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Model Assumptions Theory Principles Preventive Corrective School-wide Advantages Limitations

Skinner’s Human beings Behaviour is Appropriate None as it is all Rules-Ignore- Presentation It works; it is Results may not
Behaviour are essentially learnt as behaviour reactive; Praise (RIP) of awards at simple to use; be long-lasting;
Modification responders to students achieved by however, strategy; assembly; results are not self-
Model (3) external experience the manipulating reinforcement Rules-Reward- speech night immediate; it governing;
stimuli; consequences rewards and may improve Punishment prizes; accommodates ignores outside
teachers must (responses) of punishment as self-esteem. (RRP) strategy; sporting most teachers’ influences at
guide students previous actions positive introduce a awards; desire to home; no
to behave and events reinforcement, token principal’s maintain opportunity to
appropriately; (stimuli). negative economy awards control; clarify
students are Therefore, adults reinforcement, (contingency students can emotions,
not self- need to reinforce attention management); feel successful weigh
governing; if desirable withdrawal, negotiate when they alternatives,
behaviour is behaviour to response cost behavioural obtain decide on
not managed, achieve good and time-out. contracts rewards; solutions or
we can expect behaviour or Behaviour that standards of develop
an increase in withdraw is not behaviour are intellect;
crime; all reinforcement to reinforced uniform, rewards may
behaviour is extinguish poor becomes consistent and undermine
learnt and behaviour weakened. clear to all intrinsic
therefore can Behaviour is students; time motivation;
be changed; shaped in a is not spent rewards may
rewards are series of steps. discussing promote a loss
preferred over rules; of interest in
punishments employable to learning
for effecting all ages; well-
behaviour researched
Canter’s Students must Assertiveness Assertive None as it is all Create School admin Simple to use; The practice of
Assertive comply with training has teachers reactive; positive develop the personal warning
Discipline rules; students developed over communicate however, student- school rules. desires of the students with
Model (4) cannot be many years – it is their wants and establishing teacher Students who teacher can be names on board
expected to understood as needs to rules and using relationships; breach rules enforced; it may be
determine expressing one’s students, and positive establish rules are given a involved motivating; may
appropriate rights without follow through reinforcement or variety of slips parents and promote
classroom rules violating the with their may be expectations; for different administrators rebellion more
and follow rights of others. directions; somewhat track levels of in the than normal;
them; It is assertive preventive misbehaviour; violations, and discipline may be
punishment conceptualised teachers are use students lose process embarrassing;
will cause as a point on a aware of the punishment principles inhibits self-
students to continuum roadblocks to and negative with determination;
avoid bad midway between assertion and, consequences increasingly underlying
behaviour and hostility and mentally to enforce severe issues such as
engage in good submission. override them. limits; negative poverty, racism,
classroom As they are the implement a consequences mental illness
behaviour; class leader, system of and divorce not
good they take positive addressed;
behaviour can charge of the consequences; teachers often
also be classroom, establish do not include
encouraged by define the limits strong positive
positive of acceptable parental reinforcement
reinforcement; behaviour and support as
for proper punish those recommended
classroom who step over by Canter
management, those limits
parents and
help to enforce
Dreikurs’ Inappropriate Human beings Try to Avoid autocratic Understand Associate Logical It is hard for
Democratic behaviour is have a need to understand the and permissive students’ logical consequences teachers to
Discipline motivated belong and be purpose of a teaching styles; motives; consequences promote determine
Model (5) needs to gain accepted. The student’s use respond to with school autonomy and students’
attention, combination of misbehaviour; encouragement; students’ rules; teaches self- motives;
exercise this need with give students a establish logical mistaken administrators regulation; students may
power, exact our biased choice to consequences; goals; change diagnose and prevents be unaware of,
revenge or human remain where stipulate class students’ respond to discipline or fail to admit,
display perceptions they are discussions; mistaken students’ problems; their motives;
inadequacy; if distorts in our without avoid goals; motives; helps students refusing to fight
the motive for relationships disturbing reinforcing or exchange students take understand with an
attention is with others. others or leave provoking students’ part in why they aggressive
satisfied, Students whose the room; build behaviour; mistaken decision behave as they student may
