing how much of the wood. in the form of branches. Pulp and paper operations. ultimately. The Forest Act was amended in 1950 so that tree seedlings could be supplied at no cost to private forest owners for the replanting of denuded Coastal sites. Quesnel and Williams Lake. In return. left to rot on the ground. Between 1948 and 1987/88 the costs of reforestation of Crown land was primarily borne by the government. Prince George and many other interior towns became planing mill centres. intermediate. By the end of the 195Os. and to give it some clout in the acquisition the MmP&r of Forests to designate any PSYU in the interior as a Pulpwood Harvesting Area. or if cut down. Other pulp mills followed and soon the demand for fibre for pulp and paper operations grew to a significant volume. an influx of new residents and demand for forest products gave rise first to a modest industry of bush mills and. To protect this new sector of the forest industry from any possible shortfall in chips. Reforestation was entirely MMonatm~. The industry operated on an “intermediate utilization” standard. While coastal forestry got a lot of attention in the first half of the century. Prior to the introduction of this new standard. stumps. hw r . The era of the bush mills ended and sawmills moved into centres like Prince George. the licence holder agreed to build and operate a pulp mill of a prescribed capacity and to purchase chips locally if they were available. Its raw material was partly chips from its own sawmill and partly pulp logs supplied from local mills. the pulp companies rarely needed to exercise their option to cut timber. government . etc. which was based on removing only the wood that could be processed into lumber products. in practice. interior forests were all but ignored.

the revenues generated. More stringent utilization standards in the woods meant that the actual volume of wood exx up. particularly on Crown land. Brnment ” went to a Koyal Commission. And Pearse suggested involving public agencies besides the Forest Service in regional planning to resolve potential conflicts before logging began. By 1974 there were 11 pulp mills in the interior. Over time. a shift of responsibility from the Crown to industry for reforestation and silviculture. Timber Rights and Forest Policy in British Columbia. This new close previously been used. By 1975 the provincial timber harvest from Crown lands had reached 50 million cubic metres (compared with only 20 million cubic metres in 1945 and 75. either fully or in large part. many of which were held by out-of-province shareholders. adding to the existing 14 Coastal mills. Pearse’ 1976 report. Europe and Japan. UBC economics and forestry Professor Peter bearse was appointed in 1975 to review the current state of timber allocation and formulate policy recommendations to ensure that the forests made a full contribution to the economic and social welfare of British Coiumbians. who were frequently multinationals.this “defective” lumber to make chips for the pulping process. and the community stability fostered by large and well-financed corporations tied to a local resource. The latter established and . integrated licensees. The new mills were highly automated and served markets in the United States.) The industry was strong and growing. or cut. that the Crown received full value from the timber harvest. Many of Pearse’ recommendations were accepted. This eventually produced a handful of extremely large companies. EkMeokl AAC “quota positions” were based on the intermediate utilization standard. but there was evidence of discontent within the province. A new Forest Act was introduced in s 1978. This additional volume. the industry remained efficient and vigorous and that domestic participation in its ownership and control was adequate. Only minimal silviculture was undertaken by licensees. The Forest Service allocated the third band timber through Timber Sale Licences. For the government of the time the benefits were the opening up of the central and northern interior through private sector resource development. with eligibility requirements that favoured the established licensees. The report also recognized non-timber values in the forests such as wildlife. and greater opportunities for the small operator. Royalties and stumpage were thought to be generating less for the provincial purse than they might. small operators found they couldn’ compete and they t ultimately sold out to their larger competitors.6 million in 1988/89. Many believed that the tenure system favoured large. water and fisheries. was termed “third band” volume and in parts of the interior which had large stands of small or overmature timber it was significant. together with a Range Act and a Ministry of Forests Act. s recommended simplification of the very complex tenure system. Most were integrated lumber and pulp operations and required a considerable capital investment.

main road construction and planning. Forest Licences replaced the old Timber Sale Harvesting Licences and the PSYUs were converted into a third as many Timber Supply Areas (TSAs). The timber comes. The volume of timber available for competition was doubled to give small business operators more opportunities. Since the 195Os. The PHSP legally obligates the licensee to ensure that a free-growing crop of trees is established after logging. Woodlot Licences replaced the Farm Woodlot Licences to open the program to a wider range of participants. Despite the fact that many provincial ministries have legislation and regulations that may impact forest use. and ensure firms are awarded timber sales. But in 1988. society now demands equitable consideration for a range of other values. provided for some of forest resources. Even in the mid-1970s. drawing the needed funds from timber sold. All licensees were requirea to s r’cuttn%f=rnnt prepared by a professional forester. Forest Enterprise Program to enter the forest and regional employment that the most efficient About 15 per cent of the provincial timber harvest from Crown land is now administered under the Small Business program. at least in part. . A further measure replaced Pulpwood Harvesting Area Agreements with Pulpwood Agreements.defined the functions of a new. The tenure system was reformed and simplified. encourage diversification through the development of specialty wood products. but could no longer deduct the costs from their stumpage. The perpetual rights of 16 area-based Tree Farm Licences were replaced by “evergreen” terms of 25 years. forest licence holders had been paying for basic forest renewal on their tenures and deducting the costs from the stumpage they paid the government. particularly at field level. based on comparable forest areas. the Forest Service has primary responsibility for the non-timber values of the forest resource. At the same time. from a 5 per cent reduction in the Allowable Annual Cut of the major licensees. annual timber harvests and generally comparable responsibilities. the staffing levels of the British Columbia Forest Service were approximately onetenth of the United States Forest Service. Reforestation in the unlicensed portions of TSAs remained the responsibility of the Forest Service under the new Forest Act and is mainly done by contract. the Forest Act was changed so that companies still had the responsibility to renew the forests. as a submission to the Pearse Commission noted. an expanded self-financing Small Business was introduced. such as recreation and aesthetics. The program goals were to allow small operators products industry through timber sales. This is a heavy burden for an agency that has been seriously understaffed. While commercial timber production remains the dominant use of the Crown forests. separate Ministry of Forests. since the reorganization and “down sizing” of 1981/83. The Forest Service is responsible for reforestation.

In 1978 the old e Range Act. About 90 per cent of the usable Crown range lands are found in the southern interior in four agricultural reporting regions. Cities and towns like Kamloops. By the turn of the century all the southern interior’ open s range land had been claimed. Ranching and Range Lands beep. The husbandry of cattle for beef production is the prime activity on the range lands of the province. The Act authorizes the granting of grazing and hay cutting licences and permits. Chilcotin.6 million hectares) and most productive. The livestock industry is of major economic significance to commercial centres in the interior of British Columbia. Sheep farming is essentially confined to the Thompson-Nicola and Okanagan valleys and the Gulf Islands. The Grazing Licence. Merritt. Sheep and horses are the only other significant domestic livestock. Clinton and district. Tatla. Nazko. norses. Big ranching companies dominated the industry. The Ministry of Forests. Anahim and Kettle River depend on ranching as a stabilizing factor when the more cyclical forest industry of the region takes a downturn. Logging tends to increase the supply of usable forage and provide access to new grazing lands. Water DroduDfrom agricultural industry. In the first two decades of this century ranching expanded into the forests of the southern interior. moose. The rest of the usable range land is in the three regions of the northern and central interior .goes back to gold rush days in B. Lillooet. British Columbia has the greatest diversity of wildlife species in Canada and the forest and range lands are the prime habitat and feed source of elk. . The new industry was encouraged by the government’ generous land lease policy and the markets s opened up by the new railroad. although the supply of forage can also be reduced by forest regeneration and fire protection. requires the rancher to provide an acceptable grazing management plan.the Peace River. Williams Lake. has been responsible for range lands since 1917. followed in order by Thompson. to the .C. etc. Cottonwood. Omineca and Skeena. under its variant titles. Ninety per cent of the range land under permit or licence is also managed for timber production and for wildlife feed and habitat. bighorn sheep and deer.a 3. Research and education programs for ranchers are offered by the Ministry of Agriculture through a protocol agreement. wmcn provided tar longer-term leases and placed a new emphasis on the coordination and integration of forest and range use. the most significant of these contracts. Lac La Hache. The challenge is to manage for timber as well as the varying forage/browse needs of cattle and wildlife on the same land base. Okanagan and Kootenay. It is a lo-year contract that gives access to the forage on a specified area of Crown range for a specified number and kind of livestock during the summer months. the date of the first Grazing Act. Ranching developed in the Kootenays in the 1930s and 1940s as transportation improved and became important in the northern and central interior in the 1960s mostly through the expansion of cleared pasture. largely due to the heavy capital investment required for start up. The Cariboo is the largest (2. .

outfitting and guiding and many other commercial services.000 head. In ranching towns like Williams Lake.In 1881 the province’ cattle numbered 70. almost 16 per cent of total provincial agricultural production. fishing lakes and remote hiking trails have been made accessible through logging roads. and the improvement of the provincial highway network brought many more tourists to the province and stimulated the establishment of fishing camps. By 1976 the summer beef herd size was some 350.4 million hectares. Numerous camping sites. Tourism and Recreation Tourism emerged in the postwar period as one of the province’ leading economic s sectors.000.000. ski resorts. ecological reserves. A significant supplier of jobs. motels and restaurants as well as hospitality. Direct revenues to the Crown from grazing permits and fees amounted to $1. many s tourists find lots to do in Crown forest land outside the provincial parks.6 million dollars in 1988/89 and the value of cattle and calf production was estimated at $183 million. and growing awareness of the province’ spectacular scenery and opportunities for outdoor pursuits. Another 200. while trails and picnic sites are frequently maintained by the Forest Service and forest companies. followed in later . Outdoor adventure tourism is growing at 20 per cent a year and currently generates approximately $150 million a year. Parks The park system has developed over 75 years. There are today some 384 parks and they cover 5. the annual stampedes continue to attract While the province’ network of parks is the most popular outdoor attraction. 5. The mandate of the Ministry of Parks is to protect the natural environment and provide recreation opportunities.000 were raised mainly for beef purposes. the Okanagan-Shuswap area and many communities of the southern and northern interior also benefitted. The opening of s the Trans-Canada Highway in 1962. of which 266. helped by rising income levels.5 per cent of the tourist dollars were spent in southwestern British Columbia and Vancouver Island in 1989. Anahim Lake and Kamloops. improved transportation. in 1989 -half of them from other countries . 4. the tourism industry is complex and the economic More than seven million people visited British Columbia benefits are widely distributed. and in the summer of 1990 cattle and calves together numbered 740.and they generated revenues of nearly $4 billion. While 7. forest wilderness and wilderness reserves.000 hectares are in recreation areas. In 1911 Strathcona became the first of the provincial parks.000. but by the end of World War I the herd s size was 190. hunting lodges. wilderness conservancies. Expo 86 attracted over 22 million visits and resulted in international exposure for the province.

. There is public pressure to add more land to the parks system. 6. In the 1950s and 196Os.years by Mount Robson. zoological or geological phenomena. as auto-touring and boating became popular.lca~reserves comprising 157.119 hectares. Recognizing the limitations of a finite land base that must be shared with other values. The Ecological Reserves Act was passed by the British L 111tn7 J. The Ministry of Parks has a major initiative underway to complete a provincial parks system plan. selection of parks in recent years has focussed on areas that represent the best features and diversity of the province. Garibaldi and others. Ecological Reserves British Columbia was the first province in Canada to formalize and give permanent status to ecological reserves as part of a world-wide endeavour to conserve selected terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. new parks were selected for recreation potential.. e. including marine waters.. Most were established on Crown land and they include areas which are representative of natural ecosystems and areas that contain unique and rare examples of botanical. The Park Act passed in 1965 added conservation to the park mandate.

Appendix 4 AN INTERIM REPORT OF THE BRITISH FOREST COLUMBIA COMMISSION RESOURCES July. what values are inherent on specific areas of our forest lands. should provide at least a start to improving forest resource management m mmsn Lorumbia. albeit small. that good inventory information pertaining to the full range of forest values and to the capacity of the forest land base to support those values is seriously inadequate. The Commission recognizes that by commenting on these issues in advance of its major recommendations to government. The Commission believes. and the serious uncertainty affecting forest land use decisions resulting from the land claim issue. it may be seen by some as taking certain issues out of context. Long-term decisions are otten made in the a’ of good knowledge of all the forest values being impacted on or with little regard for values . These issues have to do with the availability and compatibility of inventory information relating to all forest values. The result is that decision makers and the public have a very inadequate and imperfect information base decisions or debate. Cd11 p ai snot emerged that. the Commission believes that the government can reasonably take some specific action now and that these actions. particularly as they relate to T. however. . In doing so.A.S. the need for the formal education systems of this Province to address better the importance of natural resources. in an adequate way. INVENTORIES OF FOREST VALUES The Commission found. The Commission also found that where inventory information does exist in one ministry. through written submissions. public meetings and detailed interviews with provincial government ministries. that a variety of factors provide strong reasons for putting certain specific recommendations or comments forward at this time. 1990 INTRODUCTION Arising from the more than 1700 submissions the Commission received and reinforced by the round of public meetings the Commission engaged in this past spring. it is often not compatible with inventories developed in other ministries for other purposes. in tn e View Of me COmm have to wait until the major recommendatiorls are submitted early next year. the adequacy of public input into forest resource planning and management. base on which to The result of not knowing. Committees. four issues . is predictable.

the public is often confused and subiect to being given conflicting and sometimes false statements as to what values mav or may not be on any given land base or what the impact on those values may be by any given management practice. at the same time. Energy. The Commission has identified at least ten ministries that currently hold inventory information relating to specific forest values or to the forest land base. Recreation and Culture 7. in large measure.other than the specific one being managed for. Transportation These inventories have generally been developed to meet some historical. Agriculture and Fisheries 2. is the lack of standardized inventory information and. Municipal Affairs. Of immediate concern. Parks Tounsm and Highways 10. This is particularly important in areas where more than one forest value is to be part of a forest land base decision. therefore. have been developed without regard for their compatibility or relationship to inventories of other forest values. a lack of compatibility of the inventory information presently collected and processed by provincial government ministries. The Commission believes that significantly greater effort will have to be spent to address inadequacies in the inventory information base in a number of areas. Native Affairs 8. 5. Mines and Petroleum Resources 4. Further. . These are: 1. in many cases. Environment Forests 6. The Commission believes that better and more compatible information about all forest values must be made available if more informed and reasoned debate is to occur. the forest management processes proposed and adopted. retaining the values for which they were oritinallv intended. however. Y. Given that the exact nature and extent of inventory information will depend. ministryspecific need and. Crown Lands 3. Accordingly. the Commission recommends that: The government immediately examine and implement ways by which the full range of forest related inventories can be made standard and able to be used on compatible systems while. the Commission will address this issue in greater depth as part of its major recommendations.

the Commission has become increasing& aware and concerned at the woeful lack of understanding of the importance of the resource industries to British Columbia. the Commission recommends that: The Ministry of Education be directed to include significant Province of British Columbia. skills and attitudes needed to contribrrte to a healthy society and prosperous and sustainable economy. in maintaining certain communities.A.S.S. TIMBER SUPPLY AREA STEERING COMMITTEES During the conduct of its business. why they are used and what their effects are. In submissions and public testimony. Since the purpose of the British Columbia school system. the Commission has found that public perceptions are significantly at odds with the actual facts of a given situation. to the social structure and to the economy of the Province.A. other than the Ministries of Forests and Environment and the licensees. Time after time. While being openly critical of the current structure and public access to T. and Forest District boundaries were the same. and of the practices that are carried out in managing those resources. . perception is reality and the current gap between the two is. creating a serious. as being at the heart of the problem. However. the Commission believes. the Commission will have more to say on the subject of education when it submits main recommendations. Committees. the Commission heard repeatedly that Timber Supply Area Steering Committees (T. the Commission did note that the public school system is currently undergoing major reform in the Province and as part of that reform.A.” the Commission believes that greater emphasis is needed in the curriculum throughout the primary. The Commission is also aware that in many a debate and often in decision making. Accordingly. This is particularly true of our forests and of forestry practices. in providing for services such as health and education. balanced material about forest management practices at a11 levels of the curriculum. the public cited lack of management commitment and lack of adequate balance from interest groups. The public should also have a better understanding of forest practices.EDUCATION Throughout all of its investigations to date. and generally in helping to maintain a lifestyle unequalled in most areas of the world. is: “To enable learners to develop their individual potential and acquire the knowledge. This was particularly true where T. particularly the forest resource. the public generally felt that the concept was a reasonable one and could be improved upon with relative ease. the curriculum is undergoing significant revision. if not dangerous. intermediate and graduation years on the overall importance of the resource industries. as stated in the School Act. Again. The Commission believes that the educated public of this province should understand the importance of our forest industries in shaping the Province.S. particularly the forest. situation in British Columbia. and also to include accurate. Committees) were generally not working well.

