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Original Title: Power System Analysis and Design 6th Edition Glover Solutions Manual

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eu/Power-System-Analysis-and-Design-6th-Edition-Glover-Solutions-Manual

Chapter 2

Fundamentals

2.1 b 2.19 a

2.2 a 2.20 A. c

2.3 c B. a

2.4 a C. b

2.5 b 2.21 a

2.6 c 2.22 a

2.7 a 2.23 b

2.8 c 2.24 a

2.9 a 2.25 a

2.10 c 2.26 b

2.11 a 2.27 a

2.12 b 2.28 b

2.13 b 2.29 a

2.14 c 2.30 (i) c

2.15 a (ii) b

2.16 b (iii) a

2.17 A. a (iv) d

B. b 2.31 a

C. a 2.32 a

2.18 c

1

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5

(b) A2 = −4 + j 5 = 16 + 25 ∠ tan −1 = 6.40 ∠128.66° = 6.40e j128.66°

−4

(c) A3 = ( 5.20 + j 3) + ( −4 + j 5 ) = 1.20 + j 8 = 8.01∠81.50°

(d) A4 = ( 6∠30° )( 6.40 ∠128.66° ) = 38.414∠158.658° = −35.78 + j13.98

(e) A5 = ( 6∠30° ) / ( 6.40∠ − 128.66° ) = 0.94 ∠158.66° = 0.94e j158.66°

(b) i(t ) = 4sin (ω t + 30° ) = 4cos (ω t + 30° − 90° ) = 4cos ( ω t − 60° )

I = ( 4 ) ∠ − 60° = 2.83∠ − 60° = 1.42 − j 2.45

( )

(c) I = 5 / 2 ∠ − 15° + 4∠ − 60° = ( 3.42 − j 0.92 ) + ( 2 − j 3.46 )

= 5.42 − j 4.38 = 6.964∠ − 38.94°

(b) V = 400 2 = 282.84 V; I = 100 2 = 70.71A

(c) V = 282.84∠30° V; I = 70.71∠ − 80° A

− j6 6∠ − 90°

2.4 (a) I1 = 10∠0° = 10 = 7.5∠ − 90° A

8 + j6 − j6 8

I 2 = I − I1 = 10∠0° − 7.3∠ − 90° = 10 + j 7.5 = 12.5∠36.87° A

V = I 2 ( − j 6 ) = (12.5∠36.87° ) ( 6∠ − 90° ) = 75∠ − 53.13° V

(b)

(b) I = V / 20 = 13.85∠30° A

i(t ) = 19.58cos (ω t + 30° ) A

(c) Z = jω L = j ( 2π 60 ) (10 × 10 −3 ) = 3.771∠90° Ω

I = V Z = ( 277 ∠30° ) ( 3.771 ∠90° ) = 73.46 ∠ − 60° A

i(t ) = 73.46 2 cos (ω t − 60° ) = 103.9cos (ω t − 60° ) A

2

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(d) Z = − j 25 Ω

I = V Z = ( 277∠30° ) ( 25∠ − 90° ) = 11.08∠120° A

i(t ) = 11.08 2 cos (ω t + 120° ) = 15.67cos (ω t + 120° ) A

2 ∠ − 15° = 53.03∠ − 15° ; ω does not appear in the answer.

υ (t ) = 70.71cos ( 377t + 10° )

(c) A = A∠α ; B = B∠β ; C = A + B

c(t ) = a(t ) + b(t ) = 2 Re Ce jωt

The resultant has the same frequency ω.