inappropriate faulty beliefs trust between establish a goals for making do and how to appear like the
behaviour will lead them to act teacher and relationship of positive goals; satisfy their teacher is weak;
not occur; inappropriately students; use mutual respect; encourage needs by students
logical need to be cooperative look for assets discouraged legitimate genuinely may
consequences; taught more learning to in each student; students; means not wish to
skills to help positive ways to establish goals have a flexible invoke logical belong to the
students get the and solutions; attitude consequences group
understand recognition they whole class towards
motives; desire discussions; students
present avoid positive
students with a reinforcement;
choice model the
standard of

Glasser’s The only All our behaviour Develop quality Lead Reality The Helps teachers Difficult to help
Choice person whose is an attempt to relationships by management; therapy connecting develop students
Theory, behaviour we satisfy one or using the educational- interview; place; the effective experience true
Reality can control is more of the five connecting diagnostic disruption quality school relationships; autonomy if
Therapy and our own; all we basic needs behaviours and classroom encounter; program promotes a outside
Lead can get from (survival, love, eliminating the meetings; social high degree of influences
Management others is personal power, disconnecting relevant and problem- student dictate what is
(6) information – freedom, fun); all behaviours; negotiated solving autonomy and taught in school
how we deal our conscious educate and curriculum; classroom responsibility; and how
with it is up to behaviours are teach students collaborative meetings; allows students students are to
us; driven by chosen; how to behave learning; open- buddy classes to determine be disciplined;
genetic needs; effective, in acceptable ended and the solutions to difficult for
all we can do responsible ways; a quality classroom “connecting suit their teachers to
from birth to behaviours school satisfies meetings; place” needs; model
death is results in happy, students’ educating promotes the respectful and
behave – total healthy and needs, develops students in core business cooperative
behaviour is controlled lives cooperation, prosocial skills of schools behaviours
comprised of allows for programs (effective when working
acting, variation, teaching and with challenging
thinking, promotes learning); students;
feeling and autonomy, has highlights the effectively
physiology; all expectations for need for implementing
total behaviour high-quality teachers to meetings,
is chosen, but work, promotes model cooperative
we have direct student respectful and learning and
control over ownership, cooperative teaching
acting and increases behaviours; communication
thinking, and student asks students skills is time-
indirect control productivity, to self-evaluate consuming;
over feeling involves behaviours to difficult to help
and physiology students in allow other students who
decisions and is students to do not want to
relevant to learn be in school to
students’ make plans to
personal lives improve their
difficult for
teachers to
Gordon’s Human beings Good Decide if a Develop Accept that Incorporate Promotes Time consuming
Teacher are self- communication behaviour is effective misbehaviour peer honest to learn all
Effectiveness regulating and, will prevent acceptable or teacher-student is an attempt counselling; communication communication
Training thus, can learn misbehaviour, unacceptable relationships; to satisfy introduce between skills; time
Model (7) to manage promote good and, if keep open needs; peer students and consuming to
their own student-teacher unacceptable, communication; identify who mediation; teachers; solve problems
behaviour; relationships and who ‘owns’ it; create an owns the abandon you- encourages using
students make keep attractive problem; messages; students to communication-
commonly connections for communication classroom; adopt active implement develop based, conflict-
rebel when students that will channels open utilise listening for class autonomy and resolution
teachers assist learning and avoid the preventive I- student- discussions self-discipline; methods;
actively and success. 12 roadblocks; messages; owned promotes good impossible to
regulate their Power-based listen for reduce reliance problems; teacher- use the
behaviour; methods will feelings (non- on power send student approach in
rewards and promote verbal) and confronting I- relationships dangerous
praise may resentment, content (verbal) messages for situations;
undermine rebellion, in messages; be teacher- some students
intrinsic retaliation and honest and owned may not want
motivation; revenge, and ‘human’, insist problems; to develop good
students can students will not on your rights shift gears to relationships
solve problems learn to be and defuse tense with their
autonomously responsible communicate situations; teachers or
when actively individuals your feelings to initiate peers, and