The overwhelming view of British Columbians. . . First and foremost. because the . and makeup of and commitment to its Timber Supply Area Steering Committees with a view to making these more effective.While the Commission planning and management Ministry of Forests can and existing T. the Commission found that the land claims issue is creating a high degree of uncertainty over the Crown lands of the Province. the Commission recommends that: The Ministry of Forest should re-examine the purpose. the outstanding land claims issue is affecting forest practices. the Commission is fully aware that the issue of land claims is not part of its mandate. . While expressing almost unanimous concern.theC.nmmlslnns rt 1 it heard through to the government. However. Communities are concerned that their stability may be threatened and workers are concerned that their jobs and economic wellbeing may be threatened. As most of these are provincial forest. is that they want the land claims issue settled as soon as possible and they want it vea: namely. Committee intends to address the whole area of public participation in the of B. are thinking twice about investments that have long pay-back periods. Accordingly. In commenting on this matter. . LAND CLAIMS In every region of the Province and from individuals and groups across the whole spectrum of society. . groups and individuals across the Province do not appear to be comfortable with using the courts as a means of settling the issue. tne aborigmal people and the federal and provincial governments.‘ forest lands in its full report. for example. This is particularly true of investments in silviculture. the Commission heard concern over the land claims issue and the strong desire that it be resolved.S. Forest companies. concern is so widesDread.C. from whom the Commission heard.A. . it believes&r&the s should take immediate action to improve the workings of the structure.

/2 . and efficient collection. 1991 Mr. and its commitment to.e Lana uasea .. to that the government immediately examine and implement ways to standardize forest-related inventories used by different ministries: and. timber supply area steering committees.Clen Ministry of Forests Parliament Victoria British V8W Buildings Columbia 3E7 March 22. (sandy) Peel Chairman British Columbia Forest Resources commission 7tJ_ Flm . . the membership of. Inventory Coordination The Commission's recommendation term direction which features: . is supportive of our long Inter-agency coordination on mapping specification and standards which are essential to the systematic. L. with a view to making these more effective. OI Fare-s re-examine the purpose..I.747 Fort Street Victoria. Two recommendations are of particular significance this Ministry.I. . We have taken these recommendations seriously as important foundations for making long term improvements to the resource planning and management system and I would like to summarize some highlights. A.Appendix 5 Province ot Rritich 1 Cnlawnhia OFFICE OF THE _ceIlTY . namely: . s~aage ana ml 01: uorp0rdL. British Columbia V8V 1x4 Dear Sandy: Thank you for the opportunity to summarize the response of this Ministry to the recommendations contained in the Interim Report (July 1990) of the Forest Resources Commission.

Active interministry cooperation to develop integrated geographic information systems (GIS) across government. Proposing and leading a GIS based mapping and inventory pilot project on the Queen Charlotte Islands which successfully integrated resource data from a variety of sources. especially the Ministry of Crown Lands who map topographic. . It was used to demonstrate the capacity of various software for assembling and using GIS data for resource planning. . under the Chairmanship of the Ministry of Crown Lands. with the active cooperation of vendors of "off-theshelf" software.. It was used as the basis for an operational trial. L. A "Corporate Land Information Strategic Plan" (CLISP) has been developed as a blueprint for integrating multiagency geographic information. A. The Ministry of Forests is actively working with other ministries on this essential task. planimetric and cadastre. It is responsible for directing Lne aevelopmentf a corporate (across government) land information system./3 . The Ministry of Forests is an active participant in this initiative. while we are responsible for mapping forest tenure and "multi-layeredW forest inventory data. . . The Ministry of Forests is an active participant on LISC and its various working sub-committees. .Ministry of Forests Response to Interim Report. (Sandy) Peel Page 2 data. conducted by an inter-ministry team. This Ministry will be contributing forest tenure and forest inventory components to this corporate data base.. using predefined specifications and standards. Interministry coordination through a "Land Information Steering Committee" (LISC) which was established by and reports to the Deputy Ministers' Committee on Sustainable Development. continued Mr.

including those of the private sector.Ministry of Forests Response to Interim Report. and. . Our Inventory Branch convened LISC representatives involved with forest resources tn develoo a wucwhich includes: summarising current types of inventories and their standards. Already we have some operational capacity to use GIS as a working tool with forest inventory data in our forest regions. Steerina Committees The Ministry of Forests is currently implementing the recommendations of the Commission with respect to the composition of and commitment to Timber Supply Area (TSA) Steering Committees. technical support to the process. . L.. These new policies will ensure that the planning process gives balanced consideration to all of the resource values on provincial forest lands. ensure that all resources are considered. continued Mr. This initiative has been combined with the development of new planning policy and procedures for forest management planning at the Forest District (TSA) level. this project has been a fundamental building block and has reinforced our corporate commitment to integrate and maximize the use of spatial data in a corporate environment. procedures and defined data collection responsibilities. (Sandy) Peel Page 3 While a fully developed GIS system capable of integrating resource databases is in the future. A.. an Inter-agency Planning Team will be established to assume the planning coordination role currently undertaken by TSA Steering This inter-agency team will provide Committees. Within this revised process../4 23 . developing a view on new information requirements and the standards and procedures to collect them. and access all feasible This team will be resource management options. producing common standards.

l&mm. Philip G. (Sandy) Peel Page 4 responsible for public and user involvement as part of the resource planning process to ensure that all resource interests are represented in a balanced and equitable way."yI. applying to all new comprehensive planning projects undertaken at the Forest District (TSA) A. . L.Ministry of Forests Response to Interim Report. will be implemented in 1991. continued Mr. Halkett Deputy Minister 24 . This new planning team structure and its associated process and procedures. Yours truly. Thank you for this opportunity to bring you up to date regarding actions taken by the Ministry of Forests in respect of the July 1990 interim recommendations of the .

A similar review will take place for the Intermediate Humanities (Social Studies) curriculum m 1991-92. Peel: I am writing in response to your letter of November 6. Ministry branches will be undertaking several projects to ensure that appropriate attention is given to these issues. 25 .of the Forest Resource Commission recommendation.Appendix 6 Ministry of Education Response to Interim Report Province of British Columbia OFFICE THE OF DEPIJNMlN.STER Ministry of Education Parliament Buildings Victoria British Columbia VW 2M4 Telephone: (604) 387-4611 Fax: (604) 356-9121 December 21. tiraduation rrogram curricula will be reviewed beginning in 1992 except in the area of General Studies where some work has already begun. 1990 in which you urged that the Ministry of Education implement the interim recommendation of the Forest Resources Commission calling for the inclusion of balanced information about the forest industry at all levels of the curriculum. Current proposals indicate that this curriculum will be issuesEfforts will be made to ensure that forest management and based. A. /2 . Of necessity. Given the importance of the forest resource to the British Columbia economy and in light. . L. As a part of the on-going curriculum review and revision process. these actions have attempted to focus on the Ministry’ efforts to s implement the recommendations of the Sullivan Royal Commission and at tin%0 &?&Jo&+&P the nPP issues in a fair and balanced manner. In particular. the Sciences curriculum will be reviewed at the Intermediate level in 1991 in an attempt to ensure that these issues are addressed.199O Mr. environmental issues are included as an important part of this curriculum. (Sandy) Peel Chairman British Columbia Forest Resources 700 . I recognize the need for the Ministry of Education to become more proactive in its efforts to include resource and environmental issues within all levels of the curriculum. To this end. . special attention will be paid to resource and environmental issues.747 Fort Street Victoria. In previous correspondence I have attempted to outline a number of actions that this Ministry is taking to address the recommendation.2 1991 BRITISH COLLIMBIA FOREST RESOURCESCOMMISSION Dear Mr. British Columbia V8VlX4 Commission JAh .

Curriculum Development Branch Rick Connolly. Sincerely. and education. Educational Programs Barry Carbol. These groups should provide a mechanism for the inclusion of important resource and environmental issues in the curriculum and provide assistance in identifying ways that students can gain access to first-hand information about British Columbia’ s resource industries through expanded technology education. It is my belief that the above actions provide a strong focus for our efforts to encourage a greater understanding of resource and environmental issues on the part of all of the students of our Province. Director. Jack Fleming. the Ministry is currently considering the establishment of a number of advisory committees which would include representation from business. By selecting an array of materials on these topics it should be possible to achieve the balanced view that is desired. the Ministry will specifically request that publishers and agencies submit materials related to forest management.Ministry of Education Response to Interim Report. Program Development Division Robin Syme. Desharnais Deputy Minister cc. In the future. and environmental issues for review. and work experience programs. Assistant Deputy Minister. To assist in all of this work. Executive Director. W. continued The Primary Program curriculum is currently in its optional year and will be reviewed after feedback has been received from initial implementation efforts. it will be necessary to identify a wide-range of learning materials for use by students and teachers. resource management. cooperative education. Learning Resources Branch . industry. Director. It is anticipated that these committees will be established early in the next fiscal year. As a result of this increased focus on resources and the environment. career preparation.

to provide a management and financial mechanism for managing those lands designated under the Land Use Plan as being Integrated Use Management Area that include timber harvesting and range potential. provide it with goals and purposes. for illustrative purposes in the attached sample documents. establish management authority. However. and verlIylng the proposed independent audits will be established in this Act. Remedies for noncompliance will also be defined in this Act. Statutory requirements such as managing according to the proposed Land Use Plan. All shares of the Corporation will be vested in that Ministry. The enabling legislation will establish a reporting relationship to government through the Minister of the proposed Ministry of Renewable Natural Resources. is proposed for establishment via the Act establishing the Land Use Commission. a dispute settlement mechanism for conflicts within the Land Use Plan between resource managers should be independent. and 27 . the Forest Resources Corporation.Appendix 7 Explanatory Notes The Chapter on Renewable Natural Resources proposes the establishment of a Crown Corporation. establish accountability and introduce restrictions on the conduct of the Corporation and those it contracts with. using practices aetmea unaer the proposea Forest Practices Act. The following and individual resources users called Resource Management provides samples of the documents that would establish the right section of the Forest Resources Corporation to manage these lands (Head Lease) and the terms and conditions under which it. the Integrated Resource Management and Tenure Administration Act. The Chapter on Tenure proposes contractual arrangements between the Forest Resources Corporation Agreements. This Act will establish the Forest Resources Corporation. and resource users would be delegated management authority (Resource Management Agreements). The Act establishing the Forest Resources Corporation is called.

or that are covered by water at the date here for the purpose described in the attached schedule of. To have and to hold the Land unto the Lessee for a term of commencing on . The Lessor. (hereinafter called the 'Special Proviso Schedule'). mortgage or transfer this lease without the prior written consent of the Lessor (this clause will also be in the legislation). to the Resource Agreements Management and The Forest Resources Corporation Ministry of Renewable Natural assigned. EVENTS OF DEFAULT: Standard Clauses. as AREA: GRANT OF LEASE: TERM: CONSIDERATION: COVENANTS OF THE LESSEE: l Standard clauses l Subject to the Land Use Planning Act requirements l Subject to the Forest Practices Act ASSIGNMENT: The Lessee shall not assign. (Those lands classified as Integrated Use Management Areas under the Land Use Plan that have potential Timber Harvesting and Range deaignatione). STANDARD PROVISIONS: AUDITS: shares are to be held by the Resources. Ae defined in the legal description schedule. roads. HEAD LEASE HER BASESTY TEE QUEEN IN RIGHT OF TEE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA AS REPRESENTED BY THE MINISTER OF and THE FOREST RESOURCES CORPORATION BETWEEN: AUTHORITY: The Head Lease and subsequent Reeource Management Agreements are iesued pursuant to the Inteorated Resource Hanaaement and Tenure Administration. forittustrattve purposes only A. water courses.Sample Document. highways. and cannot be A statutory obligation of the Forest Resources Corporation and holders of Resource Management Agreements as defined in the Resource Management and Tenure Administration Act. . hereby demises to W tk L~nfiravt! dnd except th ose portions of the Land that consist of ‘trails. Statement of penalties detailed SECURITY: NOTICE: MISCELLANEOUS: INTERPRETATION: OTHER STANDARD CLAUSES: in the enabling Act. renewable every . The St authorized by and pursuant Tenure Adminstration Act. ontheterme set forth herein. Yielding and paying therefore for the term the dividend prescribed in the rental schedule attached.

H. affected Land Use of a RESOLUTION MECHANISM: In the event of a dispute between the FRC and the P. or upon notice of such requirement by the Chief every Forester. (_%) for reallocation by the Detailed plan for compensation for all directly contractors. The text shall be attached to the SURVEY: COVENANTS : Act requirements Act requirements . measurable and auditable l FOREST MANAGEMENT: The follow * report.Sample Document.MA will contain plans for: replanting * maintaining diversity of species. l develop plans that will include tangible. will Penalties for non-compliance legislation. guiding. for illustrative purposes only RESERVATIONS: The Minister of Renewable Natural Resources reserves all land rights not specifically given. * standard * subject * subject clauses to the Land Use Planning to the Forest Practices for submission of a survey the Surveyor General. through an independent audit of the above performance. but not be limited to: * access for travel. * potential intensive silviculture. Agreements. Remedies and compensation commensurate forest land base DISPUTE to include the and/or financial allocation compensation. * incorporate the management guidelines for map area of the Local Land Use Plan for * give due regard to the policy of sustained yield forestry.MA (timber) holder. This will include. hunting and fishing * access for roads for work and protection * mineral and energy exploration * maintenance and enhancement of fish and wildlife l the right to provide other (similar) authority such as for grazing. FOREST RENEWAL: l Each P. the following dispute resolution mechanism shall apply: * between RMAs. * detail agreements and consultations with other RMA holders. employees and RMA holder5 for changes to the Plan that are incompatible with R. The RMA (timber) holder is responsible plan to the standards specified by relevant Land Use Plan and explanatory Agreement. * provide long-term plans (for a complete rotation) illustrating the maintenance or enhancement of such values as required in the Land Use Plan. recreation. years. trapping Resource Management Agreement holder shall: sound forestry practice5 as detailed in the Forest Practice5 Act. with the appropriate Agreements be required for measuring the impact of intensive silviculture as part of support for expanded allowable cut. these plans shall include the impact of harvesting on those values through time. in accord biogeoclimatic zone and the Land Use Plan. will be established within the enabling MODIFICATION OF THE AGREEMENT: Minor Allowance government for other uses. recourse will be to the Appeal Board established under the Land Use Commission via the Land Use Plannina Act . or between RMA holders.