(b) Z = 3 + j8 − j 4 = 3 + j 4 = 5∠53.1° Ω

(c) I = (100∠0° ) ( 5∠53.1° ) = 20∠ − 53.1° A

The current lags the source voltage by 53.1°

Power Factor = cos53.1° = 0.6 Lagging

Z LL = j ( 377 ) ( 5 × 10 −3 ) = j1.885 Ω

1

ZC = − j = − j 2.88 Ω

( 377 ) ( 921 × 10−6 )

120 2

V= ∠ − 30° V

2

3

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∴ VLOAD = 120∠0° − ( 60∠0° )( 0.1 + j 0.5 )

= 114.1 − j 30.0 = 117.9∠ − 14.7° V ←

1

= ( 400 )(100 ) cos110° + cos ( 2ω t − 50°)

2

= −6840.4 + 2 × 104 cos ( 2ω t − 50° ) W

(b) P = VI cos ( δ − β ) = ( 282.84 )( 70.71) cos ( 30° + 80° )

= −6840 W Absorbed

= +6840 W Delivered

(c) Q = VI sin (δ − β ) = ( 282.84 )( 70.71) sin110°

= 18.79 kVAR Absorbed

(d) The phasor current ( − I ) = 70.71∠ − 80° + 180° = 70.71 ∠100° A leaves the positive

terminal of the generator.

The generator power factor is then cos ( 30° − 100° ) = 0.3420 leading

1

= 0.7669 × 10 4 1 + cos ( 2ω t + 60° )

2

= 3.834 × 103 + 3.834 × 103 cos ( 2ω t + 60° ) W

P = VI cos (δ − β ) = 277 × 13.85cos0° = 3.836 kW

Q = VI sin (δ − β ) = 0 VAR

Source Power Factor = cos (δ − β ) = cos ( 30° − 30° ) = 1.0

(b) p(t ) = υ (t )i(t ) = 391.7 × 103.9cos (ω t + 30° ) cos (ω t − 60° )

1

= 4.07 × 10 4 cos90° + cos ( 2ω t − 30° )

2

= 2.035 × 10 cos ( 2ω t − 30° ) W

4

Q = VI sin (δ − β ) = 277 × 73.46 sin 90° = 20.35 kVAR

pf = cos (δ − β ) = 0 Lagging

4

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1

= 6.138 × 103 cos ( −90° ) + cos ( 2ω t + 150° ) = 3.069 × 103 cos ( 2ω t + 150° ) W

2

P = VI cos (δ − β ) = 277 × 11.08cos ( 30° − 120° ) = 0 W

Q = VI sin (δ − β ) = 277 × 11.08sin ( −90° )

= −3.069 kVAR Absorbed = +3.069 kVAR Delivered

pf = cos (δ − β ) = cos ( −90° ) = 0 Leading

= 6455 + 6455cos2ω t W

(b) px (t ) = ( 359.3cos ω t ) 14.37cos (ω t + 90° )

= 2582 cos ( 2 cot + 90° )

= −2582sin 2ω t W

( 2)

2

(c) P = V 2 R = 359.3 10 = 6455 W Absorbed

X = ( 359.3 2 )

2

(d) Q = V 2 25 = 2582 VAR S Delivered

Power factor = cos (δ − β ) = cos ( 21.8° ) = 0.9285 Leading

i(t ) = ( 359.3 / 26.93 ) cos (ω t + 68.2° )

= 13.34 cos (ω t + 68.2° ) A

= 889.8 + 889.8cos 2 (ω t + 68.2° ) W

= 2224sin 2 (ω t + 68.2° ) W

( 2 ) 10 = 889.8 W

2

(c) P = I 2 R = 13.34

2

2

= 0.3714 Leading

5

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V = Z I = ( 3∠ − 45° )( 2∠0° ) = 6∠ − 45° kV

υ (t ) = 6 2 cos ( ω t − 45° ) kV

p(t ) = υ (t )i (t ) = 6 2 cos (ω t − 45° ) 2 2 cos ω t

1

= 24 cos ( −45° ) + cos ( 2ω t − 45° )

2

= 8.49 + 12cos ( 2ω t − 45° ) MW

(b) P = VI cos ( δ − β ) = 6 × 2cos ( −45° − 0° ) = 8.49 MW Delivered

(c) Q = VI sin (δ − β ) = 6 × 2sin ( −45° − 0° )

= −8.49 MVAR Delivered = + 8.49 MVAR Absorbed

(d) pf = cos (δ − β ) = cos ( −45° − 0° ) = 0.707 Leading

2.15 (a) I = 4

( )

2 ∠60°

( 2∠30°) = 2 ∠30° A

p(t ) = υ (t )i(t ) = 4 cos30° + cos ( 2ω t + 90° )

= 3.46 + 4 cos ( 2ω t + 90° ) W

(b) υ(t), i(t), and p(t) are plotted below.