listened to; students problem therefore avoid
students will appropriately solving; participation in
alter recognise and the class and
misbehaviour resolve values school
appropriately conflicts
in response to
and other
methods block
and destroy
Ford’s Independent Based on Teach children Share quality Use the Use the The model’s Adults have
Responsible human beings Powers’ and help them time with Responsible responsible main purpose trouble
Thinking have the perceptual decide where students to Thinking thinking is to stop accepting its
Process innate capacity control theory, they want to build their Process (RTP); classroom disruption; concepts
Model (8) to control their the theory posits be; problems worth – be negotiate (RTC); engage students can because they
perceptions, that people act can’t be solved aware of each conflict the student learn the have learnt
but not their to control some at the level they other and resolution support team model very control and
behaviours; as of their own occur (the level regularly do process; quickly; there blame methods,
human beings perceptions. of action); the something provide a is no blame or and, therefore,
control their They specify part purpose of a creative and chill-out pass; retaliation; often use the
perceptions, of what they will rule is so people interactive; negotiate re- maintains a RTC as a
there may be a perceive, then can live happily allow a child to entry to class calm school detention
disturbance to they act to make in that context; experience and school; environment; centre;
others, those all people must human love so refer students allows a range resourcing of
whether perceptions take that they can to the core of data on the RTC is
intended or happen. responsibility learn to love team students and expensive and
unintended; for their own others; build their behaviour the costs need
human beings actions; relationships to be kept for to be balanced
are individually teachers are that are future use against the
responsible for responsible for permanent and alternative,
how they protecting the loving which is to have
control their integrity of the classes
perceptions; environment so disrupted
one human that the teacher
being cannot can teach and
control the students
another; all can learn
students have
a right to learn,
and teachers
have the right
to teach in
Rogers’ Students We act on the Express joint Establish clear Adopt an Provide Range of Not much the
Positive disrupt basis of our rights and rules within a intervention colleague practical teacher can do
Behaviour learning mainly beliefs and responsibilities classroom framework; support; strategies for if the student
Leadership due to assumptions, in the rules; behaviour implement support new and old doesn’t want to
Model (9) problems at and this theory is minimise agreement; classroom behaviour teachers; enter a
home, implicit in all our unnecessary establish meetings; recovery based on behaviour
expressed as behaviour confrontation related resolve Rogers’ recovery
attention and management and behavioural conflict personal session; difficult
power-seeking strategies. embarrassment; consequences; experiences; to remember all
behaviours to Rogers’ theory is promote the develop a variety of strategies;
belong to a that people will use of positive otherwise appropriate for
peer group; fulfil their appropriate classroom tone; unrecorded high school
upholding the obligations when choices; adopt a decisive teacher craft although
dignity of each they understand discipline teaching style knowledge; adaptation to
student and and are respectfully; Rogers primary
human rights; committed to communicate synthesises school/kindy is
students are the reciprocal expectations strategies and possible
given nature of rights positively principles from
reasonable and a variety of
choices; responsibilities. existing models
teachers The constructs of
respond to rights and
behaviour responsibilities
through push against
planning and each other and
reflection, not are the basis of
emotive why we choose
reaction; what we do
skill in
matching a
level of
response to a
behaviour is
and self-talk
about ideal
behaviour is
critical; classes
are small
communities of
learners, and
teachers relate
to students as
Connor’s Feel good act Social problems Acknowledge Develop Relieving the Make school a Less stress for The model is
Pain Model good, feel bad such as the pain; value relationships; pain and welcoming teachers; resource-
(10) act bad; unemployment, the person; give clear calming the place; create a better intensive;
behaviour is a homelessness, address the instructions; student; re- welfare centre outcomes for professional
form of skill-lessness, causes of the care for skilling the high-risk development of
communication meaninglessness, problem teachers student; students; long- teachers and
and when domestic reconstructing term behaviour
students violence, abuse, self-esteem; advantages for support
communicate chemical developing teachers and teachers is
through addiction or agreements; society needed; some
misbehaviour, imbalances can self-managing parents may
schools may cause log; adjunctive not want to