. Resource Management Agreement # the rights to harvest and manage the forest resources as spe&ied in the management schedule attached. for illustrative purposes only 8. . .TIMBER HARVESTING BETWEEN: THE FOREST RESOURCES COMMISSION AND THE XYZ FOREST LAND MANAGEMENT PURPOSES: COMPANY (FRC) To provide a secure form of tenure and stewardship obligations for the harvesting of timber and management for all forest values in the prescribed area. renewable after . hereby contracts to the Company. grow and harvest timber on a specified area under map of the Local Land Use Plan. I Jl=P. RESOURCE MANAGEMENT AGREEMENT .Mce schedule attached. TERN : To have and to hold the Reeource Management Agreement for a term of _commencing on . GRANT OF MANAGEMENT: The Forest Resources Corporation. RIGHTS: The Resource Management Agreement provides the right to establish.LJ. on the terms set forth herein. The RMA does not provide exclusive use of the land but does provide exclusive access to the timber subject to the Land Use Plan (plan number ) and restrictions identified in accordance with the full enjoyment of the rights conferred to the Resource Wanagement Agreement holders identified in Schedule attached in the maps attached as Schedule . mortgage or transfer the rights of the PMA without the written permission of the lessor. to the land for RENT: and the The resource rent (stumpage) will be tied to prices in the proposed province-wide log market.Sample Document. including remedies non-performance such as : * specified actions and time frames to remedy minor defaults * cash penalties * cancellation of agreement Rent ehall be collected in two forms: * base rent for the tenure and the access resource(timber). To ensure forest harvesting and management practices are fully integrated with other Resource Management Agreements and other resource values as identified in the Land Use Plan and the Forest Practices Act (FPA). ~r"Ti~~R AUDIT: Terms related to performance as per statute. ASSIGNMENT: The Resource Management Agreement (timber) holder shall not aaeign. l resource rent for the resource extracted. AREA: AS described rn to d-l in the 7.ral legal description *sfRed. Include orovisions to permit for financial arrangements without the consent of the Forest Resources Corporation. Plan attached. (limited by the term of the Head Lease less at least one day).

appeal of any direct or third party interest will be established. objectives. fencing. will specifyrange improvement requirements. l RANAGEMBNT PRESCRIPTIONS BY DESIGNATIONS: a description of the prescriptions for management that are to occur within the various de5ignations contained in the plan. viewscape protection. road and access management. method of cut. include: volume to be harvested. timing of activities to minimise Grazing area5 conflict of noise and space.. for a specific cut block this and may pre5cribe timing of cut. Rights of executive level of the planning organization. clean up provisions. For wildlife it may include habitat enhancement activities. * for each of the other R&A developed in a similar manner. tenures specific sections will be *the specific rights and obligations will be clearly spelled out to establish a basis for audit and for action on remedies. prescription of acce85 trails. measures taken to enhance wildlife. restocking. plan which establishes PLAN SIGN-OFF: (The sub-regional resource priorities will be signed off by the Land Use A management plan will be signed off at an Commission.Sample Document. for illustrative purposes only MANAGEMENT PLAN: The plan will contain: A. PLAN REVIEW PROCESS: . habitat protection. Sub-Regional Land Use * a general reference to the Plan within which area this tenure falls and adherence to the land allocations and resource management prescriptions of the plan. timing of cut. . 'RESOURCE MANAGERBNT AGREEMENT: For the timber tenure there will need to be a specific section on rights and obligations including This may specific measures of performance that are auditable.N TEXT *OVERVIEW: an overview of the plan area and specifically the contribution this plan area will make to sub-regional and regional land and resource management objectivee. soil protection measures. etc. etc. Stocking levels.) PLAN MODIFICATION PROCESS: As per the Jntearated Resource Manacement and Tenure Act and the &and Use Plannina Act. will prescribe how these resources are to be managed. a subregional plan would identify resource priority areas and general allocation andmanagement prescriptions while the management plan of which there could be many within a sub-regional area would identify the specific resource prescriptions). For public recreatim it may include corridor protection. replanting silvicultural treatments. etc. PLA. principles. prestocking performance standards for For area5 that have other predominant uses it audit measurement. (note: there is a hierarchy of plans from the general to the specific --a regional plan would specify resource management targets. timing etc.

access to these block. areas and access (both commercial and This Plan will be attached to each of the P&As. Thus when the plan is changed. *suitability maps for various uses (the uses will have been defined in the sub-regional level of planning). *areas to be protected *protected wildlife *recreation areas public) etc. *a detailed management plan (designation map) for the tenure area: possible scales are 1:20. which will involve a negotiated process with righta of appeal. fisheries. Presumably the sub-regional plan will have been done at 1:250.000. public consultation.OOO. timber production. and for engineering. the rights and obligations of each of the PMAs will be amended. recreation. The management plan will identify: *cut blocks. A combination will likely be required for effective planning. resource values--such as capability wildlife.000 (only for small tenure) or lr50. and timing for cut for wtwt maps that depict maps for range. for illustrative purposes only 8. 32 .Sample Document. MAPS *background etc.

or transfer the contract without the written permission of the Forest Resources Corporation. The contract does not provide exclusive use of the land but does provide exclusive access to the fur resources. . MODIFICATION OF THE AGREEMENT: The Forest Resources Corporation may open this contract to review on 60 days notice and/or on the review of the Sub-Regional Land Use Plan. Compensation will be determined as per the provisions of the RMTA Act. harvest levels etc. Subject to the ROTA Act remedies for non-oerformance will consist of: *specified actions and time frames to remedy minor defaults *cash penalties *cancellation of tenure Rent shall be collected in two forms: *base rent for the tenure and the access resources it provides *resource rent for the resource extracted to the land and AUDIT: RENT: ANNUAL REPORT: The contractor (trapping) will submit an annual report on management activities. The Forest Resources Corporation will audit from time to time but no less once every five years the performance of the contractor with respect tc the obligations of this contract. hereby demises and contracts to XYZ WILDLIFE MANAGEMINT (TRAPPING) the rights to harvest and manage for fur bearing animals as specified in the management schedule attached.TRAPPING BETWEEN: FOREST RESOURCES CORPORATION AND XYZ WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT PURPOSES: (TRAPPER) To provide a secure form of tenure for the harvesting and management of fur resources within the prescribed area To ensure fur harvesting and management practices are integrated with other resource values as identified in the Sub-Regional Land Use Plan fully AUTHORITY: AREA: The Resource Management Agreement is issued pursuant to the Resource .'&A.C.i ASSIGNMENT: The contractor (trapping) shall not assign. TERM: To have and to hold Resource Management Agreement for a term of commencing on renewable every years. t and TPnllrPt_ (RYT. RESOURCE MANAGEMENT AQREEMENT .! As described in the legal description schedule attached. (trapping) # _ . as specified by the Forest Resources Corporation. GRANT OF TENURE: The Forest Resources Corporation on the terms set forth herein. mortgage. . In the event that this review results in a withdrawal of lands from harvesting in excess of 10% of the total volume available within this tenure then compensation is payable by the beneficiaries of the withdrawal.

MANAGEMENT PLAN: A5 defined for a Resource Management Agreement in the P. . The map requirements will be similar to those discussed in B.DISPUTE RESOLUTION MECHANISM: In the event of a dispute between the Forest Resources Corporation and the contractor or between Resource Management Agreement holders. the dispute resolution mechanism detailed in the Land Use Planning Act under provisions for an Appeal Board will apply. for the Resource Management Agreement (Timber).MTA Act and the Local Land Use Plan.

‘ Mailis Valenius. Thomas Gunton PAPERS . Jm C=vf=+Wn@ Cl!ssn FV Garry Thorne (Editor).G. documents are contained the province. Thomas Gunton.ADoendix 8 BACKGROUND PAPERS had research papers prepared in eleven separate The titles and volumes The Forest Resources Commission These background volumes. ‘ Jnen Iohn Nyboer. Kim Brenneis. They were distributed to all regional. Dr.Dr.Dr. Thomas Gunton and Dr. Michael M’ Gonigle. Van Kooten An Evaluation of Forests of Public Participation in the British Columbia Ministry . Dunster Impact Assessment in Forest Planning and Multiple Use of Forest Lands: The Role of Rangeland . Ilan Vertinsky The Use of Environmental Management . and Ed Van Osch .VOLUME Making Process 1 Land Planning Decision for Forest and Dr. college and university libraries throughout are listed below. Colin Rankin.Kim Brenneis Drganiration Jurisdictions and Structures of Crown Land Planning in Selected . BACKGROUND Reforming the in British Columbia . on various subjects which it reviewed under its Terms of Reference. Julian A.C. Ilan Vertinsky Methods Columbia: Options of Analysis for Forest Land Use Allocation in British and Recommendations .Dr.Dr.

W.Dr. Thomas Gunton.Dr. J. Affum lJ. Day and J. and S. Thille A Review of the British Planning Columbia Process Crown Land Allocation and Management . A History of Forest Tenure Policy in British Columbia 1858-1978 .Dr. G. 3 Summary of Findings Review of Forest Tenures in British Columbia .T. Duffy Multiple Conflicts . Stanbury. and H. Ilan Vertinsky.A. PHD PAPERS -VOLUME Land Use Conflicts 2 with Decision Analysis into Forest The Use of Cost Alernative Uses Benefit Analysis to Allocate Forest Lands Among . McDaniels. Dr.T.BACKGROUND Gamlng Insight .wERS Management Performance _ \/ME on Forest Tenure.C.C. Thomas Gunton Toward Columbia Sustainable Water Planning and Management in British .Sterling Wood Group Inc. Flynn Economic Valuation of Non-Market Values for Forest Planning . Van Kooten.Dorli M.

Carry Horne Impacts of the Forest Penner (Ministry Industry of Finance and Corporate Relations) and Charlotte The Provincial Columbia .. Ltd. . Resources: Considerations Capital 4 Structural Estimates and Valuation .Garry Horne.Pacific North Consulting BACKGROUND Report British on the Current Columbia PAPERS . Forest Industry of Harvesting in the B.Woodbay Consulting PAPERS-VOLUME of Forest Group Limited Related 6 Tourism Values Assessment Adventure Travel and Land Use . British Financial PAPERS . Economic Sector Impacts of a Supply Reduction of Finance in the British and Corporate Relations) Forest Nick Paul. Robinson BACKGROUND Preliminary .HST Consortium .Fortrends Consulting.Nawitka PAPERS .VOLUME Concentration and Ownership 5 Rights. and David Riley (Ministry BACKGROUND Data on the Corporate Manufacturing .C.BACKGROUND i 1 Managing Alternatives. Capacity Resource Consultants Forest Resource Management Clayton Alternatives Resources Study Consulting & Associates Ltd.VOLUME Status of Forest 7 Inventories of Resource A Summary Annual of Technical Reviews of Forest Inventories and Allowable Cut Determiniations in British Columbia .VOLUME Columbia’ s Western Forest Ltd.CWC Canadian Local Employment .

PAPERS -VOLUME of Major Future Themes of Our Forests.P.VOLUME 8 . BACKGROUND Options Workshop PAPERS .J.Praxis and Salasan Inc. BACKGROUND Computer Issue/Options Searches Paper.Praxis of Public Response to the Option Paper “The Future of Our 38 . 10 Issues II for the Volume and Related . 9 Issues 1 for the Volume and Related .Salasan Associates Inc. and Praxis Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix 1: Creston 3: 108 Mile House Appendix Appendix Appendix 2: Harrison 4: Parksville 6: Terrace Hot Springs 5: Prince 7: Vernon George Analysis Forests” . (Hamish) Kimmins BACKGROUND Computer Searches Paper. Supplemental Searches for the Issue/Option Paper .Praxis and Salasan Inc. Issue/Options PAPERS -VOLUME of Major Future Themes of Our Forests.BACKGROUND limber Harvesting PAPERS .Praxis and Salasan Inc.VOLUME Summary 11 .

Dean Burns has extensive experience in professional services and consultancies on a wide range of legal issues. .Chairman Sandy Peel was appointed Chairman of the British Columbia Forest Resources Commission on October 11.A. 1989. a forest company based in the Nass River valley.B.1989) and Deputy Minister of Economic Development (1974 . was responsible for economic development and trade policies and for developing and implementing major education reforms arising from the Sullivan Royal Commission on Education during his career as a Provincial Deputy Minister. including environmental protection. who holds a B. Q. regulation of economic interests.Zap Industries (1983) Ltd. Under his direction. He is a forest technician and forest resource person for the Nishga’ Tribal a council. is a clinical professor of psychiatry at the University of British Columbia and Chairman of the Recreation and Conservation Committee of the Federation of Mountain Clubs of British Columbia.C. and Arizona. of Canyon City. his first being Exploring the Stein River Valley published in 1979. Peel. is a member of the Nishga’ Tribal council and President a of Zaul . (Sandy) Peel . and international human rights. He is also a director of the Outdoor Recreation Council and co-chairman of the Forest Land Use Liaison Committee. Dr. He has extensive experience in both the private and public sectors and most recently held the positions of Deputy Minister of Education (1987 . Freeman has coauthored several books on hiking trails in B. He has a wide range of professional interests. from U. Comm.C.B. Collier Roger Freeman Roger Freeman M.Appendix 9 COMMISSIONERS A.1987) with the Provincial Government. Collier Azak Axalq of Gitwinksihlkw.C. Mr.Vice-Chairman Peter Burns is Professor and Dean of the Faculty of Law at the University of British Columbia. .D. the Law Faculty has developed an extensive Asian law program and redirected its curriculum to reflect the changes in the economy and aspirations of British Columbians. and an M. Peter Burns. from Berkeley.L.

Jack Munro critic of forest as a man in the is of the 50. from 1962 to 1966. of British Columbia’ s research Faculty of Forestry of and wood of 19. He has been a member of the B. labour scene. Munro’ s most powerful labour leaders.member in British Columbia’ s IWA-Canada.C. Kennedy served as assistant and director at the University Forest Products Corp.” for 1989. Munro. Association She has served in key and with the Union Hospital in regional forestry She also and of and served on the Regional She has taken and in public of Squamish-Lillooet in small business issues.C. executive Board. Cattlemen’ s Mr. in wood science Dr.C. and again from 1979-1983. as one of British Columbia’ s polices. Haywood-Farmer years and chairs its public a Bachelor Robert W. the TT is President of the Tunkwa Association holds Lake Stock for six of Breeders’ Association. David Haywood-Farmer relations committee. David Haywood-Farmer A rancher from Savona. outspoken widely 27 years in IWA politics have earned him a level of respect recognized who cares for people.000 . an organization research.Joyce Harder Joyce Harder is Mayor ot Lillooet. has deep concern the future of the forest industry . Capital Mayor Harder is very much aware of the role of the forest industry a keen personal education declared relating interest to forestry the drive to have Lillooet the “Forestry of B. Fellows recognized Ear their achievements in wood-based Jack Munro Recognized President management unequalled province. Municipalities. he held several posts.55 and 1961. Kennedy Dr. including of the Western of Forintek the predecessor Academy Canada Dr. the UBC Faculty utilization. Bob Kennedy from 1983 . economies. Kennedy of about is also President of the International of Wood Science. initiatives a businesswoman Mainline Municipal District and pilot. about A sometimes Mr. and conducting and associate (19751979) professor he was a member of Forestry.1990. Toronto deputy Laboratory 200 elected was dean of the University Between teaching Between Canada. director (1973-1975) of Environment 1966 and 1979. municipal value-added spearheaded positions in the Okanagan B.

retiring recently from the position of Regional Manager. including limited nursery work. and a director (two years) of the Nature Trust. is President of the Okanagan-Similkameen Tourism Association. He founded the Kootenay Wildlife Heritage Fund in 1980 and has been its president since inception. Shelford recently conducted inquiries into the management of Peregrine Falcons and into the British Columbia Milk Board. timber pricing. has 30 years of experience in technical and professional forestry. Garry Sharpe Garry Sharpe. As well. politician and consultant. CyrrlSheLford has a br management as a businessman. Cariboo . SPW !S c=nt. Mr. the Hon. Prior to 1985.Governor of British Columbia and forest industry executive.C.Carmen Purdy Carmen Purdy is Industrial Relations Manager (pulp) for Crestbrook Forest Industries in Skookumchuck.C. Sharpe has also served as charter vice-president (1987-1988) of the Council of Tourism Associations of B. and reforestation and silviculture. Purdy has been Vice-President (four years) and President (two years) of the B. he has held many positions with a wide range of business associations and service bodies. Bob Rogers is continuing a long and distinguished business and service career in the province. O. Mr. primarily in forest inventory. a resident of Williams Lake.-e . Wildlife Federation.C. and a member (19851987) of the Provincial Tourism Advisory Council. north of Cranbrook. A former Lieutenant . President (10 years) of the East Kootenay Wildlife Federation. a resident of Victoria. Mr. John Szauer John Szauer. Szauer. Cyril Shelford A former Cabinet Minister and Member of the Legislative Assembly who served his rs. Mr. He has also served as a representative of the Tourist Association of British Columbia and the North West Loggers Association. is also a past-chairman of the Canadian Forestry Advisory Council..y se-. a position he has held for five years. The Hon. The Honourable Robert Rogers. Rogers. a B. He has served the company for 21 years. he served as vice-president and director of the association. the general manager of a tourist attraction in Penticton. A civil engineering graduate and veteran of the Second World War.C. registered professional forester. harvesting administration. was a senior manager in the British Columbia Forest Service for several years.