(c) The instantaneous power has an average value of 3.46 W, and the frequency is twice

that of the voltage or current.

6

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pf = cos56.4° = 0.553 Lagging

(b) V = 120 ∠0° V

The current supplied by the source is

I = (120 ∠0° ) (18.1∠56.4° ) = 6.63∠ − 56.4° A

The real power absorbed by the load is given by

P = 120 × 6.63 × cos56.4° = 440 W

which can be checked by I 2 R = ( 6.63 ) 10 = 440 W

2

Q = 120 × 6.63 × sin 36.4° = 663VAR

(c) Peak Magnetic Energy = W = LI 2 = 0.04 ( 6.63 ) = 1.76 J

2

2

2.17 (a) S = V I * = Z I I * = Z I = jω LI 2

Q = Im[ S ] = ω LI 2 ←

di

(b) υ (t ) = L = − 2ω L I sin (ω t + θ )

dt

p(t ) = υ (t ) ⋅ i(t ) = −2ω L I 2 sin (ω t + θ ) cos (ω t + θ )

= −ω L I 2 sin 2 (ω t + θ ) ←

= − Q sin 2 (ω t + θ ) ←

Average real power P supplied to the inductor = 0 ←

Instantaneous power supplied (to sustain the changing energy in the magnetic field) has

a maximum value of Q. ←

2.18 (a) S = V I * = Z I I * = Re Z I 2 + j Im Z I 2

= P + jQ

∴P = Z I 2 cos ∠Z ; Q = Z I 2 sin ∠Z ←

(b) Choosing i(t ) = 2 I cos ω t ,

Then υ (t ) = 2 Z I cos (ω t + ∠Z )

∴ p(t ) = υ (t ) ⋅ i(t ) = Z I 2 cos (ω t + ∠Z ) ⋅ cos ω t

= Z I 2 cos ∠Z + cos ( 2ω t + ∠Z )

= Z I 2 [ cos ∠Z + cos2ω t cos ∠Z − sin 2ω t sin ∠Z ]

= P (1 + cos2ω t ) − Q sin 2ω t ←

7

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1

(c) Z = R + jω L +

jωC

From part (a), P = RI 2 and Q = QL + QC

1 2

where QL = ω LI 2 and QC = − I

ωC

which are the reactive powers into L and C, respectively.

Thus p(t ) = P (1 + cos2ω t ) − QL sin 2ω t − QC sin 2ω t ←

If ω 2 LC = 1, QL + QC = Q = 0

←

Then p(t ) = P (1 + cos2ω t )

*

150 5

2.19 (a) S = V I * = ∠10° ∠ − 50° = 375 ∠60°

2 2

= 187.5 + j 324.8

P = Re S = 187.5 W Absorbed

Q = Im S = 324.8 VAR SAbsorbed

(b) pf = cos ( 60° ) = 0.5 Lagging

(c) QS = P tan QS = 187.5 tan cos−1 0.9 = 90.81VAR S

QC = QL − QS = 324.8 − 90.81 = 234 VAR S

1 1

2.20 Y1 = = = 0.05∠ − 30° = ( 0.0433 − j 0.025 ) S = G1 − jB1

Z1 20∠30°

1 1

Y2 = = = 0.04∠ − 60° = ( 0.02 − j 0.03464 ) S = G2 + jB2

Z 2 25∠60°

P1 = V 2 G1 = (100 ) 0.0433 = 433 W Absorbed

2

2

2

2

8

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2.21 (a)