misinterpret psychological therapies; collaborate with
the student’s pain. When high- collaborating school
intended risk students are with parents; personnel
meaning; fearful, stressed referring to
misbehaving or experiencing professionals
students may psychological for the
feel unhappy pain as a result problems that
and be of one or more need expert
experiencing of these assistance
psychological problems,
pain – teachers need to
punishing them calm them and
for the relieve the pain
behaviour will before working
only with them
exacerbate the further
children and
young people
find it difficult
to build
students who
haven’t learnt
the skills
necessarily to
participate as a
member of the
class and need
to be reskilled;
models of
discipline are
ineffective for

Articulating Your Assumptions

Model Nature of Children Relative Degree of Students’ Self- Role of Choice Teacher’s Role
Control and Coercion Government
Behaviour Modification Students are responders Students must receive Students cannot learn to All behaviour is learnt, Teachers manipulate the
to external stimuli guidance from their be responsibly self- and, therefore, can be environmental stimuli to
teachers if they are to governing changed by the teacher obtain the behaviours
behave appropriately they want in their
Assertive Discipline Students and young Students must be forced Students cannot be Teachers have their own Teachers must enforce
people need adults to to comply with rules expected to determine needs and rights and rules
set and enforce strict appropriate rules and cannot allow students to
limits follow them choose disruptive
Democratic Discipline Students are motivated Teachers cannot force Students can learn to Presenting students with Teachers allow students
by a need to belong and students to do anything, understand their own a choice between at to experience the
gain recognition from but they can help motives, and, least two alternative natural and logical
the group students understand consequently, are able behaviours offers a consequences of their
why they behave as they to eliminate their own sufficient basis on which behaviour, and help
do, and, then, help them misbehaviour they can learn to be them take responsibility
find legitimate ways to responsible for their own behaviour
satisfy their needs by learning about the
connection between
each behaviour and its
Choice Theory, reality Students are driven by Teachers cannot force Students are basically Students may be given a To help students
therapy and lead innate needs for survival, students to do anything, self-regulating and can wide range of options evaluate their behaviour
management love, belonging, power, but both students and learn to manage their from which to choose in and make value
freedom and fun teachers can choose to own behaviour their attempt to satisfy judgements about it,
control how they think their needs teachers avoid assigning
and act motives to behaviour,
and encourage students
to accept responsibility
for their own behaviour
Teacher Effectiveness Students are valuable, Students commonly Students can learn to Students may select The teacher is a
Training worthwhile, equal with rebel when teachers manage their own from a wide range of facilitator and a listener
each other and capable actively regulate their behaviour options when solving as students can solve
of self-regulating behaviour their own problems their own problems
behaviour when teachers listen
Responsible Thinking Students are able to When one person Students are individually Students are presented Teachers have a right to
Process control their own attempts to control responsible for how they with a range of choices maintain a learning
perceptions, but not another, counter-control control their perceptions and their behaviour environment free from
their behaviours may occur indicates which option disruption, so that
they have chosen students who want to
learn can do so
Positive Behaviour Students learn self- Classes are small Students need to feel as Students should be given The teacher is
Leadership discipline, self-control communities of learners, though they belong to limited choices in an responsible for
and responsibility as and teachers relate to the group, and will attempt to help them managing the class
they are socialized into students as community engage in a range of learn to be responsible environment and is in
the group members attention-seeking and for their own behaviour charge of the class
power-seeking and to accept the group. The teacher’s
behaviours to achieve consequences of their professional skill in
this objective own actions. These matching their level of
choices are always response appropriately
connected to the known to disruption is a key
rights, responsibilities, determinant of
rules and consequences classroom management
Pain Model Human behaviour is one Build relationships, not Students can govern Students can choose The teacher is a skilled
way of communicating control themselves with from a limited range of communicator whose
inner feelings assistance options depending on role is to teach the less
their level of social skills skilled students the
appropriate way to