Ernie Anthony. Anderson. Greg. Alice F. “ Team Industries Ltd. RPF Antonelli. Arrow Lakes Environmental Alliance Arter.Appendix 10 The Forest Resources Commission received briefs. Anderson. Association of British Columbia Irrigation Districts Association of British Columbia Professional Foresters Association of British Columbia Professional Foresters North Island Regional Public Affairs Committee Owners/Ted Ritchie Andrew and Burnaby New Denver Canal Flats Clearbrook Jaffray Prince George Vancouver Charlie Lake Nakusp East Kelowna Gibsons Fernie Vernon Vancouver Summerland Quesnel Vancouver Qualicum Beach Gibsons Edinburgh. Dale W. Marcie Arkesteyn-Vogler. David A. Anderson. RPF Allen. Gusflyax Mountain Lake Resort Abbott. 6. A. RPF Alpine Club of Canada Amanovich. Antonenko. & Mrs. K. Gordon Ashmore. Leslie Albrecht. Mr. Lee Anderson. R. Tom Anderson. Walter Andersen. Amott. Michael L. Helen Manning Alberni Environmental Albers. Andy. The Commission was also helped in its deliberations by the many unsigned questionnaire responses to its Options Paper and by briefs and letters received without names and/or addresses. Jacques Andreeff. R.C.J.E. firms and organizations. The omission of the name of any individual or organization that should appear on this list is unintentional. Aitken. Cathie Allen.. Mr. Armleder. Andrej Arishenkoff. Sven E. RPF Anderson. Anderson Lake Indian Band Anderson.Sc. Sandie Coalition Port Alberni Gold Bridge Surrey Revelstoke Lillooet Gabriola Island Vancouver Port Albemi Victoria Naramata Gibsons Quesnel New Denver Vancouver North Vancouver Victoria Mission Dunster Anahim Lake Nanaimo Prince George Anderson. Dr. J.M. Roy A. and Mrs.. Abear. Casey Aronsson. A” Abel.. L. Judy Arthur. Duke Arngtt. Scotland Errington Williams Lake Fauquier Vancouver Savona Nelson Prince George D’ Arcy Rosedale Prince George Savona Cranbrook Vancouver Naramata .A. Gary Anchikoski. Peter Anahim Lake Cattlemen’ Association s Anaka. Angus P. Harvey M. Alexander. James Applegrove Residents Environmental Association Applied Science Technologists Technicians of British Columbia Arajs. (Les). Neil Akrigg. Edward E. Organizations are listed by name of organization rather than an individual representative. RPF Amyoony. Leiani Anne. letters and/or oral presentations from the following individuals. Andre. Alliance Tribal Council Allison. Robyn Ainsworth Lumber Ltd. Anderson.

Maria Bell. Bacon. Fred J. Don M. B. Ann Barnes..C. Ministry of Native Affairs B. Russell E.I. Bennett. Fishing Resorts and Outfitters Assocratron B.A. L. Mines and Petroleum Resources B.C. Contractors Ltd. Warren Victoria Victoria Victoria Victoria Victoria Victoria Clinton Surrey Vancouver Bell Pole Company Ltd. Ministry of Education B.C. Ministry of Regional and Economic Development B. Baker. C. RPF Beduz.C. Richard Ayers. Geoff Bate & Associates Bawtree.C. Alan G. Behn.V. Len Beach..C.. Kerry Barr. Ministry of Tourism B. Maurice J. J. Dave Basaraba. Ralph Bako. Blair T. Trappers Association Bt?Wiiarire keaerauon B. Ballantyne.C. Sylvia and Bruce and Harry Jones Aubrey.C. Dauglas M. Susanna Basic Forestry Ltd. Barnhardt. RPF B. Government Employees’ Union B. J. RPF Avis. Thomas D.C. Recreation and Culture B. George Basaraba. Ministry of Finance and Corporate Relations B. Wood Specialties Group Victoria Victoria . Barkley. Ministry of Transporation and Highways B. Roger Atco Lumber Ltd. Vancouver Pemberton Vancouver Fruitvale Victoria Kamloops Surrey Chemainus Port Alberni Victoria Vancouver Kamloops Cranbrook Burnaby Vancouver Abbotsford Victoria Victoria Victoria Victoria Victoria Victoria Crescent Spur Babine Forest Produm Bablitz.C. Ministry of Municipal Affairs. Forestry Association Kootenay Regional Office B. RPF Barber.Z.C.C. Hydro and Power Authority B. G. Mansell Basaraba.C.C.C.C. Ministry of Parks B. Ministry of Labour and Consumer Services B. Denys Bell.C. Bellows. David Bennett.M.. Bebb.C. Ministry of Environment B. Ministry of Crown Lands B. Jim..G.Association of Professional Biologists of British Columbia Association of Whistler Area Residents for the Environment (AWARE) Ashton. Atherton.. Ministry of International Business and Immigration B. RPF Balfour.. William Back Country Horsemen of B. Donald P. RPF Berekoff. RPF Barrett.T.B. Elmer Behn. Ministry of Energy. Rebecca Bertramm Devon Bertramm..RPF Atkinson.R.C. Chase Campbell River Aldergrove Vancouver Vernon Vancouver Kamloops Nanoose Bay Lillooet Sicamous Gibsons Slocan City Victoria Victoria Chase Telkwa Lasqueti Island Kamloops Cranbrook Beaver Cove Cranbrook New Westminster Saanichton Enderby New Westminster Vancouver Creston Port Alberni Port Alberni Burns Lake Salmon Arm Lumby Salmon Arm Victoria Coquitlam Prince George Skookumchuck New Denver Victoria Port McNeil1 Atwood. Elisabeth Avis.C. Bob and Robertai Roche Lake Resort Balke. Environmental Information Institute B. Dr. Marion Bernson. Mrs. F. J. E. RPF Bergenske.C.. Jane Ballantyne. Mark V. Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries B. John Bergevin.E. David C.C. Institute of Agroiogists B. Laurel Barron.C. Jean Barnes.

Bruce R. Norman Blix. Gary Blazina. Roger Buchanan. Wilhelm Bohlen.. G. Gary G. Bowman. Bostock. Maureen Bourdillon. Don Brown.D. Philip J. Keith D. Grant J. Bird. and Betty Brophy. J. M. Lyla Broughton.D. Herschel H. Burns. Frank Blom. RPF Burchnall. Borsato.Sc. W. J. Roy and Lois Bradley. William Brass. Allan C. David Brown.V.. Bill Bowden. David Bradley. Jim Bonny. and Cathie Allen Borus. Dick Bresser. Ph. Margaret. Todd Brett. Ian D. British Columbia Cattlemen’ Association s British Columbia Forestry Association British Columbia Future Forests Study Group British Columbia Society of Landscape Architects Broadworth. Brown. Jim Burns. Art. M. Melda Bulkley Valley Naturalists Bull.. Bilous. Chris Big Creek Ad Hoc Study Group Big Lake Ranch/Richard Case Billmark. Susan Bruce. Gary Burbee.. Jeff and Heather Broughton Towing Co. Colleen Boydston. Michael. Ambec Broeren. Bostock. Wendy Burton. W. Stephen Burrows. Ph. L. Jack Bydemast. B. RPF Box Mountain Watershed Association Boyes. Wilson Brower. Russell.D. Brown. Martin Brons. Robert Brown. Sid Brenton. Vivien and Lorne Bragg. Stephen Eourdillon.D. E.. NRM Borkent. Linda Birnie. Ph. Kaeleen Brummelhuis. Murray Brown. P. Ltd. Robert A.Eng Burgess. Alexander G.W.Eetuzzi. RPF Nanaimo Victoria Kamloops Vancouver Vancouver Vancouver 100 Mile House Campbell River Cranbrook Black Creek Vanderhoof Shawnigan Lake Duncan Vancouver Smothers Dunster Revelstoke Victoria Victoria Langley Terrace Lillooet Terrace Fruitvale Cranbrook Comox Smithers Vancouver Prince George Burch. Richard Brunelle. Brooks. Volker Boepple. John Bridges. Janette Briggs. Cherry and Jim Valgows Brown. Boyd Brown. Irma Byford. Lynn Blackstock. Allan and Mary Jo .G. Einar Blom.A... RPF Blackwater-Ootsa Blackwell. Butula. Doug Bill 100 Mile House Big Creek Big Lake Cranbrook Prince George Salmon Arm McBride Burnaby Victoria Coquitlam Burns Lake Salmon Arm Smithers Kamloops Ganges Pent&o& Vancouver Victoria Denman Island Coquitlam Salmon Arm Quesnel Surrey Campbell River Cranbrook Terrace Campbell River Cranbrook New Denver Delta Nakusp Courtenay Sicamous Sicamous Lillooet Bralome Saanichton Saanichton Creston Argenta Smithers Yalakom Richmond Community Association Briere. Brandon. M.D./ Ridgeway W. Jo-Anne Billows. it(j Bodegom. Randy C to C Tours and Travel Consulting Richmond Valemount Cranbrook Port Hardy Surrey Nanaimo Vancouver Vernon Surrey Cranbrook Bralorne Committee for Responsible Logging Brandon.

Celgar Pulp Company Central Coast Economic Development Commission Central Coast Environment Group/ Land Use Section Central Fraser Valley Water Commission Central Interior Logging Association Revelstoke Campbell River Cranbrook Vancouver McNeil1 Ucluelet Chakowski.. Case.D. Steve Cariboo Cattlemen’ Association s Cariboo-Chilcotin Guides 8. Capling. Kootenay Branch Canadian Women in Timber National Board Canadian Women in Timber Top of the Island Branch Canadian Women in Timber West Coast Branch [OOBand Cann.G. McGourlick. Lance Lee Lorne W. Chambers. Frederick Chenoweth. Campbell River Branch Victoria Holberg Lumby Prince George Port Alice Vancouver Ottawa Victoria Carroll-Hatch (International) Carson. Terrance and 44 others Chilliwack Field Naturalists Prince George Cranbrook Vancouver Vancouver Kamloops Vancouver West Vancouver Chetwynd Redstone Anahim Lake White Rock Vedder Crossing Canadian Women in Timber. Chester. Richard Cattlemen’ Association s Cavera Timber Ltd. ran Camen. Campbell. Englewood Logging Division Surrey Burns Lake Saanichton Victoria Revelstoke Cranbrook Galloway Vancouver Chetwynd Vancouver woss Capes. S. Michael. W.J. Dave Port McNeil1 46 . Robert Chernoff. Camozzi Co. RPF Canadian Institute of Forestry Okanagan Section Canadian Institute of Forestry Cariboo Section Canadian Institute of Forestry Pacific Section Canadian institute of Forestry Vancouver Section Canadian Nature Federation Canadian Pacific Forest Products Inc. Jim Canada Cedar Pole Preservers Ltd.W. Elvira Callahan. Alan Chen. Ltd. P.aloweu. CA. Mikell I. Chetwynd Division Canadian Forest Products Ltd. Coast Forest Canadian Forest Products Ltd. Outfitters Association Cariboo Environmental Committee Cariboo Horse Loggers Association Cariboo Lumber Manufacturers Association Cariboo Pulp & Paper Company Cariboo Regional District Cariboo Rose Guest Ranch Cariboo Tourist Association Cariboo Woodlot Association Carlson. RPF Chetwynd Chamber of Commerce Chilanko Ranch Chilcotin Information Network Chilibeck. . N. Ph. Boyce F. Canada Fisheries and Oceans Pacific Region Canadian Forest Products Ltd. Colin A. Gordon Carter. Carrier Lumber Ltd. Carter. Coordinator/ ’ K.Northern OperationsWood Products Prince Georae Canadian Institute of Forestrv B. Katherine Capes. Andrew. Canadian Pacific Forest Products Limited Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society Canadian Parks Service (Mount Revelstoke and Glacier National Parks) Canadian Women in Timber. Catherine Cartwright. Carrier Sekani Tribal Council Courtenay Comox Alexis Creek McLeese Lake Williams Lake 100 Mile House Quesnel Williams Lake Quesnel Williams Lake Clinton Williams Lake 150 Mile House Vernon Prince George Prince George Ltd.Vancouver Valemount Salmon Arm Tumbler Ridge Victoria Big Lake Ranch Houston Anmore Castlegar Hagensborg Hagensborg Mission Canadian Forest Products Ltd.Caduff.C.M.

Crockford. Allan L. Clarke.R. RPF Coalition for Information on Pulpmill Expansion Vedder Crossing Creston Port McNeil1 Comox Christina Lake Prince George Burnaby Castlegar Cranbrook Kamloops Kelowna Kimberley Nelson Prince Rupert Revelstoke Rossland Terrace Terrace Vernon Williams Lake Nanaimo Calgary Vancouver Vernon Dawson Creek Ganges Galiano Island Clearwater Cranbrook Hazelton Penticton Clinton Prince George Castlegar Vancouver Merritt Williams Lake Columbia River Valley Trappers’ Association Comox Strathcona Natural History Society Committee for a Clean Kettle Valley Communist Party of Canada Communist Party of Canada Kamloops Club Community Forest Steering Committee (Cowichan Valley) Condale Industries Condie. Paul 1 n. Dennis. Clarke. Jim Cooperman. RPF Cranbrook Farmers Institute Cranston. Jack E. William H. Clifford. B. Wayne. Clinton Cattlemen’ Assoc s Clogg. Joe Couch. Jerome Creighton.R. Chris Conroy.Chilliwack Outdoor Club Chipman.J.. Creston Area Economic Development Committee Critical Site Logging Inc. Fd Crown Land Task Force. Don.J. John F. Clark. Kathi Codes Island Forest Resource Committee Cortese. MLA-Chilliwack Grouse. James D.For.I.C... M. John G. Jim Clift. RPF Chilliwack Burns Lake Lasqueti Is. Robert Christina Lake Watershed Alliance Ciejka. RPF Council for International Rights and Care for Life on Earth Council of B. Ann Craig.. Mark and Shannon Clear Cut Alternatives Clearwater Forest District Public Advisory Committee Clifford. Sharie Consulting Foresters of British Columbia Cooperman. Lasqueti Island Golden Courtenay Rock Creek Victoria Kamloops Duncan Lumby 100 Mile House Mission Vancouver Chase Chase Cortes Island Tatla Lake Lumby Tofino Vancouver Vancouver Prince George Cranbrook N. Yacht Clubs Council of Forest Industries (COFI) . Vancouver Cranbrook Vernon Merritt Cranbrook Creston Vernon Comox Salmon Arm Coastal Cruising Supervisors’ Task Force Coldwater Indian Reserve Colebank. Classen. John Crestbrook Forest Industries Ltd. Marlene Chittick. Bruce Clarke. Executive Assistant to John Jansen.C. RPF.. RPF Chown. Roy Crombie Logging/Roy Crombie Crosman. R. Collins. Vancouver .S. B. F.Coast Forestry & Logging Sector Council of Forest Industries of British Columbia (COFI) Northern Interior Lumber Sector Coulter. Larry Citizens for Public Justice City of Castelgar City of Cranbrook City of Kamloops City of Kelowna and Regional District of Central Okanagan City of Kimberley City of Nelson City of Prince Rupert City of Revelstoke City of Rossland City of Terrace City of Terrace Forestry Advisory Committee City of Vernon City of Williams Lake Clark. J.F.

Kyle Drury. Christopher.Rossland-Trail Oarke Lake Watershed Protection Alliance Darl. Dianne and Victor Dyck. Tim. Jacques P. Robert B. M. R. B.G. Joe Deane. Brian L. Harry W. Randy Decker Lake Forest Products Ltd. Michael P. RPF Dunbar. Terrace Lac La Hache tinemamus Hagensborg District of Mission District of North Cowichan Drstrrct of Sicamous District of Squamish Dobson Engineering/D. James DeLuca. John Donahue. Ken. P. Randy DeSteur. Davidson.G. Vancouver Ucluelet Kelowna Williams Lake Victoria Dawson Creek Rossland Clearwater Burns Lake Sorrento Nelson Westhcidge Ashland. Sean. R. Frank Dyck.E. Stephen Drage.. Karen oer Lta. OR Port Alberni Denman Island Trustees and Denman Island Williams Lake Clearwater Elkford Creston Victoria Chetwynd Houston Logan Lake Mackenzie The Forestry Committee of the Denman Island Ratepayers’ Assoc. RPF Dunster Community Association Dunster. RPF Donat. Day. Guy Davidson. John Duffy. G. W.. Bill & Sandi Dack. Aprii Davies.M.Sc.F. Ken Douglas. Bill DeBock. R. MLA . Dvorak. D’ Arcy. Patrick Dumont. RPF Day. District of Chetwynd and Area Econmic Development Commission District of Houston District of Logan Lake District of Mackenzie Earth Day 1990 East Kootenay Environmental Elkford Branch East Kootenay Environmental Golden Branch Golden . RPF Duncanson. Oecyk. Keegan and Mike Bele Dickson. M. RPF Draney. RPF Dunwell.. James Downie Street Employee Committee Downie Street Sawmills I td Drosdovech. Eagle Creek Outfitters/Gene Biltzan Society. John and Joan Diggle. Dolenuck. Dauncey. DeBock. Laurance Dooling. Jim Curll.Gulp.E. Dobson Mission Duncan Sicamous Squamish Kelowna Vancouver Williams Lake Qualicum Williams Lake Kamloops Vernon Vancouver Port Alberni Victoria Revelstoke Powell River Salmon Arm Langley Salmon Arm 100 Mile House Kamloops Kimberley Williams Lake Vancouver West Vancouver Port McNeil1 Houston Victoria Prmce George West Vancouver Dunster Burnaby Cranbrook Fernie Manson Creek Vancouver North Vancouver Lac La Hache Victoria Elkford Society. Wayne. Joyce E. Lorne Duffy. George Delsman. Walter Daniels. Tar DeFelice. Dunne. Gordon R. Deak. Michael D. Glen Davies. Paul Delisle.Eng. Leonard Dysart.D.. Ph. Danshin. Donovan. Cwikula. (Kim). Peter J.. Mrs..D.. G. John Domovich. Professor Dornian.A. Derbyshire.N. Janet. Peter Dufour. Wendy May Ducks Unlimited Canada Dueck. Bruce E. Davison. Doherty. Wayn Salmon Arm Delta Victoria Kamloops Trail Summerland Port Hardy Victoria Westbridge Victoria Surrey Victoria N. Vavres. Rose Day. RPF Dubbin. Julian A. Paul K.