QL = P tan φL = 500 tan 53.13° = 666.7 kVAR

φS = cos−1 0.9 = 25.84°

QS = P tan φS = 500 tan 25.84° = 242.2 kVAR

QC = QL − QS = 666.7 − 242.2 = 424.5 kVAR

SC = QC = 424.5 kVA

( 500 ) 0.746 = 414.4 kW and Q = 0 kVAR

m

0.9

1 1 1

2.22 (a) Y1 = = = = 0.16∠ − 51.34°

Z1 ( 4 + j 5 ) 6.4∠51.34°

= ( 0.1 − j 0.12 ) S

1 1

Y2 = = = 0.1S

Z 2 10

P 1000

P = V 2 ( G1 + G2 ) ⇒ V = = = 70.71 V

G1 + G2 ( 0.1 + 0.1)

P1 = V 2 G1 = ( 70.71) 0.1 = 500 W

2

2

= 0.233∠ − 30.96° S

I S = V Yeq = 70.71( 0.233) = 16.48A

9

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= 1558.85 − j 900

P = Re S = 1558.85 W Delivered

Q = Im S = −900 VAR S Delivered = +900 VAR SAbsorbed

10 × 0.746

S3 = ∠ − cos−1 0.95 = 9.238∠ − 18.19° = 8.776 − j 2.885

0.85 × 0.95

SS = S1 + S2 + S3 = 27.78 + j1.474 = 27.82 ∠3.04°

PS = Re(SS ) = 27.78 kW

QS = Im(SS ) = 1.474 kVAR

SS = SS = 27.82 kVA

SL = VL I * = ( jX L I )I * = jX L I 2 = j8(20)2 = 0 + j 3200

SC = VC I * = (− jIXC )I * = − jX C I 2 = − j 4(20)2 = 0 − j1600

Power Triangle:

SSOURCE = V I * = (100 ∠0° )( 20∠ − 53.1° ) = 2000∠53.1°

*

The complex power delivered by the source is equal to the total complex power absorbed

by the load.

PL = 120 kW

pfL = 0.85 Lagging

θ L = cos−1 0.85 = 31.79°

10

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QL = PL tan ( 31.79° )

SL = PL + jQL = 141.18∠31.79° kVA

I = SL / V = 141,180 / 480 = 294.13A = 74.364 kVAR

Reactive power loss in the line is QLINE = I 2 X LINE = ( 294.13 ) 1

2

= 86.512 kVAR

∴ SS = PS + jQS = 120 + j ( 74.364 + 86.512 ) = 200.7∠53.28° kVA

The input voltage is given by VS = SS / I = 682.4 V (rms)

The power factor at the input is cos53.28° = 0.6 Lagging

(b) Applying KVL, VS = 480 ∠0° + j1.0 ( 294.13∠ − 31.79° )

= 635 + j 250 = 682.4∠21.5° V (rms)

( pf )S = cos ( 21.5° + 31.79° ) = 0.6 Lagging

Pold = 50 kW; cos−1 0.8 = 36.87° ; θOLD = 36.87°; Qold = Pold tan (θ old )

= 37.5 kVAR

∴ Sold = 50,000 + j 37,500

= 50,000 + j16, 430

Hence Scap = Snew − Sold = − j 21,070 VA

21,070

∴C = = 1155µ F ←

( 377 )( 220 )

2

11

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2.28 S1 = 15 + j 6.667

S 2 = 3 ( 0.96 ) − j 3 sin ( cos −1 0.96 ) = 2.88 − j 0.84

S3 = 15 + j 0

STOTAL = S1 + S2 + S3 = ( 32.88 + j 5.827 ) kVA

(i) Let Z be the impedance of a series combination of R and X

*

V V2

Since S = V I = V = * , it follows that

*

Z Z

( 240 )

2

V2

Z =

*

= = (1.698 − j 0.301) Ω

S ( 32.88 + j 5.827 )103

∴ Z = (1.698 + j 0.301) Ω ←

( 240 )

2

Then R= = 1.7518 Ω

( 32.88)103

( 240 )

2

X= = 9.885 Ω

( 5.827 )103

∴ Z = (1.7518 j 9.885 ) Ω ←

2.29 Since complex powers satisfy KCL at each bus, it follows that

S13 = (1 + j1) − (1 − j1) − ( 0.4 + j 0.2 ) = −0.4 + j1.8 ←

S31 = − S13* = 0.4 + j1.8 ←

S1 = 125∠73.74° = 35 + j120

S2 = 10 − j 40

S3 = 15 + j 0

STOTAL = S1 + S2 + S3 = 60 + j80 = 100∠53.13° kVA = P + jQ

∴ PTOTAL = 60 kW; QTOTAL = 80 kVAR; kVA TOTAL = STOTAL = 100 kVA. ←

Supply pf = cos ( 53.13° ) = 0.6 Lagging ←

S * 100 × 103 ∠ − 53.13°

(b) ITOTAL = = = 100∠ − 53.13° A

V* 1000∠0°

At the new pf of 0.8 lagging, PTOTAL of 60kW results in the new reactive power Q′ ,

such that

12

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∴ The required capacitor’s kVAR is QC = 80 − 45 = 35 kVAR ←

V 2 (1000 )

2

SC j 35000

106

and C= = 92.85µ F ←

2π ( 60 )( 28.57 )

S ′* 60,000 − j 45,000

The new current is I ′ = = = 60 − j 45 = 75∠ − 36.87° A

V* 1000∠0°

The supply current, in magnitude, is reduced from 100A to 75A ←

V1∠δ1 − V2 ∠δ 2 V1 V

2.31 (a) I12 = = ∠δ1 − 90° − 2 ∠δ 2 − 90°

X ∠90° X X

V V

Complex power S12 = V1 I12* = V1∠δ1 1 ∠90° − δ1 − 2 ∠90° − δ 2

X X

V12 V1V2

= ∠90° − ∠90° + δ1 − δ 2

X X

∴ The real and reactive power at the sending end are

V12 VV

P12 = cos90° − 1 2 cos ( 90° + δ1 − δ 2 )

X X

V1V2

= sin (δ1 − δ 2 ) ←

X

V12 VV

Q12 = sin 90° − 1 2 sin ( 90° + δ1 − δ 2 )

X X

V

= 1 V1 − V2 cos (δ1 − δ 2 ) ←

X

Note: If V1 leads V2 , δ = δ1 − δ 2 is positive and the real power flows from node 1 to

node 2. If V1 Lags V2 , δ is negative and power flows from node 2 to node 1.

(b) Maximum power transfer occurs when δ = 90° = δ1 − δ 2 ←

V1V2

PMAX = ←

X

2.32 4 Mvar minimizes the real power line losses, while 4.5 Mvar minimizes the MVA power

flow into the feeder.

13

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2.33

Qcap MW Losses Mvar Losses

0 0.42 0.84

0.5 0.4 0.8

1 0.383 0.766

1.5 0.369 0.738

2 0.357 0.714

2.5 0.348 0.696

3 0.341 0.682

3.5 0.337 0.675

4 0.336 0.672

4.5 0.337 0.675

5 0.341 0.682

5.5 0.348 0.696

6 0.357 0.714

6.5 0.369 0.738

7 0.383 0.766

7.5 0.4 0.801

8 0.42 0.84

8.5 0.442 0.885

9 0.467 0.934

9.5 0.495 0.99

10 0.525 1.05

2.35

14

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− (.4950 − j 4.950 ) (.3846 + .4950 ) + j (10 − 1.923 − 4.95) V20

1.961∠ − 48.69°

=

1.961∠ − 78.69°

0.8796 + j 3.127 −0.4950 + j 4.950 V10 1.961∠ − 48.69°

=

−0.4950 + j 4.950 −0.8796 + j 3.127 V20 1.961∠ − 78.69°

2.36 Note that there are two buses plus the reference bus and one line for this problem. After

converting the voltage sources in Fig. 2.29 to current sources, the equivalent source

impedances are:

( 0.1 + j 0.5 )( − j 0.1)

0.1 + j 0.5 − j 0.1

=

( 0.5099∠78.69°)( 0.1∠ − 90°) = 0.1237∠ − 87.27°

0.4123∠75.96°

= 0.005882 − j 0.1235 Ω

The rest is left as an exercise to the student.