G. Jim E.C. Dale Ehl. B. Esson. C. Floyd.R. Ken and Rose Flegel. Eric A. Bernhard and Eroca Ryon Elinsky. Ken and Kay EPP.A. M. Joan First Nations of South Island Tribal Council Fleet.H... George/Evins Contracting Ltd. F. Endacott. Kimberley-Cranbrook Branch/ Carol Hartwig Federation of Mountain Clubs of B. Rod Environment Committee of the University Women’ Club s Environmental Educators’ Provincial Specialist Association Epics Technologies Ltd. Fage Creek Ranch Farrell.P.East Kootenay Environmental Eco Forestry Services Edal. Rodney Eichel. Fibermax Timber Corporation Fidler.M. (Bert) Reid. Richard Elk Valley Conservation Society Elk Valley Integrated Forestry Task Force Elkford Elementary School Grade 5 Social Studies Class Elliott. Finnis. Larry E. Society Kimberley Canal Fiats McBride Port Hardy Richmond Sicamous Rock Creek Nakusp Midway Fauquier Anglemont Surrey Fernie Fernie Elkford Victoria Vancouver 100 Mile House Kelowna Errington Vancouver Cranbrook Campbell River Williams Lake Manson Creek Gabriola Island Qualicum Beach Langley Fraser Lake Golden Prince George Castlegar Slocan Park Clearwater Vancouver EdgeWOOd Gold River Canoe Maple Ridge East Kootenav Wildlife Association Federation of Mountain Clubs of British Columbia y Ferguson. Scott A. RPF Forestry Wildlife Symposium (Canadian Institute of Forestry) Foothills Woodlot Association Vancouver Vancouver Wasa Fernie Victoria Valemount Coquitlam Salmon Arm Fort St. Jennifer Findlay.F. Richard Eigelshoven. P. Scott A. Larry Erhorn. Woodlot Associations B. Evans Forest Products Ltd. Foothills Woodlot Association Forest Engineering Research Institute of Canada Western Division (FERIC) Forest Watch Committee of East Kootenay Environmental Society. Wayne/Condale Industries Folk. RPF Finning Ltd. Flynn. employees Fiorentino. David A.John Victoria Williams Lake Cranbrook Mill Bay Bella Coola Cranbrook Hagensborg Vancouver Ckanagan Falls Edwards & Associates LoQQinQ Ltd. RPF Fontaine. Lynn. Fletcher.M./ES. R. Fearing Federated Co-operatives Ltd. Dr. Findlay. Eyre% S.. W.. Shawn Foisy. Federation of B. Eichenauer. Coast Wood Products Fletcher Challenge Canada Ltd. (Bob) Eek. Bella Coola Operations Fletcher Challenge Canada Ltd.B. Neil. Ken Fernie Snow Valley Ski Ltd. Heather Ferguson.C. Holdings Ltd. R.A. Larry Erkiletian. Archie and Garth Evins.S. Epp. RPF. Edwards. Carol1 Faulks. Walter Erickson. Findlay. J. Marie Embury-Williams.Eng.S. Fearing Super Drugs/R. Folk. Heather Eurocan Pulp and Paper Ltd. Everall. R. Pope & Talbot Williams Lake Division Fletcher Challenge Southern Interior Wood Products Fletcher Challenge Northern Interior Wood Products/ Finlay Forest Industries Ltd. RPF Williams Lake Kelowna Prince George Vancouver Vancouver Lumby Vancouver Errington Chetwynd Vancouver Kimberley Vancouver Vancouver Prfi%%George Chetwynd . J. Barry Fletcher Challenge Canada Ltd.Bio.

L. George Victoria Winlaw Hagensborg Grand Forks McBride Burnaby Ganges Salmon Arm Salmon Arm FuRon./Cliff Craig Golden Alpine Holidays Goldman. Gerry. Steve and Christine Gallinger. Geoffrey Gooch. Glenmore Irrigation District Goerzen. Bruce Fox. Rosemary J. Trevor T. G. Werner F. Mary Graham. Robert Vancouver Fort Nelson Fort St. Brian and Mary Foster. and A. Mike Germansen Landing Study Area (27 signatures) Gettings. Claire Fraser. David White and Edo Nyland. Grabowsky.D. Romeo Granander.C. Richard Galliazzo. Paul. Giroday. Muriel Ronald J. Ruth Gook. Friends of Clayoquot Sound Friends of the Environment Friends of Strathcona Park Fryer. Garrett. James Chamber of Commerce Fort St. Gilbert. Ian Goldwater Indian Band Gomery. Al.S.S. A. RPF Galisky. James Hudson’ Hope s Pouce Coupe Clearwater Nelson Prince George Surrey Enderby Smithers Smithers Terrace Penticton Merville Anglemont Kamloops Qualicum Beach Vancouver Vancouver North Vancouver Gibsons Salmon Arm Tofino Burns Lake Courtenay Bella Coola Vernon Meadow Creek Queen Charlotte City Port McNeil1 Vancouver Prince George Port Moody Vancouver Williams Lake Lillooet Qualicum Beach Cranbrook rd Gee. Frame Logging Ltd. Gabriela Grace. Fox. Fuzi. Larry l-e Vanderhoof . J. Fort Nelson Trappers Association Fort St. Colleen Foulger.C. Erik Fredricksen. Arlene L. Douglas Gordon. Brian G. Gore. Rick Fountain. Hans Grand Forks Watershed Coalition Grau. Tom. Denise Gilbert. Gallank. French. Funk. Wendy Four Wheel Drive Association of B. Edd and Irma Funk. RPF Fraser. Robert R. Mr. RPF Gortland. Jim Green Party of British Columbia/ Connie Harris Victoria New Hazelton Germansen Landing Langley Duncan Burnaby North Vancouver Nelson North Vancouver Enderby Fernie Pemberton Kelowna Armstrong port &era Gold River Golden Vancouver Merritt Vancouver Victoria Quesnel Kimberley Quesnel Lake Cowichan Victoria Houston Creston Valley Rock Creek Saanichton Vaven by Fort St. Louis. RPF Ginn. Mayor Donald T. R. Carolyn Gagne. Fowler. Hugh J. Lesley Glacier Lake Logging Ltd. J. Graffunder. Gina Graham. Donald R. John ST. RPF Galliauo.. Ernie 0. RPFs Gorley.Y. Don and Valerie Gallart. Goodman. Ann-Marie Gilbert. Gerhard Greater Vancouver Water District Green Islands Green. Jackie Gibson. John Trappers Association Fossum. & Associates Ganong.Forintek Canada Corp. Frank. Giles.RPF Goodwin. Graham. Glen Gold River Fuels Ltd. Geisler. Franck.. Gloria Fraser. RPF Fraser Institute Fraser Valley Independent Shake & Shingle Producers Association Frebold. Eric S. Irving K.

Bruce P Port McNeil1 Port Coquitlam Victoria Kelowna Abbotsford Vaven by Manson’ Landing s Vancouver Trail Creston Victoria Tomslake Vancouver Gold Bridge Smithers Cranbrook Duncan Moyie Cassidy Cassidy Cranbrook Smithers Vernon Williams Lake Cranbrook Nelson Harrison. Crystal Hebert. H.L. Grant J. Haskell. Hansen.. Greenpeace/Kim Semenick Grey. Gary H.J.. BSc. John L. RPF Hall. Hayward. G.D. W. . M. Ross Hallman.I. Juergen Hansen.S. John Gunn. Hennigan. Hoadley. Hebert. Ph. Philip G. Hawker. Peggy Harany. D. Earl Grey Wolf High Country Tourism Association Hilke. D. RPF Grenager. William Hayley. Jim Hind-Smith. D. Guild. briesset. Jeff Hawkins. Dave Harrison. W.. Grant Haeussler. E. RPF..B. Leonard. R.R. B. Harper. nawara Guernsey.D. Alan J.L. Anthony J. Bryan Hayes. RPF Hayley.J. Edwin E. Don Guillemaud. Harper.Green. Leonore Hampton. Peter Campbell River Anglemont Victoria Maple Ridge Penticton Enderby Westbank Victoria Eagle Bay Port Coquitlam Old Remo Victoria Coquitlam Vernon Vancouver Williams Lake Vancouver Waglisla Kamloops Port Alberni New Hazelton Gibsons Manson Creek Queen Charlotte City Williams Lake Vernon Vancouver Bella Coola +&jn Nelson Kamloops Grand Forks Nelson Williams Lake Gibsons Erickson Nelson Kimberley Port Alberni Cranbrook Robert. Haley. Bruce Hirkala.D. Dwayn Hambleton. Malcolm B. Halurson. RPF/ Hamption.K. Bernadette Haddock. Bill Hammond. Hallatt. James M. E.C. Hauta. Hendry. Suzanne Heiltsuk Tribal Council Helfrich.. Hawley.Bio Tim Prince George Big Creek Port Alberni Richmond Likely Nanaimo North Burnaby Summerland Manson’ Landing s Victoria Qualicum Beach Richmond Victoria Dawson Creek Parksville Penticton Manson’ s Landing Hickling. Jay Halsey. John Hinre. Colleen Henderson. Harrison. Lloyd Hodgkinson. D.M. Bob Handley. M...K.E. Sybille. Ph. Erling H..V. Professor Emeritus Hadwin. CR. Glen Haberl. Hodge.P. P.. Mary Helen Hatfield. Hugh Hamilton. Holtick-Kenyon. Heald. J. RPF Guthrie. Peter Harris..R. Jean Hawes. W. Hilton. Habart. Heritage Forests Society Hess. Robert G. D.Eng. Hill. Ken Hansen.. Heriot. Holmes. J. L. Sydney Hatch. Herb. Kevin Habersack. Jane. Elaine J. D. S. H. Harrer. RPF Halbert. Mike Herbert. Robert A. RPF Hemphill.E. David E.R. Wiltiam Hardy Silvicultural Contracting Ltd. Henderson. Deborah Hitzroth. Vern Hallatt. Diane Hansen. RP. Tony Halliwell.

Holmes, Tom Hott, Michael F. Hope & District Chamber of Commerce Hopkins, Jon A. Hoover, Jean Hoover, Roy Hopwood, Allen, RPF Hopwood, Doug Horel, Colin Horne, David A., RPF Hornick. Peter D., A.Sc.T. Hornidge, Bruce E. Houlden, Robert Houlden, Trevor Hourston, 8. Houston Economic Development Committee Houston Forest Products Co. Howard, A.J. Howard, Roy Howes, Ian T. Hudson, D. Huffman, Margaret Huebert, Ewald W. Hughes, E.M. Huk, Walter Hulland, Susan Humphries, Amelia Humphries, Michael Huneck, Lavonne Hunniford, Sharon Hunter, R.J. Huppler-Poliak family

Pot-l McNeil1 Hope Pemberton Creston Castlegar Brentwood Bay Lasqueti Island Revelstoke Dawson Creek Armstrong Ucluelet Hope Kimberley Nanaimo Houston Houston Wasa Dunster Kamloops Salmon Arm Prince George Golden Dualicum Beach Cecil Lake Crawford Bay Lasqueti Island Lasqueti Island Cobble Hill Aldergrove Kamloops Chase

Independent Timber Marketing Association Industrial Forestly Service Ltd. informed Cherryville Area Residents for the Environment (ICare) Ingram, Gordon B., Ph.D. and Audrey Pearson Inland KenworthiParker Inman, Sandra Institute for Research on Public Policy Interior Loggers’ Association Pacific

New Westminster Prince George Cherryville Vancouver Quesnel Cranbrook Victoria Savona Kelowna Savona Vancouver Kamloops Kelowna Whaletown Masset Victoria Vancouver Edgewood Cranbrook New Hazelton Williams Lake Sechelt Port McNeil1 Terrace Nelson Winfield Revelstoke Skookumchuck Duncan Abbotsford Salmon Arm Salmon Arm Terrace Salmon Arm Vancouver Comox Cranbrook Prince George

Interior Lumber Manufacturers’ Association Interior Woodlot Operators’ Association international Forest Products Ltd. international Wildlife Protection Association Intertribal Forestry Association of British Columbia Gordon A. Irwin Logging Islands Protection Society Islands Trust Forest and Land Use Committee Jabtanczy, Dr. A. Jackson, Adeline Jackson, Thomas P., C.G.A. Jacobs, Mike Jacobson Bros. Forest Products Ltd. Janyk, Barry J. Jarvis, P.M. Jams, Honata t. Jay, Sonny, RPF Jeanes, Charles H. Jeffrey, Margaret and Alan Jenkins, Tony Jensen, Hans and Jessie Jensen, H.R. Jensen, S. Jensen, Tove Jewell, Glen Jewell, Ross W. Joelimand, J. Johanson, F.E., B.Sc., M.C.I.C. Johnson, Frances Johnson, Gary/Gary Johnson Logging Ltd. Johnson, Gordon P.

Huscroft, Roger
Huscroft, Ruth Hutton, Dr. R.L. and Paula

Erickson Nelson

IWA-Canada/Canadian Paperworkers’ Union/ The Pulp, Paper & Woodworkers Vancouver of Canada IWA-Canada, Local 1-71 IWA Forest Environment Committee Independent Loggers of the Revelstoke Wet Belt Sandspit Port Hardy Revelstoke

Johnson, Mary Lou
Johnson, Mike Johnson, Robert A. Johnson, R.H. Johnston, Lloyd Johnston, Peter Johnston, Thomas A. Johnston, T.R., RPF Johnstone, Ian R. Jones, Ron Jones, Trevor Judge, Loralee Junction Machinery & Supply Ltd./L.B. Uri Jung, Stanley RPF

Vernon Nanaimo Salmon Arm Creston Salmon Arm Lasqueti Island Ashcroft

Kilb, Rowena Kimberley Wildlife & Wilderness Club Kimmur Forestry Consultants Ltd. King, D. King, Margaret Kingshorn, R.H., P.Eng. Kinley, Trevor Kipp, Robert A. Kirby, Sandra Klinkhamer, Richard M. Kluskus Indian Band Knight, Hal, B.S.A., MS&F., Ph.D. Knight, Helen and Trevor Goward Knopp, Lee and Denis Kock, Sig A. r: FM

Argenta Kimberley Cranbrook Vancouver Vancouver New Westminster Wardner Cranbrook Port McNeil1 Powell River Quesnel Victoria Clearwater Sardis Quesnel Vancouver Barriere Salmon Arm Nelson Prince George Brentwood Bay Cranbrook Cranbrook area Cranbrook Gray Creek Crawford Bay Argenta Vancouver Victoria Qualicum Sicamous Mount Lehman Merville Penticton Port Hardy New Westminster Kyuquot Lac La Hache Enderby tirarrorook Smithers

Gabriola island Summerland Vancouver Kamloops Creston

Skookumchuck Kaiser, Peter and Myrna Kalamalka Junior Secondary School Environment Club Kalichuk, George Kamloops Fish and Game Association Kamloops High School Kamloops Naturalist Club Kanemitsu, Harue Kangi, F. Kania, Stan Kapitany, J.Z., RPF Kaslo Community Forest Enhancement Society nasro MmmunlIy Kasting, Norman W., Ph.D. Keays, Patricia Keery, John Kelfe Bros. Auto Ltd. Kellas, Peter Keller, Emily Keller, Lannie Kellerhals, Heather and Rolf Kelly, B.A. Kelly, Shortie Kennes, W. Kerr, Shirley Kershaw, Jack Erickson Kalamalka Chetwynd Kamloops Kamloops Kamloops Fauquier Edmonton Telkwa woss Kaslo

Kohnert, Otto and Elli Kolchingnes, Don Komori, Julie, RPF Kondor, George, RPF Konishi, Jrizi, RPF Konkin, J. and L.C. Lodge, RPFs Kootenay Indian Area Council (“ Ktunaxa/ Ksanka” ) Kootenay Livestock Association Kootenay Lake Chamber of Commerce Kootenay Lake Eastshore Forest Council Kootenay Lake Woodlot Association Kopas, Leslie Korelus, V., RPF Kosick, Dick, RPF Kraft, Ben Kremsater, Laurie L. Krentz, Richard A. Kusler, E.N. Kwakiutl District Council Kyle, Rob, RPF Kyuquot Economic Environmental Protection Society (KEEPS) Lac La Hache Livestock Association Lacko, Janice Lague, Christian Laing & McCulloch

Vancouver Powell River Kelowna Abbotsford Qualicum Beach Surge Narrows Surge Narrows Heriot Bay Campbell River Prince George Delta Port McNeil1 Cranbrook

Kettle River Stockmen’ Association s

Rock Creek

Lake Babine Band Lakeland Mills Ltd. Lakes District Friends of the Environment Lakes District Independent Loggers’ Association Lamb family Lament, Tom and Kim Lamoureux, Gregoire Landon, Dave Landscape Architecture Program University of British Columbia Landscope Consulting Corporation/ Trevor Chandler Lang, Jo-Anne Lang, Stuart
LFifT@Tl, JOrm F.

Burns Lake Prince George Takysie Lake Burns Lake Lasqueti Island Ladysmith Winlaw Port Hardy Vancouver Lillooet Prince George Cranbrook Vernon

Lewis, Terence, B.S.F.. Ph.D. Lewis, Tom Lewis, Trevor Lier, Lisa Light, Peter Lightburn, Fred Lighter, David Lightman. Samuel M. Linde, Kenneth and Kathey Linnaea School Lionsgaters Four Wheel Drive Society Lipsett, Jeff Lloyd, David Littler, Chris Likely 8 District Senior Citizens Association

Burnaby Sidney 100 Mile House Likely Sechelt Jaffray Marysville Fulford Harbour Williams Lake Manson’ Landing s North Vancouver Salmon Arm Mission Ganges Chetwynd Victoria Cranbrook Campbell River Prince George Logan Lake Port Moody Sinclair Mills Gabriola Island Smithers Vancouver Vancouver Crescent Beach Crescent Beach Cranbrook Lumby Port Alice Revelstoke Vancouver Delta Houston Lytton Chase Victoria

Langworth Community Association (Friends of the Bearpaw Ridge) Lapierre, Thomas LaPointe, Brian, RPF Latchko, J. Herbert Latoszek, J.S. Latter, Walter and Carol Laux, William A. Lavender, Denis P., Professor Laverdure, Leslie N. LaVigne, Willy Lawson, Mike Lawson, Paul Lax, Noel Lea, Lora and Edward LeBlanc, Paul and others Lee, Gregor Lee, Lisa Leesing, John, RPF Leeson, Michael J. Lehmann, Wady Leitch, Jeanette Lepetick, Mark Lepine, Louis Ted LeRoy Trucking Limited Leslie, W. Lewis, Dan

Sinclair North Vancouver Williams Lake Enderby Edmonton Duncan Fauquier Vancouver Horsefly Vancouver Houston Burnaby Quadra Island Victoria Cranbrook Powell River Cobble Hill Coquitlam Nanaimo Surrey Vancouver Duesnel Port Hardy Duncan Salmon Arm Vancouver

Loberg, Evertt Lockard, SM., RPF Lodge, Craig and John Konkin, RPFs Loftus, Jim Logan, Brian, John Casteel, Cecil Gray, RPFs Logan Lake Tourism/Marketing/ Promotion Committee Long, Ronald G. Longworth Community Association Loomis, Ruth Loran, Joe Lotzkar, Joe Lowenberger, F., RPF Lowrey, Terry Lowrey, Ursula Luke, Bill Lumby Range and Livestock Association Lumsdon, V.J. Lund, Robert Lundgren, Thomas, RPF Lusk, Shetyl C. Lyotier, Barb Lytton Lumber Ltd. MacDougall, Gerry Macintosh, Josephine

Mackenzie Chamber of Commerce Mackenzie-McLeod


M.B.M. Contracting Ltd. Madsen, Don Maguson, Heather

Cranbrook Ganges Vernon Revelstoke Squamish Maple Ridge Salmon Arm McBride Armstrong Creston Creston Port Moody Midway Sidney Bralorne Ucluelet Kamloops Vancouver Delta Courtenay Creston Nakusp Port Alberni Chase Cortes Island Salmon Arm Penticton Vancouver Port McNeil1 I,leXwater

I &J-l
MacLeod, G.

, .

Lake Clearwater Houston Vancouver Cranbrook Oban, Scotland Salmon Arm Cranbrook Victoria Nelson Welding Ltd. Fort Nelson Victoria Salmon Arm 100 Mile House Smithers Vancouver Victoria Delta Pemberton Nanoose Bay Coquitlam Vancouver Richmond Prince George Vanderhoof Argenta Franklin River Nelson Valemount Cranbrook Kamloops North Vancouver McLeod Lake North Vancouver Port McNeil1 Kamloops Surrey Simoom Sound Royston Chilliwack Prince Rupert

MacLennan, Warren MacMillan Bloedel Limited MacNeill, Grant and Wanda Sawatsky Macpherson, Malcolm, B.Sc., M.I.C.For. MacPherson, M.A. MacWatt, Andrew M. McAllister, Pat Swift McArthur, H.R. McBride, Arthur/Notihern McBurney, Jim McCarthy, CF. McCloskey, Kelly McCulloch, Larry D., BScF., RPF McClure, Donald R. McDonagh, C.M. McDonald, R. McEwan, Allan McGee, Gayle McGhee, W.P.T. (Bill), RPF McGinn, Eric McGregor, Gary, LL.B. McGregor Wilderness Society McIntosh, W.D. McIntyre, Gladys Jane Mclver, Ian McKee, Kenyon McKirdy, Ann McLaughlin, Joe S.N. McLean Forestry Services Ltd. F.D. McLearon Ltd. McLeod Lake Indian Band

Maltby, Francis L. Manson, William V. Maple Ridge Secondary School students Mara/Shuswap Property Owners Society Marchant, David MarDan Enterprises Ltd. Marra, Jack Marriner, Ray Marshall, Bill Marshall, Fred, RPF Martin, B.M. Martin, Cris Mat-tin, Jim Martin Prairie Livestock Association Masmussen, W. Massey, Douglas G. Masters, Ruth J. Masuch, Elvin Mather, W. Matthews, Ken, RPF Mathews, Robert and family Mawdsley, Steve Maxwell, David and Andree Meadow Valley Stock Association Meager Creek Wilderness Society Meaker Log &Timber Meehan, Meiorin, TawneylKootenays Preserving the World Foundation Melenka, D.W. Menzies, Joyce Meredith,Roderick B. Metchosin Association for Conservation of Environment (MACE) Michalky, Herbert Middelburg, Bert, RPF Mierau, Rosa A.R. Milavsky and Associates Milkun, R. Miller, Dan, MLA - Prince Rupert Miller, Dan & Associates Co.

Rossland Cranbrook Victoria Terrace Victoria Creston Kamloops Salmon Arm New Westminster Surrey Prince Hupert Creston

F.D. Mclearon Ltd.
McMahon, K. and M. McMaster, J.R. (Dick) McMillan, R.D. McMorran, Bruce McMullan, D.L., RPF McNabb, E.L. McWilliams, Paul

Milner./ Patrick Armstrong Morgan. Jean Nevalainen. RPF Nightingale. Moore Logging Co. Jack L. Colleen Mitchell. M. L. E..N. Dallas M. Don L. Art Murray.. Michael Mulock. Ray Morrison. Ph. Moorman. L. Chris New. A. Mindek.C. Ltd. Robert and Joanne J. Mining Association of British Columbia Misutka. Albert E.S. RPF Mills. Moore. Erin Nelson. N. Leslie Nakusp and District Water Commission Nanaimo Field Naturalists Naramata Citizens Associations Nature Hills ResorbGianni and Magi Bianchi Nature Trust of British Columbia Nechako Environmental Coalition Nechako Valley Regional Cattlemen’ Association s Necoslie (Nak’ azdli) Indian Band Neftin.D. RPF. R. Michael Nicholson. Keith Moorman. Nelson.. Mullen. Professor Nelson. (Ag) Mountjoy. Keith Scherm Kimberley Nanaimo Canoe Prince George Cranbrook Elko Vancouver Kelowna Sicamous Sidney Vernon Munson. Larry Nielsen. RPF Mortimer. Jay Myers. M. RPF Monteith. Moon. Samuel Motherwell. Nels Nemi.. Mussell. Andy Moul. Moose Valley Outfitters/ Ron Steffey Moresby Consulting Ltd.RPF Mflls. Murphy. Don R. Nickell. Anna. Dan Norris. RPF North by Northwest Tourism Association North Coast Woodlot Association North Columbia Group of the Sierra Club of Western Canada North Island Citizens for Shared Resources North Island Woodlot Association North Okanagan Livestock Association Terrace Aldergrove Eagle Bay Nelson Lillooet Cranbrook Nakusp Nanaimo Naramata Lone Butte West Vancouver Prince George Vanderhoof Stuart Lake Hagensborg Vernon Victoria Vancouver Vancouver Vancouver 150 Mile House Cranbrook Eurnaby Victoria Cranbrook Port Moody Rock Creek Parson New Aiyansh Tatlayoko Lake Port McNeil1 Port Coquitlam Powell River Nelson Smithers Terrace Kelowna Port Hardy Merville Vernon Logan Lake Edmonton Armstrong Golden Quadra Island Revelstoke Golden Prince George Wasa Armstrong Castlegar Winter Habour Queen Charlotte City Sorrento Sorrento Germansen Landing North Vancouver Kitwanga Cranbrook Rossland Gibsons Quesnel Lantzville Victoria Port Alberni Port Alberni woss Creston Golden . Barbara Mitchell. RPFs Mitlenatch Field Naturalists Society Monashee OutfittingNolker Monchak. Bill W. Kathy Nicolay. Darcy. RPF Munkholm.J. Eric Norie.W. Don Moses.J. Bill and Bobbi/ Tunkwa Lake Resort and John Wegrich Mitchell. Leesing. Douglas S. Andrew S. RPF Monetta...Miller. JoAnne L. D. John R.. Ian E. Barry E. Susan and Jack Norn. Richard Nelson.D. Alan Mills. RPF Mitchell.. Moore.. Fred 0.. Joan C. Murray. John. Munro. Mitchell. RPF Mitchell. BSc. Hakon. Allen Mitchell. Ellen New.D. Larry Nisga’ Tribal Council a Niut Wilderness Society Nolan. Evelyn 8. Keith and Colleen Muehlenberg. Bernd A.W.

Oirk.J. John.J. Otava.. Mr. J.G. Ken Panton. Howard Paisley. A. Pimainus Fishing Camp Pine. Percy Logging Co. Payne. Orenda Forest Products Ortega. Jim Osler. Scott and June Owen. O’ Connor. Pleva./M. Stanley M.A. Peace River Branch of the B. Cindy. Amber Broadworth and Lisa Lier 100 Mile House Oborne. RPF Cranbrook McBride Stewart Kaslo North Vancouver Kyuquot Golden Gibsons Bella Coola Nelson Coquitlam Outdoor Recreation Council of British Columbia Vancouver Owen.. Rodger L. Robert L. Lawrence Penson. Pemberton. A. Mitsuo The ultanagan Greens Okanagan Similkameen Parks Society Olson. E. Rick Oseychuk. Jim Planning Committee for Earth Day in the West Kootenays/Nancie and Kirkland Shave Planning Institute of British Columbia Plecash. Lynn Paddison. O’ Neill. D.D. Ltd. W. Joan M. M. Bernice Patterson. Ron Pachal. Clive Pendergast. Garry E. John Coquitlam Tahsis Burnaby Kaslo Vancouver Erickson Nakusp Cranbrook Kimberley Kelowna Fort St.L.J. RPF Peterson. and Mrs. Phillips. RPF Perry. R. Thomas Tribal Council Port Hardy Castlegar Cranbrook Sorrento Nelson Nelson Kamloops Kamloops . Petrik.North Okanagan Naturalists’ Club North Shuswap Women’ institute s Steelhead Guides Association Northern Forestry Concern Coalition Northwest Guides & Outfitters Association Northwood Pulp and Timber Limited Nowell. Kevin F. TimlSyncra Wood Products Ltd. Neil Oikawa. RPF Pearson.. Phoenix Society Pichugin. J. Payne. RPF Osenenko.1990. Openshaw. Donald Phillippe. Gladys Peterson. Rich and Carol-Ann Osborn. Parker Company Inc. RPF Pasieka. O’ Neill. John Port Moody Dawson Creek Fo&&J& Vancouver Port McNeil1 Williams Lake Victoria Ucluelet Lac La Hache Wasa Vancouver Vernon Williams Lake Gibsons McBride North Vancouver 100 Mile House Castlegar Pitt Meadows Chase Galiano Island Pitt Meadows Denman Island Surrey Victoria Victoria Port Alberni 108 Mile Elementary School Sonja Schenkweld.. David L. L. Trevor J. Steve. James E.S. RPF Pharand. RPF Pelter. Ta Ta Creek Kamloops Oweekeno-Kitasoo-Nuxalk Ozanne. Ross Pauls. John. Institute of Agrologists Pearce. Donald Parker.Mike.. John D. Margaret and Marilyn Huggansl Selkirk College Forestry Committee M. Jane L. Debbie Osmers. Marilyn R. Phaneuf.. Omelus. Patterson. Phyllis O’ Neill. University of Victoria Nuu-Chah-Nulth Tribal Council Vernon Chase Telkwa Chetwynd Smithers Prince George Paish.C. RPF Peebles. Ph.. Phillip J. Parker Pascuuo. David and Class of Geography 375. Rick Bella Coola Port McNeil1 renticton Summerland Clearbrook Nanaimo Port McNeil1 Bella Coola Denman Island Burnaby Ondrik.L. RPF Pielou.Sc. Pereboom. Patricia J. Karl Oswald.

J. M. J. John Revelstoke Chamber of Commerce Revelstoke Environmental Action Committee 9 Richardson. Pratt. Brian Reed. RPF Polster Environmental Pommier. P. RPF Regional District of Alberni-Clayoquot Regional District of Bulkley Nechako Regional District of Central Kootenay Regional District of Fort Nelson-Liard Regional District of Fraser-Cheam Regional District of Kitimat-Stikine Regional District of Mount Waddington Regional District of Peace River Regional District of Thompson-Nicola Reid. Pope. Ray Pringle. Prins. Arnold. David M. Porter. S. Greg and Jeanette Field Tle# Golden Duncan Skookumchuck Wasa Grand Forks Shawnigan Lake McBride Victoria Port McNeil1 Victoria Victoria Williams Lake Rackenzre Salmon Arm Ucluelet Victoria Lion’ Bay s Rossland Kamloops Burns Lake Alexis Creek Prince George Prince George Prince George Prince George Prince George Prince George Salmon Arm Houston Cranbrook Hagensborg Argenta Vancouver Purdy. P. M. Sharon Prince George Cattlemen’ Association s Prince George Earth Day Committee Prince George TSA Committee Prince George Wood Preserving Ltd.E.C. Richard Popp. Frances L. Redman. Local 10 Pulp and Paper Research Institute of Canada Jamieson Burnaby Cranbrook Cranbrook Fulford Harbour Kamloops Vancouver Reimer. R. Prince George Woodlot Association Prince. Angela Price. John. E. Bev and others Recreational Canoeing Association Red Mountain Residents Association Redl.C.Ed. Ron. Gordon Price. Professional Mushroom of the World Project North. Pulp. John Prescott. Primeau.L. David Pope & Talbot Ltd. Rod Reitsma.Pole. Quirk.. Raybold. F. Alan S. Allen.A. B. Jon. Tom R. Kathy Quesnel Cattlemen’ Association s Quesnel Forestry/Economic Development Advisory Committee Quest Contracting Ltd. Port McNeil1 and District Chamber of Commerce Porter. Curtis Kimberley Quadra Island Forest Resources Committee Quennell. M. Michael Porpaczy. Lorne Povey. Pritchard. Paper and Woodworkers of Canada.Eng. Graeme P!&&_&& Pollard. Norm Porteous. Ms. Dunster Smithers Prince George Revelstoke Revelstoke Burnaby 58 . Porter. Pickers Services Pommier. L. Doug. Martin/Dent Island Lodge Regier. Forestry Ltd.J. RPF Ptarmigan Tours/Margory Puhky.J. Gary and Doreen/Chute Lake Resort Reekie. Regan. Jack Revel. Thomas E. Janice M. Professor Reed. Madeline Quadra Island Cranbrook Guesnel Duesnel Vernon Cranbrook Terrace Montrose Terrace Kelowna Cranbrook Vancouver New Denver 150 Mile House Richmond Vancouver Naramata Cranbrook Big Bay Chilliwack Port Alberni Burns Lake Nelson Fort Nelson Chilliwack Terrace Port McNeil1 Tumbler Ridge Kamloops Victoria Pro Terra Kootenay Nature Allies Prueter. C. William L. (Mike) Przeczek.D. B./R. Priest.G.. Tim Raymond. Arnold RPF Ramoay.Ag. Rasang.J.