2.37 After converting impedance values in Figure 2.30 to admittance values, the bus admittance

matrix is:

1 −1 0 0

−1 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 − j1 −

1

− j1

−

1

2 3 4 3 4

Ybus = 1 1 1 1 1

0 − − j1 3 − j1 + j + j − j

4

3 4 2

1 1 1 1 1

0 − − j + j 4 − j 3

4 4 4

Writing nodal equations by inspection:

1 −1 0 0 V10 1∠0°

−1 ( 2.083 − j1) ( −0.3333 + j1) −0.25 V20 = 0

0 ( −0.3333 + j1) ( 0.3333 − j 0.25 ) − j 0.25 V30 0

0 ( −0.25 ) − j 0.25 ( 0.25 − j 0.08333) V40 2∠30°

15

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2.5 −8.75 5.0

Y Y22 Y23 Y24 0

YBUS = 21 = j S

Y31 Y32 Y33 Y34 5.0 5.0 −22.5 12.5

Y41 Y42 Y43 Y44 0 0 12.5 −12.5

where Y11 = y10 + y12 + y13 ; Y22 = y20 + y12 + y23 ; Y23 = y13 + y23 + y34

Y44 = y34 ; Y12 = Y21 = − y12 ; Y13 = Y31 = − y13 ; Y23 = Y32 = − y23

2.39 (a)

−Yd Yb + Yd + Ye −Yb −Ye V2 = I 2 = 0

−Yc −Yb Ya + Yb + Yc 0 V I

3 3

−Y f −Ye 0 Ye + Y f + Yg V4 I 4

−14.5 8 4 2.5 V1 0

8 −17 4

5 V2 0

(b) j =

4 4 −8.8 0 V3 1∠ − 90°

2.5 5 0 −8.3 V4 0.62∠ − 135°

YBUS V = I ; YBUS

−1

YBUS V = YBUS

−1

I

16

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0.6688 0.7045 0.6242 0.6258

where −1

YBUS = Z BUS = j Ω

0.6307 0.7045 0.6840 0.5660

0.6194 0.6258 0.5660 0.6840

V = YBUS

−1

I

V1 0

0

V

where V = 2 and I =

V3 1∠ − 90°

V4 0.62∠ − 135°

Then solve for V1 , V2 , V3 , and V4 .

240

2.40 (a) VAN = ∠0° = 138.56∠0° V (Assumed as Reference)

3

VAB = 240∠30° V; VBC = 240∠ − 90° V; I A = 15∠ − 90° A

VAN 138.56 ∠0°

ZY = = = 9.24∠90° = ( 0 + j 9.24 ) Ω

IA 15∠ − 90°

IA 15

(b) I AB = ∠30° = ∠ − 90° + 30° = 8.66∠ − 60°A

3 3

VAB 240∠30°

Z∆ = = = 27.71∠90° = ( 0 + j 27.71) Ω

I AB 8.66∠ − 60°

Note: ZY = Z ∆ / 3

= 3 ( 480 )( 20 ) ∠ cos−1 0.8

= 16.627 × 103 ∠36.87°

= (13.3 × 103 ) + j (9.976 × 103 )

P3φ = Re S3φ = 13.3 kW Delivered

Q3φ = I m S3φ = 9.976 kVAR Delivered

208 Z∆

Van = ∠ − 30° = 4 + j 3 = 5∠36.87° Ω

3 3

Van 120.1∠ − 30°

Ia = = = 24.02∠ − 66.87° A

( Z ∆ / 3) 5∠36.87°

17

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= 8654∠36.87° = 6923 + j 5192

P3φ = 6923 W; Q3φ = 5192 VAR; both absorbed by the load

pf = cos ( 36.87° ) = 0.8 Lagging; S3φ = S3φ = 8654 VA

(b)

2.43 (a) Transforming the ∆-connected load into an equivalent Y, the impedance per phase of

the equivalent Y is

60 − j 45

Z2 = = ( 20 − j15 ) Ω

3

With the phase voltage V1 = 1203 3 = 120 V taken as a reference, the per-phase equivalent

circuit is shown below:

( 30 + j 40 )( 20 − j15)

Z = 2 + j4 + = 2 + j 4 + 22 − j 4 = 24 Ω

( 30 + j 40 ) + ( 20 − j15)

V1 120∠0°

I= = = 5∠0° A

Z 24

The three-phase complex power supplied = S = 3V1 I * = 1800 W

P = 1800 W and Q = 0 VAR delivered by the sending-end source

18

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= 110 − j 20 = 111.8∠ − 10.3° V

The line voltage magnitude at the load terminal is

(c) The current per phase in the Y-connected load and in the equiv.Y of the ∆-load:

V2

I1 = = 1 − j 2 = 2.236∠ − 63.4° A

Z1

V2

I2 = = 4 + j 2 = 4.472 ∠26.56° A

Z2

I2

(I )

ph ∆ =

3

=

4.472

3

= 2.582 A

S1 = 3V2 I1* = 430 W + j 600 VAR

S2 = 3V2 I 2* = 1200 W − j 900 VAR

The three-phase complex power absorbed by the line is

SL = 3 ( RL + jX L ) I 2 = 3 ( 2 + j 4 ) (5)2 = 150 W + j300 VAR

The sum of load powers and line losses is equal to the power delivered from the supply:

S1 + S2 + SL = ( 450 + j600 ) + (1200 − j 900 ) + (150 + j 300 )

= 1800 W + j 0 VAR

2.44 (a) The per-phase equivalent circuit for the problem is shown below:

2200 3

Phase voltage at the load terminals is V2 = = 2200 V taken as Ref.

3

Total complex power at the load end or receiving end is

SR( 3φ ) = 560.1( 0.707 + j 0.707 ) + 132 = 528 + j 396 = 660∠36.87° kVA

19

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I = = = 100∠ − 36.87° A

3V 2

*

3 ( 2200∠0° )

V1 = 2200∠0° + ( 0.4 + j 2.7 )(100∠ − 36.87° ) = 2401.7∠4.58° V

The magnitude of the line to line voltage at the sending end of the line is

2

= 12 kW + j81kVAR

(c) The three-phase sending power is

SS (3φ ) = 3V1 I * = 3 ( 2401.7∠4.58° )(100∠36.87° )

= 540 kW + j 477 kVAR

2.45 (a)

SS 25.001 × 103

IS = = = 30.07 A

3VLL 3 ( 480 )

(b) The ammeter reads zero, because in a balanced three-phase system, there is no neutral

current.

2.46 (a)

20

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Z∆ / 3

Using voltage division: VAN = Van

( Z ∆ / 3) + Z LINE

208 10∠30°

= ∠0°

3 10∠30° + ( 0.8 + j 0.6 )

=

(120.09 )(10∠30°) = 1200.9∠30°

9.46 + j 5.6 10.99∠30.62°

= 109.3∠ − 0.62° V

(b)

Z eq = 10 ∠30 ° || (− j 20)

= 11.547 ∠0 °Ω

Z eq

VAN = Van

Z eq + Z LINE

(

= 208 3 ) (11.54711.547

+ 0.8 + j 0.6 )

1386.7

= = 112.2∠ − 2.78° V

12.362∠2.78°

Load voltage Line-to-Line VAB = 3 (112.2 ) = 194.3 V

2.47

15 × 103

(a) I G1 = ∠ − cos−1 0.8 = 23.53∠ − 36.87° A

8 ( 460 )( 0.8 )

460

VL = VG1− Z LINE1 I G1 = ∠0° − (1.4 + j1.6 )( 23.53∠ − 36.87° )

3

= 216.9∠ − 2.73° V Line to Neutral

Load Voltage VL = 3 216.9 = 375.7 V Line to line

21

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30 × 103

(b) I L = ∠ − 2.73° − cos−1 0.8 = 57.63∠ − 39.6° A

3 ( 375.7 )( 0.8 )

I G 2 = I L − I G1 = 57.63 ∠ − 39.6° − 23.53∠ − 36.87°

= 34.14∠ − 41.49° A

VG 2 = VL + Z LINE 2 I G 2 = 216.9∠ − 2.73° + ( 0.8 + j1)( 34.14∠ − 41.49° )