William and Lydia Seigo. 56 (NecnakojMergro iJetruccr Schultz..C. Share Our Forests Share our Resources Society Share the Clayoquot Share the Stein Committee Shave. and E. RPF Robbins. Lawrence Ryan. Rob Shaw. Robert C. P. A.S.W. Arthur Rison. A. Arnold Seinen.J.. Brian. Sage. J. RPF snuswap torest Liaison Committee Shuswap Naturalists . Hans Savage. Schenkweld. Peter Schat.W. A. James Sherwood. Pamela Schwertner. Russell Scott. Pamela Rockwell. Corinne and John Christian Scott. Bob and colleagues Shipway. Dennis E. L. Rowland. Carl Ross. Barry/Bear Creek Ranch Shelton. Robertson. Brad. Robinson. Bjorn Rothwell. P. Paul Vancouver cr>kse+) Maple Ridge Cranbrook Delta Prince George North Vancouver Smithers Cranbrook 100 Mile House Johnson’ Landing s Victoria Vancouver Fort St. Bruce Shortreid. RPF Sahlin. A.. Russow.M.J. Bertha Scholefield. G. Laurie Roddy. E. RPF and Nella Rounsville Rouse.John vanaernoor Edmonton Gray Creek Merville Surrey Endako Canoe Victoria New Westminster Cedar Kelowna Houston Houston Westbank Courtenay Cobble Hill Port Alberni Ucluelet Boston Bar Victoria Chase Hagensborg North Vancouver Campbell River Vaven by Cranbrook Mill Bay Salmon Arm Salmon Arm Sanders. Peter R. A. Schaerer. Sailan Schmidt. Bob Schweitzer. Sylvia and others Scott Paper Limited Seastrom. Debbi H.RPF Rounsville. Peter R. Professor Rotherham. Kenneth W.Ridgway. Rushton. Sonja Schindler. David Shook. Douglas Shannon. Lehman Maple Ridge Kelowna Sidney Barriere Williams Lake Salmon Arm Golden Sanborn.L. RPF Rossland Advisory Committee on the Environment Roth. RPF Robinson. Saaltink & Associates Sanders. Steele Ron Waldron Contracting Ltd. Albert Seinen.A. Hans. Paul Ross. Brett Lindell Beach Kh Dawson Creek Lumby Calgary Williams Lake Kelowna Port McNeil1 Prince George Kamloops Kamloops Halfmoon Bay Summerland Merritt Gabriola Island McBride Williams Lake Telkwa Terrace Rossland Prince George Edmonton Montreal West Parson Cranbrook Vernon Castlegar Victoria Port Alberni Victoria Prince George Prince George Port McNeil1 Mt. RPF Sather. Dorothy Scholz.Ag. Jack. Ed Shorter. Ed Salley. Mack Schell. Ltd. Ruljancich.T. D. Rosalind Robilliard. Rustad. Howard Schutter. Craig Salie. Tom Chamber of Commerce Salmon. R. Stephen W. Scott. Jeff Scana Industries Ltd.. Joan Rustad Bros. Richard Robertson. RPF retired Robinson.W. & Co. Riverside Forest Products Roberts. M. Frank and Libby Rumsby. Rudi. Henry Shank.. Rollerson. RPF School District No.Eng..F. K. T. Tony... Rosk.

Smith (1984) Ltd. Fred W. Stevens. Rick. Rick Slacan Forest Products Ltd.C. Simpson.D. Betty Lou Sparks. W.Eng. RPF. RPF Southern Chilcotin Mountains Wilderness Society Southern Interior Category 2 Wood Processors Association Sparks. Smith. 3tllr Soehngen. Skeena Cellulose Inc. P.. Smith. Smialowski. J. J.Bio. and Mrs. John Smith. Spicer. RPF Sonnenberg. and Mrs. M. Smith. G.Prince George Chapter Steering Committee Community Forest Rossland Tappeil Chase Magna Bay Revelstoke Anahim Lake Forest Grove East Kelowna Nanaimo Gold Bridge Penticton Port McNeil1 Port McNeil1 Edgewood Victoria Vancouver Nakusp Squamish Harrogate Duncan Winlaw Nanaimo Penticton Chase Prince George Duncan Steffey Ron/Moose Steffl. Michael Stanyer.Sierra Club of Western Canada Sierra Club of Western Canada Lower Mainland Group Silberberger. M. RPF Slater. Gerry.H. Smith. RPF New Hazelton Victoria North Vancouver McBride Port McNeil1 Cranbrook Canoe Revelstoke West Vancouver Dean River Tm Sidney Stephens. Kenneth and Karen I Radium Victoria Vancouver Vanderhoof Salmon Arm Hornby Island Charlie Lake Williams Lake Vancouver Smithers 100 Mile House Gibsons Alexis Creek Parksville Campbell River Atlin Richmond Quesnel Hot Springs Slocan Valemount Winlaw Houston Fort St.A. Frank J. J. Smith. RPF Smith.. Slocan Division Slocan Forest Products Ltd... and Repap Enterprises Inc.. James H. Sommer. Robert J.Ag. Rob ” Still. Mr. M. Stearns. Karl Sommer. Dale Stephens. Ron Skippon. Smithers Exploration Group Smithson. Joy Stewart. Silvhorn Forest Tending Ltd. Ron Spence. Allan Sky. Elaine Stevely. Margot Spencer. R. C. Richard. R. Day State of the Islands Stathers.W. Ulf 60 . Vernon Stege Logging Limited Stein. Harry G. Valemount Division Slocan Valley Watershed Alliance Small Operators of Houston Smeele.Sc. D. Smith. Radium Division Slocan Forest Products Ltd. Ella and Richard Spence. Stewart. Darren Stephen. Squamish and Howe Sound Chamber of Commerce Stahnke. Jacob Silvatech Consulting Ltd. Slocan Forest Products Ltd. Mary Anne Sfaco.A. Hanne. David Single Tree Holdings Ltd. Ron Steward. Michael Valley Outfitters Germansen Ldg. Harry and Dorothy Sorensen Contracting Sorsey. Professor Smith Heintz. Mr.P. Terry South Cariboo Trappers’ Association South East Kelowna Irrigation District South Island Woodlot Assoc/ D. Duncan M. Leonard C. David Spittlehouse and seven others Smoody Logging/Jeff and Kate Smoody Chaprer Society for Range Management. Richard B. Kreg Slack.A. James Smithers Victoria Kelowna Vancouver Rossland Vernon Salmon Arm Hudson’ Hope s Vernon Houston Smithers Vancouver Kelowna Nerson Victoria Soltice. Roger Star..M. Sharon Steelhead Society of B. P. Skeena Round Table for Sustainable Development Skene. Richard P. Quesnel Division Slocan Forest Products Ltd.

Trip. Gary Thompson. RPF Vancouver Fort Nelson Fort St. R. Tolksdorff. Robert Street. R. Jordan S. Ph. RPF Stuart Nechako Woodlot Association Students Acting for Global Awareness Economic Development Commission Sunshine Logging Ltd. and Mrs. Swenson.A.. Warren. Surge Narrows Community Association Suskwa Community Association Sutton. Tribe. Mr. Neil Turtle Island Earth Stewards Society Tuthy.H.. Mary L. John Tackama Forest Products Ltd.B. Patrick Thompson Watershed Coalition Thomson. RPF Todd.M. RPF Teather. Lehman Sardis Vancouver Ucluelet Vancouver Creston Port McNeil1 Vancouver Trail Victoria Parson Revelstoke Port McNeil1 Prince George Sparwood Nanaimo Victoria Surge Narrows North Hazelton Cranbrook Prince George Cortes Island Canoe Sechelt McBride Quesnel uawsan LOfxk Cranbrook Penticton Vancouver Prince Rupert Williams Lake Tumbler Ridge Savona Salmon Arm Vancouver Pemberton Enderby Merville . Terracana Ranch & Resort Ltd. D.. Tanizul Timber Ltd. Sweder.D.I. Wendy Tolmie. John Triangle Contracting Ltd. S. Trevett. J. Karl Strang. O. M. Trew. RPF Stratton.Stonehouse. Susan and Robert Ted Leroy Trucking Ltd. RPF Traverse.. Strong./ Tim Openshaw Szalkai.Eng. D. Norman Sweeny. James Vancouver Shawnigan Lake Victoria Delta Duncan Erickson Richmond Valemount Terrace Fort St. Irene. H. Trail and District Environmental Network Travers. Brian Treadstone Forestry Consultants Ltd.M. Tsawataineuk (Kingcome) Indian Band Kamloops Rossland Wynndel Victoria Kamloops Johnson’ Ldg. William A. J. Lee Stramanus. Thomson. Truck Loggers Association Tsimshian Tribal COUnCil (“ People of Gila Quoex” ) Tsuniah Lake Lodge/Brian Bulmer Tumbler Ridge Option 3 Committee/ Hermann Bruns Tunkwa Lake Stock Breeders Association Turner. RPF Vancouver Port Hardy Burnaby Sandspit Vernon Burns Lake Cranbrook Cranbrook Nelson Vanderhoof Maple Ridge Sechelt Kaslo Thomson.D. Joe W.T. RPF Taylor. Gordon C.. and Tl’ azten Nation Council Tanz.. Janice Strong. David Todd. Judy. Andy. Russ Tress. Charles E. Jathra Strimboid. Tifenbach. Art and Kathy Tweed. John and students of English Programs a)0 QLb Straight. Barty Sybert. E. Telling.. Denise Tkachuk. Terrace Farmers Institute T Thomas. Richard Torrie..F. Danny Taylor. RPF Tofino Sustainable Development Community Tolko Industries Ltd. Trebett.R. C. Robert Garth Thompson. Trenaman. Gwen Terminal Forest Products Ltd. Tomkies.. s Vernon Lulu Island Prince George Gibsons Tofino Vernon Mt. Michael Strucel. 0. RPF Tabak. J. A. Syncra Wood Products Ltd.M. Bruce Town of Creston Town of Port McNeil1 Townsend. Stephen W. P.

W.. Neil. G.Ag. Jeff Ursel.A. Ben Van Heek.. Onno VanderEnde. M. 0.R. P. W.H.Twin Island Resort Centre/ Sarah Kipp and Clive Callaway Village of Sayward Salmon Arm Village of Silver-ton Village Village of Ucluelet Sayward Silverton Tahsis Ucluelet Whistler Gabriola Port Alice Brentwood Bay Revelstoke Sechelt Victoria Lillooet Creston North Vancouver Squamish Salmon Arm Ucluelet Cranbrook Victoria Harrogate Port Alberni Vancouver Victcria Creston Hazelton Kelowna Salmon Arm Cranbrook Mount Robson Port Alberni Vanderhoof Grand Forks Cranbrook Nanaimo Port Alice Kaslo Valemount Vancouver Vancouver 100 Mile House Quesnel Ucluelet Chamber of Commerce Uliana. Geoff Watson. Ray/Richland Sawmill Utzig. P. H. RPF Weaver. William L.Eng. RPF Waelti.. RPF Van Oldenborgh Vancouver Natural History Society Vanden Hoek. RPF Walsh.Cariboo Varney. Neysa Weaver. Lawrence.Quesnel Division University of British Columbia. G. Ger H.F. RPF Van Mel. Waite. Alex Watling. Peggy Wagner. Ulkatcho Indian Band Ucluelet Queen Charlotte City Anahim Lake Vogler. Helen Ward. Marie Village Bay Lakes Park Committee Village of Clinton Village of Fort St.. Weir. G. H. Olive Weber. Ken. Donald Weaver. James Village of Hazelton Village of Lake Cowichan Village of McBride Village of Midway Village of 100 Mile House Heffley Creek Vavenby Nelson Surrey Vancouver Lumby Nelson New Denver Vernon Salmon Arm Victoria West Vancouver Kamloops New Westminster Vancouver Houston Houston Williams Lake Vernon Lasqueti Island Vernon Victoria Victoria Victoria Erickson Quadra Island Clinton Fort St. James Hazelton Lake Cowichan McBride Midway 100 Mile House . R. Dick and Nancy Vernon Irrigation District Victoria Fish & Game Protective Association Victoria Golden Rods & Reels Society Victoria Sea Kayakers’ Network Viklund. G. John. Van Drimmelen.R. Faculty of Forestry: 39 students of fourth year course in integrated resources management Vancouver Upper Louis Creek Stock Association Upper North Thompson Livestock Association Urbanski. Bob and Pat Ward. P. Dave. Weeks. Marianna Uttke. Van Bergeyk. Wardwell.. Stephen Von Westarp. RPF Webb... Professor Weldwood of Canada Limited Weldwood of Canada 100 Mile House Division Weldwood of Canada . Ussner. Jane Weetman.I. Valhalla Society Van Beynum. Gregory F. H. Sheral Walker. llene Watson.. RPF retired Warren. Gerald Walton. Will Warner. Brian.Eng. RPF Wales. P. P.F.Eng. RPF Vant. RPF Voth. RPF Wagner. Barrie Wagner. Curtis Wallace I ynn Wallace. MLA .. Webber.. Tony Wasyk. Royce Wass.A.M. Ken.W.A. Marilyn Watson. Weatherbee. Hans. Ian A.

V.A. more than 20 employees Yalakom Community Council Yalakom Ecological Society Yardley.D. P. Ph. George White. Professor Emeritus Kamloops Kamloops Victoria Port McNeil1 Vernon Wasa Hagensborg Saanichton McBride Burnaby Vancouver Squirrel Cove North Vancouver Campbell River Duncan Vancouver Barriere South Slocan Victoria Vancouver Prince George Wynndel Wynndel Lillooet Lillooet Ganges Holberg Lantzville Tumbler Ridge Coquitlam Victoria Cranbrook Crescent Spur Prince George Nakusp Port Alberni Prince George Burnaby Salmon Arm Coquitlam Manson’ Landing s Aldergrove Vancouver Prince George Fernie Summerland Port McNeil1 Courtenay Williams Lake Burnaby Williams Lake Chetwynd Vernon Prince George Bella CoOla Wilderness Tourism Council Wildlife Forestry Symposium Williams. Ed. J. Tony Vancouver Williams Lake Vancouver Victoria Victoria Nelson Quesnel Nelson Vancouver Kelowna Vancouver Nanaimo Vancouver Vancouver Blind Bay Kamloops Manson’ Ldg. Sheila Winterford. MAIBC.. Young. West Kootenay Forestry Alliance Westar Timber Limited Westbank Indian Council Westcoast Energy Inc/R. RPF Willow-Ahbau Forest Association Willson. J. Nils Zorn. (Bill) West Arm Watershed Alliance West Fraser Mills Ltd. RPF Wood.. George. Wilkinson. Jim Whitaker. MRAIC. Philip Wooding.D. RPF Wilson.W.A. Wynndel Box & Lumber Co. Frank Wilmer. Rex Wheeler.. Florence Wilson. RPF Wellburn.. Ron. Harry Zelesnik. RIBA Yeoman% Greg Young.B. Paul M. W.A. Frank Wholistic Forestry Association Wickland. Stephen Wright../ Wynndel Logging Co..Ltd.J. Wynndel Box & Lumber Co. R.Eng. Thomas.. Frank. Ltd. Vic Williams Lake Field Naturalists Willis.RPF Wright. Ltd. Falls. Jack H. Woods. Murray Wilson.. Zakreski.British Columbia Division Weyler. Weyerhaeuser Canada Ltd. RPF. Fred C. Erskine Wirtz.. P. Jean Welch&&n Wells. Whitwell. N. RPF Wood. Gerry Wright. Tom Zens. Julie and family Zanerick. Michael and Judy White. Zamara. Lois Williams. Ron Williams. RPF Wylie.G. Barbara N. M. Mike and Debbie Zammuto. 63 . Paul T. B. Victor M. Jonathan. John Welsh. Tony. Wendy and Grant Wihlingson. Woodland Consultants Ltd.Wellburn. Harley Wright. Steve Whitewater Kayaking Association of British Columbia Whiting.Ag. David Wong. R.S. D. Wright. Wilson.E. Jim Wilson.W. Sue Whissell. Jr. Reg Willis. P. Williams.. Norm Williams. Sandra Zimmer. Zimmerman. Jeanette Young. Dr. G. RPF Zuffa. James Kelowna Cranbrook Vernon Vancouver Summerland Vernon Vancouver Fulford Harbour Cw Wilme. s Lasqueti Island Fort St.D Western Canada Wilderness Committee Mid Island Branch Western Forest Products Limited Western Silvicultural Contractors Association Western Tree Seeds Ltd. Robert D. William Zwickel.