= 259.7∠ − 0.63° V

Generator 2 line-to-line voltage VG 2 = 3 ( 259.7 )

= 449.8 V

(c) SG 2 = 3VG 2 I G* = 3 ( 259.7∠ − 0.63° )( 34.14∠41.49° )

2

PG 2 = 20.12 kW; QG 2 = 17.4 kVAR; Both delivered

2.48 (a)

SL 26.93 × 103

(c) I L = = = 32.39 A

3VLL 3 ( 480 )

2

3 ( 480 )

2

X∆ = = 49.37 Ω

14 × 103

(e) I C = VLL / X ∆ = 480 / 49.37 = 9.72 A

PL 23 × 103

I LINE = = = 27.66 A

3 VLL 3 480

22

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Z ∆ = Z AB = Z BC = Z CA

Using equations in Fig. 2.27

ZY2 + ZY2 + ZY2

Z∆ = = 3 ZY

ZY

and

Z ∆2 Z

ZY = = ∆

Z∆ + Z∆ + Z∆ 3

(b) Z A =

( j10 )( − j 25)

= − j 50 Ω

j10 + j 20 − j 25

ZB =

( j10 )( j 20 ) = j 40 Ω; Z =

( j 20 )( − j 25) = − j 100 Ω

C

j5 j5

2

2.50 Replace delta by the equivalent WYE: ZY = − j Ω

3

Per-phase equivalent circuit is shown below:

2

Noting that j 1.0 − j = − j 2 , by voltage-divider law,

3

− j2

V1 = (100∠0°) = 105∠0°

− j 2 + j 0.1

173.2∠30°

Then I A′B′ = = 86.6∠120°

− j2

∴ i2 (t ) = 86.6 2 cos (ω t + 120° )

= 122.5cos (ω t + 120° ) A ←

23

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1

2.51 On a per-phase basis S1 = (150 + j120 ) = ( 50 + j 40 ) kVA

3

( 50 − j 40 )103 =

∴ I1 = ( 25 − j 20 ) A

2000

Note: PF Lagging

Load 2: Convert ∆ into an equivalent Y

1

Z 2Y = (150 − j 48 ) = ( 50 − j16 ) Ω

3

2000∠0°

∴ I2 = = 38.1∠17.74°

50 − j16

= ( 36.29 + j 11.61) A

Note: PF Leading

1

S3 per phase = (120 × 0.6 ) − j 120 sin( cos−1 0.6 ) = ( 24 − j 32 ) kVA

3

( 24 + j32 )103 =

∴ I3 = (12 + j 16 ) A

2000

Note:PF Leading

Note:PF Leading

Voltage at the sending end: VAN = 2000∠0° + ( 73.29 + j 7.61)( 0.2 + j 1.0 )

2160

2.52 (a) Let VAN be the reference: VAN = ∠0° ≃ 2400∠0° V

3

Total impedance per phase Z = ( 4.7 + j 9 ) + ( 0.3 + j1) = ( 5 + j10 ) Ω

2400∠0°

∴ Line Current = = 214.7∠ − 63.4° A = I A ←

5 + j10

With positive A-B-C phase sequence,

I B = 214.7∠ − 183.4° A; I C = 214.7∠ − 303.4° = 214.7∠56.6° A ←

24

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= 2400∠0° − 224.15∠9.9° = 2179.2 − j 38.54

= 2179.5∠ − 1.01° V ←

(V )

B′N LOAD

= 2179.5∠ − 121.01° V □ ; (VC ′N ) LOAD = 2179.5∠ − 241.01° V □

Total apparent power dissipated in all three phases in the load

S3φ = 3 ( 467.94 ) = 1403.82 kVA ←

LOAD

LOAD

∴ P3φ = 3 ( 216.87 ) = 650.61kW ←

LOAD

LOAD

∴ Q3φ = 3 ( 414.65 ) = 1243.95 kVAR ←

LOAD

2

LOSS

LOSS

25

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26

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