Forest management in Alberta. Conference. . Pulp chip availability in British Columbia : 1987. land use strategy : summary and highlights. Chilliwack. Alberta. A handbook on the conduct of public inquiries in Canada. Vancouver. Not all the materials cited have been viewed by each Commissioner. Appelroth. A system for integrated resource planning in Alberta.Z. January 1989. Economic benefits of timber and productive forest land in British Columbia. Ron. Professional Foresters. Ghost River sub-regional integrated resource plan. It includes monographs. Russell J. 20 May 1986. Edmonton: Alberta Energy and Natural Resources.C. Albs Anthony. [Vancouver] February 1985. Washington. Edmonton. Agrons. Revised 1984. 1988. Current harvest levels compared to sustainable levels. A-W’ . Lucas. Lands and Wildlife. Arnold. 1985. [Vancouver] February 1987. November 1989. 65 . Energy and Natural Resources. Association of British Columbia Professional Foresters. journal articles and studies prepared for the Commission. D. Position paper. [Chairman: Bruce P. Expert Review Panel. 1987. B. Ecology wars : environmentalism as if people mattered.Appendix 11 Cited in this Bibliography are materials of guidance to the Commissioners and Commission staff in the preparation of their Report. American Forestry Association.. May 1990. Reflections on the dynamics of environmental conflicts. Are we overcutting? Professional opinion interim report.C. Alberta. [Edmonton] June 1983.W. FRDA report 0611. 1990. government reports. [Vancouver] November 1990. Appleby. Edmonton. Forestry. Nordegg-Red Deer River sub-regional integrated resource plan. and Alastair R. Alberta. Address to Share B. P. Association of British Columbia of the Eastern Slopes. 1984. 1988. Bellevue: Free Enterprise Press. Edmonton.C. Toronto: Butterworths. Basics of forest . Natural resources and national policy. UI~I~ S-E. F*&nd. Dancik] ildhfe. B. [On cover: CanadaiBC Economic & Regional Development Agreement. Association of British Columbia Professional Foresters. Pauer presented for the federal Canadian Minister of State (Forestry).

B. Vancouver. [Vancouver] October 1990.C. Prepared by The B. Forest Land Use Liaison Committee. representing: Council of Forest Industries of B. Ministry of Forests. B.. B.C.C. B. l-es Annual plan 1991 to 1995. 1980. British Columbia economic and statistical review. Wildlife management areas : a public information paper. B. [Victoria] . Local employment impacts of the forest industry / Garry Horne and Charlotte Penner. November 14. Annual report series.C.C. Another view of new forestry. 1990. Update on angling guide policy for British Columbia. The provincial economic impacts of a supply reduction in the British Columbia forest sector / Garry Horne. Ministry of Environment. B. Ministry of Energy. Revised. Annual report series. Ministry of Environment. Guidelines for watershed management of crown lands used as community water supplies. Interim consensus statement on old growth forests. Five yeeujr B.C. Paper delivered at annual meeting of Oregon Society of American Foresters.C.1986. The profession of forestry in British Columbia. Ministry of Finance and Corporate Relations. Toward a land use strategy for British Columbia. B.C. A discussion paper from the Recreational Fisheries Branch. Victoria: July 1989. [Victoria] B.Association of British Columbia Foresters. William A. Forest Land Use Liaison Committee.C. Annual report series. Atkinson. Nick Paul and David Riley. Ministry of Agriculture. Ministry of Crown Lands.C. British Columbia land statistics. Association of British Columbia Professional Foresters. and Interior Lumber Manufacturers’ Association. Mines and Petroleum Resources. Forest Land Use Liaison Committee. [Victoria] March 1989. Northern Interior Lumber Sector. [Background paper prepared for Forest Resources Commission] [Victoria] February 1991. Victoria: October 1980. [Background paper prepared for Forest Resources Commission] [Victoria] February 1991. May 1990. Strategic plan for intensifying the British Columbia beef industry.C. Ministry of Crown Lands. Ministry of Environment. Cariboo Lumber Manufacturers’ Association. Victoria: August 1989. Annual series. 1989. B.C. B. Vancouver: October 14.C. Ministry of Environment. B.C. B. B.C. Ministry of Finance and Corporate Relations. A new approach to angling guide management. Victoria. B. Ministry of Finance and Corporate Relations.C.C. [Victoria] December 1988. Ministry of Environment.

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The . Victoria. The controversy of clearcutting . 193 1. Woodbay Consulting Group. 1990. August 1987. January 1989. nealtln 1 industry.F. Richard E. Yerburgh.Wilkinson. [On cover: Canada/BC Forest Resource Development Agreement. [Victoria] August 1990. Young. [Background paper prepared for Forest Resources Commission] [Victoria] December 1989.P. March 7. August 1989. 1990. Forestry herbicides and the aquatic environment. John F. n.p. : an overview analysis from a social justice perspective. Robert P. Williams. Paul M. W. Wildlife Federation and the “Westland” Television Series. W. Paper presented to the Symposium on Clear Cut Logging and the historical perspective. RPF.C. R. sponsored by the B. Reed and Associates. Willington. Preliminary assessment of forestry related tourism values. . Submission to Forest Resources Commission. An economic history of forestry in British Columbia.C. no. M. Prince George. . Woodbridge. Integrated resource management in British Columbia . In Forestry Chronicle v. FRDA report 060). H.63. fact or fiction? Address to Woodlands Section. Department of Economics. The management of non-timber values within 1ree tarm Licences in B. Vancouver: University of British Columbia. 1989.4. Young. March 11.K. thesis. Sustainable forests . Undeveloped watersheds on Vancouver Island larger than 1000 hectares. Vancouver. Paper presented to the Wildlife Forestry Symposium. Canadian Pulp and Paper Association annual meeting.M. March 20..A. Wood.technical or “political”?. (Ken).

any system in which loads of lifted partly or wholly off the means of steel cables or. It refers to roads. railways. BIOGEOCLIMATIC ZONE Climatic variations within major climate belts produce significant ecological variation and the fairly homogeneous climatic sub-units are known as biogeoclimatic zones. animals. number of species and variation in species composition. royalties. more single fixed wires. BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY or BIODIVERSITY 1ne aiversity or plants. animals ana otter living organisms and their habitats measured by factors such as genetic variability. In British Columbia a biogeoclimatic system is used as a framework for ecosystem classification. animals and microbes.1 inches in the Interior. to waterways like the Inside Passage and to wildlife migration corridors. It comprises plants. Revenues that accrue to the provincial government from the stumpage. CLOSE UTILIZATION A measure of the sound timber in a stand contained in all trees 9. CLEARCUlTING area at one time. energy or information. distribution or stability of a wildlife or fish population. lease and licence fees paid by holders of timber harvesting tenures.Appendix 12 GLOSSARY ALLOWABLE ANNUAL CUT [MC) The volume of timber which may be cut each year from a forest management unit consistent with sustained yield. goods. climate is considered to be the principal environmental factor influencing ecosystem development. CRITICAL HABITAT Habitat that is crucial to the size. between 1Z-inch high stumps and (usually) 4-inch diameter tops. pipelines and power transmission facilities. interacting with soil and climate. ECOSYSTEM A forest ecosystem is a complex system of biophysical processes and living organisms and other interacting components and processes. BIOGEOCLIMATIC SYSTEM In a biogeoclimatic system. CABLE YARDING A term for timber are ground by primitively.1 inches in diameter at breast height or larger on the Coast and 7. . CORRIDOR A continuous strip of land or water connecting two geographrcaIly separate points and used for the conveyance of humans.

FOREST LICENSEE The holder of a Tree Farm Licence. and. or enhancing where possible. replaceable every five years (some are non-replaceable). fish and wildlife resources. historical and cultural values. and pulp. this measures the total value of production attributable to the residents of a given region during a particular time frame. regardless of where that production takes place.ENVIRONMENTALLY SEhlSlTlVE AREA Areas requring special management attention to protect and prevent permanent damage to important scenic values. in particular from capital. FOREST LICENCES A forest licence allows an orderly timber harvest over a portion of a sustained-yield management unit and the timely a strategic resource management plan prepared by the BCFS for the timber supply area. Timber Sale Licence. wood mills (eg. resource quality in d mavoiding p ermanent or long-lasting damage to any resource so that the resources are managed in a manner compatible with present and foreseeable future needs. The licence has: a term of 15 to 20 years. and provides for interaction with stakeholders in the search for information. GROSS PROVINCIAL PRODUCT As opposed to GDP. GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT (GDP] The value of production of goods and services in the economy resulting from the factors of production. and other natural systems or processes. shakes and shingles). Forest Licence. consensus. plywood. They are also identified as requiring special management attention to protect life and safety from the risk of natural hazards. EVEN-AGED MANAGEMENT Even-aged management produces a final harvest in which all or most of the older trees are removed ana a relatively e new tree crop is established. paper and allied. developments and trends. whether of Canadians or of nonresidents. the licensee moves to another part of the timber supply area. INTEGRATED RESOURCE PLANNING A flexible and consultative decision-making process which examines the interaction of various resources. lumber. INTEGRATED RESOURCE MANAGEMENT The comprehensive management of two or more natural resources over a defined area with regards to maintaining. operating areas which continuously shift over time within the timber supply area once an area is harvested and reforested. FOREST SECTOR In the context of studies conducted for this report consists or the ronowing inextractive logging and forestry. resource uses. shared values. and action that is both feasible and . Pulpwood Agreement. or Timber Licence under the Forest Act.

or utilized for social and/or economic benefits. species composition. long-term carrying capacity of a defined area for specified management assumptions. MANUFACTURING SHIPMENTS Similar to the value of production. capabilities and uses that reflects the individual ecosystems of the provincial land base. brushing. A local Resource Use Plan refines the objectives set out in Forest Land Management Plans. tions with the intention of increasing yield. INTERMEDIATE UTILIZATION A measure of the sound timber in a stand. An old growth forest contains live and dead trees of various sizes. Techniques include thinning. local’ resource use planning establishes integrated resource management guidelines for areas where resource use development is proposed. Local planning can range from extensive appraisal to intensive study and is carried out to enable . MICROCLIMATE The essentially uniform local climate of a usually small site or habitat. developed. measured at the factory gate.INTENSIVE SILVICULTURE development planning to proceed. measured to a specified standard such as species. limbing and fertilization. MANAGEMENT AND WORKING PLAN A Management and Working Plan for a Tree Farm Licence or a Forest Licence. weeding. contained in all trees 13. LOCAL RESOURCE USE PLANNING (LRUP) Within the context of management strategies for a Timber Supply Area or Tree Farm Licence. NOT SATISFACTORILYRESTOCKED (NSR) LAND Refers to productive forest land denuded by logging or fire that still lacks a desired number of trees in “free to grow” condition. between 184nch high stumps and 8-inch diameter tops. NATURAL RESOURCE A renewable or non-renewable element of the natural environment having a tangible or intangible value which is produced.1 inches in diameter at breast height or larger on the Coast and 11. LAND USE CLASSIFICATION A measure of the productive. OLD GROWTH There is no single definition of old growth but the term is generally agreed to refer to a relatively old and undisturbed forest. The age and structure of old growth varies A process of assigning similar characteristics.1 inches in the Interior. INVENTORY The stock of a resource occurring in an area of land. LAND USE PLAN A plan for a portion of a Timber Supply Area or Tree Farm Licence which integrates management guidelines for resource uses in the area. as required by the Forest Act and within licence documents. and age class structure that are part of a slowly changing but dynamic ecosystem. age or size.

or by-products of conventional timber processing. Harvesting authority is provided through a timber sale licence where the licensee is responsible for all operational planning. Later known as Timber Supply Areas. SECOND GROWTH A stand of timber that has replaced a former or old growth stand and is in an immature or thrifty condition. ROTATION The age at which a forest crop is harvested and replaced by a new stand. if sufficient quantities of wood residues. An agreement covers: . Land used for grazing by domestic livestock and wildlife including grasslands and forest lands with an understorey or periodic cover of herbaceous or shrubby vegetation. PULPWOOD AGREEMENTS A pulpwood agreement provides the holder of a wood residue processing facility. REFORESTATION The natural or artificial restocking of previously forested lands. either as single scattered trees or small groups at relatively short intervals. or maintained as wilderness. or both. . SELECTION LOGGING The removal of mature trees. PROVINCIAL FORESTS A designation under the Forest Act. The system promotes a forest of uneven age. REGENERATION The process by which a forest is renewed. without competition. Land that is deemed to provide the greatest contribution to the social and economic maintained in successive crops of trees or forage. ROYALTY The payment due to the Crown for timber harvested from private lands granted in British Columbia since 1887 and from old temporary tenures.PRE-HARVEST SILVICULTURE basic silviculture and forest protection. the methods to be used and the proposed constraints necessary to protect the site and its resource values. a supply of wood fibre from pulpwood stands. usually the oldest or largest. . SELECTIVE LOGGING A harvesting system that removes only a desired species or size of tree. development. Currently about 85% of the province. PUBLIC SUSTAINED YIELD UNIT [PSYU) Introduced in the province after the Sloan Report of 1945 as a form of tenure to be managed by the Forest Service for sustained yield. Pre-harvest prescriptions specify planned forest activities. and may be replaceable every 10 years. a Z-year term. A site-specific management plan. . a large area in one or more timber supply areas. since 1987 a legal pre-requisite to logging on Crown land. are not available to the holder.

The intention is a balance between timber growth and harvesting on a sustainable basis. STEWARDSHIP For forests. SUSTAINED YIELD The yield that a forest can produce continuously at a given intensity of management without impairment of the productivity of the land. SNAG A standing dead tree from which the leaves and most of the branches have broken off. and. The most common timber tenures in a TSA are the Forest Licence and the Timber Sale Licence. The licence has: a 25-year term.a s7&amedqc1% management unit. and. There are 35 TSAs in British Columbia and 32 TFLs. Calculated since 1987 by what is known as comparative value pricing. TENURE An agreement that confers on licensees the right to harvest a certain volume of timber on Crown land within a certain timeframe. STUMPAGE The price paid to the government by licensees for the mwn land. age and condition as to form a distinctive entity as a silvicultural or management unit. replaceable every 10 years. fixed boundaries. measured against a long-term standard of trusteeship. licensees pay stumpage reflecting the value of their timber stand relative to the value of an average stand in their region. STAND uniformity of species. This includes the right to harvest a specified volume of timber annually and the obligation to carry out all phases of forest management on behalf of the BCFS. . holders of pulpwood agreements. TIMBER SUPPLY AREA [TSA) 1SAs (which are a revision to and a consolidation of the former Public Sustained Yield Units) the forest companies manage the timber resource according to strategic resource management plans prepared by the Forest Service.SHELTERWOOD LOGGING The removal of a substantial number of rrees from a stand. TIMBER SALE LICENCES This licence allows the orderly harvest of relatively small volumes of timber by: operators with small allowable annual cuts. stewardship is the constructive use and development of the forests. SILVICULTURE The science and art of growing and tending forest crops. operators registered under the small business forest enterprise program or others with temporary cutting rights. VALUEADDED The additional income generated by further processing beyond raw material stage up to final ‘ end use’ product. leaving enough of the original stand to provide shelter and shade for a succeeding generation. ln TREE FARM LICENCES The tree farm licence is a ‘ stewardship’ agree.

Note: These definitions are in accord with the manner in which the respective tem~s have been used and interpreted in the context of this report. minor and in the long run substantially unnoticeable. WATERSHED The area drained by a river. Originally developed as an adjunct to ranching to provide seasonal employment opportunities. Refers to degree of acceptable alteration of the characteristic landscape. or enhanced. inventoried. . WILDERNESS that predominantly retains its natural character and on which the impact of man is transitory. WOODLOT LICENCE Small.VANCOUVER LOG MARKET A clearinghouse for exchanges of logs and chips. and are protected. VISUAL QUALITY OBJECTIVE The activity by which visual and aesthetic landscape values are identified. and analyzed. area-based tenure not attached to processing facilities. Prices from the Vancouver Log Market are used as part of stumpage calculations. according to their relative importance within the integrated resource use management plans and during resource development. stream or other waterway.

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